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  • 51.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Joakim, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindberg, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aktivitetskort på nätet: en studie av förändrade rutiner för verksamhetsrapportering och dess konsekvenser för föreningslivet2016Report (Other academic)
  • 52.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Access denied: The new 'Sports for all' - programme in Sweden and the reinforcement of the 'Sports performance' - logic2010In: Sport & EU Review, ISSN 2040-5847, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 53.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, StaffanUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Idéer för idrottsutveckling2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna antologi, skriven av några av landets främsta idrottsforskare, ges olika exempel och perspektiv på att utveckla idrott. Övergripande handlar det om utveckling av fyra olika teman: utveckling av det idrottsliga ledarskapet, utveckling av idrott för underrepresenterade grupper, utveckling av idrottens samverkan med skolan, samt utveckling av idrottens anläggningar. Bokens fjorton kapitel bjuder på nyanserad och varierad läsning som får dig att se utvecklingsprocessen i ett nytt ljus. Förhoppningen är att du och din förening ska få inspiration och idéer till fortsatta framsteg som även kan konkretiseras i den dagliga verksamheten. Antologin är därutöver en viktig kunskapskälla för aktörer som stöttar och samverkar med föreningslivet, till exempel förbund, kommuner och skolor. Den kan också användas på utbildningar med idrottsvetenskaplig inriktning. 

  • 54.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Liljeholm-Bång, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ÅSA-projektet – En utvärdering av föreningspooler2010Report (Other academic)
  • 55.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olofsson, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Karp, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Access denied: The new ‘Sports for all’ - programme in Sweden and the reinforcement of the ‘Sports for good’ – logic2008In: 24th EGOS Colloquium, July 10–12, Amsterdam: Upsetting Organizations, 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 56.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Elitidrott i skilda världar: Den svenska elitidrottens existensvillkor2012In: För framtids segrar: En analys av det svenska elitidrottssystemet / [ed] Johan R. Norberg och Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2012, p. 81-131Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 57.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Stockholm University.
    Good sport environments: a study of collective fundamental values and their importance for activity principles in swedish club sport2012In: Swedish journal of sport research, ISSN 2001-6018, Vol. 1, p. 1-28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study answers the call made by the Swedish government, the Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) and Swedish local authorities for research on success factors in Swedish club sport. By using RF´s success concept and sport scholars critique in reverse as points of departure for our study we selected two “successful” sports clubs for a study of the constitution of good sport environments. Our theoretical starting point was that an organisation’s collective fundamental values contribute to shaping both its goals and its practice – and in extension to its potential to constitute a good sport environment. The results, which are based on eight qualitative interviews with key individuals, show how the clubs work with society-related dilemmas and sport-specific problems. By analysing elements in the club environments which have promoted this work we have been able to get an insight into the values on which these environments rest and their importance for building good sport environments.

  • 58.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Idrottens anläggningar: ägande, driftsförhållanden och dess effekter2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tillgången till anläggning är en helt avgörande fråga för svensk idrotts utveckling. Under många år var det i första hand ett kommunalt ansvar. Investeringar i och drift av idrottsanläggningar innebar ett stöd till idrottsrörelsen på flera miljarder kronor årligen.

    Under 90-talets ekonomiska tillbakagång inleddes dock på många håll försök att få föreningarna att överta driften, och ibland även ägandet, av anläggningarna. På senare tid har en ny form blivit allt vanligare, så kallade OPP-lösningar (Offentligt Privat Partnerskap), där kommuner och företag gått samman för att finansiera nya anläggningar.

    Dessa nya lösningar har varit positiva på så sätt att många nya anläggningar blivit byggda eller kunnat fortleva. Men samtidigt har de nya ägande- och driftsformerna skapat en oro för att den organiserade idrotten kan komma att trängas undan till förmån för ekonomiskt mer lönsamma aktiviteter. Denna oro speglades bland annat i en motion till RF-stämman 2007 där Smålands Idrottsförbund yrkade att de nya ägandeformernas påverkan på tillgängligheten skulle utredas.

    Föreliggande rapport, skriven av forskarna Josef Fahlén och Paul Sjöblom, är ett första svar på motionens fråga. Förutom en genomgång av de senaste decenniernas utveckling och debatt på anläggningsområdet belyser den två konkreta fall: Sportcentrum i Norrtälje och SkyCom Arena i Umeå.

    Samtidigt som de konstaterar att det är svårt att göra alltför vittgående generaliseringar utifrån två fallstudier drar de ändå den preliminära slutsatsen att ägandefrågorna inte har haft en så avgörande betydelse för tillgängligheten. Idrottsrörelsen, och då framför allt de lokalt starka idrotterna, har kunnat hävda sina intressen väl. Däremot finns det en tydlig diskrepans mellan kommunala policyskrivningar och den praktiska tillämpningen.

    Anläggningsdiskussionen är viktig för idrottsrörelsen. Förhoppningsvis kan denna rapport utgöra ett bra underlag för att föra den vidare. Samtidigt krävs det, som Fahlén och Sjöblom också påpekar, mer kunskap om olika organisatoriska och ekonomiska lösningar för att effekterna av olika former av ägande och drift ska kunna klart utvärderas. Det lär alltså finnas skäl att återkomma med fler studier framöver.

