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  • 51.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Replik: Inte självklart att slopad löneavgift ger högre lönsamhet2018Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Minskas de delar av arbetsgivaravgiften som egentligen är försäkringspremier dyker premierna i stället upp som fönsterkuvert hos arbetstagarna i stället, som hade krävt motsvarande löneökningar för att ha råd att betala dom. Det skriver två forskare i en replik till Svenskt näringsliv.

  • 52.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Tillväxten och de stigande förväntningarnas missnöje2019In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 47, no 2, p. 75-76Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 53.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Where Was the Wealth of the Nation?: Measuring Swedish Capital for the 19th and 20th Centuries2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents estimates of the Swedish national wealth from 1830 to 2010. This contributes to economic historical research on structural change and growth, while it also supplements debates on the composition of wealth and incomes across countries. The report also includes for the first time a historical estimate of the Consumer Rate Interest CRI and an estimate of wealth based on surveys and insurance data. The report includes an extensive description and documentation of the historical estimates. The main findings are that the proportion of intangible capital grew before modern economic growth was achieved in Sweden during the 1890’s. Secondly, we show that the proportion of natural assets fell prior to and during the industrialization, while the share of produced capital has fluctuated, but has remained fairly stable over the period as a whole.

  • 54.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Expansion for pollution reduction? Environmental adaption of a Swedish and a Canadian metal smelter, 1960-20052008In: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 50, no 4, p. 530-546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the historical developments of the environmental adaptation process at one Swedish metal smelting firm, contrasting the result with cases in Canada. The findings suggest that the Swedish system in excluding stakeholders, focusing on plant emissions and stipulating pollution reduction at economically feasible costs mitigated risk which resulted in long-term contracts in a cooperative framework in which engineers were given a high degree of discretion. This enabled an 'expansion-for-emission-reduction' strategy which is consistent with the so-called Porter and van der Linde hypothesis. Moreover, the findings suggest that environmental management systems should be considered in the Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC) research.

  • 55.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Technical change, carbon dioxide reduction and energyconsumption in the Swedish pulp and paper industry 1973-20062010Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paperindustry 1973-2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 per cent reduction in CO2 emission. Foremost energy substitution but also efficiently improvement contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subvention, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. Taxes on energy explain 40 per cent of the total reduction in CO2 active climate policy in 1991. Co2 intensity. Most of the reduction took place before the implementation of

  • 56.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    Energy transition, carbon dioxide reduction and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry: 1973-20062011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 9, p. 5449-5456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the historical relation between carbon dioxide emission and output growth in the Swedish pulp and paper industry from 1973 to 2006. We find that the industry achieved an 80 percent reduction in carbon dioxide emission, where most of the reduction took place before the implementation of active climate policy in 1991. Foremost energy substitution and also efficiency improvements contributed to the reduction. Growing prices of fossil fuel due to market price change and taxes and subsidies, explains most of the efficiency improvements and substitution. The study finds that energy transformation was coinciding with ongoing structural change in the industry during the 1970s and 1980s as well as a strong period of environmental adaption. We therefore suggest that the oil reduction was reinforced through the dynamics between the energy issue and an overall renewing process of the industry. This suggests a need to coordinate climate and environmental policy measures with the long-term industrial dynamics of structural change. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 57.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Krantz, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Environmental historical national accounts: Some problems and prospects1995Report (Other academic)
  • 58.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Lars Fredrik, Andersson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Mike B., Adams
    The Evolution and Development of the Swedish Insurance Market2006In: Accounting, Business and Financial History, ISSN 0958-5206, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 341-370Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we provide an overview of the historical development of the insurance market in Sweden from the eighteenth century up to modern times. We consider theoretical perspectives drawn from the economics and political regulation literature that might help to explain important institutional features of the market- in particular, its oligopoly structure, the lack of foreign participation and the significant presence of mutual forms of organisation. We also offer a prognosis as to the current challenges and prospects of the Swedish insurance market in an increasingly competitive and global market.

  • 59.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Minde, Kjell-Björn
    Western Norway University of Applied Sciences.
    Et energiregnskap for Fastlands-Norge 1835–20122018In: Heimen, ISSN 0017-9841, E-ISSN 1894-3195, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 157-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy consumption in the Norwegian mainland economy 1835–2012

    A characteristic feature of the pre-industrial societies was that they relied on limited energy resources. It was only by using fossil fuels and new technologies that these societies could move the boundaries that the organic economy had set for production and consumption.

    Norwegian energy history is, from the 1900th Century on, about the movement of those boundaries and is composed of two stories. One deals with the mainland economy, the other deals with the foreign economy (the merchant marine, etc.). These two stories are closely connected but are nonetheless dissimilar.

