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  • 51.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Gardarsdottir, Olöf
    University of Iceland.
    Thorvaldsen, Gunnar
    Universitetet i Tromsö.
    Infant Mortality in the Nordic Countries 1780-19302008Inngår i: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 23, nr 2, s. 457-485Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 52.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Do unequal societies cause death among the elderly?: a study of the health effects of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062013Inngår i: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 6, nr 1, artikkel-id 19116Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality. However, previous research provides an ambiguous picture, with positive association mainly having been found on higher geographical levels. One explanation for this could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings differs between levels of aggregation. 

    Methods: We examine the association between income inequality (using the Gini coefficient) and all-cause mortality in Swedish municipalities in the age group 65-74. A multi-level analysis is applied and we control for e.g. individual income and average income level in the unicipality. The analyses are based on individual register data on all residents born between 1932 and 1941, and outcomes are measured for the year 2006.

    Results: Lower individual income as well as lower average income level in the municipality of residence increased mortality significantly. We found an association between income inequality and mortality with excessive deaths in unequal municipalities even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. The results from the analysis of individual data differed substantially from analyses using aggregate data.

    Conclusions: Income inequality has a significant association with mortality in the age groups 65 to 75 at municipality level. The association is small compared to many other variables, but it is not negligible. Even in a comparatively equal society like Sweden, we need to consider possible effects of income inequality on mortality at the local level. 

  • 53.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Neighbourhood inequality as a health risk: Empirical evidence from Swedish registers2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we explore the impact on mortality of income inequality in residential neighbourhoods and municipalities among elderly 65-84 years in the year 2004, using Swedish longitudinal micro-data covering the entire Swedish population for the period 1970 – 2006. Preliminary cross-sectional multi-level analyses are now complemented by longitudinal analyses of long-term residential histories with exposure to equal/unequal municipalities and neighbourhoods and the long-term impact on mortality. We investigate the association between mortality and income inequality at place of residence at different time lags and the effect of a summary measure of previous exposures to environments characterised by different inequality levels. We also compare groups that have different experiences of residential characteristics, i.e. those that have resided in unequal or equal places and those that have changed from equal to unequal residences or vice versa. Preliminary results from a cross-sectional analysis on 2006, show that income inequality in the municipality of residence had an independent effect on mortality in the age group 65-74 years

  • 54.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Janssens, Angelique
    Radboud university Nijmegen.
    Clustering of deaths in families: Infant and child mortality in historical perspective2012Inngår i: Biodemography and Social Biology, ISSN 1948-5565, E-ISSN 1948-5573, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 75-86Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction surveys the field of family clustering of deaths and discusses the contributionsin this special issue. The main focus is on mortality in historical contexts.Clustering of deaths in families has been found both in historical and contemporarypopulations, and we argue that the ‘family approach’ to infant and child mortality yieldsimportant and interesting insights for our understanding of different mortality patternsand the mortality transition. The articles in this issue, representing different but complementaryapproaches to the problem of death clustering, demonstrate that we shouldbe aware of the strong family effects on child health, but also that we need to developadequate methods for the analysis of this complex phenomenon. Here we discuss severalexplanations for death clustering, such as different biodemographic factors andthose focusing on socioeconomic and cultural variables. We also discuss some of themethodological challenges in studying family clustering, and emphasize the need forcomparison and the adoption of common measures.

  • 55.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    Karlsson, Johnny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Recoding occupations in the Demographic Data Base into HISCO1998Inngår i: Historical International Standard Coding of Occupations: Status Quo after coding 500 frequent male occupations / [ed] Marco van Leeuwen, Ineke Maas and Andrew Miles, Berlin: Max Planck Institute , 1998, s. 137-167Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 56.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Kling, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    The practice of birth control and historical fertility change: Introduction2010Inngår i: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 15, nr 2, s. 117-124Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This introduction discusses the contributions in the special issue. The articles present results concerning the practice of birth control, mainly at the family level. They represent different analytical approaches where both interviews, letters, surveys and micro-level data have been used. The European fertility decline has made a fundamental change to the societies in the 20th and 21st centuries. Birth control spreads rapidly. Research in this field requires both qualitative and quantitative studies, where both approaches contribute to different perspectives on the transition. The articles in the issue discuss several themes in relation to birth control, of which three are developed in the introduction. These are gender and fertility, gender and health and finally how to control fertility. The presented results demonstrate the importance of including gender in the analyses of the fertility decline. A gender perspective makes it natural to consider historical persons as agents. It is also necessary to acknowledge that we should not treat the married couple as a single unit. They may have conflicting interests, something that several of the articles illustrate. One aspect we would like to emphasize is how health problems can influence the will to have more children and this affects birth control. This is a theme that in different forms is taken up by several of the authors. Finally, families practiced birth control with several different methods that also changed throughout the married years, thus demonstrating a flexibility that is often overlooked in conventional methods for the analysis of fertility.

  • 57.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Lindkvist, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Wealth and health in 19th century Sweden: A study of social differences in adult mortality in the Sundsvall Region2011Inngår i: Explorations in economic history (Print), ISSN 0014-4983, E-ISSN 1090-2457, Vol. 48, nr 3, s. 376-388Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article analyses social inequality in mortality in the 19th century Sundsvall region, an area that experienced rapid industrialization after 1850. The purpose of the study is to investigate whether there were social differences in mortality in this context and whether these differences increased during the industrial break-through. The expected advantages for higher social classes could not be confirmed in this environment. Instead, the best survival was found among those belonging to the agricultural sector. We found a strongly gendered pattern, with much higher mortality for and small health differences among men, while the results indicate increasing social inequality in female mortality during industrialization. The spatial pattern of mortality was pronounced and living with a partner had a strong impact on survival, particularly for men. We finally discuss the role of gender and class expectations in relation to lifestyles for the social patterning of mortality.