  • 59.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Stockholms universitet.
    In search of the Swedish elite sport development system: approaching a micro-level analysis2012In: Proceedings of the 20th European Sport Management Congress.: Sport between business and civil society / [ed] University College of Northern Denmark, Aalborg, 2012, p. 197-197Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 60.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Selling out the public good: Privatization of local sports facilities and consequences for public access2008In: Proceedings of the 5th European Sport Sociology Congress. Bled, Slovenien, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 61.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Department of History, Stockholm University.
    Studying good sport environments: A framework for the study of collective fundamental values2013In: Sociology and Sport in Face of New Challenges: The 10th European Association for Sociology of Sport Conference / [ed] Álvaro Rodríguez Díaz, David Moscoso Sánchez, Jesús Fernández Gavira, José Vinas Rodríhuez and Francisco Pires Vega, Cordoba: European Association for Sociology of Sport , 2013, p. 75-75Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study answers the call made by the Swedish government, the Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) and Swedish local authorities for research on success factors in Swedish club sport. By using RF´s success concept and sport scholars critique in reverse as points of departure for our study we selected two "successful" sports clubs for a study of the constitution of good sport environments. Our theoretical starting point was that an organisation´s collective fundamental values contribute to shaping both its goals and its practice - and in extension to its potential to constitute a good sport environment. The results, which are based on eight qualitative interviews with key individuals, show how the clubs work with society-related dilemmas and sport-specific problems. One solution reads expansion. The idea is that a big club is better at answering to the needs expressed by members and external interested parties. A big club can muster more and bigger resources and that these can be used for marketing measures like engaging the club in non-sporting acitvities and sheer recruitment actvitities. The other solution reads decentralisation. The idea is that authority decentralisation leads to greater solidarity and commitment among members, which is supposed in the long run to guarantee the vitaltiy of a club with a capacity to safeguard its survival. Decentralised responsibility for, e.g., the recruitment of members, the provision of leaders and of resources is perceived to achieve better results than when responsibility is centralised to board and main administration. By analysing elements in the club environments which have promoted this work we hav been able to get an insight into the values on which these environments rest and their importance for building good sport environments.

  • 62.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    Stockholms universitet.
    Till OS med olika bagage: London första testet för elitstödet2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 9-13Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 63.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skille, Eivind Å.
    Høgskolen i Hedmark.
    Samisk idrett og statlig politikk i Sverige og Norge2016In: Utafor sporet?: Idrett, identiteter og regionalisme i nord / [ed] Helge Chr. Pedersen og Eivind Å. Skille, Vallset: Oplandske Bokforlag, 2016, p. 135-167Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 64.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Legitimizing Transformational Change: Shadowing Regional Sport Consultants in the Grassroots Implementation of Strategy 20252019In: Book of Abstracts for the 27th European Sport Management Conference. Sevilla, Spain., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Aim of the research 

    In 2017, the Swedish Sports Confederation set in motion a profound transformation of Swedish voluntary sport by adopting a new strategic plan: Strategy 2025 (RF, 2017). The purpose of the project this abstract reports on is to create knowledge on the workings and intended and unintended consequences of the ‘internal sport policy advocacy’ performed to usher sport clubs in the direction set out in this strategy: the delivery of more fun, healthy and developing activities. This implied a study of the system-internal legitimizing accounts and strategies used to gain acceptance for the strategy and the change associated with it. In order to capture these accounts and strategies, we focused on the system-wide consultancy structures that many systems have in place to support club development – regionally based sport consultants whose task is to be the interface between clubs’ needs and wishes and top-down policies. The project’s empirical base is data on such consultants’ club-directed legitimizing claims and strategies connected to the internal legitimation of the implementation of Strategy 2025.

     

    2. Theoretical background and literature review

    Nonprofit public policy advocacy is normally understood in terms of civil society organizations’ attempts to influence public policy on behalf of a collective interest (Jenkins, 2006). Initial analyses in a project undertaken by the second author (Stenling & Sam, 2019) clearly show how such external advocacy conducted by Regional Sport Federations (RSFs), has created a gap between the claims and promises made in external advocacy and sport clubs’ recognition of the value of the strategy. Importantly, the data also shows that it is the ascribed task of RSF sport consultants to conduct what we here term internal advocacy, i.e., to close this gap by legitimizing Strategy 2025 in the eyes of clubs. To theoretically base our project, we use Creed et al.’s (2002) conceptualization of advocacy as the production of legitimization accounts.

     

    3. Research design, methodology and data analysis

    Analyzing the construction and use of both legitimizing claims and strategies, requires data that reveal both cultural content and ‘legitimation in action’ (Barley, 2017, p. 354). Since our focus is on how a specific function conduct internal sport policy advocacy, we employed a method that allowed us to focus on the work of individuals that fulfil this function: shadowing (Czarniawska, 2007). Shadowing essentially involves following an individual during her/his daily (work) life, and it is therefore a way of studying the situated work of people who move often and from place to place. Since shadowing generates large amounts data, we chose to shadow few individuals but at many points in time. Employing these points of departure, we selected eleven shadowees from two regional sports federations (the regional extension of the Swedish Sports Confederation, divided by geographical location into 19 regions, responsible for providing administrative support to and representing all sports within a specific region). The actual shadowing was performed when consultants met with sport clubs (n=11) to discuss the implementation of Strategy 2025. The actual shadowing implied sitting in on these meetings and asking follow-up questions afterwards. Transcribed recordings (approximately 27 hours) and field notes were analysed using a mixture of predetermined and emergent codes, all the while using the constant contrasting/comparing tactic (e.g., Charmaz, 2014). The material was thereafter subjected to theoretical coding wherein we sought to establish relationships between codes.

     

    4. Results/findings and discussion

    As per abstract submission deadline, data are being analysed to be presented at the time of the conference. However, initial analyses indicate that much of the sport consultants’ work is devoted to make sport clubs understand the strategic importance of the new strategy vis-à-vis external stakeholders and the surrounding society. In doing so, consultants employ system-internal legitimizing accounts and strategies emphasizing how the external resources directed towards sport are dependent on sport clubs acting and appearing legitimate.

     

    5. Conclusions, contribution and implications

    At the conference, these results will be discussed in relation to ongoing modernization trends well documented in the contemporary sport policy literature. We envision possible contributions to consist of the unintended consequences of the consultants’ efforts to legitimize Strategy 2025 and, more specifically, of club- and policy-related consequences of consultants’ interpretations of the ‘gap’ between the strategy and clubs’ needs and wishes, and their efforts to close this gap.

