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  • 51.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Kriser, motståndskraft och förändringsförmåga2017Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 52.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Mellan försörjning och tillväxt: Arbetsmarknad, företagnade och ekonomisk politik efter 19502012Inngår i: Den hållbara svenska modellen: Innovationskraft, förnyelse och effektivitet / [ed] Lars Magnusson & Jan Ottosson, Stockholm: SNS förlag, 2012, 1, s. 126-143Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 53.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    "Såsom allmänna inrättningar till gagnet, men affärsföretag till namnet": SJ, järnvägspolitiken och den ekonomiska omvandlingen efter 19201993Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the extent and nature of the interaction between the political, institutional andeconomical development in the Swedish railway sector 1920-1980. The work deals with two main issuse,which may be summarized in the following question: has the Swedish railway policy contributed to orcounterbalanced the stagnation of the railways, especially in the post-war period? The basic premise has beenthat the institutional framework from the 19th century, was well adjusted to the requirements in thecontemporary industrialization process. The adaption of the regulations, obligations and economic principlesfrom the inter-war years and henceforth was more problematic. A growing discrepancy between economicconditions and policy goals emerged. Ulis affected the function of the Sate Railways (SJ).The interesting issue is to explain the process of renewal and abandonment of the original institutionalarrangements. There are two distinctive driving forces in this process. Firstly the demand for transport in theeconomy of the society changed. This interacted with the expansion of motorvehicles. Motor vehicles, and lateron civil aviation, have taken over parts of traditional railway transports. Of greater significance though, is thefact that railways have not been able to compete with motorvehicles on a number of growing markets in theeconomy of society. This has been of major importance to the diminishing economic returns and the decliningcompany profitability in the railway sector. The second driving force is to be found in the institutional setting inthe railway sector. The institutional principles and the railway policy gave social and economic responsibilitypriority over business profitability as the managerial strategy for SJ. SJ was used to fulfil regional and generaleconomic policy goals. As a consequence the unprofitable private railways were nationalized to save theregional transport system. To succeed on the competitive transport market in the post-war period it becamenecessary for SJ to act as a profit-seeking company. This created a long period of political struggle inParliament concerning the institutional principles. In order to keep the social economic principles, the monetaryclaims were reduced. Subsidies were given to try to save SJ s profitability as a business company. The mixtureof social and monetary principles from 1960 and onwards, could neither solve the railway's market problems,nor could they keep the regional railway system intact. This failure led to the abandonment of the originalinstitutional framework. In the late 1980 s it was totally replaced. Hie guiding rules for the State Railways arenow concentrated on competition and company profitability.

  • 54.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Hansen, Kjell
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi, Transportforskningsenheten (TRUM).
    Var god tag plats - nu går sista bussen2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 55.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekonomisk historia.
    Samförstånd, spänning och förändring: institutioner och ekonomisk tillväxt i svensk ekonomisk historia under 150 år2017Inngår i: Marknad och politik / [ed] Lars Hultkrantz och Pär Österholm, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2017, 12, s. 11-39Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 56.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Magnusson, Lars
    Uppsala universitet.
    1864-1914: samhällsdynamik och industrialisering2014Inngår i: Det svenska näringslivets historia 1864-2014 / [ed] Mats Larsson, Lena Andersson-Skog, Stockholm: Dialogos Förlag, 2014, s. 14-197Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 57.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Ottosson, Jan
    Stat och marknad i historiskt perspektiv: från 1850 till idag2018Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dag ser vi stora förändringar i det svenska samhället i form av avregleringar – eller snarare omregleringar. Samtidigt har debatten om avregleringarna i den svenska ekonomin polariserats alltmer. Å ena sidan framställs avregleringsvågen som något naturnödvändigt och helt självklart. Å andra sidan ses den som en del av högersammansvärjning, ägnat att torpedera välfärdssamhället. Bakom båda uppfattningarna finns föreställningen att avregleringarna är en avvikelse eller nyorientering från ett läge där regleringar alltid har funnits - alltså att perioden efter 1990 skulle vara unik.

    Författarna sätter detta fenomen i ett större perspektiv genom att diskutera och dra lärdomar från ett antal omreglerade sektorer i den svenska ekonomin. De använder historiska exempel för att belysa olika faser i vår moderna regleringshistoria. Exemplen berör sektorerna som järnvägen, telekommunikationer, posten, bussbranschen, flyget, elsektorn, vård och skola och apotek.

    Hur såg omvandlingen till en reglerad ekonomi ut i Sverige, och vilka drivkrafter låg bakom dessa förändringar?