  • 58.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Do unequal societies cause death and disease?: A study of the health effects on elderly of inequality in Swedish municipalities, 20062011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A lively public and academic debate has highlighted the potential health risk of living in regions and nations characterized by inequality (Wilkinson and Pickett 2007; 2009). It is argued that inequality may add to increasing health differentials over the life course. However, previous research provides so far an ambiguous picture. One explanation could be that the effect of living in more heterogeneous social settings may differ between levels of aggregation. A hypothesis is that homogeneity is positive on the national or regional level, while on a lower level of aggregation living in homogeneous settings could be detrimental for health, at least in poor neighborhoods.

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of our examination on how residence in unequal versus homogeneous areas is associated with health outcome of elderly people in Sweden. These first results are based on municipality level data on individuals born between 1932 and 1941 and the outcome is measured for the year 2006. Furthermore, we analyze the effect on health of income inequality (measured by Gini-coefficient) as compared to the effect of individual income and the average income level in the area. We analysed the associations both with individual-level and multi-level analysis. Our main finding is that inequality has an independent effect on mortality in the way that unequal municipalities have excessive deaths even after controlling for mean income level and personal income. This result was found not only in the individual-level analysis but also in the multilevel analysis.

  • 59.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Nilsson, Hans
    Linköpings universitet.
    Swedish towns during industrialisation1999Inngår i: Annales de Démographie Historique, ISSN 0066-2062, E-ISSN 1776-2774, nr 2, s. 63-96Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 60.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Rogers, John
    Uppsala Universitet.
    Health Reforms and the Decline in Infant Mortality in Urbanizing Sweden 1870-19101999Inngår i: The Healthy Life. People, Perceptions, Politics, 1999, s. 189-190Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 61.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Rogers, John
    Historiska institutionen, Uppsala universitet.
    Hälsa och hälsoreformer i svenska städer kring sekelskiftet 19002001Inngår i: Historisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0018-263X, E-ISSN 1504-2944, nr 4, s. 541-564Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 62.
    Egerbladh, Inez
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Bittles, Alan
    The influence of consanguineous marriage on reproductive behavior and early mortality in Northern Coastal Sweden, 1780-18992008Inngår i: Kinship and demographic behavior in the past, Springer, 2008, s. 205-224Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Remarkably few studies have been conducted into the prevalence and possible influence of close kin marriage on fertility and mortality in northern European populations. The Demographic DataBase at Umea University offers a unique opportunity to correct this situation, with data on births, deaths, and marriages in the Skelleftea region of Sweden for the period 1720-1899 collected by the State Lutheran Church. The data are made more interesting by the fact that until 1680 first cousin unions were prohibited in Sweden; and from 1680 until 1844 a royal dispensation was needed before such unions could proceed. Of the 14,639 marriages initially studied, 20.8 percent were between couples related as sixth cousins or closer, with a significant increase in first cousin marriages post-1844. Using logistic regression, two subsets of marriages contracted from 1780 to 1899 were investigated with respect to fertility and mortality. First cousin marriages were strongly favored by freeholders and peasant landowning families; and in some families they had been preferentially contracted across successive generations. Consanguinity appeared to exert no influence on fertility. However, first cousin couples had higher rates of stillbirths and more deaths in infancy and early childhood among their progeny. This excess mortality was probably associated with the expression of detrimental recessive genes, although nongenetic factors may also have been involved. There was evidence of the clustering of multiple deaths within first cousin families, which likewise would be consistent with a genetic aetiology. Overall, the data confirm the significance of close consanguinity as an important demographic variable in this European population.

  • 63.
    Emmelin, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    To be seen, confirmed and involved - a ten year follow-up of perceived health and cardiovascular risk factors in a Swedish community intervention programme2007Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 7, s. 190-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Public health interventions are directed towards social systems and it is difficult to foresee all consequences. While targeted outcomes may be positively influenced, interventions may at worst be counterproductive. To include self-reported health in an evaluation is one way of addressing possible side-effects. This study is based on a 10 year follow-up of a cardiovascular community intervention programme in northern Sweden. METHODS: Both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used to address the interaction between changes in self-rated health and risk factor load. Qualitative interviews contributed to an analysis of how the outcome was influenced by health related norms and attitudes. RESULTS: Most people maintained a low risk factor load and a positive perception of health. However, more people improved than deteriorated their situation regarding both perceived health and risk factor load. "Ideal types" of attitude sets towards the programme, generated from the interviews, helped to interpret an observed polarisation for men and the lower educated. CONCLUSION: Our observation of a socially and gender differentiated intervention effect suggests a need to test new intervention strategies. Future community interventions may benefit from targeting more directly those who in combination with high risk factor load perceive their health as bad and to make all participants feel seen, confirmed and involved.

  • 64.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för befolkningsstudier.
    Anmälan "Krisbiografier: Utfattiga och mindre fattiga förr"2008Inngår i: Oknytt, nr 3-4, s. 96-99Artikkel, omtale (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 65.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för befolkningsstudier. Demografiska databasen.
    Att bli sin egen: Om relationen mellan stad och landsbygd i Skellefteå socken2003Inngår i: 90 år med Sankt Olovs församling, 2003, s. 18-26Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 66.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Boarded out by auction: poor children and their families in nineteenth-century northern Sweden2004Inngår i: Continuity and Change, ISSN 0268-4160, E-ISSN 1469-218X, Vol. 19, nr 3, s. 431-457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Boarding out and fostering poor children was a favoured method of poor relief in many rural areas in northern Europe. This article discusses children who were boarded out to foster-parents by public auction in a rural parish in northern nineteenth-century Sweden. Poverty was the main reason why children were boarded out, frequently associated with loss of parents and difficulties in providing for a large household. It is suggested that the Swedish system of boarding out poor children must be understood in the context of a welfare system where cost efficiency was important. The auction method was used in spite of the risks involved because it was considered to be the best way to provide poor children with food, clothes, shelter and care, while keeping the compensation to the foster-parents at a reasonably low level.

