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  • 51. Gerdtham, Ulf-Göran
    et al.
    Andersson, L Fredrik
    Ericsson, Asa
    Borg, Sixten
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Factors affecting chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)-related costs: a multivariate analysis of a Swedish COPD cohort.2009Ingår i: European Journal of Health Economics, ISSN 1618-7598, E-ISSN 1618-7601, Vol. 10, nr 2, s. 217-26Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is an increasing public health problem, generating considerable costs. The objective of this study was to identify factors affecting COPD-related costs. A cohort of 179 subjects with COPD was interviewed over the telephone on four occasions about their annual use of COPD-related resources. The data set and explanatory variables were analysed by means of multivariate regression techniques for six different types of cost: societal (or total), direct (health care) and indirect (productivity), and three subcomponents of direct costs-hospitalisation, outpatient and medication. Poor lung function, dyspnoea and asthma were independently associated with higher costs. Poor lung function (severity of COPD) significantly increased all six examined cost types. Dyspnoea (breathing problems) also increased costs, though to a varying extent. The presence of reported asthma increased total, direct, outpatient and medication costs. Poor lung function and, to a lesser extent, extent of dyspnoea and concomitant asthma, were all strongly associated with higher COPD-related costs. Strong efforts should be made to prevent the progression of COPD and its symptoms.

  • 52. Hagstad, Stig
    et al.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) Studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden.
    Bjerg, Anders
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Ye, Xiong
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) Studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin. Unit of Research , Education and Development - Luleå, Umeå University .
    Torén, Kjell
    Lötvall, Jan
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) Studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Prevalence and risk factors of COPD among never-smokers in two areas of Sweden: Occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes is an important risk factor2015Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 109, nr 11, s. 1439-1445Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Although active tobacco smoking is the main risk factor for COPD, COPD is not uncommon also among never-smokers. Different study locations along with different spirometric definitions of COPD have historically yielded different prevalence estimates of the disease.

    AIM: To study current prevalence and risk factors of COPD among never-smokers in two areas of Sweden.

    METHODS: Data collected in 2008-2012 within the West Sweden Asthma Study and Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies was pooled. The study population consisted of 1839 subjects who participated in spirometry and interviews. COPD was defined as post-bronchodilator a) FEV1/(F)VC < 0.7, b) FEV1/FVC < 0.7 and c) FEV1/FVC < lower limit of normal.

    RESULTS: Of the 1839 subjects, 967 (52.6%) were never-smokers. Among the never-smoking subjects, the prevalence of COPD according to definitions a-c was 7.7%, 4.9% and 3.0%, respectively. The corresponding prevalence of GOLD grade ≥2 was 2.0%, 1.4% and 1.3%. No significant difference in prevalence between the two study areas was observed. In never-smokers, occupational exposure to gas, dust or fumes (GDF) was significantly associated with both COPD (OR 1.85, 95% CI 1.03-3.33), and GOLD ≥2 (OR 4.51, 1.72-11.9) according to definition a), after adjusting for age, educational level and exposure to passive smoking at work.

    CONCLUSION: Depending on definition, prevalence of COPD among never-smokers was 3.0-7.7%, whereas GOLD ≥2 was present in 1.3-2.0%. Occupational exposure to GDF remained independently and significantly associated with COPD regardless of spirometric definition of the disease.

  • 53. Hagstad, Stig
    et al.
    Bjerg, Anders
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, Department of Medicine, Sunderby Central Hospital of Norrbotten, Luleå.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, Department of Medicine, Sunderby Central Hospital of Norrbotten, Luleå.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Passive smoking exposure is associated with increased risk of COPD in never-smokers2014Ingår i: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 145, nr 6, s. 1298-1304Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Passive smoking, or environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), is a risk factor for lung cancer, cardiovascular disease and childhood asthma, but a relationship with COPD has not been fully established.

    AIM To study ETS as a risk factor for COPD in never-smokers.

    METHODS Data from three cross-sectional studies within the Obstructive Lung Disesease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) database were pooled. Of the 2182 lifelong never-smokers 2118 completed structured interviews and spirometry of acceptable quality. COPD was defined according to the GOLD criteria using post-bronchodilator spirometry. The association of COPD with ETS in single and multiple settings was calculated by multivariate logistic regression adjusting for known risk factors for COPD.

    RESULTS COPD prevalence was associated with increased ETS exposure: 4.2% (no ETS), 8.0% (ETS ever at home), 8.3% (ETS at previous work) and 14.7% (ETS ever at home and at both previous and current work), test for trend p=0.003. Exclusion of subjects aged ≥65 years and subjects reporting asthma yielded similar results. ETS in multiple settings, such as ever at home and at both previous and current work was strongly associated to COPD, OR 3.80 (95% CI 1.29-11.2).

    CONCLUSIONS In this population-based sample of never-smokers, ETS was independently associated with COPD. The association was stronger for ETS in multiple settings. ETS in multiple settings was, after age, the strongest risk factor for COPD and comparable to personal smoking of up to 14 cigarettes/day in comparable materials. The findings strongly advocate measures against smoking in public places.

  • 54. Hagstad, Stig
    et al.
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundback, Bo
    COPD among non-smokers: Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies2012Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 106, nr 7, s. 980-988Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In westernized countries smoking and increasing age are the most important risk factors for COPD. Prevalence and risk factors of COPD among non-smokers are not well studied. Aim: To study the prevalence and risk factors of COPD among non-smokers and to determine the proportion of non-smokers among subjects with COPD. Methods: A random sample of 2470 subjects drawn from a population-based postal survey of 10,040 (85-88% participation) adults (aged 20-77) in Norrbotten, Sweden, were invited to structured interviews and lung function tests, and 1897 participated. COPD was classified using the fixed ratio (GOLD) definition and for comparison the lower limit of normal (LLN). Results: The prevalence of airway obstruction was 6.9% among non-smokers and strongly age related. The prevalence of GOLD stage >= II among non-smokers was 15%. Both among subjects with airway obstruction and among subjects with GOLD stage >= II, the proportions of nonsmokers were 20%. Of men with airway obstruction, 14.1% were non-smokers versus 26.8% among women. Non-smokers with GOLD stage >= II had significantly more symptoms and higher co-morbidity than non-smokers without airway obstruction. Sex, area of domicile and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke was not significantly associated to airway obstruction among non-smokers. Using LLN for defining airway obstruction yielded a similar prevalence. Conclusion: The prevalence of airway obstruction among non-smokers was close to 7% and was associated with increasing age. One out of seven men with airway obstruction, defined using the fixed ratio, versus one out of four women had never smoked. (C) 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 55.
    Hedlund, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Socio-economic status is related to incidence of asthma and respiratory symptoms in adults.2006Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 28, nr 2, s. 303-310Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 56.
    Hedlund, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Department of Internal Medicine/Respiratory Medicine & Allergology, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Göteborg, Göteborg.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Occupational exposure to dust, gases and fumes, a family history of asthma and impaired respiratory health2008Ingår i: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, ISSN 0355-3140, E-ISSN 1795-990X, Vol. 34, nr 5, s. 381-386Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study assessed the impact of occupational exposure to dust, gases, and fumes on respiratory symptoms, obstructive lung diseases, or the use of asthma medication among persons with and without a family history of asthma.

    Methods: A population-based cohort was followed for 10 years. This study included all 1739 men and 1594 women occupationally active at the first survey. Exposure and respiratory health were assessed from questionnaires. Multiple logistic regression was used to estimate the effects in relation to occupational groups, with age, gender, and smoking habits as possible confounders, using both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. The susceptibility to impaired respiratory health was determined from a family history of asthma.

    Results: A family history of asthma was reported by 27% of the men and 34% of the women. Both occupational exposure and a family history of asthma were associated with impaired respiratory health. The etiologic fractions showed that up to about 70% of the symptoms could be explained by a family history of asthma among those exposed to low levels of air pollutants, as well as among those with high exposure. However, high exposure contributed up to 35% of the symptoms both among those with and among those without a family history of asthma. The study indicates that the relative risk of occupational exposure to pollutants is similar for both persons with and those without a family history of asthma.

    Conclusions: The relative risk for impaired respiratory health after exposure to occupational air pollutants seems to be similar for persons with and those without a susceptibility to impaired respiratory health.