  • 58.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    På spaning efter "informationssamhället": Ekonomisk-historiskt perspektiv på IT-kulten1996Inngår i: Häften för Kritiska Studier, ISSN 0345-4789, Vol. 29, nr 2, s. 26-47Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 59.
    Andersson-Skog, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Strömberg, HelénUmeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Från en öm hand till kall elektronik?: Om industrisamhällets vårdarbete under 1900-talet2012Collection/Antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 60.
    Andreasson, My
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Emergency Water Planning and the Issues with making Drinking Water Accessible for Everyone2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, the access to drinking water is something that often is taken for granted. But several incidents where regions have found themselves without drinking water shows that we should be more concerned about crisis management concerning drinking water. Regulations state that even in a situation with drinking water disturbance the municipality is responsible for providing all citizens with drinking water of acceptable quality. When drinking water is not delivered in regular pipelines it is called emergency water, which is an alternative way to distribute drinking water within the region. During a crisis it is important that the authorities can act quickly in order to minimize the consequences that will occur if a region is without drinking water. The National Food Agency (Livsmedelsverket) have therefore developed a guide for municipalities how to make an emergency water plan. It contains information of how to map and prioritize water users. This is a case study of Nordmaling Municipality that investigates how and why water users should be prioritized during a disturbance in drinking water. The aim has also been to locate emergency water containers for citizens and study the accessibility of these locations and the level of justice within the society connected to citizens (in)accessibility. In order to do this study, the guide from the National Food Agency have been studied along with consultation with the municipal administration. Then a quantitative Multi Criteria Analysis (MCA) in GIS has been performed in order to find “optimal” locations for emergency water resources. Recommendations from the National Food Agency have been followed within the frame, ability and visions of Nordmaling Municipality. The study displays the functions that will obtain emergency water, and recommendations and regulations behind the decisions. Along with 12 different locations which have been decided based on results from the MCA. Water users (with extra consideration to vulnerable water users) living outside of the geographical “catchment-area” of a location with emergency water have been studied. This has shown that the locations are not accessible for everyone within the municipality. Constrained accessibility can be seen especially for elderly and those living in the sparsely parts of Nordmaling, which displays an unjust society.

  • 61.
    Andruszkiewicz, Marta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    International students as a travel market segment: the case of Poland.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 62.
    Anishchenko, Mariia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Ecotourists’ motivation and its relation to the ecotourism’s principles2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
  • 63.
    Anne, Ouma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    From Rural Gift to Urban Commodity: Traditional Medicinal Knowledge and Socio-spatial Transformation in the Eastern Lake Victoria Region2013Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    As we celebrate all the dynamic and dramatic improvements in human health care in the 21st century, life in much of Africa begins with and is sustained with the support of traditional medicinal knowledge. Research on traditional medicinal knowledge (TMK) is extensive, but rather few studies have been written about Traditional Healers' (THs') own perceptions about TMK and practices in relation to changing societal dynamics.

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how THs perceive on going socio-spatial transformation, including contemporary processes of urbanization, migration, commercialization and commodification of TMK, as well as changing dynamics of learning and knowledge systems between generations and genders and how these affect their medicinal healing practices in time and space.

    The thesis consists of four main empirical chapters, which derive from different data sources including literature, documentation review and qualitative interview material. The findings in this thesis can be summarised as follows: First that TMK today exists side by side with modern health systems, in what are seen as complex patterns of medical pluralism that provide evidence of an evolving role the TH plays in primary health care, in the rural and urban space. Youthful migrating population dynamics that are linked to historical processes, have effectively carved an emerging cross-sectoral role of the TH in the formal space.

    Secondly the developing legislation on IPR and ABS in parallel with the representation of an earlier official formal governance around TMK in Tanzania; and the difference in the sectors where TMK is anchored in the two contexts, could have paved way to some earlier collaborative mechanisms, that today provide space to enable a more natural engagement between formal and informal organizations involved in the governance of TMK in Tanzania. Thirdly, the practical ways in which TMK learning processes, which are characterized by learning systems in place, being sent and visiting sacred places that are lived by an apprentice over a number of years, have increasingly come under pressure. Fourthly the thesis shows approaches by THs, encouraging the youth to access conventional medicinal education followed by, or in parallel with TMK learned through traditional pedagogies employed by the THs themselves. The youth’s keen interest in learning TMK is seen to increase when they view improved livelihood possibilities due to the commercialization of medicinal plants. The future of TMK learning processes may be limited unless incentives are put in place for the youth regarding their future livelihoods. Fifth, gendered and generational dimensions suggest that older and some younger female THs reemphasize the values of the gift and TMK in a climate of increased commodification and commercialization of TMK, where TMK increasingly meets neoliberal processes, engaging an alternative paradigm than the gift economy, where a predominance of male TH’s in the urban space and places, increasingly define the diversification of the TMK livelihoods. The gift provided by a higher power and which is embedded in a particular cosmological view, to be used as a social service to help the community, is increasingly evolving as an emerging tested force in a changing ideological climate, with an increasing awareness of commodification, commercialization, IPR and ABS issues surrounding TMK. It implies awareness in relation to the increased benefits of commoditized and commercialized medicinal plant knowledge (which THs hold) for other individuals and institutions.

    The TH profession and TMK is seen as entering a contested IPR/ABS arena at a time when increasingly socio-spatial transformations are modifying its role from that of a gift to an owned commodity. However while the practice of TMK has changed over time and space, presenting new challenges as well as opportunities, it is also seen as a threat that anyone today can sell and market TMK products.

