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  • 51.
    Berggren, Hampus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Du kan börja med att ställa dig i bostadskö: En kvalitativ studie om bostadsbrist i Umeå med fokus på unga och utsatta på bostadsmarknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The name of this essay, You can begin with waiting in line for a recidence, describes some of the problems that are connected with the issue of finding a home.

    This essay attempts to explain the difficulties of finding a home for young individuals and vulnerable social classes in the society. To receive a better understanding of the subject, qualitative methodology was chosen, such as semistructured interviews with private property owners in Umeå. Contact was also made with Umeå municipality through telephone and email.

    The interviews was recorded, analyzed and then connected to the research questions. The main material that were used in this essay was mainly provided by Umeå municipality. The responses from the interviews, together with the analyzed documents are considered to contribute to a high credibility of the study results.

    The result describes the problems of finding a home as very complexed. Where the economical situation of young individuales and vulnerable classes, determines the possibilities for these social groups to find a home. The municipalities responsibility of providing areas that are ready to exploit is also seen as a crucial factor, to ensure that the production of new buildings is possible. As populationgrowth varies from each year, requirements are also changing in which type of residential housing that are requested.

    Therefore, it is important to find out what type of residential housing that are requested, before the construction starts, to prevent offering a supply of buildings that no one requests.

    Keywords: housing shortage, population growth, young idividuals, vulnerable classes, municipality of Umeå.

  • 52.
    Bergkvist, Oskar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Homeownership & Unemployment: A test of the Oswald hypothesis in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a well-functioning housing market has been proposed for long within economics, economic geography and urban planning.  A high mobility on the housing market most likely positively affects the dynamics of the labor market, a dynamic important for economic growth. Mobility defined as the link between the worker and the workplace in terms of transportation and housing are most likely essential components of a dynamic and well-functioning labor market. The Oswald hypothesis states that positive relationship between homeownership and unemployment exists, the lower mobility in the homeownership housing stock compared to the rental housing stock affects labor market mobility in a negative way which can be noted if European countries are compared. My thesis explores this relationship in a Swedish context by mobilizing a quantitative approach with aggregate data on municipal level ranging from 1998 to 2013. The Swedish housing market is in a deregulation process since 1992, a conversion process from public rental housing to homeownership co-op apartments has taken place and public policies now favor homeownership over renting. Municipal data on unemployment, homeownership of apartment, rental tenant and control variables for economy and personal characteristics are applied in Pooled OLS, random effects and fixed effects regression models. The results from the Pooled OLS and the Random effects model confirms the positive relationship proposed by Oswald for homeownership of apartment but not for homeownership of detached housing. Also rental tenant show a positive relationship. The results from the fixed effect estimation rejects the hypothesis altogether and show a negative relationship.

  • 53.
    Berglin, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Hållbar stadsutveckling: Avvägningar, prioriteringar och kompromisser i planering Öst på stan i Umeå2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable development is a crucial part of a successful city planning. Some scientists suggest urban densification as a method for achieving sustainable cities. In the best of worlds, a perfect balance between ecological, economic and social sustainability would be reached. However, that is rarely the case. Planners must consider the guidelines of planning documents as well as laws, political decisions and stakeholders. These interests can often be conflicting which leaves the planner with tough decisions. Social sustainability can be about achieving equality and healthy environments for all of society. It is therefore important to also include children in city planning.

    This study aims to examine the planning, which primarily concerns the densification, of the central borough Öst på stan in Umeå. The content, mainly concerning sustainable development, of the comprehensive planning in the municipality of Umeå as well as the planning of a specific quarter which includes dwellings, a preschool and a park, will therefore be described and analyzed. The quarter will also be examined further regarding the actual social sustainability, especially of the children’s environment. Trade-offs, priorities and compromises in planning the quarter will be discussed. In order to achieve the aim of this thesis mainly two research methods, in addition to thorough studying of literature, is being used; primarily planning documents from the municipality and secondly interviews as a complement.

    The results show that the new quarter is, in many ways, sustainable. The compromises throughout the planning process have however resulted in quite small outdoor spaces which none the least affects children. 

  • 54. Bergman, Ingela
    et al.
    Edlund, Lars-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Birkarlar and Sámi - inter-cultural contacts beyond state control: reconsidering the standing of external tradesmen (birkarlar) in medieval Sámi societies2016Inngår i: Acta Borealia, ISSN 0800-3831, E-ISSN 1503-111X, Vol. 33, nr 1, s. 52-80Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not until the fourteenth century that written records offer a glimpse into the coastal societies of Northern Sweden. Records include references to a social stratum referred to as the birkarlar, who were tradesmen engaged in trading with the Sami. The origin of the birkarlar, their prominent status and the meaning of the term, is an enigma that has been much disputed among scholars although there is consensus about the economic and fiscal supremacy of birkarlar vis-a-vis the Sami. However, the paradox of tradesmen employing force against their most important circle of suppliers and customers remains a puzzle. The birkarla institution is analyzed by means of alternative reading of historical records from the perspective of the indigenous Sami and coastal farming communities. The postulated animosity between Sami and the birkarlar is critically examined in light of the social and economic context of interior and coastal communities during the Late Iron Age and Early Medieval period, and in relation to historically known Sami kinship relationships and marriage traditions. Data are analyzed with regard to demography and social structure, and from a landscape perspective including the logistics and practicalities of inter-cultural contact. Analyses corroborate that birkarlar were deeply rooted in the coastal communities and fully involved in the regular subsistence activities. They were representatives given a commission of trust and contacts between the birkarlar and the Sami were characterized by mutuality and inter-dependence.