  • 57.
    Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Late Breaking Abstract - E-cigarette use among Swedish teenagers2018Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Electronic (e) cigarettes are portrayed as a substitute for conventional cigarettes and as a means for smoking cessation. In contradiction, much of the marketing is designed to appeal to teenagers and nonsmokers. Aim: to estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use in relation to smoking habits and demographic factors in teenagers. Within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies a cohort study of schoolchildren (n=2430) was initiated at age 7-8y, with follow-ups at age 11-12y, 14-15y and 19y by completion of an extended ISAAC questionnaire. Questions on smoking and snus use were included from age 14-15y and use of e-cigarettes at 19y. At age 19y, 22.0% (95%CI 20.3-23.7) had ever tried e-cigarettes, with higher proportion in boys than girls, 28.3 vs 15.2% p<.001. The prevalence of current use was 4.4% (95%CI 3.6-5.2), also higher among boys, 5.4 vs 3.4% p=.01. Current smoking (10.3%) was slightly higher in girls than boys, 11.1 vs 9.0% p=.20. Of current e-cigarette users, 39% were smokers, 22% ex-smokers and 39% nonsmokers. ‘Ever tried’ e-cigarettes was related to tobacco use at age 14-15y: 60.9% in smokers and 50.8% in snus users, however 19.6% of nonsmokers had tried e-cigarettes. In adjusted logistic regression analysis, current e-cigarette use was related to male sex (OR 2.1 95%CI 1.7-2.7), former smoking (OR 3.6 95%CI 2.5-5.3), current smoking (OR 5.3 95%CI 3.9-7.4), use of snus (OR 1.6 95%CI 1.3-2.1) and inversely related to eating healthy diet (OR 0.9 95%CI 0.8-0.9). There were no significant associations with parental smoking, socioeconomic status, physical activity or having asthma. In summary, e-cigarette use was common among smokers but alarmingly almost 40% of e-cigarette users at age 19y were nonsmokers.

  • 58.
    Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Incidence and risk factors for asthma from childhood to young adulthood2018Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: to estimate the incidence of physician-diagnosed asthma from 7-8 to 27-28 years of age and to study the strength of association with established risk factors by age at asthma onset.

    Method: In a longitudinal study about asthma and allergy within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort of children (n=3430) participated in questionnaire surveys and skin prick tests (SPT) at 7-8, 11-12 and 19y. At age 27-28y n=2088 (76% of invited) completed a postal questionnaire. Factors (sex, family history of asthma, allergic sensitization and in utero exposure to tobacco smoke (ETS)) related to the incidence of asthma at the different ages were analyzed by multinomial logistic regression with ‘never asthma’ as reference.

    Results: The incidence rates of physician-diagnosed asthma are presented in Figure 1. The incidence up to age 7-8y was related to allergic sensitization (OR 5.2) and family history of asthma (OR 3.6), and the associations became stronger for the incidence from 7-8 to 11-12y with ORs of 9.8 and 4.0 respectively. However, for the incidence from 11-12 to 19y, these associations became weaker and remained significant only for allergic sensitization (OR 3.0), and incidence after age 19y was not significantly associated with any variables. In utero ETS was a risk factor for the incidence of asthma from 11-12 to 19y (OR 1.6).

    Conclusion: The incidence rate of asthma differed by sex: it peaked at age 7-8y for boys and at 19y for girls. Family history of asthma and allergic sensitization were strongly related to the incidence of asthma in childhood up to age 12 years but the strength of association decreased with increasing age.

  • 59.
    Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Bosson, Jenny A.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Lundbäck, Magnus
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Association of Electronic Cigarette Use With Smoking Habits, Demographic Factors, and Respiratory Symptoms2018Ingår i: JAMA NETWORK OPEN, ISSN 2574-3805, Vol. 1, nr 3, artikel-id e180789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    IMPORTANCE There is an ongoing debate about whether electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are the solution to the tobacco epidemic or a new public health threat. Large representative studies are needed to study e-cigarette use in the general population, but hardly any have been published. OBJECTIVES To estimate the prevalence of e-cigarette use and to investigate the association of e-cigarette use with smoking habits, demographic factors, and respiratory symptoms. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Cross-sectional, population-based study of random samples of the population, performed within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) study and West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS). The same validated questionnaire including identical questions was used in OLIN and WSAS. In 2016, OLIN and WSAS conducted postal questionnaire surveys in random samples of adults aged 20 to 75 years. In OLIN, 6519 participated (response rate, 56.4%); in WSAS, 23 753 participated (response rate, 50.1%). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Electronic cigarette use, smoking habits, and respiratory symptoms. RESULTS Of 30 272 participants (16 325 women [53.9%]). 3897 (12.9%) were aged 20 to 29 years; 4242 (14.0%). 30 to 39 years; 5082 (16.8%). 40 to 49 years; 6052 (20.0%), 50 to 59 years; 6628 (21.9%), 60 to 69 years; and 4371(14.4%), 70 to 75 years. The number of current smokers was 3694 (12.3%), and 7305 (24.4%) were former smokers. The number of e-cigarette users was 529 (2.0%). and e-cigarette use was more common among men (275 of 12 347 [2.2%; 95% CI, 2.0%-2.5%]) than women (254 of 14 022 [1.8%; 95% CI, 1.6%-2.0%]). Among current smokers. 350 of 3566 (9.8%; 95% CI, 8.8%10.8%) used e-cigarettes compared with 79 of 6875 (1.1%; 95% CI, 0.9%-1.3%) in former smokers and 96 of 15 832 (0.6%; 95% CI, 0.5%-0.7%) in nonsmokers (P < .001). Among e-cigarette users who answered the survey question about cigarette-smoking habits (n = 525). 350 (66.7%; 95% CI, 62.7%-70.7%) were current smokers, 79 (15.0%; 95% CI, 11.9%-18.1%) were former smokers, and 96 (18.3%; 95% CI, 15.0%-21.6%) were nonsmokers (P < .001 for trend). In a regression analysis, e-cigarette use was associated with male sex (odds ratio [OR], 1.35; 95% CI. 1.12-1.62); age groups 20 to 29 years (OR. 2.77; 95% CI, 1.90-4.05), 30 to 39 years (OR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.53-3.36), 40 to 49 years (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.11-2.44). and 50 to 59 years (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.01-2.12); educational level at primary school (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.51-2.64) and upper secondary school (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.25-1.96); former smoking (OR. 2.37; 95% CI, 1.73-3.24); and current smoking (OR. 18.10; 95% CI, 14.19-23.09). All respiratory symptoms were most common among dual users and former smokers and nonsmokers who used e-cigarettes. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Use of e-cigarettes was most common among smokers, and dual users had the highest prevalence of respiratory symptoms. On a population level, this study indicates that the present use of e-cigarettes does not adequately serve as a smoking cessation tool.

  • 60.
    Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Sunderby Cent Hosp Norrbotten, Dept Med, Obstruct Lung Dis No Sweden Studies, S-97189 Lulea, Sweden.
    Bjerg, Anders
    Perzanowski, Matthew
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Sunderby Cent Hosp Norrbotten, Dept Med, Obstruct Lung Dis No Sweden Studies, S-97189 Lulea, Sweden.
    Good agreement between parental and self-completed questionnaires about allergic diseases and environmental factors in teenagers2010Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 63, nr 7, s. 783-789Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To study whether the methodological change from parent to index subject as questionnaire respondent affected the prevalence estimates and risk factor patterns for allergic diseases in a longitudinal study.

    STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study of asthma and allergic diseases among children was begun in 1996 within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Study. In 2002, about 3,342 (95% of invited) teenagers (13 to 14 years) completed the annual questionnaire. A random sample of 294 (84% of invited) parents also completed the same extended International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Skin prick tests were performed in 1996 and 2000.

    RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the prevalence of rhinitis, eczema, or related environmental factors between parental and self-reports, except for the question of having a dog at home. The absolute agreement was high, whereas the kappa values were fair or moderate. Kappa values of questions regarding parental smoking were 0.8-0.9. Allergic sensitization was the major risk factor for both rhinitis and eczema, and the odds ratios were similar regardless of who reported the condition.

    CONCLUSION: The agreement between the parental and teenagers' reports was good, and the methodological change did not affect the study results.

  • 61.
    Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lindgren, Berit
    Perzanowski, Matthew
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Agreement between parental and self-completed questionnaires about asthma in teenagers2005Ingår i: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 16, s. 176-181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 62.
    Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Health Sciences, Division of Nursing, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Population-based study shows that teenage girls with asthma had impaired health-related quality of life2017Ingår i: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 106, nr 7, s. 1128-1135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: This study examined the health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of teenagers with and without asthma, including the impact of their sex, allergic conditions, smoking, living conditions and physical activity.

    METHODS: The Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies recruited a cohort of schoolchildren in 2006. The parents of all children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities were invited to complete a questionnaire and 2,585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at the ages of 11-12 years and 14-15 years with high participation rates. At 14-15 years, the HRQoL questionnaire KIDSCREEN-10 and Asthma Control Test were added.

    RESULTS: Girls with current asthma at 14-15 years had a lower mean HRQoL score than girls without asthma (46.4 versus 49.3, p<0.001), but this was not seen among boys (53.8 versus 52.8, p=0.373). Poor HRQoL was related to current asthma, uncontrolled asthma and teenage onset of asthma. It was also related to eczema, living in a single parent household, maternal smoking, daily smoking and inversely related to physical activity.