  • 64.
    Ann-Kristin, Bergquist
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Kristina, Söderholm
    Sustainable Energy Transition: the Case of the Swedish Pulp and Paper Industry 1973-19902016Inngår i: Energy Efficiency, ISSN 1570-646X, E-ISSN 1570-6478, Vol. 9, nr 5, s. 1179-1192Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By employing historical case study methodology, this paper examines the transition towards renewable energy and increased energy efficiency in the Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) during the 1970s and 1980s. Between 1973 and 1990, CO2 emissions were cut by 80 % in this sector, and this was mainly achieved by substituting away from oil to biofuels in the form of byproducts from the pulp manufacturing process. The CO2 reduction was also a result of energy efficiency improvements and increased internal production of electricity through back-pressure turbine power generation. Sweden was highly dependent on oil at the advent of the first Oil Crisis in 1973, and the increased oil prices put pressure on the Swedish government and the energy-intensive PPI to reduce this oil dependency. Of central importance for the energy transition was the highly collaborative strategy of the PPI, both internally among pulp mills as well as between the sector as a whole and the corporatist Swedish state administration. The Swedish government chose a proactive strategy by emphasizing knowledge management and collaboration with the industry along with the substitution of internal biofuels for oil. The transition was also characterized by a strong focus on unutilized potentials in the PPI; a previous waste problem now could be transformed into energy savings and improved energy efficiency. Energy taxes and fees also played an important role in Swedish energy policy during the 1970s and the 1980s. All in all, the study illustrates the central role of governments and their ability to push industrial sectors into new technological pathways through a wide palette of mutually reinforcing policy instruments. The results further point at the importance of a more holistic understanding of the interplay between different policies and their impacts in the longer run.

  • 65.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Case Vindel river area2014Inngår i: Through joy: Mapping sporty activities in Norway, Sweden and Finland with a view to enhancing regional attractiveness / [ed] Olli Rosenqvist, Kokkola: University of Jyväskylä, Kokkola University Consortium Chydenius , 2014, s. 46-64Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 66.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    En ny löparvåg i väntan på nästa Vindelälvslopp?2012Inngår i: Västerbottens Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 67.
    Appelblad, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Vindelälvsloppets uppgång och fall : vad lagledarna tycker i efterhand, en webbaserad enkätstudie2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 68.
    Apsite, Elina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Stjernström, Olof
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Baltic State migration system: the case of latvian immigrants in Sweden2012Inngår i: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 31-52Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden, with a particular focus on Latvia. Two historical turns in the BalticStates’ recent history have contributed to an out-migration from the region—the restoration of independence in the early 1990s and accession to the EuropeanUnion (EU) in 2004. Although these events were considered positive asthey meant “open” borders for Baltic State citizens, lately the out-migrationfrom Latvia has increased. Likewise, the global economic crisis that started in2008 and the consequential unemployment draw attention to emerging patternsand the composition of emigrants to several destinations, but in this caseparticularly to Sweden. After the EU expansion Sweden did not receive as manyEastern European migrants as was expected at the time, but recent trends revealthat there has been a steady increase in the migration flow since then. TheNordic countries as a potential destination initially lacked pioneer migrants toestablish social support networks that would attract newcomers, but this is nowchanging; statistics for 2010 show that the number of Baltic State immigrantsin Sweden has grown significantly since 2008. With the economic recessionand unemployment in Latvia in 2009, 2010 had even higher emigration activitythan in 2004 just after the country’s accession to the EU. Nordic countriesemerge as welcoming destinations to recent migrants, who state that the proximityto their home country and the labour market opportunities are the mainattraction but also that a positive view of Sweden and the Swedes plays a part.Contemporary trends of migration from the Baltic States and especially Latviaunder conditions of economic downturn lead to emerging pattern of migrationsystems between Latvia and Sweden, combining a mixture of motives and diversityof the people involved in migration chains.

  • 69.
    Arango Nilsson, Emilio
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Kulturens betydelse och effekter som utvecklingsstrategi: En fallstudie om kulturhuvudstadsåret och kulturdriven tillväxt i Umeå2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to identify how cultural development and the European cultural capital event applies within the context of city development in Umeå. Furthermore, the study aims to examine how the European cultural capital event affects the local cultural actors. The analysis is a case study based upon how local and municipal cultural actors use culture to develop the municipality of Umeå and how the European cultural capital event has affected their work. To answer the aim of the thesis six semi-structured interviews was performed with cultural actors both within the municipality and private sector. This was to get wide-ranging information about cultural development in Umeå. The method to extract information was through thematic analysis of the preformed interviews, this allowed me as researcher to fully analyze the extracted material.

     

    The results of the study reveal that culture permeates city development in Umeå. Primarily the municipality makes great effort to make the city development rich with culture. Despite the effort culture is not a certainty in urban development and it is a constant political struggle to maintain and emphasize the importance of culture in city development. The study revealed that some actors feel that culture has become too commercialized in the municipality’s effort to generate urban growth, especially in the wake of the European capital event. All interviewed actors indicate that the European cultural capital event has had a great impact on their work and working methods. Primarily internal collaborations between the municipality and private cultural actors have been identified as meaningful, due to the many possibilities it brought, for all actors and the lack of collaboration in the post cultural capital Umeå is missed. There is an underlying understanding that all actors want to collaborate again but the lack of resources and common goals interferes. 