  • 55.
    Bergström, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Kontraurbanisering i Umeåregionen2002Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past decade almost every western society has experienced an urbanization process that has led to a substantial population growth in metropolitan areas. After World War II some periods of a reversed migration stream, so called counterurbanization, has occurred implying that population figures in smaller towns and some rural areas have increased. The purpose of this study is to describe whether any counterurbanization process has taken place in the Umeå urban region in Sweden. More precisely the aim is to analyze the migration pattern from the city of Umeå to the city’s hinterland defined by a distance of 50 kilometers, for the period 1985 to 1995. This is done in order, on one hand, to find characteristics for these people (incomeand education level, age, sex), and on the other hand, to find out if there is any spatial difference in attractiveness between places within the region. The following variables were tested with regard to their impact on outmigration patterns; the presence of smaller towns in the region; proximity to sea, lakes or rivers, distance from the city of Umeå; locations of second homes; access to a public road and the proximity to open land from the place of residence. The investigation shows that there are significant geographical differences of attraction levels between places in the region. The variable that is most important to explain where migrants fromUmeå have settled down is the presence of smaller towns. Another important explanation is the distance from the city of Umeå. The number of new inhabitants decreases according to an almost linear function with an increasing distance from Umeå. Proximity to water, open land and the access to public roads are also shown to be essential characteristics of some attractive places. People who have migrated from Umeå to the city’s hinterlands have an average income of 158.600 Sek. which is about 9.000 Sek. lower than the income of the inhabitants of Umeå. The education level among the migrant is also a bit lower than among people living in Umeå. As the differences between the migrants and the inhabitants of Umeå in fact are quite small, one may doubt that the counterurbanization from Umeå is a result of displacement.

  • 56.
    Bergström, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Om geografiska informationssystem (GIS) och dess tillämpningar inom barncancerforskning: Ett fokus på GIS i forskningen om barnleukemi och dess etiologi2011Student paper other, 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to summarize the literature about geographic information systems (GIS) and its applications in childhood cancer research. The main focus was to examine how GIS has been contributing to the research of childhood leukemia and its etiology. Since this is one of the diseases that can be connected to a public health issue, a thorough exploration of different areas outside the childhood cancer area had to be considered. Areas such as epidemiology and environmental health were two of the most relevant sources of literature. The etiology behind childhood leukemia has been studied for several decades, but the risk factors that cause this disease still remain largely unknown, and the results have been inconsistent. Since the 1990's, one of the methods to identify potential spatial clusters of childhood leukemia has been the use of GIS. This software has the ability to layer multiple risk factors in relation to the diagnosed children and thereafter visualize potential clusters on a map. The evaluation of the literature resulted in five topics which included most of the studies that has utilized GIS in their research of childhood leukemia. These five topics with its connected risk factors were: electromagnetic fields, ionizing radiation, air pollution, agricultural pesticides and hazardous waste sites. Even though few of the studies showed statistic significant clusters when connecting a potential risk factor with childhood leukemia, a majority of them didn't present any evidence about a causal relationship, which indicates a need of further research.   

  • 57.
    Bergström, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Telemedicin i Västerbottens läns landsting: Diffusion och kartläggning av telemedicin ur ett geografiskt perspektiv2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Telemedicine is the use of information and communication technology to provide clinical health care at a distance. This approach is usually adopted to bridge the distance in rural settings, but it is also a method to meet demographical and economical challenges. Västerbotten, a sparsely populated county with an ageing population, is in leading edge when it comes to telemedicine. The purpose of this report was to examine the diffusion and the inventory of telemedicine in the county council of Västerbotten from a geographical perspective. To gain a deeper understanding of diffusion and inventory of telemedicine, my purpose was also to examine these processes from an international and national perspective. Telemedicine and diffusion as concepts, and how these have been portrayed in the literature were studied, as well as the driving forces behind, and the barriers to further diffusion of telemedicine. The main focus in the report was telemedicine in the county council of Västerbotten and their ongoing inventory of telemedicine. The background of the inventory, how it is being performed and what the results have been up to this date were investigated. All these aspects were performed through interviews. An important factor to successful implementation of telemedicine, is the use of comprehensive and systematic performed evaluations of telemedicine activities. The inventory performed by the county council of Västerbotten is an important contribution to the lack of evidence in this area. Although, a major barrier to successful implementation and further diffusion of telemedicine, appears to be attitudes among health care staff.

  • 58.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Feeling at Home from A Distance?: How Geographical Distance and Non-Residency Shape Sense of Place among Private Forest Owners2019Inngår i: Society & Natural Resources, ISSN 0894-1920, E-ISSN 1521-0723, Vol. 32, nr 2, s. 184-203Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Out-migration from rural areas and generational shifts create conditions whereby increasing numbers of private forest owners live at a distance from their forestland. Geographical distance and non-residency have been raised as issues that may possibly weaken these owners’ relationships with their properties. Drawing on the “sense of place” concept as a frame of analysis for 51 qualitative interviews with resident and nonresident private forest owners from two areas in Sweden, this study provides in-depth understanding of how geographical distance and place of residency shape owners’ feelings about their forest properties. The study shows that sense of place is constructed in complex and multifaceted ways over time and that social and historical contexts and processes beyond the forest environment can make owners feel closeness to their distant properties. Thus, geographical distance or residency alone does not explain variations in these forest owners’ feelings of distance or closeness to their properties.

  • 59.
    Bergstén, Sabina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Faculty of Social Sciences, Nord University, Steinkjer, Norway.
    Pettersson, Örjan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Experiences and emotions among private forest owners versus public interests: why ownership matters2018Inngår i: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 79, s. 801-811Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By adopting a qualitative approach and considering the case of Sweden, the aim of the paper is to investigate and analyse how private forest owners' experiences and emotions related to their private forest ownership manifest themselves in their relationship to public use of their forests and public planning for recreation and biodiversity on their land. The study incorporates and elaborates upon a conceptual framework related to the dimensions of property rights, feelings of ownership, and sense of place in its analysis of the private forest ownership context. Fifty-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with forest owners owning land in two geographically different areas. The results demonstrate the important role of the 'social contract' of rights and responsibilities, which are associated with the concept of property rights, and are embedded in the relationship between private ownership and the Swedish custom of the Right of Public Access to nature in the broad acceptance of public use of private forestland. The forest owners' relationships with public planning are diverse and complex, illustrating the various dimensions of private forest ownership, the heterogeneous forest owner corps, and the different geographical contexts. The dimensions of ownership feelings and sense of place, and the interplay between them, are shown to contribute to enhanced sentiments linked to forest ownership, expressed in ambivalence or lack of conviction about public planning. An important point of resistance to public interests is owners' identity as stewards or long-term custodians of their particular forestland. The article ends with a set of recommendations for public policy and planning processes regarding public interests related to private forest ownership.