  • 67.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för befolkningsstudier.
    "Den Ryska Verldssnufvan": En influensapandemi ur ett 1800-talsperspektiv2008Inngår i: Thule, ISSN 0280 8692, Vol. 21, s. 63-75Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 68.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Flera nyanser av fattigdom: skattefattigdom och fattigvård i en norrländsk kontext 1830-18752004Inngår i: Historiens mångfald: presentation av pågående forskning vid Institutionen för historiska studier, Umeå universitet / [ed] Ann-Katrin Hatje, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, s. 139-153Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 69.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Life on the edge: rural poverty and vulnerability in XIXth century northern Sweden2006Inngår i: Annales de Démographie Historique, ISSN 0066-2062, E-ISSN 1776-2774, Vol. 1, nr 111, s. 31-57Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses the complex relationship between poverty and vulnerability in rural xixth century Sweden, from a regional as well as from an individual perspective. Using different definitions of poverty in fiscal sources and poor relief records the author shows that the experiences of vulnerability varied, on the individual and household level as well as on the community level. Far from all of those, that must be considered socially and economically vulnerable, were supported by poor relief. On the community level the differences can to a large extent be explained by socio-economic factors while the diversity on the individual level must be attributed to a number of different factors: structural as well as individual, demographic and cultural as well as social and economical. The results suggest, that to gain a fuller understanding of the determinants of vulnerability in a population, it is necessary to combine aggregate data with life-course studies and direct further attention to the importance of factors such as gender, culture and local policy.

  • 70.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    Prästen som samhällsbyggare under 1800-talet2005Inngår i: Livsfrågor i Lappland.: Kyrkan och kolonisationen. Forskarsymposium i Vilhelmina 30 september-1 oktober 2004 / [ed] Nygren, Sigurd; Forsgren, Tuuli, Umeå: Johan Nordlander-sällskapet , 2005Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 71.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    "Rasande, eller mild och skonsam": Svenska provinsialläkares bild av influensautbrottet 1889-902007Inngår i: Nationell influensasammankomst 1-2 nov 2007: Sammanfattningar, 2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 72.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    The invisible pandemic: Community response to pandemic influenza in rural northern Sweden 1918-202009Inngår i: Varia Historia, ISSN ISSN 0104-8775, Vol. 25, nr 42, s. 429-456Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout human history, recurrent influenza pandemics have affected individuals and societies all over the world. Yet the social responses have varied with time and space. This article discusses society's response to the Spanish influenza of 1918-1920 in northern rural Sweden, focusing on measures taken by local communities to meet the advancing pandemic. In the five studied rural communities, the official response was sparse and reactive, and the presence of pandemic influenza is almost invisible in the municipal records. Potentially preventive measures, such as school closures and bans on public gatherings, were used inadequately and introduced far too late to be effective. The current struggle with wartime hardship, food crisis and a strained economy, an insufficient public health administration, a national preventive policy primarily aimed at the prevention of cholera, and the continued use of traditional methods to deal with crises in society are suggested as some explanations for local authorities' apparent inertia during the Spanish influenza.

  • 73.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Centrum för befolkningsstudier.
    Too litte, and too late: Community response to pandemic influenza in rural northern Sweden 1918-19202008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Throughout human history, recurrent influenza pandemics have affected individuals and societies all over the world. Yet the social responses have varied with time and space. This article discusses society’s response to the Spanish influenza of 1918-1920 in northern rural Sweden, focusing on measures taken by local communities to meet the advancing pandemic. In the five studied rural communities, the official response was sparse and reactive, and the presence of pandemic influenza is almost invisible in the municipal records. Potentially preventive measures, such as school closures and bans on public gatherings, were used inadequately and introduced far too late to be effective. The current struggle with wartime hardship, food crisis and a strained economy, an insufficient public health administration, a national preventive policy primarily aimed at the prevention of cholera, and the continued use of traditional methods to deal with crises in society are suggested as some explanations for local authorities’ apparent inertia during the Spanish influenza.

  • 74.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Useful and industrious: child labour in 19th century rural Sweden2011Inngår i: Child labour’s global past 1650-2000 / [ed] Kristoffel Lieten, Elise van Nederveen Meerkerk, Bern: Peter Lang , 2011, 1, s. 331-342Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 75.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    "Useful and industrious": Child labour in 19th century rural Sweden2009Inngår i: Child labour's global past, Bern: Peter Lang Publishers , 2009Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 76.
    Ericsson, Tom
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Review av Guido Alfani, Fathers and godfathers: spiritual kinship in early-modern Italy2010Inngår i: Economic history review, ISSN 0013-0117, E-ISSN 1468-0289, Vol. 63, nr 3, s. 834-835Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 77.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Umeå centrum för funktionell hjärnavbildning (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Social relationships and risk of dementia: a population-based study2015Inngår i: International psychogeriatrics, ISSN 1041-6102, E-ISSN 1741-203X, Vol. 27, nr 8, s. 1391-1399Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective was to examine whether aspects of social relationships in old age are associated with all-cause dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Methods: We studied 1,715 older adults (≥ 65 years) who were dementia-free at baseline over a period of up to 16 years. Data on living status, contact/visit frequency, satisfaction with contact frequency, and having/not having a close friend were analyzed using Cox proportional hazards regressions with all-cause dementia or AD as the dependent variable. To control for reverse causality and to identify potential long-term effects, we additionally performed analyses with delayed entry.