  • 70.
    Arnberg, Klara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Mellan organisationspress och sensationell nakenhet: Nudist- och naturistpressen i Sverige 1951-19682012Inngår i: Presshistorisk årsbok 2012 / [ed] Svensk presshistorisk förening, Stockholm: Svensk presshistorisk förening , 2012Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 71. Arnberg, Klara
    et al.
    Svanlund, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Mad women: gendered divisions in the Swedish advertising industry, 1930–20122017Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 59, nr 2, s. 268-291Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article constitutes a first attempt to systematically map the presence of women in the greatly changing Swedish advertising industry since 1930. The overarching aim of the study is to analyse how the gendered divisions of labour and business changed in relation to both business structure and the overall labour market in Sweden. While we conclude that women constituted around 40–50% of the workforce over time, we see an increase in the shares of women in higher positions and in women who were self-employed and managers. This upturn, however, stabilised during the 1990s. We argue that the changes in gendered divisions of labour and business coincided with a fast-changing business structure. First, the old cartel broke down in the mid-1960s. Then, the number of firms increased quickly during the 1970s and 1980s, and the market share for the largest firms declined. This, in turn, meant new business opportunities for women at the same time as their overall labour market participation increased. The article stresses the importance of both acknowledging women’s presence in the industry development as well as the structures constituting gender divisions.

  • 72.
    Arvidsson, Mikael
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Småspararna mot industrikoncernen: Ägarinflytande över ett binationellt industriavtal mellan Volvo och Norge i slutet på 1970-talet2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 73.
    Asp, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Ett partis framväxt: Sverigedemokraterna, en GIS-analys2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka och förklara hur Sverigedemokraterna har växt i Sverige. Detta för att förstå hur ett nytt parti växer över rummet. Studien syftar även till att förstå vem det är som röstar på Sverigedemokraterna, vad som karaktäriserar deras väljare. 

     

    Studien har utformats som en fallstudie där fokus ligger på att undersöka valåren 2002, 2006 och 2010. Studien undersöker kluster i valresultatet samt vad som gör att väljare röstar på Sverigedemokraterna.

     

    Resultatet av studien visar att det finns en viss grannskapseffekt när partier etablerar sig. Den tidiga tillväxten sker i huvudsak på platsen där paritet uppstod. Även spridningen kan förklaras till viss del av grannskapseffekter. Resultatet visar även att det finns flera socioekonomiska faktorer som påverkar vilket parti som man väljer att rösta på. Den geografiska påverkan har visat sig i form av att befolkningstätheten och det faktum att väljarna bor på landsbygden har en negativ påverkan på valresultatet, medan kommuner som är av typen förortskommuner till större städer har en positiv påverkan på väljarstödet.   

  • 74.
    Axelsson, Linn
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Hedberg, Charlotta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Emerging topologies of transnational employment: 'Posting' Thai workers in Sweden’s wild berry industry beyond regulatory reach2018Inngår i: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, Vol. 89, s. 1-10Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper suggests a need to pay closer attention to the fact that employment is increasingly stretched across several regulatory regimes. This may help explain why governments, which rely on national legislative frameworks, struggle to protect the interests of transnationally mobile low-skilled workers. By adopting a topological approach to state regulation and authority, the paper demonstrates how powerful actors have reconfigured employment in Sweden’s wild berry industry in a spatial sense by engaging transnational subcontractors. It argues that transnational subcontracting inserts distance into employment relationships, thereby creating precarious migrant workers whose simultaneous absence and presence in several regulatory regimes places them partly beyond the regulatory reach of any one nation-state or nationally based trade union. The paper also argues that the Swedish government’s response to precarious working conditions in the wild berry industry can be understood as a series of attempts aimed at bringing transnational employment relationships within its regulatory reach. Drawing on topological spatial vocabulary, it shows how these attempts are less about the movement of state infrastructure into transnational space than about the stretching and folding of space itself, in an attempt to establish a powerful Swedish presence across distance. On the other hand, the paper concludes that transnational subcontracting opens up a space which enables wild berry actors to circumvent regulations and, as such, it remains very difficult for the Swedish government to reach into employment relationships in this industry.

  • 75.
    Azimzadeh, Sarah
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    What is Umeå about in 2014?: A Study on Gaps between Stakeholders’ Perceptions of Umeå Brand Identity as a European Capital of Culture in 20142014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During centuries, places and cities have made efforts to make their land more attractive, efficient, democratic and secure. This aspire has accelerated due to globalization and other external factors. Today, there is fierce and global competition between cities and nationalities to create arenas for more investments, productive inhabitants and vibrant culture. The place brand has been a good tool and a key for success. Nevertheless, place branding is challenging; it includes the investment of all stakeholders – possessing different agendas and target markets – and at the same time their coordination and collaborations to ensure there would be no conflicting messages, misusing the place and harming the brand. Therefore, strong collaboration among stakeholders and consistent perceptions – about the city potentials – is substantially important.