  • 65.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Mapping the playing field - geographic and institutional proximity in inter-organizational relationships2018In: World Congress of Sociology of Sport, Lausanne, Switzerland, June 5 - 8, 2018: ISSA 2018 Book of Abstracts, Lausanne, 2018, p. 18-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to construct an empirically grounded conceptualization of organizational fields, and of the process by which fields are constituted. Taking the perspective of the organization and focusing on internal processes, we aim to show how the mundane, every day muddling through of organizational life produces organizational fields. We propose that previous work on organizational fields in the sport-related literature have built either on theoretical deductions or practice-based (e.g., industry rankings) classifications of the variable used to explain organizational behavior. Our ambition is instead to focus on and conceptualize the subjective and inter-subjective construction of organizational fields and of the inter-organizational relations in them. To do so, we draw on one-year video recordings of board meetings in two large sport clubs, amounting to approximately 33 hours of video-recorded observation data from 17 board meetings. At a general level, the analysis shows how sport club boards’ ongoing interpretive processes of meaning making unintentionally co-produce the inter-organizational relationships that make up the organizational field that the organization is part of. More specifically, the analysis shows how taking the perspective of the organization provides a foundation for a more detailed exploration of how geographic and institutional proximity of other organizations’ impact the focal organization’s worldviews and actions, including how they relate to other organizations. These findings point to the need for further research on the socially constructed, inter-subjective process of field construction through which organizations are differentiated, ranked and ascribed the position of tastemakers or taste-takers in organizational fields.

  • 66.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Preparing Undergraduate Students for the Grass Roots of the Sport Management Practice: Sport Club Governance Data as a Proxy for Defining Curricula2018In: Book of Abstracts: Managing Sport in a Changing Europe / [ed] Bo Carlsson, Tim Breitbarth & Daniel Bjärsholm, Malmö: Malmö University , 2018, p. 311-312Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim The aim of contributing to the ongoing discussion about the composition and content of sport management education, this paper offers sport management faculty tools that can be used to assess the practical relevance of curricula in undergraduate sport management programmes. By practical relevance, we refer to the very pragmatic notion of education preparing for common workplace tasks, but importantly also to the potential for sport management education to contribute to a sustainable development of the sport management practice in terms of ethical issues and social responsibilities (Shaw, Wolfe & Frisby, 2011). Building on the ‘Tuning’ conceptualization of competence (e.g., Kehm, 2010), and drawing on observation data of sport management practice, we address the following research question: “What competencies are needed to a) manage and b) develop sport organizations’ operations?’  Theoretical Background and Literature Review Starting out with Jamieson’s (1987) introduction of pedagogical issues to the broader sport management debate, curricular models for sport management education have been discussed in the literature since the late 1980’s. The NASPE-NASSM Joint Task Force on Sport Management Curriculum and Accreditation, European standards, the Commission on Sport Management Accreditation, and the creation of the Sport Management Education Journal, has subsequently established sport management education as a scientific field of inquiry of its own. This has further propelled the discussion around a very basic question: how and on what bases should a sport management curriculum be constructed? This study is situated in and seek to contribute to this discussion by drawing on the works of DeLuca and Braunstein-Minkove (2016) and Yiamouyiannis et al. (2013), who have focused particularly on the industry-needs – curriculum nexus. In doing so, we argue that the composition and content of sport management education needs to be based on empirical observations of the sport management practice.  Research Design and Data Analysis In order to extend the current literature, we argue that actual observations of practitioners’ mundane, ordinary activities can complement the subjective views (on appropriate curricula) of industry executives and sport industry professionals (Petersen & Pierce, 2009) in assessing the practical relevance of curricula. Therefore, we rely empirically on video recordings of two Swedish sport clubs’ board meetings over the course of one year. The in total 33 hours of video data are used to map the operations of the arguably most common type of sport organization worldwide.  The initial steps of data analysis resulted in a list describing the content of each of the 54 issues that were treated by the two boards. This list was thereafter used as a basis to provide answers to the following analytical questions: What (1) knowledge and understanding, (2) skills and abilities, and (3) values and attitudes (e.g., Kehm, 2010) are needed to a) manage and b) develop such issues. 

    Results and Discussion Ongoing analyses show how the management of a non-profit, voluntary and membership-based sport clubs requires a very broad competence portfolio, spanning from what appears to be the very practical business of arranging the club anniversary to what arguably might be considered to be issues of a more strategic character – the formation of a farm club. At the time of writing the content of the 54 issues discussed during the board meetings of the two clubs is to be put under scrutiny to show what knowledge and understanding, skills and abilities, values and attitudes are required to manage and develop sport organizations’ operations. 

    Conclusions and Implications At the conference, these results will be discussed in relation to existing curricular models, pointing to potential differences. Making use of the ‘grounded’ character of our observation data, we will take a critical stance towards prevailing guidelines, recommendations and accreditations and centre our argumentation at the potential evidence of a need of a more practice-based approach to sport management curriculum.

  • 67.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Department of Cultural and Social Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Centre for Sport Policy and Politics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    (Re)conceptualizing institutional change in sport management contexts: the unintended consequences of sport organizations’ everyday organizational life2019In: European Sport Management Quarterly, ISSN 1618-4742, E-ISSN 1746-031X, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 265-285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: The purpose of this paper is to construct empirically grounded concepts that can aid the explanation of processes of institutional change. This effort is guided by the observation that neither ‘structure-centred' nor ‘actor-centred' explanations of institutional change are equipped to provide a satisfactory explanation of one of organizational institutionalism’s basic assumptions: that organizations are products of and produce their institutional contexts. Therefore, the focus is directed at practitioners' everyday struggle to accomplish their work, and institutional change is conceptualized as an unintended consequence of such mundane ‘muddling through'.

    Research methods: The text is based on video recordings of board meetings in two sport clubs over one year. Data collection resulted in approximately 33 h of observation data from 17 board meetings.

    Results and findings: Analysis shows how sport club boards' interpretive processes of meaning making are instances of unintentional coproduction that plant seeds for institutional change. The creation of such seeds is the result of processes of problem–solution approximation and the use of proximal institutional raw material. This shows how sport organizations are crucial actors in the creation, modification, and transformation of the institutional arrangements prescribing appropriate organizational behaviour and enforcing patterns of interest and privilege. This analysis contributes knowledge on how sport organizations unintentionally coproduce increasing government reliance on sport organizations, professionalization, and commercialization.

    Implications: Such knowledge can make sport organizations and policy-makers aware of how unintentional coproduction might lead to the momentum of processes adverse to their needs and wishes.

