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  • 51.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bergsten, Eva
    Trask, Catherine
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Jackson, Jennie
    Forsman, Mikael
    Full-Shift Trunk and Upper Arm Postures and Movements Among Aircraft Baggage Handlers2016Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 60, nr 8, s. 977-90Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed full-shift trunk and upper arm postural exposure amplitudes, frequencies, and durations among Swedish airport baggage handlers and aimed to determine whether exposures differ between workers at the ramp (loading and unloading aircraft) and baggage sorting areas.

    METHODS: Trunk and upper arm postures were measured using inclinometers during three full work shifts on each of 27 male baggage handlers working at a large Swedish airport. Sixteen of the baggage handlers worked on the ramp and 11 in the sorting area. Variables summarizing postures and movements were calculated, and mean values and variance components between subjects and within subject (between days) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in a one-way random effect model.

    RESULTS: In total, data from 79 full shifts (651h) were collected with a mean recording time of 495min per shift (range 319-632). On average, baggage handlers worked with the right and left arm elevated >60° for 6.4% and 6.3% of the total workday, respectively. The 90th percentile trunk forward projection (FP) was 34.1°, and the 50th percentile trunk movement velocity was 8° s(-1). For most trunk (FP) and upper arm exposure variables, between-subject variability was considerable, suggesting that the flight baggage handlers were not a homogeneously exposed group. A notable between-days variability pointed to the contents of the job differing on different days. Peak exposures (>90°) were higher for ramp workers than for sorting area workers (trunk 0.6% ramp versus 0.3% sorting; right arm 1.3% ramp versus 0.7% sorting).

    CONCLUSIONS: Trunk and upper arm postures and movements among flight baggage handlers measured by inclinometry were similar to those found in other jobs comprising manual material handling, known to be associated with increased risks for musculoskeletal disorders. The results showed that full-shift trunk (FP) and, to some extent, peak arm exposures were higher for ramp workers compared with sorting workers.

  • 52.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hagberg, Mats
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Musculoskeletal symptoms among young male workers and associations with exposure to hand-arm vibration and ergonomic stressors.2008Ingår i: International archives of occupational and environmental health, ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 81, nr 5, s. 595-602Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The overall aim of this study was to explore the association between incident musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and upper limbs and exposure to hand-arm vibration and ergonomic stressors. METHODS: The study has a prospective design and data at baseline and follow-up was assessed by self-administered questionnaires. The study population consisted of students that had graduated from vocational high schools in 2001-2003 in northern and western Sweden and a total of 586 men responded to both the baseline and follow-up questionnaires. The mean age was 20.7 (range 19-27) years, and the exposure information included questions regarding hand-arm vibration, postural stress, computer work, mental stress and perception of muscular tension. Musculoskeletal symptoms in the neck and upper limbs were assessed at baseline and at follow-up. RESULTS: Men who reported their daily vibration exposure duration (work and leisure) as more than 1 h at baseline had an increased risk of neck pain in the preceding 7 days at follow-up, when adjusting for all the other exposure variables (PR 3.29, 95% CI 1.02-14.9). Men with a calculated 8-h weighted vibration exposure level [A(8)] above 1.7 m/s(2) had an increased risk of developing neck pain in both the unadjusted and adjusted analyses compared to those with an exposure level below 0.5 m/s(2). CONCLUSION: Men who reported their daily vibration exposure duration (work and leisure) to be more than 1 h at baseline had an increased risk of neck pain for the preceding 7 days at follow-up. An increased prevalence of neck pain was also observed in individuals with a calculated 8-h frequency weighted vibration exposure level above 1.7 m/s(2) (calculated from data assessed at follow-up) compared to those with an exposure level below 0.5 m/s(2). The increased risks remained when adjusting for postural and mental stress; however the results could still be confounded by other ergonomic and physical load factors not adjusted for in the analyses.

  • 53.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johnson, Peter W
    Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Exposure to whole-body vibration and hospitalization due to lumbar disc herniation2018Ingår i: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 91, nr 6, s. 689-694Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim was to examine if exposure to whole-body vibration (WBV) increases the risk for hospitalization due to lumbar disc herniation.