    There are debates among scholars to choose the best initiative for involving all the groups, cultures, interests of a society into branding a city and exploit the potential of the city simultaneously. Place branding is a relatively new but growing field of research. The topic is multifaceted and therefore is considered advantageous to study place branding from a stakeholder perspective. In this current study, the stakeholders are viewed as the actors that are engaged in the act of presenting Umeå based on the cultural potential of the city during its hosting the European Capital of Culture event in 2014. Based on the purpose and research problems of this thesis, it is aimed to provide a framework to examine the gaps between the stakeholders’ perceptions about their city cultural potential during a cultural event.

    For this qualitative research, a single case study design is used and eight stakeholders – divided in two main groups – are identified for the data gathering by using in-depth interviews. The identity-reputation gap model is used as an analytical tool and gives guidance to the research.

    This study fills other research gaps by contributing with an understanding of the stakeholder’s role by studying place branding in the context of a mid-size city. With regard to the empirical contribution, this study offers a range of insights for Umeå – the image and the branded potential of the city – and findings can be regarded as a starting point for brand managers as well as cultural coordinators working to develop the place brand identity consistently in other contexts.

  • 76.
    Back, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Den mångsidiga fritidshusturismen2018Inngår i: Ikaros, ISSN 1796-1998, nr 1, s. 9-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 77.
    Back, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Den mångsidiga fritidshusturismen2018Inngår i: Ikaros, ISSN 1796-1998, Vol. 15, nr 1, s. 9-13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 78.
    Back, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi. Umeå University.
    Marjavaara, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Mapping an invisible population: the uneven geography of second-home tourism2017Inngår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 596-611Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Second-home tourism is a very popular form of tourism in many countries, particularly in the Nordic countries. More than half of the Swedish population have access to second homes. Previous studies have revealed that there is great variation between different second homes. Examples range from rustic Australian shacks, lonely cabins in the Norwegian mountains, spacious Swedish archipelago villas and palatial Russian dachas. Still, second homes are often seen and analysed as a unitary category – a perspective that obscures the considerable heterogeneity within the category as well as spatial differences in the impact of second-home tourism. Using a second-home typology from previous research and data on about 660,000 second homes, we analyse the heterogeneity of second homes by mapping the composition of the Swedish second-home stock. Results show the uneven geography of second-home tourism, revealing significant and sometimes steep differences between peripheral areas and urban hinterlands, tourism hot-spots, and areas in decline. Based on these results, we assert that there is good cause to move away from using second homes as a unitary category. Instead, we argue for viewing second homes as an umbrella concept with dwelling use in focus. This enables a greater sensibility to place and more accurate analyses of the uneven impacts of second-home tourism. The results also give greater insights into the impact of the ‘invisible population’ of second-home owners from a public planning perspective.

  • 79.
    Backsell, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Kan lokal tillväxt och regionförstoring gå hand i hand?: En studie om  Motala kommuns strategier för ökad attraktivitet och lokala utveckling2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 80.
    Backteman, Rose-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Hörde jag rätt?: Hörselskadades upplevelser av hur kommunikationen fungerar i mötet med hälso- och sjukvården - En intervjustudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 81. Barban, Nicola
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning (CEDAR).
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik.
    Billari, F. C.
    Causal Effects of the Timing of Life-course Events: Age at Retirement and Subsequent Health2017Inngår i: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    n this article, we combine the extensive literature on the analysis of life-course trajectories as sequences with the literature on causal inference and propose a new matching approach to investigate the causal effect of the timing of life-course events on subsequent outcomes. Our matching approach takes into account pre-event confounders that are both time-independent and time-dependent as well as life-course trajectories. After matching, treated and control individuals can be compared using standard statistical tests or regression models. We apply our approach to the study of the consequences of the age at retirement on subsequent health outcomes, using a unique data set from Swedish administrative registers. Once selectivity in the timing of retirement is taken into account, effects on hospitalization are small, while early retirement has negative effects on survival. Our approach also allows for heterogeneous treatment effects. We show that the effects of early retirement differ according to preretirement income, with higher income individuals tending to benefit from early retirement, while the opposite is true for individuals with lower income.