  • 68.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sport managers’ everyday work demands: A practice-based approach to sport management education2019In: Book of Abstracts of the 2019 EASS Conference, Bø, Norway., 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of contributing to the discussion about competence requirements for sport managers and the curricula content needed to meet them, this paper presents the results of a study on sport managers’ everyday work demands. Departing from the fact that curriculum design so far has leaned on professionals’ views on industry needs and appropriate curricula, hiring managers’ perceptions of preferred qualifications, educators’ ratings of the importance of various competencies, student evaluations of components in existing programmes, and sought after competencies in job advertisements, we argue for a need to more closely investigate what it is that sport managers do and to make use of such knowledge in the construction of curricula. Accordingly, the purpose of this paper is to analyse club sport managers’ everyday activities in order to identify the knowledge, skills and abilities required to manage them. In capturing the everyday sport management practice, we video recorded two sport clubs’ board meetings over the course of one year. Board meetings were chosen since they produce an output constituting input for staff responsible for executing decisions, thereby making it possible to observe the construction of the tasks, responsibilities and activities of the sport manager. Findings show how a broad range of tasks require an even broader range of knowledge, skills and abilities to perform them. Mapping them against prevailing guidelines, recommendations and accreditations show how some required competencies are not addressed in existing curricular models, pointing to a need of a more practice-based approach to sport management curriculum.

  • 69.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sport policy in Sweden2016In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 515-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contemporary sport policy in Sweden is the result of a century-long relationship between national and local governments and voluntary, non-profit and membership-based club sport which has resulted in extensive financial support to organised sport. The relationship is defined by an 'implicit contract' in which the government decides on the extent and the purpose of the funding, and the recipient, the Swedish Sports Confederation, determines the details of the distribution and administration. These funds are distributed to 20,164 sport clubs and their 3,147,000 members in exchange for the realisation of social policies on public health and the fostering of democratic citizens. While an important cornerstone of the relationship has been the autonomy and self-determination of the recipient of the funds in their capacities as civil society organisations, recent decades have witnessed an increase in demands on performance outputs. These demands have explicated a wider social responsibility for organised sport and entailed a system for follow-up and control of the results of the government support via key performance indicators. In these ways, the corporatist agreement and consensus traditionally characterising the public–civil society interaction has been accompanied by governing mechanisms associated with neo-liberal ideologies which in turn are putting the sustainability of the implicit contract to the test.

  • 70.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Skille, Eivind Å.
    Strittmatter, Anna-Maria
    The introduction of gender quotas in sport governing bodies and the conceptualizations of 'adequate' representation2019In: Book of Abstracts 2019 International Sociology of Sport Conference, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is twofold. First, we aim to construct knowledge on the conceptualizations of democratic representation that underpin selection processes to sport organization boards. Second, we seek to examine responses to policy tools used to achieve 'adequate' representation in sport governance (e.g., gender quotas) that these conceptualizations of representation may give rise to in order to be able to discuss some of the uninteded consequences that may follow on the use of policy tools in this area. The analysis draws on data from interviews with representatives of 62 (out of 72) Swedish National Sport Organizations' nomination committees and focuses on the relationship between views of representation and stances towards an impeding introduction of a mandatory 40/60 board gender quota in all governing bodies in Swedish voluntary sport. The analysis elucidates, first, that conceptualizations among the interviewees may be categorized as either 'standing for' or 'acting for' views of representation (Fenichel Pitkin, 1972). Second, responsiveness to the introduction of a gender quota is shown to be related to these views of representation, with the dominating acting for view of representation being linked to a sceptic stance towards a quota. These findings suggest that employing policy tools such as gender quotas runs the risk of giving rise to two uninteded consequences: 1) creating overrepresentation of a gender in a board not matching the gender distribution in the membership-cadre (something that may be viewed as undemocratic); and 2) overshadowing other, equally important, representation categories (e.g., age or geographic origin). 

  • 71.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vestin, Ludvig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Money talks: a qualitative analysis of the organizational change connected with the corporation formation of a voluntary sport club2008In: Sport und Gesellschaft – Sport and Society, ISSN 1610-3181, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 153-177Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 72.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wickman, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eliasson, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Resisting self-regulation: an analysis of sport policy programme making and implementation in Sweden2017In: Sport policy in small states / [ed] Michael Sam & Steven J. Jackson, Oxford: Routledge, 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 73.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wickman, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eliasson, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Rights go with responsibilities: an analysis of the extended arm’s length policy in Swedish sport2012In: Book of Abstracts: 9th Conference of the European Association for Sociology of Sport / [ed] Torsten Schlesinger, Sandra Günter, Yvonne Weigelt-Schlesinger and Siegfried Nagel, Waxmann Verlag, 2012, p. 44-44Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 74.
    Fahlén, Josef
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åsrum Skille, Eivind
    Faculty of Public Health, Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway.
    State sport policy for indigenous sport: inclusive ambitions and exclusive coalitions2017In: International Journal of Sport Policy, ISSN 1940-6940, E-ISSN 1940-6959, no 1, p. 173-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the policy aim ‘Sport for all’ as a backdrop, this paper investigates sport policies for Sami sport in Sweden and Norway (the Sami is the indigenous people residing in the northern parts of Finland, Norway, Russia and Sweden). By applying an Advocacy Coalition Framework, the purpose of the paper is to explore how the organisation of and possibilities to exercise Sami sport are affected by political coalitions, social structures and institutions. Drawing on data from policy documents and interviews with government and Sami Parliament representatives, results show how institutionalised relationships affect the general ambitions to provide sport for all and the more specific ambitions to reach underrepresented groups. In both countries, dominant coalitions are made up by the institutionalised cooperation between the states’ Ministry of Culture and the umbrella sport organisations. Alternative and emerging coalitions are made up by the Sami sport organisations, the Sami Parliaments and the Sami policy units  f the states. While the dominant coalition is stronger in Sweden, the alternative coalition is stronger in Norway. These differences are interpreted as being results of policy elements outside the policy subsystem of sport – the two countries’ different relationships to legal adoptions of indigenous rights. These findings suggest that approaching sport organisations outside dominant coalitions can be conducive in reaching sport for all ambitions.