  • 60.
    Bern, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Jansson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM). RiseB.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Nyman, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Mobilitet och tillgänglighet – framtidens resande2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikverket har gett TRUM (Transportforskningsenheten vid Umeå Universitet) i uppdrag att utreda framtidens mobilitet innefattande frågor såsom privatpersoners attityder och normer till resande med bil och däribland självkörande bilar, betalningsvilja, syn på ägande inställning till individuellt resande gentemot kollektivt resande, samt intressenters förväntningar på ett framtida tillgängligt transportsystem. Därutöver önskar Trafikverket ökad förståelse kring arbetssätt och metoder för att möta teknikutveckling och framtida mobilitet. Syftet med föreliggande rapport är att svara på dessa frågeställningar utifrån litteraturstudier och intervjuer.

    Det huvudsakliga underlaget för rapporten är en genomgång av litteratur relaterad till transporter, mobilitet och historiska såväl som framtida trender. Fokus har varit på persontransporter kopplat till människors beteende, samt vad privatpersoner, framtidsspanare och företrädare för bil- och teknikbranschen tror kommer att hända med personresande i framtiden. Utöver litteraturstudien genomfördes sex intervjuer under januari och februari 2016. Intervjuerna gjordes med syfte att öka förståelsen för hur människor resonerar kring mobilitet och transporter i dagsläget och hur de tror att vi kommer att resa i framtiden. Utifrån litteraturgenomgången och intervjuerna kan konstateras att attityder till elbilar generellt sett är positiva. Hinder för ett bredare genombrott utgörs av uppfattade prisskillnader, räckviddsångest och uppfattad brist på laddinfrastruktur. Som drivkrafter kan nämnas ökat miljömedvetande och alltmer positiva attityder bland flera olika aktörer, till exempel teknikutvecklare. När det gäller självkörande bilar är attityderna mer varierande. Bland annat lyfts säkerhetsfaktorer, tillgänglighet och det faktum att flera bilmodeller redan idag utrustas med olika typer av autonomifunktioner. Enligt olika bedömningar kommer koncept såsom Mobility as a Service och liknande att leda till förändrade attityder och normer när det gäller både privat och kollektivt resande. Avslutningsvis lämnas förslag på hur dessa och andra förändringar kan följas och förstås utifrån ett planeringsperspektiv. Olika metoder och perspektiv är viktiga för att skapa en bild över framtida utveckling redan idag, framförallt kopplat till de miljöutmaningar samhället står inför.

  • 61.
    Bertilsson, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Befolkningstillväxtens mosaik i Umeå kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to present and analyze population developments within Umeå municipality during the period 1992 to 2012. The study also aims to discuss growth trends presented in previous papers to seek common factors and get a deeper understanding.

    Data for 1992, 2002 and 2012 on a sub area level supplied by Umeå municipality was used. The study shows a continued positive development across almost all sub areas, but a differing growth rate from centre to periphery, and also a diversified medium age among the inhabitants.

    While the city center continues to have the highest growth of population during the studied years, a recent trend seems to point to a growing popularity to settle in the outskirts of the municipality, primarily near the coast.

  • 62. Bird, Deanne
    et al.
    Govan, Jeanie
    Murphy, Helen
    Harwood, Sharon
    Haynes, Katharine
    Carson, Dean B
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University; Poche Centre for Indigenous Health, Flinders University.
    Russell, Stephen
    King, David
    Wensing, Ed
    Tsakissiris, Nicole
    Larkin, Steven
    Future change in ancient worlds: indigenous adaptation in northern Australia2013Rapport (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 63.
    Björk, Agnes
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Hemma och hemlängtan i det dagliga livet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to investigate the concept of home and longing for home, and how these factors affect the interviewees. Focus is on the daily life of the respondents.The study is based on qualitative interviews with five respondents who are currently living in Umeå. They all have different backgrounds and vary in age. The interviews were transcribed and then analyzed using thematic analysis.The results show that home and homesickness are two very abstract concepts, which affects people in different ways. However, it emerged a clear picture of the concept of home home, which was strongly linked to relationships.Largely the variations between the respondents, where based on what phase the respondent was in the lifecycle. The main impact was in mobility. For example, the respondents chose to revisit a place that was considered to be home and they longed back to, or stay in one place because it was home and they would long to go back if they moved.

  • 64.
    Björnander, Niklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. 911213-2593.
    Trenden OCR, vad är det som lockar?: En studie om resemotiv för högt och lågt involverade människor inom OCR.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Sport tourism is one of the fastest growing segments in the tourism industry, and more and more people seek to have an active holiday. In the same time OCR (obstacle course race) is one of the fastest growing sports in the world. To sustain and develop this new phenomenon it is important to know why people are traveling to participate and what factors which are important to different groups.

    This thesis aim is to study the underlying motives underpinning for travel and participation in OCR races, and also link this to the destination where the OCR race takes place. More specifically, the study investigates if there are any differences in motives for traveling to participate in OCR amongst highly involved people and people with low involvement in OCR. The study is based on a questionnaire survey that have been distributed to people that are, more or less, involved in OCR. The study has been conducted by statistically analyzing data from the survey. The result showed that there are inner motives, such as challenge oneself, to feel connected to others and to create memories, rather than outer factors on the destination that drives people to travel to participate in OCR races. In terms of differences between the groups (hi and low involved people in OCR) it was social factors and identification that differ the most, where highly involved people appear to value fellowship, enjoyment and participation because of lifestyle to a greater degree than low involved people.  

  • 65.
    Blomberg, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    I globaliseringens vågrörelse; en etablering i Lycksele kommun.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study describes how a larger investment by a private company in the northern interior can affect a municipality’s economy. The mobility to the municipality is expected to increase and some of the direct and indirect effects that this investment can implicate on their economy are discussed.

     

    The method for this study is qualitative. Interviews have been made with the initiative owner of the company LHG Learning Center and with civil servants in the municipality of Lycksele.

     

    The conclusions drawn in this study are that the establishment of LHG Learning Centers in Lycksele will include both opportunities and risks for the municipality’s future. The indirect impact of LHG establishment on Lycksele economy is unknown today. Therefore the municipality can be vulnerable when a dependence is emerging, which make the community planning process hard. If the municipality of Lycksele can’t provide for LHG the needs, can the opportunities to develop be lost if the company choose to relocate.