  • 82. Beelen, Rob
    et al.
    Hoek, Gerard
    Vienneau, Danielle
    Eeftens, Marloes
    Dimakopoulou, Konstantina
    Pedeli, Xanthi
    Tsai, Ming-Yi
    Künzli, Nino
    Schikowski, Tamara
    Marcon, Alessandro
    Eriksen, Kirsten
    Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole
    Stephanou, Euripides
    Evridiki, Patelarou
    Lanki, Timo
    Yli-Tuomi, Tarja
    Declercq, Christophe
    Falq, Grégoire
    Stempfelet, Morgane
    Birk, Matthias
    Cyrys, Josef
    von Klot, Stephanie
    Nádor, Gizella
    Varró, Mihály János
    Dėdelė, Audrius
    Gražulevičienė, Regina
    Mölter, Anna
    Lindley, Sarah
    Madsen, Christian
    Cesaroni, Giulia
    Ranzi, Andrea
    Badaloni, Chiara
    Hoffmann, Barbara
    Nonnemacher, Michael
    Krämer, Ursula
    Kuhlbusch, Thomas
    Cirach, Marta
    de Nazelle, Audrey
    Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark
    Bellander, Tom
    Korek, Michal
    Olsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Strömgren, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Dons, Evi
    Jerrett, Michael
    Fischer, Paul
    Brunekreef, Bert
    de Hoogh, Kees
    Development of NO2 and NOx land use regression models for estimating air pollution exposure in 36 study areas in Europe: the ESCAPE project2013Inngår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 72, s. 10-23Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimating within-city variability in air pollution concentrations is important. Land use regression (LUR) models are able to explain such small-scale within-city variations. Transparency in LUR model development methods is important to facilitate comparison of methods between different studies. We therefore developed LUR models in a standardized way in 36 study areas in Europe for the ESCAPE (European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects) project.

    Nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx) were measured with Ogawa passive samplers at 40 or 80 sites in each of the 36 study areas. The spatial variation in each area was explained by LUR modeling. Centrally and locally available Geographic Information System (GIS) variables were used as potential predictors. A leave-one out cross-validation procedure was used to evaluate the model performance.

    There was substantial contrast in annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations within the study areas. The model explained variances (R2) of the LUR models ranged from 55% to 92% (median 82%) for NO2 and from 49% to 91% (median 78%) for NOx. For most areas the cross-validation R2 was less than 10% lower than the model R2. Small-scale traffic and population/household density were the most common predictors. The magnitude of the explained variance depended on the contrast in measured concentrations as well as availability of GIS predictors, especially traffic intensity data were important. In an additional evaluation, models in which local traffic intensity was not offered had 10% lower R2 compared to models in the same areas in which these variables were offered.

    Within the ESCAPE project it was possible to develop LUR models that explained a large fraction of the spatial variance in measured annual average NO2 and NOx concentrations. These LUR models are being used to estimate outdoor concentrations at the home addresses of participants in over 30 cohort studies.

  • 83.
    Bengtsson, Tove
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    En årsinkomst under tre veckor i juli?: En studie om säsongsturismens påverkan på näringslivet och den kommunala verksamheten i Tanums kommun2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 84.
    Bennmarker, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Växande Befolkningsklyftor i ett ständigt föränderligt samhälle - Västerbotten 2000-20142015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    REFERAT

    Studiens syfte är att påvisa utvecklingstrenderna i befolkningens utveckling och sammansättning under perioden 2000-2014. Syftet är också att diskutera denna utveckling utifrån teorier och trender i ett större perspektiv.Studien är kvantitativ och bygger på datamaterial från SCB. Studien är en deskription för hur befolkningsutvecklingen och sammansättningen av ålder och könsbalans ser ut för kommunerna i länet.Resultatet visar att de flesta kommuner har en negativ utveckling och att nästan all befolkningstillväxt sker i Umeå. För samtliga kommuner minskar andelen yngre och andelen äldre blir fler. Åldersstrukturen, könsbalansen och försörjningskvoten skiljer sig kraftigt mellan kommuner. Utvecklingen medför att klyftorna mellan kommunerna blir större under tidsperiodenNyckelord: Västerbotten, befolkning, migration, utveckling, könsbalans, försörjningskvot

  • 85. Berge, Lars Ivar Oppedal
    et al.
    Juniwaty, Kartika Sari
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. NHH Norwegian School of Economics, Helleveien 30, 5045 Bergen, Norway; Center for International Forestry Research, Bogor 16115, Indonesia and Universitas Indonesia, Depok 16424, Indonesia.
    Sekei, Linda Helgesson
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Gender composition and group dynamics: Evidence from a laboratory experiment with microfinance clients2016Inngår i: Journal of Economic Behavior and Organization, ISSN 0167-2681, E-ISSN 1879-1751, Vol. 131, s. 1-20Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of gender composition on the group dynamics of microfinance clients in Tanzania using a laboratory experiment. We focus on three dimensions: (i) the ability to collaborate on problem-solving, (ii) joint decision-making in risk taking, and (iii) the willingness to cooperate in a public-goods game. Our main finding is that female groups are better at collaborating in problem-solving than male and mixed groups, and are also more willing to take risks. However, in the public-goods game we find no robust evidence of female groups contributing more than male and mixed groups. Our findings suggest that one reason why female loan groups often have higher repayment rates than male and mixed groups may be that female groups are more able to collaborate and find common solutions to common challenges.

  • 86.
    Berggren, Hampus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Du kan börja med att ställa dig i bostadskö: En kvalitativ studie om bostadsbrist i Umeå med fokus på unga och utsatta på bostadsmarknaden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The name of this essay, You can begin with waiting in line for a recidence, describes some of the problems that are connected with the issue of finding a home.