  • 75.
    Ferry, B. Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The development of sports participation in Sweden2018In: Book of abstracts: Sport, Discriminations and Inclusion: Challenges to Face, Bordeaux: EASS , 2018, p. 87-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This presentation deals with the development of sports participation in Sweden as well as trends over time regarding different types of activities and participants. The presentation draws on the most recent available data collected by Statistics Sweden that since 1975 has charted the development of Swedish citizens’ living conditions and leisure-time activities. The results show how participation in sport and physical activity in Sweden has increased gradually over time among those aged 16 years and over, and that over 60% of the total population 16–84 years participate at least two times a week. Dividing these data by sex shows no major differences between the proportion of men and women who exercise. However, the trend over time is that a larger proportion of women than men exercise. In terms of ethnicity, a greater proportion of those with a Swedish background exercises than those with foreign background, with lowest participation rates among foreign women. The results also show that participation rates in Sweden increase with level of education, with the highest participation rates found among those with post-secondary education. Dividing sport and exercise habits by type of activities, the results show that a larger proportion of the population often (20 times per annum or more) participate in an outdoor activity compared to an indoor activity. The development can be understood in light of general political developments in Sweden, with substantial financial support to the voluntary sports movement, as part of the social engineering of the modern welfare society.

  • 76.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Declining sports participation?: The problematics of measuring, definitions and satisfactory levels2016In: Book of Abstracts EASS 2016: Sport in the City – Mobility, Urbanity and Social Change / [ed] Adam B. Evans, Glen Nielsen, Lone Friis Thing and Laila Ottesen, Copenhagen: University of Copenhagen, Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sport 2016 , 2016, p. 49-49Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Declining sports participation rates among children and adolescent is a growing concern in Sweden (Centrum för idrottsforskning, 2014), a country which traditionally have had very high activity levels (Breuer et al., 2015). Following on this development a fear of increased incidence of sedentary lifestyles and social exclusion is put forward in several alarm reports. Drawing on sport participation data from four Swedish municipalities, this abstract discusses three problems connected to the measurement of participation which affect the interpretations made, the conclusions drawn and perhaps most importantly – the policy interventions launched to counter the observed trends. While data, at a first glance, show similar participation patterns as those reported in the international literature so far (cf. Breuer et al., 2015; Gratton et al., 2011; Riksidrottsförbundet, 2014) – team sports attracts most participants, participation is higher among boys, participation declines with age – a more fine-grained analysis reveals a slightly different picture. First, it shows that measuring participation by counting the number of participants, which is the measure traditionally used, renders different results than when counting the number of occasions these participants exercise sport. The former measurement is the one causing alarm reports, while the latter shows how participation is actually increasing. Second, it shows that participation in sport is defined as participation in voluntary and membership-based sport club activities. Including also non-traditional activities (gyms, health clubs, dance, etc.), renders different results. The former is causing alarm reports while the latter again shows how participation is actually increasing. Third, and perhaps most importantly when devising policy interventions, the high participation rates revealed by the more fine-grained analysis spurs the question of what rates are acceptable. What rates, other than just declining ones, are needed to avoid alarm reports and expensive interventions?

  • 77.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Differences in physical activity among Swedish women and men: It depends on how and what is measured2019In: Book of Abstracts EASS 2019. Sport and the Environment – Policies, Values and Sustainability, Bø, 2019, p. 87-87Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decades, participation in sport and physical activity in Sweden has increased gradually among both women and men. In this presentation, we will focus on the differences in physical activity patterns between women and men. Building on the most recent available data, the results show different participation patterns, depending on how participation is measured – through participation in a sport club setting or through physical activities in general. In terms of participation in sport clubs, a larger proportion of men compared to women participate, with the largest differences among adolescents. Men also participate in a wider selection of sports, more times each week and continue their participation to a higher age. When instead analysing participation in physical activities in general, different patterns emerge. A larger proportion of women than men exercise on a regular basis, with exception for those older than 75 years. In some activities women also participate more times each week compared to men. Participation patterns differ also in relation to the choice of settings and venues and participation in physical recreation activities. Finally, when combining the two ways of measuring participation, by analysing participation in an activity that usually takes place outside sport clubs - group training - the result shows that a higher proportion of women participate compared to men. In conclusion, the results show that the way physical activity is measured has an impact on the participation patterns found. This can ultimately impact the decisions governing bodies make and the investments following these decisions.

  • 78.
    Ferry, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aktivitetskort på nätet: barn och ungdomars deltagande i föreningsledda idrottsaktiviteter2016Report (Other academic)
  • 79.
    Johansson, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Simply the best, better than all the rest?: Validity issues in selections in elite sport2017In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 470-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Selecting the ‘right’ athletes to competitions and games is crucial in eventually deciding winners and champions. Thus, thepurpose of this study was to discuss selections to top-level sport teams using validity concepts as theoretical points ofdeparture. Drawing on data from 14 semi-structured interviews with elite coaches (selectors) in football (n¼8) andalpine skiing (n¼6), this article adds to the knowledge on rationales behind selection decisions in elite sport, howselections are performed and with what consequences. Results point to several key validity concerns in selectionprocesses such as the (non) use of explicit selection criteria, lack of structure in selection processes and coaches’giving way to gut feelings and their ‘eyes for the sport‘ instead of utilizing various selection aids at hand.