    CONCLUSION: Teenage girls with asthma had lower HRQoL than girls without asthma. Possible interventions to improve HRQoL among teenagers with asthma were identified: increasing asthma control, preventing smoking and promoting physical activity. 

  • 63.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bjerg, Anders
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Environmental risk factors related to the incidence of wheeze and asthma in adolescence2015Ingår i: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 45, nr 1, s. 184-191Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Asthma is common among adolescents, but there are few population-based studies on the risk factors for incident asthma and wheeze at this age group OBJECTIVE: To study risk factors for incident asthma and wheeze in adolescence.

    METHOD: Within the Obstructive Lung Disease In Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort of 3430 school children (age 7-8y) was recruited in 1996. In the present study, this cohort was followed from age 12 to 19y. At baseline (age 12y), 3151 participated and skin prick tests (SPT) were performed. The cohort was resurveyed annually and risk factors for the cumulative incidence of asthma and wheeze from age 12 to19y were analysed using multivariate Cox regression.

    RESULTS: Female sex (wheeze: HR1.4 95%CI 1.2-1.6; asthma: HR1.8 95%CI1.2-2.5) and a positive SPT to cat, dog or horse at baseline (wheeze: HR 1.6 95%CI 1.2-2.1; asthma: HR2.3 95%CI 1.4-4.0) were significantly associated with the cumulative incidence of wheeze and asthma. Increasing numbers of siblings were inversely related to the incidence of wheeze (HR0.9 95%CI 0.8-0.97) and asthma (HR0.8 95%CI 0.7-0.97). Parental asthma was related to the incidence of asthma (HR 1.8 95%CI 1.2-2.6) while ever smoking (HR 2.0 95%CI 1.6-2.4) and house dampness (HR 1.3 95%CI 1.1-1.6) were risk factors for the incidence of wheeze. Maternal ETS exposure increased the risk of incident asthma in non-sensitized subjects (HR 1.9 95%CI 1.0-3.7).

    CONCLUSION AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Several environmental risk factors related to the incidence of asthma and wheeze in adolescence were identified and may be possible targets for intervention and prevention.

  • 64.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, B
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Incidence of wheeze and asthma in adolescence in relation to environmental factorsManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 65.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Evaluation of a tobacco prevention programme among teenagers in Sweden2015Ingår i: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, nr 5, artikel-id e007673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the prevalence of tobacco use among teenagers, to evaluate a tobacco prevention programme and to study factors related to participation in the prevention programme. Design and setting: Population-based prospective cohort study. Method: Within the Obstructive Lung disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, a cohort study about asthma in schoolchildren started in 2006. All children aged 7-8 years in three municipalities were invited to a questionnaire survey and 2585 (96%) participated. The cohort was followed up at age 11-12 years (n=2612, 95% of invited) and 14-15 years (n=2345, 88% of invited). In 2010, some of the children in the OLIN cohort (n=447) were invited to a local tobacco prevention programme and 224 (50%) chose to participate. Results: At the age of 14-15 years, the prevalence of daily smoking was 3.5%. Factors related to smoking were female sex, having a smoking mother, participation in sports and lower parental socioeconomic status (SES). The prevalence of using snus was 3.3% and risk factors were male sex, having a smoking mother, having a snus-using father and non-participation in the prevention programme. In the prevention programme, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly lower among the participants compared with the controls in the cohort. Factors related to non-participation were male sex, having a smoking mother, lower parental SES and participation in sports. Conclusions: The prevalence of tobacco use was lower among the participants in the tobacco prevention programme compared with the non-participants as well as with the controls in the cohort. However, the observed benefit of the intervention may be overestimated as participation was biased by selection.

  • 66.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bjerg, Anders
    The OLIN-studies, Norrbotten County Council, S-971 89 Luleå, Sweden .
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Conventional epidemiology underestimates the incidence of asthma and wheeze: a longitudinal population-based study among teenagers2012Ingår i: Clinical and translational allergy, ISSN 2045-7022, Vol. 2, nr 1, s. 1-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Because of shifts in the gender ratio and incidence and remission rates of asthma during the teen ages, the methodology of incidence studies among teenagers is important, i.e. if the time intervals between surveys are too long, the incident cases might not be properly identified. The aim was to study the impact of study design on the incidence rates of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages.

    METHODS: In a study about asthma and allergic diseases within the OLIN studies (Obstructive Lung Disease in northern Sweden), a cohort of school children (n = 3,430) was followed annually by questionnaire from age 8 yrs. In the endpoint survey (age 18 yrs) 2,582 (75% of original responders) participated. Incident cases from age 12-18 yrs were identified by two methods: annual questionnaire reports (AR) and baseline-endpoint surveys only (BE).

    RESULTS: The cumulative incidence of asthma and wheeze was significantly higher based on AR compared to BE. Compared to the incidence rates based on all the annual surveys, the calculated average annual rates based on BE were in general lower both among the boys and among the girls. There were no differences between boys and girls in incidence rates of asthma or wheeze during the early teen years. However, from the age of 15 years, the annual incidence rates were significantly or borderline significantly higher among girls than boys. At onset, the additional cases of current asthma identified by AR had significantly less severe asthma than those identified in BE (p < 0.02).

    CONCLUSION: the size of the incidence of asthma and wheeze during the teen ages was influenced by study design. By using the conventional prospective study design with longer follow-up time, the incidence was underestimated.

  • 67.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bjerg, Anders
    Sundberg, Sigrid
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Both environmental tobacco smoke and personal smoking is related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers2011Ingår i: Thorax, ISSN 0040-6376, E-ISSN 1468-3296, Vol. 66, nr 1, s. 20-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been reported as a significant risk factor for childhood asthma. Among adults, personal smoking is a major cause of respiratory symptoms and diseases. The effects of these exposures on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze among teenagers are less well known.

    Objective: The aim was to study the independent and combined effects of ETS and personal smoking on the prevalence of asthma and wheeze in teenagers.

    Methods: A longitudinal study of asthma and allergic diseases in schoolchildren has been in progress in Northern Sweden since 1996. All children aged 7–8 years in three municipalities were invited and 3430 (97%) participants have been followed by annual questionnaires. At the age 16–17 years, 82% of the initial participants took part in the 2005 survey.

    Results: Prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma, ever wheeze and current wheeze was significantly higher among those exposed to maternal ETS and among daily smokers. In multivariate analyses, maternal ETS was a significant risk factor for physician-diagnosed asthma and ever wheeze (OR 1.3–1.5) and personal daily smoking for current wheeze (OR 2.0). ORs for asthma and ever wheeze were highest among daily smokers who were also exposed to maternal ETS with ORs of 1.7 and 2.5, respectively. A significant dose–response association between number of cigarettes/day and the prevalence of wheeze was also found.

    Conclusions: Both ETS and personal smoking were significantly related to asthma and wheeze in teenagers. Maternal ETS exposure was associated with lifetime symptoms, but daily smoking among the teenagers was more strongly related to current symptoms.

  • 68.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Bjerg Bäcklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Perzanowski, Matthew
    Sundberg, Sigrid
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Factors related to tobacco use among teenagers2007Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 101, nr 3, s. 496-502Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To examine tobacco use among teenagers, identify factors related to tobacco use, as well as evaluate the outcome of a smoking prevention program.

    METHODS: From age 7/8 to 14/15, annual questionnaires about asthma and allergy have been completed in the OLIN paediatric study in Northern Sweden. From 12/13 years, questions about tobacco use, i.e. smoking and snuff, were added. A smoking prevention program was performed during 2 years.

    RESULTS: Any tobacco use increased from 5.0% at age 12/13 years, to 14.4% at age 14/15. At age 14/15 years, the prevalence of tobacco use was significantly higher among boys than girls (16.7 and 12.0%, respectively). More girls than boys smoked (8.9 and 2.8%, respectively), while use of snuff was more common among the boys (15.6 and 4.2%, respectively). Significant risk factors for smoking were any of the family members currently smoking, OR 6.1 (95% CI 4.0-9.3) and a physician-diagnosed asthma at the age of 14/15 years, OR 1.9 (95% CI 1.2-3.0). A protective factor against tobacco use was participation in sports, OR 0.3 (95% CI 0.2-0.4). The prevention program did not result in less tobacco use, although it may have delayed smoking initiation.

    CONCLUSION: The patterns of tobacco use differed significantly between boys and girls. Though any tobacco use was more common among boys, girls were more likely to smoke, and boys were more likely to use snuff. Having asthma did not prevent the teenagers from smoking. Since having a smoking family member was the major risk factor for tobacco use, prevention programs should be directed at smoking families in addition to the individuals.