    This essay attempts to explain the difficulties of finding a home for young individuals and vulnerable social classes in the society. To receive a better understanding of the subject, qualitative methodology was chosen, such as semistructured interviews with private property owners in Umeå. Contact was also made with Umeå municipality through telephone and email.

    The interviews was recorded, analyzed and then connected to the research questions. The main material that were used in this essay was mainly provided by Umeå municipality. The responses from the interviews, together with the analyzed documents are considered to contribute to a high credibility of the study results.

    The result describes the problems of finding a home as very complexed. Where the economical situation of young individuales and vulnerable classes, determines the possibilities for these social groups to find a home. The municipalities responsibility of providing areas that are ready to exploit is also seen as a crucial factor, to ensure that the production of new buildings is possible. As populationgrowth varies from each year, requirements are also changing in which type of residential housing that are requested.

    Therefore, it is important to find out what type of residential housing that are requested, before the construction starts, to prevent offering a supply of buildings that no one requests.

    Keywords: housing shortage, population growth, young idividuals, vulnerable classes, municipality of Umeå.

  • 87.
    Bergkvist, Oskar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Homeownership & Unemployment: A test of the Oswald hypothesis in Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of a well-functioning housing market has been proposed for long within economics, economic geography and urban planning.  A high mobility on the housing market most likely positively affects the dynamics of the labor market, a dynamic important for economic growth. Mobility defined as the link between the worker and the workplace in terms of transportation and housing are most likely essential components of a dynamic and well-functioning labor market. The Oswald hypothesis states that positive relationship between homeownership and unemployment exists, the lower mobility in the homeownership housing stock compared to the rental housing stock affects labor market mobility in a negative way which can be noted if European countries are compared. My thesis explores this relationship in a Swedish context by mobilizing a quantitative approach with aggregate data on municipal level ranging from 1998 to 2013. The Swedish housing market is in a deregulation process since 1992, a conversion process from public rental housing to homeownership co-op apartments has taken place and public policies now favor homeownership over renting. Municipal data on unemployment, homeownership of apartment, rental tenant and control variables for economy and personal characteristics are applied in Pooled OLS, random effects and fixed effects regression models. The results from the Pooled OLS and the Random effects model confirms the positive relationship proposed by Oswald for homeownership of apartment but not for homeownership of detached housing. Also rental tenant show a positive relationship. The results from the fixed effect estimation rejects the hypothesis altogether and show a negative relationship.

  • 88.
    Berglund, Madeleine
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Läkarsekreterare då och nu: En undersökning av yrkets förändringar mellan 1940 och 20002013Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 poäng / 7,5 hpOppgave
  • 89.
    Berglund, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Representationer av campingturisten i realityserien Svenska Rivieran2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 90.
    Bergman, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Kulturgeografi.
    Polariseringens geografi: Regionala effekter av finanskrisen 20082018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This paper documents macro-economic change in Swedish regional labor markets during the last great recession (2008). This is made by using Swedish macro-data and analyzing employment flows over the period 2003-2013. The findings point to the fact that there is great disparity in the geography both when it comes to how the regions resist crises and recoup in the aftermath (Resilience) and how the crisis effect the labor market and its momentum in the recovery phase (polarization). The findings indicate that the 2008 financial crisis affected the Swedish regional labor market in a polarized development. Regions that showed patterns of this behavior before the recession managed to go through the crisis and recoup well, whereas the regions that didn’t show a polarized pattern before 2008 had a much harder time recuperating after the crises. With these findings we can generate a more sophisticated knowledge how regional economies can resist and recoup after financial recessions and use this to reduce the impact of future recessions. 

  • 91.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå University.
    Business and Sustainability: New Business History Perspectives2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper provides a long-term business history perspective on sustainability. For a long time, the central issues in business history concerned how business enterprises innovated and created wealth, and patterns of success and failure in that process. There now exists, after a lag, a compelling stream of research focused on the environmental consequences of that growth. This working paper reviews this new stream of research which focuses on two related but distinct themes. The earliest theme to be explored, in a literature dating from the 1990s, is the story of how and why some conventional industries sought to become less polluting. Research has dated this phenomenon back to the late nineteenth century, showed it gained momentum from the 1960s, and resulted in a mainstreaming of sustainability rhetoric , and sometimes practice, in large corporations from 1980s, primarily in Western developed countries. A more recent research theme is the story of how for-profit entrepreneurs developed new product categories such as organic food, and wind and solar energy, which were explicitly focused on sustainability. Again this process has been traced back to the nineteenth century.  With the rise in green consumerism and public policy support in some Western countries for sustainability during the 1990s, these two historical trends met, as the concept of sustainable development spread to large conventional corporations and visionary green firms scaled or were acquired by conventional big businesses. The problem was that concept of sustainability became socially constructed in a sufficiently broad fashion as to permit even the most unstainable and dirty industries to firms claim to be sustainable. The working paper concludes that the emergent business history needs to be more fully incorporated in wider management and economics literatures on sustainability, while calling for the mainstreaming of the subject in the discipline of business history.