    Results: We identified 373 incident cases of dementia (207 with AD) during follow-up. The variable visiting/visits from friends was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia. Further, a higher value on the relationships index (sum of all variables) was associated with reduced risk of all-cause dementia and AD. However, in analyses with delayed entry, restricted to participants with a survival time of three years or more, none of the social relationship variables was associated with all-cause dementia or AD.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that certain aspects of social relationships are associated with incident dementia or AD, but also that these associations may reflect reverse causality. Future studies aimed at identifying other factors of a person's social life that may have the potential to postpone dementia should consider the effects of reverse causality.

  • 78.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Leisure Activity in Old Age and Risk of Dementia: a 15-Year Prospective Study2014Inngår i: The journals of gerontology. Series B, Psychological sciences and social sciences, ISSN 1079-5014, E-ISSN 1758-5368, Vol. 69, nr 4, s. 493-501Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to investigate whether leisure activity is associated with incident dementia in an older sample.

    Method. We examined a sample of 1,475 elderly (>= 65 years) who were dementia free at baseline over a follow-up period of up to 15 years. In addition to analyses involving the total time period, separate analyses of three time periods were performed, 1-5, 6-10, and 11-15 years, following baseline measurement of leisure activity.

    Results. After controlling for a variety of potential confounders, analyses of data for the total time period revealed that higher levels of "Total activity" and "Social activity," but not "Mental activity," were associated with decreased risk of dementia. However, analyses of the separate time periods showed that this association was only significant in the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline.

    Discussion. The results from this study provide little support for the hypothesis that frequent engagement in leisure activities among elderly serve to protect against dementia diseases across a longer time frame. The finding of a relationship for the first time period, 1-5 years after baseline, could indicate short-term protective effects but could also reflect reverse causality.

  • 79.
    Gebreselassie, Kirubel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Epidemiology of Hypertension Stages in Two Countries in Sub-Sahara Africa: Factors Associated with Hypertension Stages2015Inngår i: International Journal of Hypertension, ISSN 2090-0384, E-ISSN 2090-0392, artikkel-id 959256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies using the revised hypertension classification are needed to better understand epidemiology of hypertension across full distribution. The sociodemographic, biological, and health behavior characteristics associated with different stages of hypertension in Ghana and South Africa (SA) were studied using global ageing and adult health (SAGE), WAVE 1 dataset. Blood pressure was assessed for a total of 7545 respondents, 2980 from SA and 4565 from Ghana. Hypertension was defined using JNC7 blood pressure classification considering previous diagnosis and treatment. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis using Stata version 12 statistical software was done to identify independent predictors. The weighted prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in Ghana was 30.7% and 42.4%, respectively, and that of SA was 29.4% and 46%, respectively, showing high burden. After adjusting for the independent variables, only age (OR = 1.32, 95% CI: 1.14–1.53), income (OR = 1.9, 95% CI: 1.04–3.47), and BMI (OR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.1–1.22) remained independent predictors for stage 1 hypertension in Ghana, while, for SA, age (OR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.53–3.36), sex (OR = 0.28, 95% CI: 0.08–1), and BMI (OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.07–1.25) were found to be independent predictors of stage 1 hypertension. Healthy lifestyle changes and policy measures are needed to promptly address these predictors.

  • 80.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Hansson, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Mojgan, Padyab
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Sundqvist, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för polisutbildning vid Umeå universitet.
    Wimelius, Malin E.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statsvetenskapliga institutionen.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Avvisningar och utvisningar av ensamkommande flyktingbarn: om effektivitet, värdighet och barnens bästa från tjänstemäns och gode mäns perspektiv2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport tar sin utgångspunkt i den svenska regeringens ställningstagande att barn som inte anses ha skyddsbehov eller andra skäl att stanna i Sverige ska kunna återvända hem på värdiga sätt. Samma regering har dock också tydligt uttalat att antalet av- och utvisningar väsentligen ska öka i förhållande till tidigare år. Det är den potentiella spänningen mellan skarpa krav på effektivitet i av- och utvisningsärenden å ena sidan och kraven på värdighet, respekt för mänskliga rättigheter och barnets bästa å den andra, som undersöks i den här rapporten. Fokus ligger på hur centrala aktörer förhåller sig till och tolkar dessa krav och på vad deras respektive förhållningssätt och tolkningar betyder för samverkan dem emellan.

    Tre fallstudier i kommuner av varierande storlek belägna i de geografiskt åtskilda länen Västerbotten, Skåne och Värmland har genomförts. Fallstudierna bygger på totalt 49 intervjuer med handläggare på Migrationsverket, socialsekreterare, gode män, HVBpersonal och poliser – alla verksamma som centrala aktörer vid av- och utvisningar. I analysen av det insamlade materialet betraktas de professionella aktörerna (de gode männen undantagna) som gräsrotsbyråkrater med vida handlingsutrymmen. Det som undersöks är i vilken utsträckning de anser sig kunna omsätta de politiska målsättningarna om ökad effektivitet och bibehållen värdighet i praktiken. För att kunna analysera vad det är som utmärker samarbete och samverkan mellan aktörerna används teorier om interorganisatorisk samverkan.