  • 69. Honkamaki, Jasmin
    et al.
    Hisinger-Molkanen, Hanna
    Ilmarinen, Pinja
    Piirila, Paivi
    Tuomisto, Leena E.
    Andersen, Heidi
    Huhtala, Heini
    Sovijarvi, Anssi
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lehtimaki, Lauri
    Kankaanranta, Hannu
    Age- and gender-specific incidence of new asthma diagnosis from childhood to late adulthood2019Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 154, s. 56-62Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Asthma is currently divided into different phenotypes, with age at onset as a relevant differentiating factor. In addition, asthma with onset in adulthood seems to have a poorer prognosis, but studies investigating age-specific incidence of asthma with a wide age span are scarce.

    Objective: To evaluate incidence of asthma diagnosis at different ages and differences between child- and adult-diagnosed asthma in a large population-based study, with gender-specific analyzes included.

    Methods: In 2016, a respiratory questionnaire was sent to 8000 randomly selected subjects aged 20-69 years in western Finland. After two reminders, 4173 (52.3%) subjects responded. Incidence rate of asthma was retrospectively estimated based on the reported age of asthma onset. Adult-diagnosed asthma was defined as a physician-diagnosis of asthma made at >= 18 years of age.

    Results: Among those with physician-diagnosed asthma, altogether, 63.7% of subjects, 58.4% of men and 67.8% of women, reported adult-diagnosed asthma. Incidence of asthma diagnosis was calculated in 10-year age groups and it peaked in young boys (0-9 years) and middle-aged women (40-49 years) and the average incidence rate during the examined period between 1946 and 2015 was 2.2/1000/year. Adult-diagnosed asthma became the dominant phenotype among those with physician-diagnosed asthma by age of 50 years and 38 years in men and women, respectively.

    Conclusions: Asthma is mainly diagnosed during adulthood and the incidence of asthma diagnosis peaks in middle-aged women. Asthma diagnosed in adulthood should be considered more in clinical practice and management guidelines.

  • 70. James, Hayley R
    et al.
    Perzanowski, Matthew S.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Hedman, Linnéa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Bjerg, Anders
    Schuyler, Alexander J
    Workman, Lisa J
    Lundback, Bo
    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E
    IgE Antibodies to Mammalian Allergens Are a Major Risk Factor for Prevalence, Severity, and Persistence of Asthma in Northern Sweden2015Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 135, nr 2, s. AB22-AB22Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    IgE to mammalian allergens can contribute significantly to asthma risk. Studying the details of the relationship between animal sensitization and asthma is simpler in an environment where mite, fungal, and cockroach allergens make little or no contribution to asthma risk. Methods: Quantitative assays for IgE to eight allergens were carried out on 963 sera from 19-year-olds in a population-based cohort in northern Sweden, and associations with questionnaire data from ages 7, 12, and 19 on asthma symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment were tested. Results: Overall, 79 (53%) of the students with a physician diagnosis of asthma were positive to one or more of the mammalian allergens (cat, dog, or horse danders) tested. Of the allergens assessed, only mammalian allergens, birch, and timothy grass pollen showed a significant relationship with asthma diagnosis. Multivariate analysis showed that high titer (>17.5 IU/ml) IgE to any mammalian allergen had the strongest relationship with asthma at age 19 (odds ratio 5.1 [3.0-8.6]). Furthermore, IgE to mammalian allergens gave an odds ratio of 8.5 [4.9-15] for asthma that started before age 12 and was still present at age 19. Sensitization to Fel d 1 and Fel d 4 was strongly associated with asthma and significantly reduced in cat owners. Conclusions: Sensitization to cat and dog related allergens, and specifically to the components Fel d 1 and Fel d 4, is a major risk factor for the persistence and severity of asthma in an area where these are the only significant perennial allergens.

  • 71. Jansson, S. A.
    et al.
    Stenling, A.
    AstraZeneca Nordic MC.
    Backman, H.
    Ronmark, E.
    Lindberg, A.
    Lundback, B.
    Health care costs of individuals with and without COPD in Sweden2010Ingår i: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 13, nr 7, s. A321-A321Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 72.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Axelsson, Malin
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Department of Health Science, Division of Nursing, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Leander, Mai
    Stridsman, Caroline
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Subjects with well-controlled asthma have similar health-related quality of life as subjects without asthma2016Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 120, s. 64-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The burden of asthma and rhinitis on health-related quality of life (HRQL) among adults has been assessed mainly in studies of patients seeking health-care, while population-based studies are relatively scarce. The objective of this study was to investigate HRQL among subjects with asthma and rhinitis derived from a random population sample and to identify factors related to impairment of HRQL.

    METHODS: A randomly selected cohort was invited to participate in a postal questionnaire survey. Of those who responded, a stratified sample of 1016 subjects was invited to clinical examinations and interviews, and 737 subjects in ages 21-86 years participated. Of these, 646 completed HRQL questions. HRQL was assessed with the generic SF-36 Health Survey.

    RESULTS: The physical score was lower among subjects with asthma vs. subjects without asthma (p < 0.001). No significant difference was found in the mental score. Subjects with well-controlled asthma had higher physical score compared to subjects with partly and un-controlled asthma (p = 0.002). Actually, subjects with well-controlled asthma had similar physical HRQL as subjects without asthma. Asthmatics who were current smokers had lower physical score compared to those who were non-smokers (p = 0.021). No significant differences in physical or mental scores were found between subjects with and without rhinitis. Subjects with both asthma and rhinitis had lower physical score compared to subjects without these conditions (p < 0.001), but subjects with asthma alone had even worse physical score.

    CONCLUSIONS: The physical score was significantly lower in asthmatics compared to subjects without asthma. Importantly, non-smoking and well-controlled asthmatics have similar HRQL compared to subjects without asthma. Thus, subjects with asthma should be supported to achieve and maintain good asthma control and if they smoke, be offered smoking cessation as means to improve their HRQL.

  • 73.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, M.
    Telg, G.
    Lundbäck, B.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Health care consumption and HRQOL in severe asthma in Sweden2017Ingår i: Value in Health, ISSN 1098-3015, E-ISSN 1524-4733, Vol. 20, nr 9, s. A513-A513Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Severe asthma is a disabling and costly disease, often poorly controlled despite high-dosage controller medications. The objectives of this analysis were to estimate health care consumption and to investigate health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in a severe asthma cohort, derived from a large-scale population survey in northern Sweden. Methods: Severe asthma was defined by US SARP criteria; high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) by GINA 2014 criteria. In total, 32 patients with severe asthma were invited to a clinical examination and structured interview. Retrospective data of all asthma-related direct and indirect resource consumption during the last year were collected following a defined protocol. HRQOL was assessed by four patient-reported outcome measures: two general measures (SF-36; EQ-5D) and two disease-specific measures (SGRQ; ACT). The cohort was divided into two groups —patients with (OCS) or without maintenance oral corticosteroid (non-OCS) treatment. Results: Health care resource utilization was greater in the OCS-group compared with the non-OCS group. Mean annual number of visits to specialist care was 2.0 in the OCS group vs. 0.5 visits in the non-OCS group. Four patients in the OCS group had early retirement vs. none in the non-OCS group. HRQOL was worse in the OCS group, both when measured with general and disease-specific instruments. The Mental and Physical Component Summary scores of the SF-36 in the OCS vs. non-OCS group were 50.1 vs. 40.7 and 55.8 vs. 44.4, respectively. Similarly, the total SGRQ scores indicated worse HRQOL for the OCS-group compared with the non-OCS group (37.0 vs. 27.0). Conclusions: In this severe asthma population, patients treated with maintenance OCS consumed more health care resources, were more frequently early retired, and had worse HRQOL compared with those not receiving maintenance OCS. The results indicate a need for improved treatment for patients with severe asthma on maintenance OCS. Sponsor: AstraZeneca.

  • 74.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Maria
    Telg, Gunilla
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Eklund, Britt-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Societal costs of severe asthma in Sweden2018Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 52Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Severe asthma is a disabling and costly disease, often poorly controlled despite high-dosage controller medications.

    Aims: We estimated societal costs from an adult severe asthma cohort, derived from a large-scale population survey in northern Sweden.

    Methods: Severe asthma was defined by US SARP criteria, and high-dosage inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) were defined by GINA 2014 criteria. The study sample was identified from general population cohorts examined within the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden) studies (n=1,006). Patient reported asthma-related direct (outpatient care, medicines, hospitalisations) and indirect (sick leave, early retirement) resource consumption were collected by quarterly pre-defined telephone interviews during one year. Unit costs from 2017 were applied.

    Results: In total, 32 patients with severe asthma (mean age 60.7y, 13 patients >65) were included. The mean annual total cost per patient was approximately €6,300. Two thirds of the costs (63%) was indirect costs (approximately €4,000). The main cost drivers in direct costs were hospitalisations and drugs: approximately €1,000 and €700, respectively. The main cost driver of indirect costs was productivity loss due to early retirement: €3,400. Patients who had received regular oral corticosteroid (OCS) treatment had greater costs compared with those without regular OCS treatment. In comparison with a previous Swedish study based on a sample of all asthmatics from the general population, a greater mean annual total cost per patient was observed.