  • 92.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia, Ekonomisk historia.
    Dilemmas of going green: environmental strategies in the Swedish mining company Boliden, 1960-20002017Inngår i: Green capitalism?: business and the environment in the twentieth century / [ed] Hartmut Berghoff and Adam Rome, Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2017, s. 149-171Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 93.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Profits and Sustainability. A History of Green Entrepreneurship2017Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938Artikkel, omtale (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 94.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Umeå University.
    The Swedish nonferrous mining industry and the environmental issue: The case of Boliden business archives2017Inngår i: Entreprises et Histoire, ISSN 1161-2770, E-ISSN 2100-9864, Vol. 1, nr 86, s. 157-159Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 95.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Cole, Shawn A.
    Ehrenfeld, John
    King, Andrew A.
    Schendler, Auden
    Understanding and Overcoming Roadblocks to Environmental Sustainability: Past Roads and Future Prospects2019Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This working paper examines key barriers to business sustainability discussed at a multidisciplinary conference held at the Harvard Business School in 2018. Drawing on perspectives from both the historical and business literatures, speakers debated the historical success and future opportunities for voluntary business actions to advance sustainability. Roadblocks include misaligned incentives, missing institutions, inertia of economic systems, and the concept of sustainability itself. It appears that overcoming these roadblocks will require systematic interventions and alternative normative concepts.

  • 96.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia. Harvard Business School.
    Eriksson, Liselotte
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Sober business: shared value creation between the insurance industry and the temperance movement2019Inngår i: Business History, ISSN 0007-6791, E-ISSN 1743-7938, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 322-342Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the Swedish insurance company Ansvar established and expended an international business from the 1930s to the 1990s with the motives to insure total abstainers while battling against alcohol abuse in society. Anvar represented a for-profit business that aimed at addressing social issues. The case provides a historical example of how shared value was created between the company and the temperance movement for the joint goal of improving society through temperance. The article argues that the company’s decline was due to changing values, where alcohol was no longer seen as a threat to society.

  • 97.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016Inngår i: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, s. 10-17Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 98.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sustainability and Shared Value in the Interwar Swedish Copper Industry2016Inngår i: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Vol. 90, nr 2, s. 197-225Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the Swedish-based mining company Boliden examines the proactive strategies it adopted to deal with the potential for severe environmental problems associated with the establishment of its large copper smelter in the 1920s. The article demonstrates how international networks, personal experience, and knowledge transfer from the U.S. copper industry help to explain the importance given to environmental issues by the Swedish industrialists. It is suggested that the main explanation for the proactive stance of the Swedish managers is that they perceived excessive pollution as working against creating a profitable and sustainable business. This case provides compelling evidence that firms pursuing an agenda focused on earning profits can still deliver environmental innovation and value to the local community, compatible with the concept of creating shared value.

  • 99.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Sabo, Josefin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    LTU.
    Energiomställning och teknisk omvandling i svensk massa- och pappersindustri 1970-19902014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This research report examines the driving forces and strategies in the Swedish pulp and paper industry to phase-out of oil and accomplishing energy savings in the 1970s - and '80s. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of development and contribute to a further understanding of the knowledge building that took shape in the Swedish pulp and paper industry on the energy area in the awake of the oil crises. During the investigated period, the use of fossil fuels dropped with more than 70 per cent, and this was mainly achieved by substituting oil by internal biofuels. This transition started as response to the first oil crisis in 1973, but was further reinforced by the energy policy, which expanded from the mid 1970s and onwards. The replacement of oil was achieved trough short-term measures to improve the energy efficiency and to increase the use of biofuels, while the use of external electricity played a minor role. It was soon recognized that also long-term investments in R&D was needed. Collaborations between companies through trade associations and committees came to be a characteristic strategy employed by the industry to advance knowledge and new technology on the energy area. This report demonstrates the central role that the changing prices of oil had on the pulp and paper industry to explore the possibilities of a more efficient use of internal biofuels, which previously not had been utilised. In this sense, the oil crisis forced the industry sector into a more sustainable path. It also demonstrates the central role that the government played, and can play, to support and enhance the development of new technological development paths. As for the oil crises, a big part of the energy policy objectives i.e. to phase out oil from the Swedish energy system, coincided with the industry’s needs to lower the costs and risks from being dependent on oil. 

  • 100.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för geografi och ekonomisk historia.
    Söderholm, Kristina
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Green innovation systems in Swedish industry: 1960-19892011Inngår i: Business history review, ISSN 0007-6805, E-ISSN 2044-768X, Business History Review, Vol. 85, nr 4, s. 677-698Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Organizational networks had a strong influence on the diffusion of green knowledge within the Swedish pulp-and-paper industry from the mid-1960s to the 1980s. The environmental adaptations made by this industrial sector were not merely the result of a corporate initiative or of the response by firms or industries to environmental regulation. An examination of the innovation-system approach that was used to further the industry's environmental goals reveals that the knowledge and technology development underpinning the project depended on a network of diverse actors. Within this network, the semi-governmental Institute for Water and Air Protection, working with a consulting company, was a critical generator and intermediary of knowledge. Thus, the success of the project was largely due to the Institute's balanced relations with government and industry.

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