  • 80.
    Karp, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eliasson, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfgren, Kent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wickman, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Idrottslyftets externa utvärdering: Svenska Budo & Kampsportförbundet, Svenska Gymnastikförbundet, Svenska Handikappidrottsförbundet, Svenska Innebandyförbundet och Svenska Skidförbundet2012Report (Other academic)
  • 81.
    Karp, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Eliasson, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wickman, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfgren, Kent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Det stora lyftet uteblev2012In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 42-45Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 82.
    Karp, Staffan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Löfgren, Kent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    More of the same instead of qualitative leaps: a study of inertia in the Swedish sports system2014In: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 11, no 3, p. 301-320Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 2007 and 2011, the Swedish government added 50 million Euro per year to the budget of the Swedish Sports Confederation (RF) for a Sports for All programme (SfA), Idrottslyftet (The Lift for Sport), with the aim of engaging more children and youth, especially those from underrepresented groups. The programme manifesto stated that all activities should be based on gender and equality perspectives and be permeated by the regular RF policy program, Idrotten vill (What sports want). In this article, we discuss mechanisms of change and inertia in the Swedish sports system by applying path dependency theory on results achieved in Idrottslyftet. Findings are based on three data sources from five National Sports Organisations (NSOs) (Swedish Budo & Martial Arts Federation, Swedish Floorball Federation, Swedish Gymnastics Federation, Swe-dish Ski Association and Swedish Sports Organisation for the Disabled); the data include their development plans, interviews with key personnel and granted project applications from sports clubs during the programme’s first and third year (N = 2,563). Overall, the study shows that when considering decisions and activities undertaken by the government, RF and the NSOs little has been done to enable change and to avoid inertia. The NSOs have mainly provided funds to applications that focus on recruiting instead of on applications with a qualitative approach focusing on changing activities for children and youth. Furthermore applications focused on only a few of the guidelines in Idrotten vill and lacked in general gender and equality perspectives. Our main conclusion is that projects carried out in sports clubs strengthen ongoing activities rather than being an engine for qualitative leaps in developing activities for engaging more children and youth. Finally, we note that path dependency theory has been a fruitful tool for analysing the results from Idrottslyftet. The theory has significantly contributed to a deeper understanding of inertia within the Swedish sports system.

  • 83.
    Lindgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Ferry, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Aktivitetskort på nätet: En studie av förändrade rutiner för verksamhetsrapportering och dess konsekvenser för kommunal styrning av föreningsverksamhet2016Report (Other academic)
  • 84. Sjöblom, Paul
    et al.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Nationella elitidrottssystem och internationell konkurrenskraft: En forskningsgenomgång2012In: För framtids segrar: En analys av det svenska elitidrottssystemet / [ed] Johan R. Norberg och Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2012, p. 59-79Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 85.
    Sjöblom, Paul
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Swedish elite sport: contested terrain2011In: Nordic Elite Sport: Same ambitions - different tracks / [ed] Svein S. Andersen & Lars Tore Ronglan, Oslo: Universitetsforlaget, 2011, 1, p. 193-208Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 86. Sjöblom, Paul
    et al.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The survival of the fittest: intensification, totalization and homogenization in Swedish competitive sport 2010In: Culture, sport, society, ISSN 1461-0981, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 704-717Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prestige words of the Swedish sport movement have with a long tradition been 'sport for all'. The extensive funding from the Swedish government to organized sport through the Swedish Sports Confederation originates from that same ideal, but with the results presented in this text we argue that the inherent logic in competitive sport hampers the pronounced ambition to offer sport for all regardless of age, sex, social class, cultural origin and level of ambition. The results were based on an analysis of both elite and broad sports activities and show how the processes of Sportification, Intensification, Totalization and Homogenization combine in creating a standardized array of clubs, where the space for different ideas about activities, principles for organization and ideals for success shrinks along with the norms being set by the most successful clubs regarding competition and expansion. The main conclusion is that the 'sport for all'-logic predominant in Swedish competitive sport since the beginning of the twentieth century has in recent decades been challenged by a competition- and expansion-logic which seems more rewarding in terms of ability to attract resources.

  • 87. Skille, Eivind
    et al.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    State policy and Sami sport in Sweden and Norway2015In: ISSA 2015 World Congress - Book of Abstracts, 2015, p. 67-67Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With two points of departure – the political ambition “Sport for all” which has become an imperative for countries worldwide and particularly in the Scandinavian countries, and an interest in sport policy related to indigenous people’s sport – this paper addresses the Swedish and Norwegian government policy for Sami (the indigenous people of North West Europe) sport.By interviewing representatives of the government offices for sport policy and Sami policy as well as representatives of the respective Sami parliaments, and by applying an institutional approach of advocacy coalition framework, where the possibilities for influence through coalitions in policy making are conceived of as dependent on actors’ pre-understanding developed by former experiences, we constructed one main coalition in each country.The government office for sport policy and the respective umbrella organization for sport make up these coalitions, historically developed and heavily insitutionalized. A quotation from the Sami parliament in Sweden points to one problem, from their point of view, associated with such an arrangement: ” The Sami sports movement’s organization and purpose do not fit into the structure and the rules for subsidies that we have sport in Sweden”. It seems that relatively younger sport organizations, such as the Sami sport organizations, striving to offer sport to underrepresented groups have difficulties in creating space for influence in sport policy decision making processes, as long as the relationship between the state and the respective umbrella organization for majority sport remains corporatist and undisputed. This finding is discussed in relation to implications

  • 88.
    Skille, Eivind Å.
    et al.
    Hedmark University College, Elverum, Norway .
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The role of sport organizations for local and national community: the case of Sámi sport organizations2019In: European Sport Management Quarterly, ISSN 1618-4742, E-ISSN 1746-031XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: This paper investigates (1) how representatives of Sámi sport clubs understand local and national communities, and (2) and the role of the sport organization in the creation and perception of local and national community. The study contributes to the research field by showing how sport organizations are the basis of the community, locally and nationally.

    Research methods: Interviews were conducted with seven board members representing five Sámi sport clubs in four municipalities. The sport clubs were all members of the Sámi sport organization, and located in core Sámi areas where Sámi language and culture is manifested in everyday life. Sámi are the indigenous peoples of the northern Norway, Sweden, Finland and north-west Russia.

    Results and findings: For sport club representatives, Sámi sport refers to specific activities associated with Sámi husbandry heritage, and to the Sámi sport organization. Sport clubs function as community organizations at the local level. Moreover, through affiliation with the Sámi sport organization, the sport clubs are the link to the Sámi national community. Sámi indigeneity is played out internally in the local community as well as on the borderline to other communities with other ethnic compositions.

    Implications: The study revealed a complex relationship between the local and national elements of indigeneity, and between the internal and the external elements. These elements of multiculturalism and sport clubs require to be taken into account in future sport management and policy-making in addition to multicultural policies towards immigrant sport participation and organization.