    De huvudsakliga slutsatser som framkommit i rapporten är att uppfattningar om och förhållningssätt till det effektiva och värdiga återvändandet skiljer sig åt bland de olika aktörerna i Västerbotten, Skåne och Värmland. Aktörerna gör egna tolkningar av begreppen effektivitet och värdighet, i vilka mening skapas utifrån professionella erfarenheter, roller och uppdrag. De största skillnaderna i uppfattning och tolkning har återfunnits mellan aktörskategorierna, inte mellan de tre fallstudierna. Polis och Migrationsverk anser generellt att effektivitet och värdighet går att förena. Poliserna och tjänstemännen på Migrationsverket har jämfört med de andra aktörerna oftare ett uttalat legalt perspektiv och ser både värdighet och respekt för barnens mänskliga rättigheter som inbäddade i det juridiska ramverket. Socialsekreterare, HVB-personal och gode män anser däremot generellt att ett återvändande mot ett barns vilja inte någonsin kan bli värdigt. De är också mer benägna att se det som att Barnkonventionen i relation till utlänningslagen hamnar i underordnad ställning. Vissa likheter mellan aktörerna har också kunnat identifieras. Samtliga betonar gott bemötande, god kommunikation och tydlig information i relation till de barn som fått av- eller utvisningsbeslut.

    Aktörernas olika förhållningssätt får konsekvenser för deras samverkan. Överlag kan samverkan i samtliga undersökta kommuner beskrivas som begränsad, oklar, personberoende och utan gemensamma mål. Aktörerna uttrycker brist på tillit och många upplever en känsla av ensamhet i sina roller. Goda erfarenheter av samverkan finns visserligen men det är tydligt att skilda professionella normer, organisationskulturer, erfarenheter och perspektiv försvårar samverkan.

  • 81.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Journeymen or traditional emigrants?: Norwegian and Swedish engineers and architects in North America, 1880-19302011Inngår i: Norwegians and Swedes in the United States: friends & neighbors / [ed] Philip J. Anderson & Dag Blanck, St. Paul, MN: Minnesota Historical Society Press , 2011, s. 197-218Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 82.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Review of: Donald Harman Akenson, Ireland, Sweden and the Great European migration 1815–1914. McGill-Queen's studies in ethnic history, series two, number 302014Inngår i: Scandinavian Economic History Review, ISSN 0358-5522, E-ISSN 1750-2837, Vol. 62, nr 1, s. 96-98Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 83.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Sweden, migration 19th century to present2013Inngår i: The Encyclopedia of Global Human Migration / [ed] Immanuel Ness & Peter Bellwood, Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The view of preindustrial Sweden as a geographically static society is distorted; migration was a part of everyday life and the most common demographic feature. Early 19th-century Swedes changed residence 10 times on average during their lifetime, which is only twice less than the present day. Distances moved were shorter, however. People moved between their closest rural parishes and sometimes to nearby towns. On the parish level, in- and outmigration equaled each other and did not cause major population redistributions. Numerous small and isolated local “labour markets” constituted migration's framework. People moved to earn their living within these borders (Tedebrand 1999; Dribe & Stanfors 2005).

  • 84.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
    The Peregrine Profession : International Mobility of Nordic Engineers and Architects, 1880-1930.2014Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 85.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    The welcoming city?: Immigrants in urban Sweden 1850-19252010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper seeks to examine the lives of late nineteenth and early twentieth century immigrants in the Swedish capital of Stockholm and the cities of Linköping and Sundsvall. These urban areas were of different sizes, geographical locations and socio-economic structures. One important question revolves around how these characteristics interacted with immigrant integration in the local societies. The relevance of the hypothesis suggesting that immigration differs with the size of the receiving community is discussed: it is generally assumed that larger cities offer immigrants better development possibilities and more opportunities to participate in societal life than smaller towns do. Another purpose is to study whether, and in what way, integration differed with the immigrants’ origin, gender, age as well as social and marital status when arriving. The cultural proximity in general and the linguistic in particular, ought to have facilitated the integration process for Finland-Swedes, Norwegians, and Danes in comparison with other immigrant groups. The study is based on computerised source material from the Demographic Database at Umeå University and the Stockholm Historical Database, the latter provided by the Stockholm City Archives. The databases are complemented with Swedish parish records. Taking the point of departure in persons moving directly from abroad to the four urban areas between 1860 and 1915, the immigrants are followed as long as they remain in the areas. Integration is measured through different variables: permanent settlement, naturalisation, marriages and occupational changes. The “degree” of integration is interpreted as increasing if an immigrant settled “for good”, accepted Swedish citizenship and experienced upward social mobility. If an unmarried immigrant married a native, it is also viewed as positively correlated with integration.

  • 86.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Lundh Nilsson, Fay
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Desirable skills?: Non-Nordic citizens applying for work permits in Sweden, 1947–19502015Inngår i: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 56, nr 4, s. 481-498Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's rapid economic growth after the Second World War meant that the native labour supply was incapable of meeting the high demand, especially for industrial labourers. Three agreements on organised collective transfers were signed, but a large majority of the labour migrants came on their own initiative. Not all applicants were equally welcomed. In this article, logistic regressions are used to investigate a sample of 2830 (every fifth) applications to the National Labour Market Board (AMS) from the years 1947–1950; 1367 had an arrangement with a future Swedish employer, while 1463 applicants lacked such an arrangement. The likelihood of being granted a permit was 11 times higher for the first category. Our hypothesis that the chances were better for high-skilled workers proved true only in part; it was valid if they had an employer agreement. Contrary to our assumptions, women had a better chance than men, partly because domestic servants were always permitted and partly because women did not compete with male labour. However, our assumptions with regard to better chances for the young but experienced, and for those applying for the occupation wherein they had their experience held true. A number of official documents revealed the desirability of Sudeten German labourers. They were viewed as skilled, reliable and loyal by employers, labour unions and governmental authorities. This assumption only held true for applicants lacking an employer. This can be viewed as a prolongation of the practice of helping Sudeten German Social Democrats, established in 1938. The intention to help refugees was, however, also evident in the treatment of Baltic and Polish applicants.