  • 66.
    Boberg, William
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Konsekvenser av det tillgängliga friluftslivet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The increased accessibility of Storulvån has led to a conflict between outdoor recreation and the sami village of Handölsdalen. The month of may is the time of the year when reindeers are born and if the female gets scared or disturbed she may leave the newborn. The sami village of Handölsdalen has applied to Länsstyrelsen to close Storulvåvägen during this time. However, Trafikverket has appealed to Transportstyrelsen that the road should be open for public use, which is still the case. The purpose of this study is to take a deeper look into this conflict to see who are involved and what the different opionions are concerning Storulvåvägen.

     

    The method of collecting data has been thru interviews with the sami village and Svenska Turistföreningen. Documents from Länsstyrelsen Jämtlands län, Trafikverket and Transportstyrelsen has been analyzed to see what the different views of the problem and conflict are.

     

    The result show different oppinions regarding reindeer herding and outdoor recreation.

     

    Keywords: outdoor recreation, reindeer herding, conflict, accessibility, sami.

  • 67.
    Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    SLU.
    Fredman, Peter
    MIUN.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Ericsson, Göran
    SLU.
    Outdoor recreation – A necessity or a luxury?: Estimation of Engel curves for Sweden2013Inngår i: Journal of Outdoor Recreation and Tourism, ISSN 2213-0780, Vol. 3-4, s. 49-56Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Income constitutes one important constraint for the degree of participation in outdoor recreation. The effect of this constraint can be measured by the income elasticity of outdoor recreation demand, which is of policy interest when the distribution of recreation opportunities across socio economic groups is a concern. This study investigated income elasticity of expenditures for three types of outdoor recreation in Sweden, at the individual level: outdoor recreation as an aggregated composite good, outdoor recreation close to home (less than 100km away from the permanent residence), and hunting. The findings indicated that outdoor recreation as a composite is a luxury good with elasticity in excess of unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a greater relative increase in demand). The elasticities of the specific activities were found to be lower. Outdoor recreation close to home was characterized as a necessity with elasticity less than unity (i.e. a relative increase in income will lead to a smaller relative increase in demand). The results further suggested that an increase in income could lead to either a decrease or an increase in the demand for hunting, indicating that hunting might be an inferior good or possibly a necessity.

  • 68.
    Borggren, Jonathan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    ‘A place without living standards’ - Defining creativity amongst ‘talents’ and ‘creatives’ in Gothenburg, Sweden.2014Inngår i: Tourism, ISSN 1332-7461, Vol. 62, nr 2, s. 201-216Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Building on previous research concerning the location preferences of human capital (Niedomysl and Hansen, 2010; Borggren & Eriksson 2014) talents (Hansen & Winther, 2010), milieu (Buttimer, 1969; Drake, 2003) and the ‘creative class’ (Florida 2002), this paper studies creative milieu from the perspective of individuals engaged in different creative occupations in Gothenburg, Sweden. Drawing on the background of structural economic change, the key competitive asset of attracting skilled workers and place-marketing to promote regional development, the aim of this study is to ‘take a step back’ and let representatives of these individuals first define a creative milieu, and second to investigate, in retrospect, whether this creative milieu has exercised any significant influence on residence and location choices by way of in-depth interviews. Results show that the creative milieu as described by the respondents constitutes a space containing human interaction, the possibility to think freely and having the option of choosing to participate in various activities. It is suggested that further understandings of creative milieu would be based on the social context, or more precisely the social space (Buttimer, 1969), of the observer and of how said person ‘justifies’ creative milieu from a professional standpoint, i.e. from the perspective of one’s occupation.

  • 69.
    Borrie, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Olsson Skog, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    The importance of stressful events during childhood on adult labour market outcome2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines if stressful events during childhood impact the labour market position in adulthood within the Swedish 1973 birth cohort. Empirical analyses are based on individual, longitudinal register data from the ASTRID database covering the total Swedish population between 1960-2008. We will analyze the different ways in which three specific events; parental separation, death of parent(s) and/or frequent migration, affect labour market outcome in an OLS-regression, controlling for family background characteristics. These events can occur in isola- tion or they can be interrelated. It is of importance to examine the effect of one single event as well as the accumulated effect of several events. The 1973 cohort makes an interesting case, since they both have experienced change in the nuclear family system during their childhood, and a period of recession and youth unemployment as well as cutbacks in social policy programmes during their age of labour market entrance. Our study thus focuses on how stressful events in childhood affect children’s life courses in turbulent times.

  • 70.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Labour mobility, related variety and the performance of plants: A Swedish study2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 71.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Labour mobility, related variety and the performance of plants: A Swedish study2008Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses the impact of skill portfolios and labour mobility on plant performance by means of a unique database that connects attributes of individuals to features of plants for the whole Swedish economy. We found that a portfolio of related competences at the plant level increases significantly productivity growth of plants, in contrast to plant portfolios consisting of either similar or unrelated competences. Based on the analysis of 101,093 job moves, we found that inflows of skills that are related to the existing knowledge base of the plant had a positive effect on plant performance, while the inflow of new employees with skills that are already present in the plant had a negative impact. Our analyses show that inflows of unrelated skills only contribute positively to plant performance when these are recruited in the same region. Labour mobility across regions only has a positive effect on productivity growth of plants when this concerns new employees with related skills.

  • 72.
    Boschma, Ron
    et al.
    Utrecht University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Lindgren, Urban
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Related variety and labour market mobility2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 73.
    Boström, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    En illustration av detaljplaneprocessen: Intervjustudie bland planarkitekter om utmaningar och möjligheter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to clarify what plan architects in Umeå municipality regard as challenges and opportunities in the detailed planning process. To be able to answer the aim and achieve an understanding about the plan architects view of the planning process’s pros and cons, qualitative research is the focus. Through semi structured individual interviews among five plan architects, opinions, thoughts and experiences are collected. Data is analysed using thematic analysis. The result describes three main themes considering the plan architects need of being flexible in the planning process, safeguard a democratic dialogue and represent an authority in their work with planning processes.

    The background to the study is the current discussion on the planning process, as it is often criticized as slow and ineffective. In Sweden, there is an urbanization trend and growth in cities generally and the need for housing is expected to continue to increase. In Umeå, the goal is to grow from approximately 125,000 to 200,000 inhabitants in coming years, through a strategy of densifying already built environments. Densifying cities affects many citizens and the number of appeals may affect the planning process and delay many projects. There is a catch that a dense settlement also makes detailed plans increasingly complex to create. However even though specified detailed plans takes time to create and more appeals may occur, simultaneously, the people’s opinion must be taken into account in the planning process.