  • 89.
    Skille, Eivind Å.
    et al.
    Norway inland university of applied sciences; Norway.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Strittmatter, Anna-Maria
    Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Norway.
    Government policy for indigenous (Sámi) sport – A chain of legitimating acts?2019In: Book of Abstracts for the World Congress of Sociology of Sport, Dunedin, New Zealand, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When Norwegian state policy repeatedly abandons the organization of indigenous (Sámi) sport (SVL-N) in order to honour the implicit contract with the organization of conventional (Norwegian sport, NIF), six elements of legitimating acts are in play: legitimacy-seeking organisation, subject, sources, strategy, bases and scenario. These elements intersect within each phase of the policy process: agenda setting, policy formulation, policy implementation and evaluation. As visible when focusing on the legitimacy-seeking organization and subject, the goal for sport clubs is, to legitimate themselves, and providing support to sport is a core task of local authorities. So when municipalities and local NIF federated sport clubs legitimate each other, Sámi sport organizations are excluded from the legitimating chain. Focusing on a national example, youth sport is both a subject, and it is a strategy used by NIF to legitimate implementation of other policies such as supporting and arranging mega events. When substantial strategies are coupled with symbolic strategies, the risk for so-called ceremonial conformity decoupling is immanent. In conclusion, consequences—often unintended—resulting from legitimating acts in one phase have legitimacy-related implications for other phases of the policy process. That said, being included in the chain is the core issue to receive economic support for sport. Consequently, a newcomer such as the SVL-N struggles to set itself on the agenda of sport policy because acts in other phases consciously legitimate the NIF structure and its member organizations.

  • 90. Skille, Eivind Åsrum
    et al.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Talent policies2017In: The Routledge handbook of talent identification and development in sport / [ed] Joseph Baker, Stephen Cobley, Jörg Schorer, Nick Wattie, Oxon: Routledge, 2017, p. 455-465Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 91.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Få idrottsföreningar vill vara politiska verktyg2017In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 92.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    För vilka föreningar är jämlikhet viktigt?2019In: Idrotten och (o)jämlikheten: i medlemmarnas eller samhällets intresse? / [ed] Christine Dartsch, Johan R. Norberg & Johan Pihlblad, Stockholm: Centrum för idrottsforskning , 2019, p. 151-165Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 93.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lika men ändå olika? Tänkbara konsekvenser av idrottsföreningars självbilder för dess roll som utförare av politiska initiativ.2016In: Idrottsforskaren, no 2, p. 28-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 94.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Navigating the cross-breeze - institutional reciprocity in sport club governance2017In: The Values of Sport: Between tradition and (post)modernity: Abstract book / [ed] Irena Slepičková, Prague, Czech Republic, 2017, p. 54-55Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from research pointing at sport clubs’ increasingly complex institutional context, and the challenges stemming from this complexity, the purpose of this paper is twofold. First, to push contemporary theoretical boarders in organization studies by making an empirically grounded theorization of one of organizational institutionalism’s basic assumptions: the reciprocal relationship between organizations and their institutional environments. We make the case that such theoretical insights will help us shed light on the antecedents, workings, and effects of processes of change underway in sport clubs and their institutional contexts. Our second purpose is to use the theoretical insights gained to discuss the reciprocal relationship between sport clubs and their surrounding society. We have employed a design based on the assumption that sport club governance is a key site for processes of institutional reciprocity. Hence, our specific focus was on sport clubs’ primary formal decision-making arena: board meetings. Board meetings are expected to be arenas in which ‘top-down input’ from the institutional context are made sense of through ‘bottom-up’ meaning-making processer and converted to ‘output’ in the form of talk, decisions and action that come to make up sport clubs’ institutional context – they are sites wherein reciprocity can be expected to ‘take place’ and thus be observable. We have collected data through one-year video-recordings of board meetings of two sport clubs. Data analysis and theorization will commence in February 2017 and the EASS conference will thus provide an important avenue for a discussion of preliminary findings.

  • 95.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Same same, but different? Exploring the organizational identities of Swedish voluntary sports: possible implications of sports clubs’ self-identification for their role as implementers of policy objectives2016In: International Review for the Sociology of Sport, ISSN 1012-6902, E-ISSN 1461-7218, Vol. 51, no 7, p. 867-883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to contribute to the ongoing discussion of sports clubs’ propensity to act as policy implementers. Theoretically, we conceptualize this propensity as contingent on an alignment between a sports club’s organizational identity and the cultural material, that is, ends and means of a given policy. Building on data from short, qualitative interviews with representatives of 218 randomly selected sports clubs, we construct 10 organizational identity categories. Between these categories, there is a variety of clubs’ core purposes, practices and logics of action. The implications of this heterogeneity, in terms of sports clubs’ propensity to act as policy implementers, is discussed with reference to what clubs in each category might ‘imagine doing’. Also discussed are three avenues by which institutional conditions might affect the formation and change of sports clubs’ organizational identity, in turn having implications for their role as implementers.

  • 96.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sport governance as meaning-making: Concealment, handling and negotiation in Swedish sport club board rooms2016In: ISSA 2016 Book of Abstracts, 2016, p. 8-9Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This abstract reports on a study in which data are to be collected during 2016. The results will be presented during the 2016 ISSA conference. The background of this project is the increasingly complex and demanding institutional environment of sport clubs. Key features of this environment are ongoing processes of instrumentalization, professionalization and commercialization, and changes to sport participation patterns. At the core of the project is an analysis of the execution of sport club governance within this contemporary institutional environment. With an empirical focus on sport club board meetings, the primary decision making arena of sport clubs, the purpose of the project is to create knowledge on how boards construct and negotiate meaning as they conceal, frame, handle, and resolve the potential tensions between issues raised by the membership of the club and issues emanating from the club’s institutional

    environment. The project is theoretically based in an institutional outlook on framing (Goffman, 1974) and data will be produced through video-recorded observations of the meetings of sport clubs. The project has the potential to theoretically and methodologically enrich the research field concerned with voluntary sport governance, a field that is primarily positioned within a business administration paradigm. In addition, with its design, the project will avail for a contribution to research concerned with public- and private sector-generated issues’ impact on sport clubs. As such, the project will provide knowledge of the ramifications of sport clubs’ external relations on their autonomy, orientation, and function.