  • 87. Hedin, Karin
    et al.
    Clark, Eric
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Neoliberalization of housing in Sweden: gentrification, filtering, and social polarization2012Inngår i: Annals of the Association of American Geographers, ISSN 0004-5608, E-ISSN 1467-8306, Vol. 102, nr 2, s. 443-463Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last twenty-five years, housing policy in Sweden has radically changed. Once forming a pillar of the comprehensive welfare system, abbreviated the “Swedish model,” neoliberal housing politics have established market-governed housing provision with a minimum of state engagement. This shift has had consequences on the social geography of housing conditions. The research reported here analyzes social geographic change in Sweden's three largest cities—Stockholm, Gothenburg, and Malmö—between 1986 and 2001, relating observed patterns of gentrification and filtering to cycles of accumulation and to neoliberalization of housing policies. First, we outline the neoliberalization of Swedish housing policies. We then present an empirical analysis of gentrification and filtering in the three cities, spanning two boom periods (1986–1991, 1996–2001) and a bust period (1991–1996). The data reveal social geographic polarization manifested in the growth of supergentrification and low-income filtering. The analysis also introduces the concept of ordinary gentrification, supporting the move in gentrification research toward a broad generic conception of the process. Political reforms after 2001 are summarized and we argue that these underlie the continued increase in inequality and that the social geographic polarization mapped between 1986 and 2001 has probably intensified during this decade.

  • 88.
    Hedner, Margareta
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Olofsson, Jonas K
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Bergman, Olle
    Göteborg University.
    Eriksson, Elias
    Göteborg University.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Fysiologi.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Age-related olfactory decline is associated with the BDNF Val66met Polymorphism: Evidence from a population-based study2010Inngår i: Frontiers in aging neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 2, s. 24-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the effect of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) val66met polymorphism on change in olfactory function in a large scale, longitudinal population-based sample (n = 836). The subjects were tested on a 13 item force-choice odor identification test on two test occasions over a 5-year-interval. Sex, education, health-related factors, and semantic ability were controlled for in the statistical analyses. Results showed an interaction effect of age and BDNF val66met on olfactory change, such that the magnitude of olfactory decline in the older age cohort (70-90 years old at baseline) was larger for the val homozygote carriers than for the met carriers. The older met carriers did not display larger age-related decline in olfactory function compared to the younger group. The BDNF val66met polymorphism did not affect the rate of decline in the younger age cohort (45-65 years). The findings are discussed in the light of the proposed roles of BDNF in neural development and maintenance.

  • 89.
    Hellquist, Barbro Numan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Czene, Kamila
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostat, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hjälm, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Effectiveness of population-based service screening with mammography for women ages 40 to 49 years with a high or low risk of breast cancer: socioeconomic status, parity, and age at birth of first child2015Inngår i: Cancer, ISSN 0008-543X, E-ISSN 1097-0142, Vol. 121, nr 2, s. 251-258Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Invitation to mammography screening of women aged 40 to 49 years is a matter of debate in many countries and a cost-effective alternative in countries without screening among women aged 40 to 49 years could be inviting those at higher risk. The relative effectiveness of mammography screening was estimated for subgroups based on the breast cancer risk factors parity, age at time of birth of first child, and socioeconomic status (SES).

    METHODS: The SCReening of Young Women (SCRY) database consists of all women aged 40 to 49 years in Sweden between 1986 and 2005 and was split into a study and control group. The study group consisted of women residing in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were invited to screening and the control group of women in areas in which women aged 40 to 49 years were not invited to screening. Rate ratio (RR) estimates were calculated for 2 exposures: invitation and attendance.

    RESULTS: There were striking similarities noted in the RR pattern for women invited to and attending screening and no statistically significant difference or trend in the RR was noted by risk group. The RR estimates increased by increasing parity for parity of 0 to 2 and ranged from 0.55 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.38-0.79) to 0.79 (95% CI, 0.65-0.95) for attending women. The RR for women with high SES was lower than that for women with low SES (RR, 0.72 [95% CI, 0.60-0.86] and RR, 0.79 [95% CI, 0.63-0.99], respectively). For women aged 20 to 24 years at the time of the birth of their first child, the RR was 0.73 (95% CI, 0.58-0.91) and estimates for other ages were similar.

    CONCLUSIONS: There was no statistically significant difference noted in the relative effectiveness of mammography screening by parity, age at the time of birth of the first child, or SES. Cancer 2014.

  • 90.
    Hellquist, Barbro Numan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Czene, Kamila
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet.
    Hjälm, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jonsson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Effectiveness of population-based service screening with mammography for women ages 40 to 49 years with high and low risk of breast cancer: socioeconomic status, parity and age at birth of first childManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Whether women in age 40-49 years should be invited to mammography screening or not is debated in many countries and a cost-effective alternative in countries with no screening in age 40-49 years could be selective screening i.e. inviting women at higher risk. In the current study relative effectiveness of mammography screening was estimated for subgroups based on the breast cancer risk factors parity, age at birth of first child and socioeconomic status (SES).

    Methods The SCReening of Young women (SCRY) database consist of all women in age 40-49 years in Sweden in 1986-2005 and is split into a study and control group. The study group consists of women in areas where women age 40-49 years were invited to screening and the control group of women in areas where women 40-49 years were not. Rate ratio (RR) estimates were calculated for risk groups. Two exposures were considered; invitation to mammography screening and attendance.