    Methods: The study basis is a cohort of 288,926 Swedish construction workers who participated in a national occupational health surveillance programme from 1971 until 1992. Job title, smoking habits, body weight, height and age were registered at the examinations. Assessment of WBV were made for each of the constituent occupations by constructing a job-exposure matrix (JEM). Exposure to WBV was graded on a scale from 0 to 5. In addition, the occurrence of hospitalization due to lumbar disc herniation from January 1st 1987 until December 31st 2010 was collected from a linkage with the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register. Poisson regressions were used to estimate relative risk with 95 percent confidence intervals (95% CI), adjusting for age, height, weight and smoking, using white-collar workers and foremen as a reference group.

    Results: There was an increased risk for hospitalization due to lumbar disc herniation for workers in the construction industry exposed to medium to high WBV compared to white-collar workers and foremen 1.35 (1.12-1.63). When restricting the analyses to include workers 30-49 years of age at the time of the hospital admission the risk was 1.69 (95% CI 1.29-2.21).

    Conclusion: This study further supports that occupational exposure to whole-body vibration increases the risk for hospitalization due to lumbar disc herniation.

  • 54.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Burström, Lage
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Nilsson, Tohr
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Risk factors for hospitalization due to lumbar disc disease2012Ingår i: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 37, nr 15, s. 1334-1339Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design. Prospective cohort study

    Objective. To study biomechanical factors in relation to symptomatic lumbar disc disease

    Summary of Background Data. The importance of biomechanical factors in lumbar disc disease have been questioned the past decade and knowledge from large prospective studies is lacking.

    Methods. The study basis is a cohort of 263 529 Swedish construction workers who participated in a national occupational health surveillance programme from 1971 until 1992. The workers' job title, smoking habits, body weight, height and age were registered at the examinations. The occurrence of hospitalization due to lumbar disc disease from January 1 1987 until December 31 2003 was collected from a linkage with the Swedish Hospital Discharge Register.

    Results. There was an increased risk for hospitalization due to lumbar disc disease for several occupational groups compared to white-collar workers and foremen. Occupational groups with high biomechanical loads had the highest risks, e.g the relative risk for concrete workers was 1.55 (95% CI 1.29-1.87). A taller stature was consistently associated with an increased risk. The relative risk for a man of 190-199 cm height was 1.55 (95% CI 1.30-1.86) compared to a man being 170-179 cm. Body weight and smoking were also risk factors, but weaker than height. Workers in the age span of 30-39 had the highest relative risk (RR = 1.87; 95% CI 1.58-2.23) compared to those 20-29, while men 60-65 years old had a lower risk (RR = 0.86; 95%CI 0.68-1.09).

    Conclusions. This study indicates that factors increasing the load on the lumbar spine are associated with hospitalization for lumbar disc disease. Occupational biomechanical factors seem to be important, and a taller stature was consistently associated with an increased risk.

  • 55.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Liv, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Jackson, Jennie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Avdelningen för hållbar hälsa.
    Occupational risk factors for surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome: a prospective cohort study of 220,610 Swedish construction workers2019Ingår i: PREMUS 2019: 10th International Scientific Conference on the Prevention of Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders: From research to evidence based sustainable interventions and practices, 2019, s. 141-141Konferensbidrag (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is the most common upper extremity nerve entrapment syndrome . The aim of this study was to determine the association between occupational biomechanical exposures and occurrence of surgically treated CTS in construction workers over a 16-year follow-up.

    Methods: A cohort of 220 610 male construction workers who participated in a national occupational health surveillance program (1971–1992) were examined prospectively (2001–2016) for surgically treated CTS. Cases were determined via a linkage with the Swedish Hospital Outpatient Register. Job title (construction trade), smoking status, height, weight and age were recorded on examination. Job titles were merged into occupational groups of workers performing similar work tasks and having similar training. Occupational biomechanical exposure estimates were assigned to each occupational group using a job exposure matrix (JEM) developed for the study. Poisson regression models were used to assess the relative risks for each biomechanical exposure. Relative risks were adjusted for age, surgical time period, BMI, and smoking status at first examination.