    In this article, we present a sketch of the first story about energy consumption in the mainland economy, in the form of an energy accounting for the Norwegian mainland 1835–2012. The accounts show the accumulated consumption of energy from nine selected energy carriers in Norway. Our work is the first overall accounting 1835–2012, and gives new insights into the field of energy consumption research. Specifically, we provide a new accounting of Norwegian energy consumption in the years 1835–1900 and 1950–1976.

    In the result section we first present figures for energy consumption 1835–2012. Secondly, we briefly outline an energy history for the foreign sector. We round out the result section with a brief reflection on whether the Norwegian energy history is so deviant from other countries that we can talk about a separate Norwegian development.

  • 60.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Nguyen Thu, Huong
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Stage, Jesper
    Department of Business Administration, Technology and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Weak support for weak sustainability: genuine savings and long-term wellbeing in Sweden, 1850–20002018In: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 145, p. 339-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study genuine savings as an indicator of long-term welfare for Sweden for the period 1850 to 2000. Sweden has developed long series of comprehensive ‘green’ national accounts for this entire period and is, therefore, interesting as a testing ground for the hypotheses linking green accounting and sustainability. We find support for the weakest of the hypotheses in the theoretical literature on weak sustainability and genuine savings, namely that genuine savings are correlated with future economic well-being. However, the stronger hypotheses in this literature are not supported: there is no one-to-one relationship between genuine savings and prosperity, there is no indication that the relationship becomes stronger for longer time horizons, or with more comprehensive savings measures. The findings suggest that genuine savings, at least as currently measured in national accounts and satellite accounts, may not be a good forward-looking indicator of future prosperity.

  • 61.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    From organic to fossil and in-between: new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–19132018In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 66, no 1, p. 18-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, new estimates of energy consumption in the Swedish manufacturing industry during 1800–1913 are used for interpreting the Swedish industrialisation process from an energy economic perspective. For one we conclude that the revision of previous estimates is substantial when it comes to manufacturing. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the increase of coal consumption, the expansion of the fossil or mineral energy system, to a high degree can be explained by the increased use of steam engines in manufacturing and the transport sector. Finally, we conclude that overall energy intensity patterns is largely determined by assumptions on household firewood consumption. A narrative interpretation of the interplay between energy system transformation and the industrialisation in Sweden concludes the article.

  • 62.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Perspectives on the transformation of the organic energy system in 19th century Sweden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the transformation from an organic to a mineral energy system from a Swedish historical perspective. Main arguments are that there was a dynamic interaction between the two systems during the Swedish industrialization process. For one, a diffusion of the mineral energy system contributed to opening previously inaccessible organic resources in the forest of northern Sweden. Secondly, the development of the pulp- and paper industry contributed to the switch from charcoal to coke in the iron industry. Thirdly, the development of hydropower, itself an organic source of energy, further contributed to the emergence of a mixed energy system. One can therefore see the Swedish transition from an organic to a mineral energy system as a shift from a traditional organic energy system to an industrialized organic energy system, which is to say an organic energy system which for its operation was depending on technologies and organizational structures of the mineral energy system.

  • 63.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    The transformation of the organic energy system: the Swedish perspective2019In: Historia Agraria, ISSN 1139-1472, E-ISSN 2340-3659, Vol. 77, p. 59-80Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the historical conversion of the Swedish organic energy system into a mineral one. The main argument is that there was a dynamic interaction between the two systems during the Swedish industrialization process. For one, growth of the mineral energy system contributed to open previously inaccessible organic resources in the forests of northern Sweden. Secondly, the development of the pulp and paper industry contributed to the switch from charcoal to coke in the iron manufacturing industry. Thirdly, the development of hydropower, itself an organic source of energy, further contributed to the emergence of a mixed energy system. One can therefore perceive the Swedish transition from an organic to a mineral energy system as a shift from a traditional organic energy system to an industrialized one, that is, an organic energy system dependent on the technologies and organizational structures of the mineral energy system in order to function.

  • 64.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Olsson, Sven Olof
    Pettersson, Ronny
    Miljö-ekonomi-historia2002Book (Other academic)
  • 65.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Scocco, Sandro
    Global utmaning, Birger Jarlsgatan 27, 111 34 Stockholm.
    Håller Anders Borg på att upprepa 80-talets misstag?2010Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Anders Borgs kamp mot hushållens skulder riskerar att bli lika tandlös som den mot bankbonusarna. Finansministern har nyligen kommit ut som förespråkare av amorteringskrav med mera. Det låter skarpt och tydligt, men han menar att det tidigast kan genomföras om ett till två år. Samtidigt säger han att svensk ekonomi är utsatt för stora risker på kort sikt. Varför vänta ett par timmar med att ringa efter brandkåren om huset brinner, skriver Sandro Scocco och Magnus Lindmark.