    The result of the study highlights both challenges and opportunities for the plan architects to deal with in their work with planning processes. The result shows and gives incitement for where the chances are to develop and to streamline the planning process for the plan architects. Thereto, suggestions for improvements are proposed and ideas of future research to increase the knowledge of the planning processes complexity, are finally presented.

  • 74.
    Brandt, Amanda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Nyanländas Arbetsmarknad: En tematisk analys om nyanlända som en arbetskraft för hotell i Umeå2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decade, Sweden has experienced an increase in number of immigrants. In the north of Sweden, Umeå is one of the municipalities with most constant increases. Their working situation is often related to businesses with lower thresholds and the hotel industry is one of these branches. The hotel market is at the same time rising which makes it of interest to describe the hotel industries attitude towards immigrants as working labor.

     

    The aim of this study is to see how immigrants are treated by a service-based labor market in Sweden. This will be examined through semi- structured interviews with support from previous studies and theories. The respondents will be recruitment staffs from hotels in Umeå municipality and the interviews will focus on their point of view.

     

    The results indicate what an immigrant is facing in the Swedish labor market and has been divided into four themes: part time workers labor market, treatment at the working place, cooperation and competence. The study also compares Sweden with England, as previous studies have shown that England has a large number of immigrants working in hotel business.

  • 75.
    Brandt, Backa Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Kulturgeografi.
    Botniabanan - förväntningar i tid och rum på regional utveckling och resande2005Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis is twofold: to analyze the effects of the expectations on the Bothnia Line on the housing market and expectations on railway use. To fulfill these aims, three questions are considered:

    1. To what extent is property prices influenced by the expected effects of the Bothnia Line?

    2. Are there differences in expectations on regional development and future journeys between residents in different locations and with different individual characteristics?

    3. How are trips to work affected by the expectations on the Bothnia Line and the performance of the train service according to residents in different locations?

    Property prices are investigated quantitatively with data delivered from Lantmäteriet. The data contains every sold property from 1994 to 2001 in the municipalities of Umeå, Nordmaling, and Örnsköldsvik. Expectations on regional development and future traveling on the Bothnia Line were investigated with two questionnaires conducted in the autumn of 2002.

    The empirical results from the study of property prices are clear. There are no signs of influence from the Bothnia Line on the property prices close to the railway stations or in the proximity of the railway.

    The empirical results from the questionnaires reveal a mixed picture of the expectations. In the municipalities located furthest away from the railway, the expectations are low. On the contrary, a large proportion (>75 %) of the residents in municipalities along the railway line believe it can be useful for the population in general when searching for new employment opportunities. This is especially true for males living in Örnsköldsvik. A significantly smaller proportion (≈25 %) believes they will use the railway themselves.

    One explanation to the geographic variations is that they are a result from an ongoing diffusion process. Residents in Örnsköldsvik were the first ones to have a visual image of the railway since the construction started there. As the construction continues, the expectations might increase in other locations as well. Another possibility is that people only react on word of mouth from someone that actually made a trip before they consider changing the mode of transport. If that is the case, the expectations will increase only after the opening of the railway line.

    With the exception of residents in Nordmaling, expectations on future journeys with the Bothnia Line are low. The low expectations on journeys on the Bothnia Line might be explained by the lack of attraction between the places along the line. They are satisfied with their present situation and cannot find any rationale to consider other alternatives. It is a different story if they are forced to consider other alternatives. The result from a stated preference study shows that if they are offered employment at another place, the majority is willing to commute.

  • 76.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Staying Power: What Influences Micro-Firm Survival in Tourism?2013Inngår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 125-144Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate how previous experience and location of entrepreneurs influence the survival of new tourism firms. The paper departs from recent evolutionary economic geography advancements, highlighting the importance of routines and skills as well as location-specific knowledge for firm success. While having been well-researched for manufacturing industries characterized by high entry barriers, little knowledge is currently available on the factors influencing survival rates in service sectors with low entry barriers. A quantitative approach applies hazard models to investigate the survival rates over a seven-year period of a total of 133 new micro-tourism firms started between 1999 and 2001 in the four northernmost counties of Sweden. The geo-referenced micro-database ASTRID links information on firm features (e.g. firm births and deaths, spatial coordinates and industry codes) to characteristics of entrepreneurs (e.g. age, education, previous experience). The main finding is that entrepreneurs with previous work experience in related sectors are more likely to survive and, in this case, entrepreneurs without local experience tend to be less successful. We find no evidence that new firms operating in regions specialized in tourism have a survival advantage. Our analysis also indicates that surviving firms improve performance over time. The paper thus contributes new knowledge on the determinants of micro-firm survival in tourism.

  • 77.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    Mid-Sweden University.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Tourism Evolution: On the Synergies of Tourism Studies and Evolutionary Economic Geography2013Inngår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 43, s. 370-389Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Evolutionary Economic Geography (EEG) is receiving increasing interest from tourism scholars. EEG has proven to be a useful explanatory paradigm in other sectors, e.g., high-technology and creative sectors. There remains, however, a lack of theoretical discussion on evolutionary principles of economic change within relatively low-technology service sectors, of which tourism is a prime example. This paper introduces EEG to a wider tourism audience by presenting the core principles of EEG and how they relate to tourism studies. A selection of new research paths combining EEG and tourism studies is highlighted together with a number of latent research synergies which can progress both EEG and tourism studies. The paper calls for further empirical and conceptual engagement with EEG by tourism scholars.

  • 78.
    Brouder, Patrick
    et al.
    University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
    Karlsson, Svante
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Lundmark, Linda
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Hyper-production: a new metric of multifinctionality2015Inngår i: European Countryside, ISSN 1803-8417, E-ISSN 1803-8417, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 134-143Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multifunctionality has emerged as the dominant framework for understanding rural socioeconomic landscapes. The central claim of multifunctionality – that rural regions need to be understood as being made up of more than just traditional uses – has led to the incorporation of new rural activities into regional development plans, e.g., tourism. In some places, such post-productive activity is perceived to be slowly replacing productive uses of the land, e.g., agriculture/forestry. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support such claims. Drawing on previous research and data from the Swedish countryside this paper shows that, even as the number of persons employed within traditional activities decreases, the economic output per areal unit and per labour hour is increasing over time and traditional uses still occupy the majority of rural space. Hyper-production is introduced as a new metric for understanding multifunctional regions going forward. The complementary union of economic mainstays, such as agriculture, and newer activities with more quality-of-life benefits, such as tourism, is highlighted in terms of economic diversification, job creation and local social capital development, while the conflict-prone intersection of these two modes is also acknowledged. Understanding hyper-production as a key metric of multifunctionality is thus argued as integral to planning and developing resilient rural regions now and for the future. 