    Results: There were 4048 cases of surgically treated CTS within the cohort which represented an incidence rate of 134 cases per 100 000 person years. Workers exposed to medium and high forceful handgrip factors had relative risks of 1.3 (95% CI 1.16-1.38) and 1.6 (95% CI 1.50-1.77), respectively, of undergoing surgical treatment for CTS compared to low exposed workers. Workers exposed to medium and high exposure to hand-arm vibration had relative risks of 1.3 (95% CI 1.19-1.34) and 1.2 (95% CI 1.07-1.28), respectively, of undergoing surgical treatment for CTS compared to low exposed workers.

    Conclusions: In conclusion, forceful hand-grip work and exposure to hand-arm vibration increased the risk for surgically treated carpal tunnel syndrome.

  • 56.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    Liv, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Hedlund, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Forsman, Mikael
    Upper arm postures and movements in female hairdressers across four full working days2010Ingår i: Annals of Occupational Hygiene, ISSN 0003-4878, E-ISSN 1475-3162, Vol. 54, nr 5, s. 584-594Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To describe upper arm postures and movements among female hairdressers, including the variability between hairdressers, between days within hairdresser, and between tasks, as a basis for understanding the characteristics of exposures in the job, considering possible sources of variation and recovery, and discussing appropriate exposure assessment strategies.

    METHODS: Data on upper arm postures were collected using inclinometers during four working days the same week from 28 female hairdressers working in 13 salons. Twenty of the hairdressers noted customer on and off times in a diary, to allow separate analyses of customer tasks (CT) and auxiliary non-customer tasks (AT), including breaks. For a number of posture and movement variables, mean values and variance components between subjects (BS) and within subjects between days (BD) were estimated using restricted maximum likelihood algorithms in one-way random effect models.

    RESULTS: For the 20 hairdressers with diaries, CT accounted for 279 min (58%) (SD(BS) = 39 min and SD(BD) = 85 min) of the working day and AT and breaks for 207 min (42%) (SD(BS) = 46 min and SD(BD) = 88 min). The hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60 degrees for 6.8% of the whole job (SD(BS) = 2.8% and SD(BD) = 2.0%). On average, the hairdressers worked with the right arm elevated >60 degrees for 9.0% of the time during CT, compared to 3.7% during AT, resulting in a contrast between tasks of 0.35.

    CONCLUSIONS: Hairdressers may be at risk for developing musculoskeletal disorders in the neck and shoulders due to a considerable occurrence of highly elevated arms, especially during CT. On the other hand, we do not find reasons to classify hairdressing as a job with too little variation. Posture variability between days within hairdressers was in the same order of magnitude as that between hairdressers, suggesting that 'typical' workdays do not exist. The exposure contrast between CT and AT for variables describing elevated arm postures indicates that for these variables a simple task-based approach for estimating job exposure could be successful.

  • 57.
    Wahlström, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Östman, Christina
    Leijon, Ola
    The effect of flooring on musculoskeletal symptoms in the lower extremities and low back among female nursing assistants2012Ingår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, nr 2, s. 248-255Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the effect of changing the floor from a 2-mm homogenous vinyl floor to a 4-mm heterogeneous vinyl floor (1.5-mm wear layer and 2.5-mm foam layer) on musculoskeletal symptoms in the lower extremities and low back among nursing assistants in a geriatric care centre. A pre-post design with a reference group consisting of nursing assistants from a similar geriatric care centre was used. Follow-up measurements were carried out 12 and 24 months after the intervention by means of questionnaires. At the 1-year follow-up, the pain intensity score in the feet of the intervention group had decreased compared with the baseline value and remained statistically significant at the 2-year follow-up. The decrease in pain intensity score of the feet in the intervention group was statistically significantly different from the reference group, both after 1 and 2 years. Statement of Relevance: The results show the importance of flooring in the workplace with regard to reducing musculoskeletal symptoms. Appropriate flooring is especially important in the female-dominated health care sector, where workers must stand or walk for long periods.

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