    Conclusions: In this severe asthma population in Sweden, societal costs were substantial. The results indicate a need for improved treatment regimens for patients with severe asthma.

  • 75.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Hospitalization Due to Co-Morbid Conditions is the Main Cost Driver Among Subjects With COPD - A Report From the Population-Based OLIN COPD Study2015Ingår i: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 12, nr 4, s. 381-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Co-morbidities are common in COPD; however, there is a lack of population-based studies evaluating the health economic impact of co-morbid diseases for subjects with COPD. The main objective of this study was to estimate annual direct health-care costs, divided into costs due to non-respiratory and respiratory conditions, comparing subjects with and without COPD. Methods: Subjects with and without COPD derived from population-based cohorts in northern Sweden have been invited to annual examinations involving spirometry and structured interviews since 2005. This paper is based on data from 1472 subjects examined in 2006. COPD classification was based on spirometry. Results: Mean annual costs for both respiratory and non-respiratory conditions were significantly higher for subjects with COPD than non-COPD subjects, in total USD 2139 vs. USD 1276 (p = 0.026), and COPD remained significantly associated with higher costs also after adjustment for common confounders as age, smoking habits, BMI and sex. The mean total cost increased with COPD disease severity and was higher for all severity stages (GOLD) than for non-COPD subjects. Hospitalization due to non-respiratory diseases was the main cost driver in COPD, after adjustment for common confounders amounting to about 46% (unadjusted 62%) of the total COPD-costs. Conclusions: Costs were higher for COPD than non-COPD. In COPD, costs for co-morbid conditions were higher than those for respiratory conditions, and hospitalization due to co-morbid conditions was the main cost driver also when adjusted for common confounders.

  • 76. Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Backman, Helena
    Stenling, Anna
    AstraZeneca Nordic.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Costs of COPD by disease severity2011Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 38, nr Suppl 55Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most common chronic and disabling diseases worldwide, and the societal costs are high.

    Aim: To estimate the societal costs of COPD in Sweden and to examine the relationship between disease severity and costs.

    Methods: The study sample was identified in earlier clinical examinations of general population cohorts within the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden) studies. The cohort consisted initially of 993 subjects fulfilling COPD spirometric criteria (GOLD). In 2009-2010, telephone interviews on resource utilization were made to a sample of 244 subjects, stratified by disease severity. Interviews were performed quarterly to minimize the risk of recall bias. A non-parametric Mann-Whitney U-test was used to test cost differences between groups; p-values adjusted by Bonferroni correction. Unit costs from 2010 were applied.

    Results: A highly significant relationship was found between disease severity and costs. The mean annual total cost per patient in relation to disease severity (GOLD) was: stage I €811; II €2,660; III €7,068; and IV €20,665. Indirect costs were higher than direct costs in all severity stages. For direct costs, main cost drivers were hospitalizations in stage III and IV, and drugs in stage I and II, respectively. The main cost driver in indirect costs was productivity loss due to early retirement, except in stage I where the driver was sick-leave. In comparison with a similar study performed in 1999 a numerical increase in mean annual total costs per patient was observed (ns).

    Conclusions: The results indicate that the societal costs of COPD in Sweden are substantial, and the costs increase considerably by disease severity.

  • 77.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Stenling, Anna
    AstraZeneca Nordic-Baltic, Department of Health Economics, SE-151 85 Södertälje, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Health economic costs of COPD in Sweden by disease severity: has it changed during a ten years period?2013Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 107, nr 12, s. 1931-1938Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of the presented study were to estimate societal costs of COPD in Sweden, the relationship between costs and disease severity, and possible changes in the costs during the last decade.

    METHODS: Subjects with COPD derived from the general population in Northern Sweden were interviewed by telephone regarding their resource utilisation and productivity losses four times quarterly during 2009-10. Mean annual costs were estimated for each severity stage of COPD.

    RESULTS: A strong relationship was found between disease severity and costs. Estimated mean annual costs per subject of mild, moderate, severe and very severe COPD amounted to 596 (SEK 5686), 3245 (SEK 30,957), 5686 (SEK 54,242), and 17,355 euros (SEK 165,569), respectively. The main cost drivers for direct costs were hospitalisations (for very severe COPD) and drugs (all other severity stages). The main cost driver for indirect costs was productivity loss due to sick-leave (for mild COPD) and early retirement (all other severity stages). Costs appeared to be lower in 2010 than in 1999 for subjects with severe and very severe COPD, but higher for those with mild and moderate COPD.

    CONCLUSION: Our results show that costs of COPD are strongly related to disease severity, and scaling the data to the whole Swedish population indicates that the total costs in Sweden amounted to 1.5 billion euros (SEK 13.9 bn) in 2010. In addition, costs have decreased since 1999 for subjects with severe and very severe COPD, but increased for those with mild and moderate COPD.

  • 78.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Ericsson, Asa
    Borg, Sixten
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Cost differences for COPD with and without physician-diagnosis.2005Ingår i: COPD, ISSN 1541-2555, Vol. 2, nr 4, s. 427-34Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have presented divergent estimates of the cost of illness of COPD due to differences in methodology. The objective of this study was to examine differences between register-based estimates versus population-based estimates on the burden of COPD. This study therefore examined differences in costs of COPD among physician-diagnosed and un-diagnosed subjects. During a one-year period, four telephone interviews were made with 212 randomly selected subjects with COPD derived from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies. Health care resource utilization and productivity losses were measured, and the costs were also transformed with the estimated COPD prevalence in Sweden. Average annual costs were SEK 18,252 (USD 2,207, EUR 2,072), and SEK 9,327 (USD 1,128, EUR 1,059) for subjects with and without a physician-diagnosis, respectively. Although lower per individual, the costs of undiagnosed subjects accounted for approximately 40% of the total costs in Sweden, since the majority of subjects with COPD in Sweden lack a physician-diagnosed disease. In conclusion, we found that the costs due to COPD differed considerably between those with and without physician-diagnosed disease. This study indicates that register-based studies result in underestimated costs of COPD.

  • 79.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Löfgren, Curt
    Lindberg, Anne
    Lundbäck, Bo
    The economic consequences of asthma among adults in Sweden.2007Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 101, nr 11, s. 2263-70Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Asthma is a common disease in most countries. The objective of this study was to estimate the societal costs for subjects with asthma. METHODS: Telephone interviews regarding resource utilization were made in a representative sample of 115 randomly selected subjects with asthma derived from a large population study of obstructive airway diseases. Direct and indirect costs were measured, and the costs were also transformed with the estimated prevalence of asthma in Sweden. RESULTS: Average annual costs were SEK 15919 (USD 1592; EUR 1768) per subject with asthma in the ages between 25 and 56 years. The direct and indirect costs were SEK 4931 (31.0%) and SEK 10988 (69.0%), respectively, and were highly dependent of age and disease severity. Assuming that the prevalence is representative for Sweden as a whole, the asthmatics would amount to 226000 in the ages between 25 and 56 years, corresponding to an overall prevalence in Sweden of 6-7%. The total costs of asthma for the society amounted thus to SEK 3.7 billion in these ages. CONCLUSIONS: The total costs of asthma for the society could be estimated at 3.7 billion SEK in the age range of 25-56 years, and thus approximately twice as high in the whole population of Sweden. The costs were strongly dependent on disease severity and increasing age.

  • 80. Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Lindberg, Anne
    Bergelin, Anna
    AstraZeneca Sverige.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Komorbiditet måste inkluderas vid beräkning av kostnader för KOL2009Ingår i: Svenska läkaresällskapets handlingar: Hygiea, ISSN 0349-1722, Vol. 118, nr 1, s. 72-72Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    Kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL) är en av de vanligast förekommande sjukdomarna i Sverige och medför stort lidande för de drabbade. De samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna till följd av sjukdomen är höga. Syftet med denna studie var att beräkna det totala antalet sjukhusinläggningar för både KOL och för andra sjukdomar i en kohort av individer med respektive utan sjukdomen KOL.

    Metod

    Studiepopulationen är identifierad sedan tidigare i genomförda kliniska undersökningar av populationsbaserade kohorter inom OLIN-studierna (Obstruktiv Lungsjukdom i Norra Sverige). Kohorten innehöll ursprungligen 993 individer, vilka alla uppfyllde kriterierna för KOL; samt en lika stor ålders- och könsmatchad kontrollgrupp utan sjukdomen KOL. Dessa individer har sedan 2005 intervjuats årligen om deras resurskonsumtion i sjukvårdssektorn samt genomgått en klinisk undersökning. Deltagandegraden har årligen varit cirka 90 %.