  • 66.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vikström, Peter
    Den deflaterade kvotens dilemma1999In: Nordiske historiske nasjonalregnskaper: artikkelsamling fra Workshop IV, Solstrand 13.-15. november 1998 = Nordic historical national accounts : proceedings Workshop IV, Solstrand, November, 13th-15th, 1998. / [ed] Ola Honningdal Grytten, Bergen: Fagbokforlaget , 1999, p. 177-191Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 67.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Vikström, Peter
    Growth and structural change in Sweden and a story of convergence Finland, 1870–1990: a story of convergence2003In: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 46-74Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article studies convergence between Finland and Sweden during the 1870-1990 period. Convergence is defined primarily as convergence in income levels and Growth rates, but the article also examines divergence and convergence in economic structure.  It studies both the performance of the total economy and the manufacturing industry sector, the latter with special attention to multifactor productivity as an indicator of technical progress.  The results suggest that  Finnish manufacturing  industry  was  not  obviously  backward  in  comparison  with  its  Swedish  counterpart,  and that convergence, particularly during the post-war period, was influenced by falling profit shares in Swedish manufacturing industry. It is hypothesized that certain Swedish institutions may account for this.

  • 68.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Vikström, PeterUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Economic History.
    Nordiska historiska nationalräkenskaper : Nordic historical national accounts: artikelsamling från workshop V, Anumark, 29 september till 1 oktober, 20002001Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 69.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vikström, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    På cykeltur i svensk ekonomisk historia? Strukturomvandling, tillväxt och teknisk förändring i svensk ekonomi 1870-19902004In: Historisk tidskrift, ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 124, no 4, p. 561-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling through Swedish Economic History. Structural Transformation, Economic Growth and Technological Change in the Swedish Economy, 1870–1990

    This article assesses the structural transformation perspective on macro-economic change, which dominates the literature on economic change in Sweden in the period 1870 to 1990. The so-called structural analytical school assumes a repetitive cycle of structural change, structural rationalisation and structural crisis, henceforth referred to as ”the hypothesis of structural transformation”, or HOST.

    According to the hypothesis, cycles of structural transformation lasts approximately 40 years and resemble Kondratieff waves with respect to their duration and the importance of the diffusion of general-purpose technologies, or GPT. The diffusion of a new GPT gives rise to structural change as the factors of production are concentrated in the new economic sector whereas the old ones stagnate or decline. This is a process of approximately 20 years duration. In the next stage, also lasting about 20 years, the new economic sector is further rationalised as production factors are concentrated in the most efficient industries within the new economic sector. As this stage draws to a close, increasing overproduction occurs, leading to a structural crisis and pressure for new change. For a while, the crisis is held off by a shift of production to the export market and by the actions of diverse ”vested interests”. Eventually, however, the pressure for change mounts to the point where the old economic structure breaks down, clearing the way for a new cycle of structural transformation.

    Despite its dominance, there are several reasons why HOST is problematic. From the perspective of standard economic theory it may be noted that crises do not serve as a catalyst for structural change in economic theory, nor is the concept of ”vested interests” in its present shape clearly compatible with mainstream theory. But HOST is also problematic from an empirical perspective. Strict testing of the HOST chronology is in fact not possible and there is also the possibility that the chronology has been built into the data-set on which the hypothesis rests.

    On the basis of a critical assessment of HOST, the article provides an investigation of structural change of the Swedish economy that identifies a sequence of periods with different characteristics instead of a series of repetitive cycles. The main point of the article, however, is not so much to criticise HOST as to call for more debate on macro-economic interpretations in Swedish economic history.

  • 70.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economic History.
    Vikström, Peter
    Vilka nummer döljs under den gula ledartröjan?: Genmäle till Lennart Schön2005In: Historisk Tidskrift (S), ISSN 0345-469X, Vol. 125, no 4, p. 716-720Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 71.
    Svanlund, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Olsson Spjut, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic history.
    Strukturförändringar under finanskrisen: en kartläggning2013Other (Other academic)
  • 72.
    Warde, Paul
    et al.
    Faculty of History, University of Cambridge.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Heat in a Cold Climate: Household Energy Choices in the Scandinavian North, 1890–19702019In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 61-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines the timing, scale and cause of transitions between different kinds of household energy use and especially heating in northern Sweden, with a focus on Norrbotten, between the late nineteenth century and 1970. It examines the related but separate histories of the adoption of new heating technologies, such as stoves and boilers, and the choice of fuels, such as firewood, coke, oil, and electricity, providing new data on the scale of consumption and timing of transition. The article demonstrates the important linkage between domestic fuel choice and labour markets, whether labour in farm and forest affecting stove use in the nineteenth century, or increased female labour participation outside the home and rising wages in the twentieth. The article goes beyond discussions of price and technology to consider the wider contexts of domestic use not only in terms of home life, but also industrial development and labour markets in northern Sweden.

12 51 - 72 of 72
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