  • 79.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Eriksson, Erik J.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier, Miljöarkeologiska laboratoriet.
    Palm, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Humlab.
    SEAD - The Strategic Environmental Archaeology Database: Progress Report Spring 20142014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This report provides an overview of the progress and results of the VR:KFI infrastructure projects 2007-7494 and (825-)2010-5976. It should be considered as a status report in an on-going long-term research infrastructure development project.

  • 80.
    Burlin, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Förtätning som strategi för hållbar stadsutveckling: En diskursanalys av förtätning i Umeå kommun2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACT

    The urban planning paradigm of today consists of one particularly prominent concept; Sustainable development. The concept takes a holistic approach on how we can act, build and arrange the world around us, to avoid ruin the conditions for future generations to do the same. This is a matter of long-term resource management and democracy. The question around the discourse of sustainable urban development is not if, but how. Urban densification is one approach, which has gained a strong foothold in the planning of Umeå municipality this past decade.

    This paper aims to explore and uncover the discourse around densification as a strategy for urban sustainable development, in Umeå. The content in and the relations of two key detailed comprehensive plans (fördjupad översiktsplan) to the consultation report (samrådsgedogörelse) and the written words in media on the subject densification, has been analyzed. The study was conducted through a critical discourse analysis of this material and linked to urban planning practices and theories.

    The findings in this study suggest that sustainable development in Umeå aims to enable demographic and economic growth, based on the underlying assumptions and rhetoric’s in the material. The concept of sustainable development is difficult to define, generally and in the case of Umeå. The identity and shaping of the discourse around densification is dependent on the persons and the interests involved.

    Keywords: Urban planning, Infill, Urban densification, Sustainable urban planning, Discourse, Umeå

  • 81.
    Byman, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Hotellsektorn och det digitala fotavtrycket: - En studie av TripAdvisor och dess påverkan på Ålands hotellmarknad2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet has grown to become one of the most influential tools affecting the tourism industry. This study seeks to explore a smaller piece of a widely recognized phenomenon, breaking off to study the impacts of online reviews on TripAdvisor and electronic word-of-mouth in the hotel sector. The study further attempts to identify problems and advantages with the increased use of consumer generated media-sites. One of the main motivations for this study is also the lack of profound studies examining hotel responses to online reviews and destination impacts. The scope of this study is limited to examine three hotels and their respective reviews, on the Aland Islands. Thus this study does not necessarily seek to generalize results in other instances.

    The identified problem in this thesis is that hotel operators experience difficulties in managing what is being written about them as the perception of time and space changes, owing to the Internet. In making progress to this problem, the study was conducted through semi-structured interviews and a thematic analysis, to understand the specifics of the context. Furthermore, this methodology was used to understand the perspectives of the informants. The results indicate that online reviews on TripAdvisor follow specific themes and are considered an important source of information for hotel operators. However, there seems to be some limitations in management, due to lack of opportunities and strategic plans of actions in the hotel sector. There is, however, a collective understanding and willingness amongst hotels to further immerse themselves in the work of managing reviews.

  • 82.
    Carlquist, Jonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Institutionen för språkstudier.
    Pfister, Linda
    Åkerlund, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Språk och planering2017Inngår i: Plan, ISSN 0032-0560, nr 1, s. 48-51Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 83. Carmo, Renato M.
    et al.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi.
    Translocal mobility systems: social inequalities and flows in the wild berry industry2019Inngår i: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 99, s. 102-110Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper uses the lens of translocality to investigate the seasonal mobility system of Thai berry pickers in Sweden: the perspective highlights the local-to-local relations that constitute this transnational and fluid mobility system. In this paper, we add the aspect of social inequalities to translocal studies, while arguing that multi-sited and locally grounded recruitment processes are contributing to produce and reproduce the mobility system. In the migrant-receiving area, stereotyping processes are active in shaping the selection of workers based on ethnicity, whereas in the migrant-sending area local asymmetries are visible in the selectivity of workers on the basis of age, wealth, and gender. In this way, the aspect of social inequalities, locally embedded at both ends of the recruitment process, is highlighted as a dimension to consider in translocal mobility systems. This is achieved through the analysis of multi-sited fieldwork in Sweden and Thailand that consisted of observations and interviews with Thai workers and representatives of the Swedish berry business.

  • 84.
    Carson, Dean
    The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Northern Territory 0909, Australia.
    Political economy, demography and development in Australia's Northern Territory2011Inngår i: The Canadian Geographer, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 226-242Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Canadian 'staples thesis' literature has documented both the risks (in the tradition of Harold Innis) and the opportunities (in the tradition of W. A. Macintosh) inherent in economies that are dependent on the export of minimally processed natural resources. The key risk is that of retarded long‐term growth as a result of a lack of diversification and over‐dependence on foreign capital and markets. This article argues that the demographic consequences of staples approaches to development also make it difficult to achieve diversification. It profiles Australia's Northern Territory as an example of a mining‐dependent (fiscal) economy that demonstrates a particular demographic profile consistent with what might be expected of a resource frontier. The article argues, however, that restrictive demographic characteristics persist (high sex ratios, high population mobility, disadvantaged position of indigenous people and remote dwellers) even though mining has become an insignificant direct employer (less than one percent of the workforce) and the services sector drives the labour market. This persistence can be linked to the Territory and federal government expectations of economic development patterns in the region and the frontier mythology created around the Northern Territory. Addressing the demographic imbalance is a critical step towards realizing ambitions for economic diversification.