    Resultat

    Individer med KOL hade fler sjukhusinläggningar, både till följd av KOL och på grund av andra sjukdomar, jämfört med individer utan KOL (0.8 dagar respektive 1,1 dagar per individ och år). Trots att mer än 90% av individerna med KOL hade en mild eller medelsvår sjukdom visade studien att individer med KOL hade 25% fler dagar på sjukhus både för KOL och för andra sjukdomar jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Detta var oberoende av kön, men skillnaden var större bland män jämfört med kvinnor (0,4 dagar respektive 0,2 dagar per individ och år). Resultaten tyder på att komorbiditeten vid KOL är betydande.

    Sammanfattning

    Kostnader för KOL blir kraftigt underskattade om man inte tar hänsyn till kostnader för komorbiditiet. Beräkningar och analyser av resurskonsumtion och kostnader för komorbiditet måste därför genomföras för att erhålla den verkliga kostnaden för KOL.

  • 81.
    Jansson, Sven-Arne
    et al.
    Sunderby Sjukhus, Luleå .
    Stenling, Anna
    AstraZeneca Nordic.
    Backman, Helena
    Sunderbyns sjukhus .
    Rönmark, Eva
    Sunderbyns sjukhus .
    Lindberg, Anne
    Lung- och Allergimottagningen, Sunderby Sjukhus .
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Sjukvårdskostnader och läkemedelsanvändning hos individer med KOL i Sverige2010Ingår i: Svenska läkaresällskapets handlingar: Hygiea, ISSN 0349-1722, Vol. 119, nr 1, s. 92-92Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund Kroniskt obstruktiv lungsjukdom (KOL) är en av de vanligast förekommande sjukdomarna i Sverige och medför stort lidande för de drabbade. De samhällsekonomiska kostnaderna till följd av sjukdomen är höga. Syftet var att studera sjukvårdskostnader (sjukhusinläggningar och öppenvårdsbesök) och läkemedelsanvändning hos individer med respektive utan KOL.

    Metod Studiepopulationen är identifierad sedan tidigare i kliniska undersökningar av populationsbaserade kohorter inom OLIN-studierna (Obstruktiv Lungsjukdom i Norrbotten). Kohorten innehöll ursprungligen 993 individer, vilka alla uppfyllde kriterierna (GOLD) för KOL; samt en lika stor ålders- och könsmatchad kontrollgrupp utan sjukdomen. Dessa individer har sedan 2005 kallats till årliga intervjuer och kliniska undersökningar. Deltagandegraden har varit >85% varje år. Analysen är baserad på data om resurskonsumtion insamlade år 2006 (n=772 KOL, n=802 icke-KOL). Enhetskostnader från Norra Sjukvårdsregionens prislista 2010 har använts.

    Resultat Bland individer med KOL uppgick genomsnittliga sjukvårdskostnaden för alla sjukdomar till 14 299 kr per individ och år jämfört med 11 312 kr för individer utan KOL (p=0,16). Uppdelat i svårighetsgrad var motsvarande kostnader: stadium 1 – 11 657 kr (p=0,92), 2 – 17 552 kr (p=0,12), 3+4 – 22 226 kr (p<0,01). En mindre del av kostnaderna hänfördes till luftvägssjukdomar; 10,5% bland individer med KOL och 6,2% bland individer utan KOL. Kostnader för luftvägssjukdomar var signifikant högre bland individer med KOL och ökade med sjukdomens svårighetsgrad. Individer med KOL uppvisade 20% högre kostnader för andra sjukdomar jämfört med individer utan KOL. Andelen individer med KOL som använde luftvägsmediciner ökade med sjukdomens svårighetsgrad (stadium 1 - 29,6%, 2 - 51,5% respektive 3+4 - 84,8%). Andelen individer som använde läkemedel mot andra sjukdomar än luftvägssjukdomar tenderade att vara högre bland individer med KOL jämfört med individer utan KOL, framförallt i svårare grader av sjukdomen.

    Sammanfattning Sjukvårdskostnader och andelen individer som använde läkemedel var högre bland individer med KOL och ökade med sjukdomens svårighetsgrad. Resultaten tyder på att utöver sjukdomen i sig, är även komorbiditet en bidragande orsak till de högre kostnaderna. Det är av stor vikt, både samhällsekonomiskt och för patientens bästa, att upptäcka och diagnostisera KOL i ett tidigt stadium för att förhindra att sjukdomen fortskrider till allvarligare stadier.

  • 82. Juusela, Maria
    et al.
    Pallasaho, Paula
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. Sunderby Central Hospital of Norrbotten, Luleå.
    Sarna, Seppo
    Sovijarvi, Anssi
    Lundback, Bo
    Dose-dependent association of smoking and bronchial hyperresponsiveness2013Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 42, nr 6, s. 1503-1512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to study the association of smoking habits and environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure with bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). A random sample of 292 adults was examined using a structured interview, spirometry, skin prick tests, exhaled nitric oxide fraction (FeNO) and bronchial histamine challenge. A large majority of subjects with BHR were smokers or ex-smokers. Starting to smoke before 20 years of age was significantly associated with BHR, as was current smoking, quantity of smoking and ETS exposure. The severity of BHR increased significantly with increasing pack-years of exposure (p<0.001). Current smokers with decreased lung function were at a particularly high risk of BHR. Impaired forced expiratory volume in 1 s and mean maximal expiratory flow were independent determinants for more severe BHR, regardless of age. In multivariate analysis, smoking remained an independent determinant for BHR after adjustment for impaired lung function and other covariates: >= 15 pack-years yielded an odds ratio of 3.00 (95% CI 1.33-6.76) for BHR. The association between BHR and FeNO was dependent on smoking habits. The results indicate that smoking is a significant risk factor for BHR, with a dose-dependent pattern, and that the severity of BHR increases with pack-years. The findings strongly suggest assessment of smoking habits in subjects with BHR.

  • 83. Juusela, Maria
    et al.
    Pallasaho, Paula
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sarna, Seppo
    Sovijarvi, Anssi
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Can overweight/obesity and smoking have combined effects on bronchial hyperresponsiveness?2014Ingår i: European Respiratory Journal, ISSN 0903-1936, E-ISSN 1399-3003, Vol. 43, nr 2, s. 653-654Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 84. Konradsen, Jon R
    et al.
    Fujisawa, Takao
    van Hage, Marianne
    Hedlin, Gunilla
    Hilger, Christiane
    Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg
    Matsui, Elizabeth C
    Roberts, Graham
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Platts-Mills, Tom
    Allergy to furry animals: new insights, diagnostic approaches, and challenges2015Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 135, nr 3, s. 616-625Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of allergy to furry animals has been increasing, and allergy to cats, dogs, or both is considered a major risk factor for the development of asthma and rhinitis. An important step forward in the diagnosis of allergy to furry animals has been made with the introduction of molecular-based allergy diagnostics. A workshop on furry animals was convened to provide an up-to-date assessment of our understanding of (1) the exposure and immune response to the major mammalian allergens, (2) the relationship of these responses (particularly those to specific proteins or components) to symptoms, and (3) the relevance of these specific antibody responses to current or future investigation of patients presenting with allergic diseases. In this review research results discussed at the workshop are presented, including the effect of concomitant exposures from other allergens or microorganisms, the significance of the community prevalence of furry animals, molecular-based allergy diagnostics, and a detailed discussion of cat and dog components.

  • 85. Konradsen, Jon R.
    et al.
    van Hage, Marianne
    Hedlin, Gunilla
    Hilger, Christiane
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Platts-Mills, Tom
    The risk of sensitization to furry animals in patients already sensitized to cat/dog: An in vitro evaluation using molecular-based allergy diagnostics Reply2015Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 135, nr 6, s. 1666-1667Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 86. Lam, Hoang Thi
    et al.
    Ekerljung, Linda
    Tuong, Nguyen Van
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. The OLIN Studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden .
    Larsson, Kjell
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Prevalence of COPD by Disease Severity in Men and Women in Northern Vietnam2014Ingår i: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 11, nr 5, s. 575-581Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of COPD and its risk factor pattern varies between different areas of the world. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of COPD by disease severity in men and women and risk factors for COPD in northern Vietnam. From all 5782 responders to a questionnaire survey, a randomly selected sample of 1500 subjects was invited to a clinical follow-up study. The methods included a structured interview using a modified GA2LEN study questionnaire for registration of symptoms and possible determinants of disease. Spirometry was performed before and after bronchodilation. The age distribution of the sample was 23-72 years. Of 684 subjects attending, 565 completed acceptable spirometric measurements. The prevalence of COPD defined by the GOLD criteria was 7.1%; in men 10.9% and in women 3.9% (p = 0.002). Of those 3.4% had a mild disease, 2.8% a moderate and 0.9% a severe disease. In ages >50 years, 23.5% of men and 6.8% of women had COPD. Among smokers aged >60 years (all men), 47.8% had COPD. None of the women with COPD had been smokers. Increasing age, smoking and male sex were the dominating risk factors, although male sex lost its significance in a multivariate setting. The prevalence of COPD among adults in northern Vietnam was 7.1% and was considerably higher among men than women. The prevalence increased considerably with age. Increasing age and smoking, the latter among men only, were the most important determinants of COPD.