    Results There were striking similarities in the RR pattern for women invited to and attending in screening for all three risk factors and there was no statistically significant difference or trend in the RR by risk group. The RR estimates increased by increasing parity for parity 0 to 2 and ranged from 0.55 (95% CI 0.38-0.79) to 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.95) for women attending screening. The RR for white collar workers (low SES) was lower than for blue collar workers (high SES), 0.72 (95% CI 0.60-0.86) and 0.79 (95% CI 0.63-0.99) respectively for attending. For women 20-24 years at birth of first child RR was estimated at 0.73 (95% CI 0.58-0.91) for attending and estimates for other ages were similar.

    Conclusion There was no statistically significant difference in relative effectiveness of mammography screening by parity, age at birth of first child or socio-economic status.

  • 91.
    Hjälm, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    "Because we know our limits": Elderly parents' views on intergenerational proximity and intimacy2012Inngår i: Journal of Aging Studies, ISSN 0890-4065, E-ISSN 1879-193X, Vol. 26, nr 3, s. 296-308Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    From an intergenerational family perspective, geographical distance and proximity have been shown to affect interaction and the extent of help and support between generations. Geographical separation and nearness hence do not only influence the family per se, but might also concern the welfare state, not least in times of population ageing. This study concerns exchange and assistance between elderly parents living very close to an adult child, and is based on interviews with 14 elderly parents. The interviews revealed that help and support flowed in both directions between the close-living generations, but that from the perspective of the elderly some types of help were more acceptable than others to give and receive. Further, the interviews suggested that living close, albeit discussed as allowing extensive interaction and support, should not be understood as a sign of wanting or even accepting more extensive help from the close-living adult child.

  • 92.
    Hjälm, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    The ‘Stayers’: Dynamics of Lifelong Sedentary Behaviour in an Urban Context2014Inngår i: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 569-580Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Migration has, over the years, attracted infinitely more attention than non-migration or staying. In this paper, the focus is set on those individuals who have demonstrated lifelong sedentary behaviour. The aim of the study is to scrutinise the ways in which people who have lived their entire life in the same place make sense of their sedentary, or immobile, lifestyle. The study builds upon semi-structured interviews, conducted in 2011–2012, with persons aged 60 years and older who were living in an urban area in northern Sweden. Initially, the different definitions of staying are highlighted by the informants, and the flexibility of the concept is addressed. The findings indicate that even though reasons for staying might be harder to articulate than reasons for migration, the explanations given are still complex and multi-layered. The findings also suggest that the decision to stay is not a choice made once and then never renegotiated but rather a decision made over and over again. Furthermore, the significance of intertwined lives, both with living relatives and with preceding and following generations, is analysed. Finally, the results from the study challenge earlier pictures of stayers – where they were portrayed as stigmatised – and highlight the need to consider staying, as well as moving, as a conscious choice in order that we may gain a better understanding of the dynamics of staying.

  • 93.
    Hoi, Le Van
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Thang, Pham
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Elderly care in daily living in rural Vietnam: Need and its socioeconomic determinants2011Inngår i: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, E-ISSN 1471-2318, nr 11, s. 81-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The proportion of older people is increasing rapidly in Vietnam. The majority of the elderly live in rural areas. Their health status is generally improving but this is less pronounced among the most vulnerable groups. The movement of young people for employment and the impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study aims to assess the daily care needs and their socioeconomic determinants among older people in a rural setting.

    Methods

    In 2007, people aged 60 years and older, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance System (DSS). They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess needed support in activities of daily living (ADLs). Individuals were interviewed about the presence of chronic illnesses that had been diagnosed by a physician. Participant socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeat census. The repeat census used a repeat of the same survey methods and questions as the original FilaBavi DSS. Distributions of study participants by socioeconomic group, supports needed, levels of support received, types of caregivers, and the ADL index were described. Multivariate analyses were performed to identify socioeconomic determinants of the ADL index.

    Results

    The majority of older people do not need of support for each specific ADL item. Dependence in instrumental or intellectual ADLs was more common than for basic ADLs. People who need total help were less common than those who need some help in most ADLs. Over three-fifths of those who need help receive enough support in all ADL dimensions. Children and grandchildren are the main caregivers. Age group, sex, educational level, marital status, household membership, working status, household size, living arrangement, residential area, household wealth, poverty status, and chronic illnesses were determinants of daily care needs in old age.

    Conclusions

    Although majority of older people who needed help received enough support in daily care, the need of care is more demanded in disadvantaged groups. Future community-based, long-term elderly care should focus on instrumental and intellectual ADLs among the general population of older people, and on basic ADLs among those with chronic illnesses. Socioeconomic determinants of care needs should be addressed in future interventions.

  • 94.
    Hoi, Le Van
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Tien, Nguyen Thi Kim
    Tien, Nguyen Van
    Dung, Dao Van
    Chuc, Nguyen Thi Kim
    Sahlen, Klas-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Sahlen, Klas Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Lindholm, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Willingness to use and pay for options of care for community dwelling older people in rural Vietnam2012Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 12, s. 36-Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The proportion of people in Vietnam who are 60 years and over has increased rapidly. The emigration of young people and impact of other socioeconomic changes leave more elderly on their own and with less family support. This study assesses the willingness to use and pay for different models of care for community-dwelling elderly in rural Vietnam.

    Methods: In 2007, people aged 60 and older and their family representatives, living in 2,240 households, were randomly selected from the FilaBavi Demographic Surveillance Site. They were interviewed using structured questionnaires to assess dependence in activities of daily living (ADLs), willingness to use and to pay for day care centres, mobile care teams, and nursing centres. Respondent socioeconomic characteristics were extracted from the FilaBavi repeated census. Percentages of those willing to use models and the average amount (with 95% confidence intervals) they are willing to pay were estimated. Multivariate analyses were performed to measure the relationship of willingness to use services with ADL index and socioeconomic factors. Four focus group discussions were conducted to explore people's perspectives on the use of services. The first discussion group was with the elderly. The second discussion group was with their household members. Two other discussion groups included community association representatives, one at the communal level and another at the village level.