  • 85.
    Carson, Dean
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Population policies at the edge: the demographic ambitions of frontiers2011Inngår i: Demography at the edge: remote human populations in developed nations / [ed] Dean Carson, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Prescott Ensign, Lee Huskey, Andrew Taylor, Farnham: Ashgate, 2011, s. 321-332Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 86. Carson, Dean
    Skilled Labour Migration Flows to Australia's Northern Territory 2001-2006: Beyond Periphery?2011Inngår i: Australian Journal of Labour Economics, ISSN 1328-1143, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 15-33Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 87.
    Carson, Dean B.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Conclusion2016Inngår i: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, s. 427-434Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 88.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Flinders University Rural Clinical School, Flinders University, Burra, Australia ; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A
    Centre for Regional Engagement, University of South Australia, Whyalla, Australia.
    Local economies of mobility in sparsely populated areas: cases from Australia's spine2014Inngår i: Journal of Rural Studies, ISSN 0743-0167, E-ISSN 1873-1392, Vol. 36, s. 340-349Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing contemporary body of literature about the 'new mobilities' – increasingly mobile populations and their impacts on local economies, particularly in more sparsely populated areas of developed nations. Much of the focus has been on the 'fly in/fly out' workforce associated with mining projects, but attention has also been paid to increasing numbers of 'fly in/fly out' workers in the health sector, the changing nature of tourist populations, the use of temporary contract labour for government administration, and the movement of Indigenous people from remote communities into urban centres. This paper uses five case examples in South Australia and the Northern Territory (Australia's 'spine') to examine the diversity of experiences of the new mobilities. The paper presents a framework for investigating new mobilities at the local settlement level through developing an understanding of macro and micro factors driving mobility and the consequences in terms of aspects of social and economic distance between mobile populations and host communities. The framework provides for useful insights to be drawn from secondary data sources including the Australian Census and tourist surveys. The paper concludes that the geographic characteristics of short term mobility observed in this research essentially conform to the 'Eight Ds' model of the human and economic geography of sparsely populated areas.

  • 89.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Lessons from the Arctic past: The resource cycle, hydro energy development, and the human geography of Jokkmokk, Sweden2016Inngår i: Energy Research & Social Science, ISSN 2214-6296, E-ISSN 2214-6326, Vol. 16, s. 13-24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent research has identified a series of human geography impacts of natural resource developments in sparsely populated areas like the Arctic. These impacts can be mapped to the 'resource cycle', and arise from periods of population growth and decline, changing patterns of human migration and mobility, changing patterns of settlement, and changes in the demographic 'balance' between males and females, young and old, Indigenous and non-Indigenous. This paper examines the applicability of the resource cycle model in the case of hydro energy development in the Jokkmokk municipality of Sweden. Using quantitative demographic data, media reports, and contemporary accounts of hydro development, the paper describes the human geography of Jokkmokk since the late 19th century. The paper concludes that changes in human geography in Jokkmokk mirror what has been observed in regions dependent on non-renewable resources, although it is difficult to distinguish many impacts from those that might have occurred under alternative development scenarios. The paper identifies a 'settlement cycle' with phases of integrated and separated habitation for populations specifically associated with the development. Settlement dynamics, and the impacts of hydro on Sami geography are areas for further research.

  • 90.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Porter, Rob
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Yoshida Ahlin, Celia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Decline, Adaptation or Transformation: New Perspectives on Demographic Change in Resource Peripheries in Australia and Sweden2016Inngår i: Comparative Population Studies, ISSN 1869-8980, E-ISSN 1869-8999, Vol. 41, nr 3-4, s. 1-29Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many sparsely populated resource peripheries in developed countries are perceived to suffer from periods of demographic decline due to loss of employment opportunities and services, youth out-migration and population ageing. While these trends tend to apply at broad regional scales and for particular time periods, diverse patterns of demographic change may be apparent if different spatial, temporal and social scales of analysis are taken into consideration. Comparing the experiences of two case study regions in northern Sweden and inland South Australia, this paper proposes an alternative conceptual framework to the ‘discourse of decline’, which could be used to examine the nuances of demographic change within resource peripheries. The framework includes spatial scale considerations that contrast broader regional demographic patterns with the experiences of sub-regions and individual settlements. It also includes temporal scale aspects, examining demographic change over different time periods to understand the pace, duration and frequency of population growth and decline. The framework finally includes social unit considerations, emphasising that demographic change affects different social groups in different ways. The results of the case studies suggest that considering demographic change as adaptation or transformation rather than decline may be more useful for identifying new – and qualitatively different – demographic pathways that emerge over time. 

  • 91.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Carson, Doris A.
    University of South Australia, Australia.
    Taylor, Andrew
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Indigenous Long Grassers: Itinerants or Problem Tourists?2013Inngår i: Annals of Tourism Research, ISSN 0160-7383, E-ISSN 1873-7722, Vol. 42, s. 1-21Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper proposes a model explaining how ‘problem tourists’ emerge at tourism destinations. Problem tourists are incompatible with the accepted dominant status of tourism and emerge from social distance between tourists and hosts, or between different groups of tourists. A case study of long grassers in Darwin, the capital of Australia’s Northern Territory, is presented to illustrate the model. Long grassers are popularly understood as Indigenous people from remote communities who camp in public places during their visits to Darwin and engage in anti-social behaviours. Surveys were conducted on travel patterns of long grassers to better understand their behaviours and interactions with the destination. This paper discusses whether conceptualising long grassers as problem tourists might help reveal new management strategies.

  • 92.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Flinders University, Australia; The Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Koch, A.
    Divining the local: specific challenges for place based planning in sparsely populated areas2013Inngår i: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 28, nr 3, s. 304-319Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the processes of demographic change is critical for economic and services planning. Often times, planning in ‘rural’ areas is based on an assumption of homogenous populations and drivers of change (ageing, declining traditional rural industries, adaptation to changing environments and so on). This article argues that attention to spatial, social and temporal scales reveals great diversity between places and within places with regards to demographic change and economic potential. We use evidence from seemingly incomparable case examples from the Alpine villages of Austria and the remote Indigenous communities of Australia to demonstrate that differences in mobility over time and between social groups results in very different experiences of local economies. Specifically, social groups (and individuals) experience the local within their own actor-networks. The article examines how the diverse experiences of the local might be measured, and why they are important for ‘local’ policy making and planning. The research is grounded in theories of social and human geography around ‘fragmented development’, actor-network theory and scale.