  • 87. Lawrence, Monica G
    et al.
    Payne, Spencer
    Workman, Lisa J
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Routes, John M
    Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte
    Platts-Mills, Thomas A E
    Borish, Larry
    Undetectable Serum IgE Is a Sensitive and Specific Marker of Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID)2015Ingår i: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, ISSN 0091-6749, E-ISSN 1097-6825, Vol. 135, nr 2, s. AB275-AB275Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is characterized by antibody deficiency and recurrent infections as well as autoimmunity, lymphoproliferation, and hematologic malignancy. The current diagnostic criteria for CVID include reduction in serum immunoglobulin (Ig)G and either IgA or IgM and failure of antibody production. Serum IgE level is not currently considered in establishing the diagnosis of CVID. Methods: A cohort of 123 subjects from the University of Virginia Health Systems, Medical College of Wisconsin and Mount Sinai School of Medicine were diagnosed with CVID by an experienced immunologist on the basis of currently accepted diagnostic criteria, including clinical history, serum IgG, IgA and IgM, and antibody response to vaccinations. Serum IgE was measured in all of these subjects using the Phadia ImmunoCap system. Serum IgE was also measured in an unbiased control cohort of 963 healthy 17-18 year olds from northern Sweden. Results: The prevalence of undetectable (<2 IU/ml) total serum IgE in our cohort of 123 subjects with CVID was 84.6% and the prevalence of IgE <10 IU/ml was 97.6%. In comparison, IgE <2 IU/ml was found in only 3.8% of controls, in agreement with other published population estimates. Conclusions: The finding of an undetectable (<2 IU/ml) serum IgE has both a high sensitivity of 84.6% and a high specificity of 96.2% for the diagnosis of CVID. Based on this observation, measurement of serum IgE should be included as a part of the routine laboratory work-up for CVID, and an undetectable serum IgE included as a component of the diagnostic criteria.

  • 88.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Bjerg Bäcklund, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD by disease severity and the attributable fraction of smoking Report from the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden Studies.2006Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 100, nr 2, s. 264-272Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: There is a lack of epidemiological data on COPD by disease severity. We have estimated the prevalence and underdiagnosis of COPD by disease severity defined by the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guidelines. The impact of smoking was evaluated by the population attributable fraction of smoking in COPD. METHODS: A random sample of 1500 responders of the third postal survey performed in 1996 of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) Studies' first cohort (6610 subjects recruited in 1985) were invited to structured interview and spirometry. One thousand two hundred and thirty-seven subjects (82%) performed spirometry. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild BTS-COPD was 5.3%, moderate 2.2%, and severe 0.6% (GOLD-COPD: mild 8.2%, moderate 5.3%, severe 0.7%, and very severe 0.1%). All subjects with severe COPD were symptomatic, corresponding figures among mild COPD were 88% and 70% (BTS and GOLD), Subjects with severe BTS-COPD reported a physician-diagnosis consistent with COPD in 50% of cases, in mild BTS-COPD 19%, while in mild GOLD-COPD only 5% of cases. The major risk factors, age and smoking, had a synergistic effect on the COPD-prevalence. The Odds Ratio (OR) for having COPD among smokers aged 76-77 years was 59 and 34 (BTS and GOLD) when non-smokers aged 46-47 was used as reference population. CONCLUSIONS: Most subjects with COPD have a mild disease. The underdiagnosis is related to disease-severity. Though being symptomatic, only a half of the subjects with severe COPD are properly labelled. Smoking and increasing age were the major risk factors and acted synergistic.

  • 89. Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Eriksson, Berne
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Seven-year cumulative incidence of COPD in an age-stratified general population sample.2006Ingår i: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Chest, Vol. 129, nr 4, s. 879-885Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To estimate the cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors related to the development of COPD, including evaluation of the relationship between Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) stage 0 (ie, respiratory symptoms and normal lung function) and the development of COPD, in an age-stratified general population sample of middle-aged and elderly individuals. METHOD: The third survey of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden studies cohort I (three age strata born in 1919 to 1920, 1934 to 1935, and 1949 to 1950) was performed in 1996, and 5,189 subjects (88%) responded to the postal questionnaire. Of the responders, a random sample (1,500 subjects) was invited to an examination in 1996 and in 2003. A total of 963 subjects performed spirometry on both occasions. COPD was defined according to the spirometric criteria of the GOLD. Two levels of disease severity, grade I and higher (GOLD criteria, FEV(1)/FVC ratio of < 0.70) and also grade II and higher (GOLD II criteria, FEV(1)/FVC ratio of < 0.70 and FEV(1) <80% predicted). RESULTS: The 7-year cumulative incidence of COPD was 11.0% and 4.9%, respectively, according to GOLD and GOLD II, and was significantly related to smoking (smokers, 18.8% and 10.6%, respectively; ex-smokers, 10.5% and 5.2%, respectively; non-smokers, 7.6% and 1.6%, respectively). Incident COPD according to GOLD, but not according to GOLD II, was significantly associated with increasing age. Most respiratory symptoms at study entry were markers of increased risk for incident COPD when analyzed in a multivariate model adjusting for confounders. CONCLUSION: The GOLD criteria yielded a higher cumulative incidence (11.0%) compared to the GOLD II (4.9%). Smoking, but not gender, was associated with incident COPD. Most respiratory symptoms at the beginning of the observation period marked an increased risk for developing COPD, thus the classification GOLD stage 0 seems relevant among middle-aged and elderly persons.

  • 90.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Jonsson, AC
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundgren, Rune
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Ten-year cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors for incident disease in a symptomatic cohort.2005Ingår i: Chest, Vol. 127, nr 5, s. 1544-52Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 91. Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Jonsson, Ann-Christin
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundgren, Rune
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    10-year cumulative incidence of COPD and risk factors for incident disease in a symptomatic cohort2005Ingår i: Chest, ISSN 0012-3692, E-ISSN 1931-3543, Vol. 127, nr 5, s. 1544-1552Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the 10-year cumulative incidence of COPD in a cohort of subjects with respiratory symptoms (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] stage 0) using the British Thoracic Society (BTS) and GOLD spirometric criteria. Furthermore, we sought to evaluate risk and gender factors for incident COPD. DESIGN AND SETTING: A postal questionnaire was administered in 1986 to all 6,610 subjects in eight areas of northern Sweden who had been born in 1919 to 1920 (group 1), 1934 to 1935 (group 2), and 1949 to 1950 (group 3). The response rate was 86%. All of the subjects reporting respiratory symptoms were invited to participate in a structured interview and pulmonary function test (PFT), and 1,506 (91%) participated. In 1996, 90% could be traced for follow-up, of whom 1,165 (86%) of the invited subjects participated and 1,109 subjects (534 women) were able to perform technically adequate PFTs in both 1986 and 1996. RESULTS: The 10-year cumulative incidence of COPD was estimated at 8.2% (using BTS criteria) and 13.5% (using GOLD criteria). Significant risk factors for incident COPD (using BTS and GOLD criteria) in a multivariate analysis were higher age (group 1 odds ratio [OR]: BTS criteria, 3.49; GOLD criteria, 3.37; group 2 OR: BTS criteria, 4.50; GOLD criteria, 5.70) and smoking (OR: BTS criteria, 5.37; GOLD criteria, 4.56), but not gender or heredity. Respiratory symptoms were significantly associated with incident COPD when added to the same model. In analogous analyses that were conducted separately for men and women, smoking yielded an OR of 8.52 among women (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.43 to 21.2) compared with 3.14 among men (95% CI, 1.26 to 7.84). The symptoms cough, sputum production, and chronic productive cough reached statistical significance in women, while dyspnea and wheeze did so in men. CONCLUSION: In this cohort, the 10-year cumulative incidence of COPD was 8.2% (using BTS criteria) and 13.5% (using GOLD criteria). Increasing age, smoking, and bronchitic symptoms, but not gender, were risk factors for incident COPD. GOLD stage 0 therefore appears to identify subjects who are at risk of COPD, but men and women presented different risk profiles.