    Results: Use of mobile team care is the most requested service. The fewest respondents intend to use a nursing centre. Households expect to use services for their elderly to a greater extent than do the elderly themselves. Willingness to use services decreases when potential fees increase. The proportion of respondents who require that services be free-of-charge is two to three times higher than the proportion willing to pay full cost. Households are willing to pay more than the elderly for day care and nursing centres. The elderly are more willing to pay for mobile teams than are their households. Age group, sex, literacy, marital status, living arrangement, living area, working status, poverty, household wealth and dependence in ADLs are factors related to willingness to use services.

    Conclusions: Community-centric elderly care will be used and partly paid for by individuals if it is provided by the government or associations. Capacity building for health professional networks and informal caregivers is essential for developing formal care models. Additional support is needed for the most vulnerable elderly to access services.

  • 95.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    A new test for spatial autocorrelation with an application to mortality in Swedish municipalities2012Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 96.
    Holmberg, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    A test for robust detection of residual spatial autocorrelation with application to mortality rates in Sweden2015Inngår i: Spatial Statistics, E-ISSN 2211-6753, Vol. 14, nr C, s. 365-381Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: When analyzing data collected with a geographical dimension it is important to be able to test for spatial autocorrelation. The presence of spatial autocorrelation might unveil ignored explanatory variables or just be a factor necessary to consider when further analyzing the data.

    Objectives: The aim of this paper is to propose a new test that works well for detecting spatial autocorrelation, which is robust against heteroscedasticity and useful regardless of the underlying distribution. The new test is then used to investigate if the mortality rates in the aging Swedish population show spatial autocorrelation as an example of its use.

    Methods: We derive such a test assuming the mean function for the model is known and perform simulations for this case and for residuals to investigate its finite sample performance, especially how the nominal rejection size is kept.

    Results: In the simulations we show that our test works well if there is no heteroscedasticity and also under difficult situations such as heteroscedasticity with structure, given that sufficient number of observations are available. This study finds no autocorrelation of mortality rates in Swedish municipalities in the age group 64–75 in year 2006.

  • 97.
    Holmgren, Sara
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Molander, Bo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    Episodic memory in adult age and effects of sibship size and birth order: Longitudinal data2007Inngår i: Journal of Adult Development, ISSN 1068-0667, E-ISSN 1573-3440, Vol. 14, s. 37-46Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 98.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    The effect of travel cost on frequencies of shopping and recreational trips in Sweden2009Inngår i: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 17, nr 3, s. 208-215Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focus on how the cost of travel affects travel behavior. A trip frequency model for recreational and shopping trips is suggested and used to investigate this. The data that is used comes from a Swedish travel habit survey where the respondents’ trip frequencies of both types of trips on a certain day are recorded. This is likely to introduce a correlation structure, which is incorporated in the model. Special attention is paid to the effect of travel cost on trip frequencies for different regions and income groups. As a measure of the sensitivity of cost changes, elasticity of demand is calculated. The precision of the elasticities are evaluated with simulated p-values.

  • 99.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    The effect of Rh-negative disease on perinatal mortality: Some evidence from the Skellefteå Region, Sweden, 1860–19002012Inngår i: Biodemography and Social Biology, ISSN 1948-5565, E-ISSN 1948-5573, Vol. 58, nr 2, s. 116-132Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Rh-negative gene is a well-known cause of perinatal mortality. In this article, we analyze the possible role of Rh disease in perinatal mortality and stillbirths in a particular historical setting: the Skellefteå region in northern Sweden between 1860 and 1900. The data used for the study cover 23,067 children born to 4,943 women. The exact impact is not possible to establish using historical data, but the typical pattern of the disease allows us to make estimations. The expected levels based on knowledge of blood group distribution, the risk of sensitization from Rh incompatability, and the risk of perinatal mortality in births by sensitized mothers are compared with the observed levels. The results show that Rh disease was important for perinatal mortality and clustering of deaths within families.

  • 100.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CPS). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Demografiska databasen.
    The effect of the Rh negative disease on perinatal mortality: Evidence from Skellefteå 1840-19002010Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Rh-negative gene is a well known cause of perinatalmortality especially before there were any effective treatment. The Rh disease, that is caused by a Rh positive foetus carried by a Rh negativemother, leads to typical patterns of perinatal mortality with an increaseof mortality with parity and mortality clustered in families. This effecthas been largely neglected in earlier papers trying to explain mortalitypatterns in historic data.

    Objectives: This paper highlights the role of this gene in causing these patterns and tries to quantify the effect in a society with a large group of Rh-negative persons and no access to treatment.

    Methods: The risks of the Rh disease is approximately known from the medical literature. Knowing family sizes and the approximate share of Rh negative genes the ”theoretical” patterns of perinatal mortality can becalculated and simulated. Comparing these figures with observed patterns of perinatal deaths the relative importance of Rh factor can be estimated.We have used data from 1840-1900 in the Swedish parish of Skellefteå where we have data on all births and their outcomes as well as good estimates of the Rh negative gene frequency.

    Results: The results show that the Rh gene is likely to have had an important role in perinatal mortality and the patterns with more dead at high parities and clustering explaining a relatively large part of these phenomenon in high Rh negative gene societies.

    Conclusions: The paper shows that the Rh-disease is an important fac-tor in understanding mortality patterns. Its great effect on the patterns makes it necessary to take it into account when analysing other factors that can affect perinatal mortality patterns.

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