  • 93.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Prideaux, Bruce
    The importance of the mode of transport in self-drive tourism2011Inngår i: Drive tourism: trends and emerging markets / [ed] Bruce Prideaux and Dean Carson, Abingdon: Routledge , 2011, s. 121-123Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 94.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Schmallegger, Doris
    Campbell, Suzanne
    Martel, Catherine
    Whose City is it?: A thinking guide to Darwin2010Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 95.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum). Northern Institute, Charles Darwin University, Darwin, Australia; Glesbygdsmedicinskt Centrum, Storuman, Sweden .
    Schoo, Adrian
    Berggren, Peter
    The 'rural pipeline' and retention of rural health professionals in Europe's northern peripheries2015Inngår i: Health Policy, ISSN 0168-8510, E-ISSN 1872-6054, Vol. 119, nr 12, s. 1550-1556Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The major advance in informing rural workforce policy internationally over the past 25 years has been the recognition of the importance of the 'rural pipeline'. The rural pipeline suggests that people with 'rural origin' (who spent some childhood years in rural areas) and/or 'rural exposure' (who do part of their professional training in rural areas) are more likely to select rural work locations. What is not known is whether the rural pipeline also increases the length of time professionals spend in rural practice throughout their careers. This paper analyses data from a survey of rural health professionals in six countries in the northern periphery of Europe in 2013 to examine the relationship between rural origin and rural exposure and the intention to remain in the current rural job or to preference rural jobs in future. Results are compared between countries, between different types of rural areas (based on accessibility to urban centres), different occupations and workers at different stages of their careers. The research concludes that overall the pipeline does impact on retention, and that both rural origin and rural exposure make a contribution. However, the relationship is not strong in all contexts, and health workforce policy should recognise that retention may in some cases be improved by recruiting beyond the pipeline.

  • 96.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Carson, Doris A.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    The local demography of resource economies: long term implications of natural resource industries for demographic development in sparsely populated areas2016Inngår i: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus Ole Rasmussen, Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, s. 357-378Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Settlements at the Edge examines the evolution, characteristics, functions and shifting economic basis of settlements in sparsely populated areas of developed nations. With a focus on demographic change, the book features theoretical and applied cases which explore the interface between demography, economy, well-being and the environment. This book offers a comprehensive and insightful knowledge base for understanding the role of population in shaping the development and histories of northern sparsely populated areas of developed nations including Alaska (USA), Australia, Canada, Greenland, Norway, Russia, Sweden, Finland and other nations with territories within the Arctic Circle.

  • 97.
    Carson, Dean B
    et al.
    Flinders University.
    Wellstead, Adam
    Government with a Cast of Dozens: Policy Capacity Risks and Policy Work in the Northern Territory2015Inngår i: Australian journal of public administration, ISSN 0313-6647, E-ISSN 1467-8500, Vol. 74, nr 2, s. 162-175Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There are a number challenges to maintaining high-quality policy capacity in sparsely populated areas such as Australia's Northern Territory (e.g. natural resource dependent economy, prominence of Indigenous issues, provision of local services). Moreover, the Territory government has recently been undergoing a host of public sector changes. This paper utilises survey methodologies of policy workers that were recently developed in Canada and examines nine risk factors to policy work. A survey of 119 policy workers in the Northern Territory was conducted in 2013. The analysis examined four key policy-work areas (policy activities, barriers, areas for improved policy capacity, nature of change in work environment). The survey findings offer some practical insights for managers. Formal policy-work training is recognised as critical. Policy capacity may be increased through better inter-departmental (and potentially inter-governmental) cooperation and information sharing, more opportunities to engage with non-governmental stakeholders, and more opportunities for those leaving the full-time Northern Territory policy workforce to continue to contribute. From a conceptual point of view, the extent to which policy capacity' as commonly conceived in the literature is applicable to contexts, such as Australia's Northern Territory, warrants further examination.

  • 98.
    Carson, Dean B.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Arktiskt centrum vid Umeå universitet (Arcum).
    Wenghofer, E.F
    Timony, P.E
    Schoo, A
    Berggren, P
    Charters, B
    White, D
    Vuin, A
    Garrett, J
    Recruitment and retention of professional labour: the health workforce at settlement level2016Inngår i: Settlements at the edge: remote human settlements in developed nations / [ed] Andrew Taylor, Dean B. Carson, Prescott C. Ensign, Lee Huskey, Rasmus O. Rasmussen and Gertrude Saxinger, Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 99.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Northern Institute, CDU & Flinders University.
    Bird, D.
    Bell, L.
    Yuhun, P.
    Migration as an Adaptation to Climate Change for Remote Indigenous Communities: What might we expect?2013Inngår i: Inner Asia Studies in the Humanities, Vol. 2, s. 92-111Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 100.
    Carson, Dean
    et al.
    Northern Institute, CDU and Flinders University.
    Carson, Doris
    University of South Australia, Northern Institute, CDU.
    Mobilising Labour in Remote ‘Boom’ Towns for Economic Diversification: The case of Tennant Creek, Australia2013Inngår i: Inner Asia Studies in the Humanities, Vol. 2, s. 31-44Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    New economic opportunities in remote areas are often linked to major private and public sector investment projects which are controlled by external decision-makers and lead to temporary periods of economic ‘boom’. Settlements in sparsely populated or remote areas in countries such as Australia, Canada, the United States and the Arctic European nations, are commonly perceived to be inherently disadvantaged socially and economically because of their isolation from social services, economic and political power centres [Carson et al., 2011; Huskey, 2011]. Even when economic opportunities present for a number of remote locations as a result of the mineral and oil and gas resources ‘booms’, the benefits are believed to accrue primarily to distant large urban centres where resource extraction companies are based [Argent, 2013]. Income derived from employment in the resources sector is channelled away from sparsely populated areas by the use of non-resident and temporarily resident labour, with little in the way of local employment [Carrington and Pereira, 2011]. Through a series of case studies of small settlements in remote parts of Alaska, Huskey (2011) demonstrated that local engagement in various economic activities is possible and can deliver local social and economic benefit. This research examines Husky’s arguments about the potential for sustainable local economic development through a case study of a small and isolated settlement, Tennant Creek, in Australia’s Northern Territory. By analysing local labour changes from 2001 to 2011, the research examined the town’s capacity to mobilise its labour force and diversify in response to new opportunities offered by a range of economic ‘booms’ in the mining, construction, transport, tourism, health, education and government service sectors. This brief is a summary of a full research paper which is published in the journal Bulletin Buryat State University: Inner Asia Studies in the Humanities (Carson & Carson, 2013).

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