  • 97.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    The Order of Logics in Swedish Sport: Feeding the hungry beast of result orientation and commercialization2009In: European Journal for Sport and Society, ISSN 1613-8171, Vol. 6, no 2, p. 29-42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the dominant logics (Bettis & Pralahad, 1995) that set the stage for the Swedish sports movement. The study was made within the conceptual framework of institutional theory (DiMaggio & Powell, 1983) and the concept of design archetypes (Greenwood & Hinings, 1988). Data were collected using semi-structured interviews with six respondents representing six Swedish voluntary sports clubs. The results reveal a design archetype emerging from the Swedish sports movement that is influenced by three dominant logics; the sport-for-all logic, the result-oriented logic and the commercialization/ professionalization logic. It is proposed that there is an order in these logics where the sport-for-all logic, promoted by the sports movement itself, is overshadowed by forces orig-inating from the open market and the inherent performance focus of competitive sports, i.e. the commercialization/professionalization logic and the result-oriented logic. Furthermore, it is argued that this order of logics originates from the implementation of attitudes and values in organizational structures that reflect the result-oriented and commercialization/profession-alization logics.

  • 98.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Strittmatter, Anna-Maria
    The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Broch, Trygve
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Kille, Eivind
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Exclusion and inclusion in puzzling together the NSO-board: Hierarchies of criteria in board nomination processes2017In: Book of Abstracts of the 2017 SMAANZ Conference, Gold Coast, Australia: Places, events and sport: Going for gold, Queensland, Australia: Griffith University , 2017, p. 115-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this study is what arguably has been, and continues to be, one of the biggest challenges of member-based federated sport systems: members’ (un)equal access to the decision making bodies that govern their sport participation. For example, in Sweden, a country often held forward as an exemplar of equality and diversity (World Economic Forum, 2016), 11 out of 71 NSO boards have zero or one female member on their board (Swedish Research Council for Sport Science, 2016a) and at sport club level, 75% of clubs lack board members under the age of 25 (Swedish Research Council for Sport Science, 2016b). The problem of skewed representation is especially troubling in systems built on the principles of democracy because it undermines the legitimacy of the governance system as such. The current situation thus calls for knowledge on how representation is constructed (e.g., Burton, 2015; Elling, Hovden, & Knoppers, 2016; Hoye & Cuskelly, 2007; King, 2016). This study addresses this need by creating knowledge on NSO board nomination processes and the manner in which they (re)shape NSO board composition. While most previous studies on sport board composition (e.g., Adriaanse Schofield, 2014; Claringbould & Knoppers, 2007; Fundberg, 2009; Hovden, 2000; Ottesten, Skirstad, Pfister, Habermann, 2010) have paid special attention to the over- or underrepresentation of particular social (or other) categories (e.g., gender), we aim to inductively capture the variety of meanings concerning the ideal board member that are mobilized during board nomination processes. Theoretically informed by cultural sociology and the concept of repertoires of meaning, drawn from Swidler’s (1986, 2003) “repertoire theory,” we investigate election committees’ use of certain explanations as they perform their task of nominating individuals for election. In doing so, we address the following research questions. First, what repertories of meaning are mobilized in board nomination processes? Second, how are the criteria that are immanent in these repertoires of meaning weighed against each other, and how does this process work as inclusionary or exclusionary? We recognize the need for both fine-grained data, qualitative data, and many data points that allow for comparisons and ultimately construction of patterns. To satisfy all these criteria, we conduct telephone interviews aided by an interview guide with a limited, very carefully selected, number of interview questions. Our aim is to conduct interviews with the chairperson of the election committee of each of the 71 Swedish NSOs. Data collection is halfway through and will be finalized in the coming months. Data analysis, which will be conducted in the months leading up to the SMAANZ conference, will be conducted using Miles and Huberman’s (1994, p. 61) “accounting-scheme guided approach”, employing a mixture of predetermined and emergent codes.

  • 99.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Centre for Sort Policy and Politics, University of Otago, New Zealand.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Strittmatter, Anna-Maria
    The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences.
    Skille, Eivind
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Broch, Trygve
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Exclusion and inclusion in searching for the "right" candidate: (re)production of (mis)representation in board nomination processes2018In: Book of abstracts: Sport, Discriminations and Inclusion: Challenges to Face, Bordeaux: EASS , 2018, p. 39-39Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Issues of...

  • 100.
    Stenling, Cecilia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Centre for Sport Policy and Politics, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Fahlén, Josef
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Department of Cultural and Social Studies, Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Strittmatter, Ann-Maria
    Skille, Eivind
    Hierarchies of criteria in NSO board-nomination processes: insights from nomination committees' work2019In: European Sport Management Quarterly, ISSN 1618-4742, E-ISSN 1746-031XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research question: The purpose of this paper is to create knowledge on board-selection processes and their outcomes in terms of board composition. We address two research questions: (1) What evaluative criteria are at play in board-selection processes; and (2) what hierarchies of criteria are formed when evaluative criteria are ranked? The significance of the study lies in contemporary considerations of good governance, in sport members’ (un)equal access to positions of power, and in how issues of representation relate to the legitimacy of sport governance systems and to broader societal patterns of representation, influence, and democracy.

    Research methods: Nomination committees are increasingly used worldwide to further good governance in sport organizations. Our analysis builds on interviews with representatives of 61 out of 71 Swedish national sport organizations’ nomination committees.

    Results and Findings: Our study shows that trade-offs are made not between gender and merit, as previously suggested, but between and among a wide variety of representation criteria and a wide variety of efficiency criteria. We show how tensions between criteria result in trade-offs that imply a ranking of criteria into seven types of hierarchies, only one of which prioritizes a representation-based board composition.

    Implications: Because rankings of multiple evaluative criteria impact any single criterion of interest (e.g. gender), future studies should take into account the range of evaluative criteria at play. For sport management and policy practitioners alike, we provide a tool to understand and address (in)adequate representation but also an imperative to consider the meaning of adequate representation.

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