  • 92.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Lungmedicin.
    Jonsson, Ann-Christin
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundgren, Rune
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits.2005Ingår i: Respiration, ISSN 0025-7931, Vol. 72, nr 5, s. 471-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 93.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Jonsson, Ann-Christin
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundgren, Rune
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Prevalence of COPD according to BTS, ERS, GOLD and ATS criteria in relation to doctor's diagnosis, symptoms, age, gender, and smoking habits2005Ingår i: Respiration, ISSN 0025-7931, E-ISSN 1423-0356, Vol. 72, nr 5, s. 471-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines and standards for diagnosis and management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have been presented by different national and international societies, but the spirometric criteria for COPD differ between guidelines. OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence of COPD using the guidelines of the British Thoracic Society (BTS), the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), and the American Thoracic Society (ATS). Further, to evaluate reported airway symptoms, contacts with health care providers, and physician diagnosis of COPD in relation to the respective criteria, and gender differences. METHOD: In 1992 a postal questionnaire was sent to a random sample of adults aged 20-69 years, 4,851 (85%) out of 5,681 subjects responded. In 1994-1995 a random sample of the responders, 970 subjects, were invited to a structured interview and a lung function test; 666 (69%) participated. RESULTS: The prevalence of COPD was 7.6, 14.0, 14.1, 12.2 and 34.1% according to BTS, ERS, GOLD, clinical ATS (with symptoms or physician diagnosis), and spirometric ATS criteria, respectively. Prevalent COPD was related to age, smoking habits and family history of obstructive airway disease but not to gender. Physician diagnosis of chronic bronchitis or emphysema was only reported by 16.3, 12.2, 11.0, 23.4 and 8.2% of subjects fulfilling the respective criteria, though a majority reported airway symptoms. CONCLUSION: The main determinants for prevalent COPD were age, smoking habits and spirometric criteria of COPD. Though a majority reported airway symptoms and contact with health care providers due to respiratory complaints, only a minority was diagnosed as having COPD, indicating a large underdiagnosis.

  • 94.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Muellerova, Hana
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Up-to-date on mortality in COPD: report from the OLIN COPD study2012Ingår i: BMC Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 1471-2466, E-ISSN 1471-2466, Vol. 12, s. 1-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The poor recognition and related underdiagnosis of COPD contributes to an underestimation of mortality in subjects with COPD. Data derived from population studies can advance our understanding of the true burden of COPD. The objective of this report was to evaluate the impact of COPD on mortality and its predictors in a cohort of subjects with and without COPD recruited during the twenty first century.

    METHODS: All subjects with COPD (n = 993) defined according to the GOLD spirometric criteria, FEV1/FVC < 0.70, and gender- and age-matched subjects without airway obstruction, non-COPD (n = 993), were identified in a clinical follow-up survey of the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) Studies cohorts in 2002-2004. Mortality was observed until the end of year 2007. Baseline data from examination at recruitment were used in the risk factor analyses; age, smoking status, lung function (FEV1 % predicted) and reported heart disease.

    RESULTS: The mortality was significantly higher among subjects with COPD, 10.9%, compared to subjects without COPD, 5.8% (p < 0.001). Mortality was associated with higher age, being a current smoker, male gender, and COPD. Replacing COPD with FEV1 % predicted in the multivariate model resulted in the decreasing level of FEV1 being a significant risk factor for death, while heart disease was not a significant risk factor for death in any of the models.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort COPD and decreased FEV1 were significant risk factors for death when adjusted for age, gender, smoking habits and reported heart disease.

  • 95.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Jonsson, Ann-Christin
    Larsson, Kjell
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Decline in FEV1 in relation to incident chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in a cohort with respiratory symptoms.2007Ingår i: COPD, ISSN 1541-2555, Vol. 4, nr 1, s. 5-13Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Data on the relationship between decline in lung function and development of COPD are sparse. We assessed the decline in FEV1 during 10 years among subjects with respiratory symptoms by two different methods and evaluated risk factors for decline and its relation to incident Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, COPD. A cross-sectional postal questionnaire was in 1986 sent to 6610 subjects of three age strata. All subjects reporting respiratory symptoms were invited to a structured interview and spirometry. A follow-up survey was performed 10 years later, and totally 1109 subjects performed spirometry in both 1986 and 1996. COPD was defined according to the ATS/ERS standards (FEV1/FVC < or =0.70). The decline in FEV1 was 39 ml/year in men vs. 28 ml/year in women, p = < 0.001 (-1.53 vs. -0.12 change in percent of predicted normal value over 10 years (pp), p = 0.023), among smokers 39 vs. non-smokers 28 ml/year, p < 0.001 (-3.30 vs. 0.69 pp, p < 0.001), in subjects with chronic productive cough 36 vs. not 32 ml/year, p = 0.044 (-2.00 vs. -0.02 pp, p = 0.002). Incident cases of moderate COPD (n = 83) had a decline of 62 ml/year (-12.6 pp) and 22.9% of them had a decline > 90 ml/year (-27.8 pp over 10 years). Gender-specific analysis revealed that smoking was a stronger risk factor in women than in men, while higher age was a significant risk factor in men only. In conclusion, decline in FEV1 was associated with age, smoking, and chronic productive cough, but the risk factor pattern was gender-dependent. Among incident cases of COPD the decline was steeper and close to a quarter had a rapid decline.

  • 96.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Lundbäck, Bo
    Co-morbidity in Mild-to-Moderate COPD: comparison to normal and restrictive lung function2011Ingår i: COPD: Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease, ISSN 1541-2555, E-ISSN 1541-2563, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. 421-428Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A relationship between local and systemic inflammation and different co-morbidities, such as cardiovascular, has been discussed in relation to disease process and prognosis in COPD. Aim: To evaluate if conditions as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, chronic rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux are overrepresented in COPD. Methods: All subjects with COPD according to GOLD, FEV(1)/FVC<0.70, were identified (n = 993) from the clinical follow-up in 2002-04 of the OLIN (Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden) studies' cohorts together with 993 gender- and age-matched reference subjects without COPD (non-COPD, further divided into normal and restrictive lung function). Interview data on co-morbidity and symptoms were used. Results: Cardiovascular co-morbidity, taken together heart disease, hypertension, stroke and intermittent claudication, was the most common and higher in COPD compared to in normal lung function (Nlf) 50.1% vs 41.0% (p<0.001). The prevalence of chronic rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux (GERD) was higher in COPD compared to in Nlf (43.1% vs 32.3%, p<0.001 and 16.7% vs 12.0%, p = 0.011). In restrictive lung function the prevalence of chronic rhinitis, cardiovascular disease, hyperlipemia and diabetes was higher compared to in Nlf (41.0% vs 32.3%, p = 0.017, 59.0% vs 41.0%, p<0.001, 29.2% vs.12.9%, p = 0.033, 20.9% vs 8.6%, p <0.001). In COPD and heart disease, 62.5% had chronic rhinitis and/or GERD, while in Nlf the corresponding proportion was 42.5%. Conclusion: Co-morbid conditions such as cardiovascular disease, chronic rhinitis and gastroesophageal reflux were common in COPD. The overlap between heart disease, chronic rhinitis and GERD was large in COPD. Restrictive lung function did also identify a population with increased disease burden.

  • 97.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Linder, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Eriksson Ström, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Frølich, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Nilsson, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Johansson Strandkvist, Viktor
    Behndig, Annelie F
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    From COPD epidemiology to studies of pathophysiological disease mechanisms: challenges with regard to study design and recruitment process2017Ingår i: European Clinical Respiratory Journal, ISSN 2001-8525, Vol. 4, artikel-id 1415095Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a largely underdiagnosed disease including several phenotypes. In this report, the design of a study intending to evaluate the pathophysiological mechanism in COPD in relation to the specific phenotypes non-rapid and rapid decline in lung function is described together with the recruitment process of the study population derived from a population based study.

    Method: The OLIN COPD study includes a population-based COPD cohort and referents without COPD identified in 2002–04 (n = 1986), and thereafter followed annually since 2005. Lung function decline was estimated from baseline in 2002–2004 to 2010 (first recruitment phase) or to 2012/2013 (second recruitment phase). Individuals who met the predefined criteria for the following four groups were identified; group A) COPD grade 2–3 with rapid decline in FEV1 and group B) COPD grade 2–3 without rapid decline in FEV1 (≥60 and ≤30 ml/year, respectively), group C) ever-smokers, and group D) non-smokers with normal lung function. Groups A–C included ever-smokers with >10 pack years. The intention was to recruit 15 subjects in each of the groups A-D.

    Results: From the database groups A–D were identified; group A n = 37, group B n = 29, group C n = 41, and group D n = 55. Fifteen subjects were recruited from groups C and D, while this goal was not reached in the groups A (n = 12) and B (n = 10). The most common reasons for excluding individuals identified as A or B were comorbidities contraindicating bronchoscopy, or inflammatory diseases/immune suppressive medication expected to affect the outcome.

    Conclusion: The study is expected to generate important results regarding pathophysiological mechanisms associated with rate of decline in lung function among subjects with COPD and the in-detail described recruitment process, including reasons for non-participation, is a strength when interpreting the results in forthcoming studies.

  • 98.
    Lindberg, Anne
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Sawalha, Sami
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Hedman, Linnea
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Larsson, Lars-Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lundback, Bo
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Subjects with COPD and productive cough have an increased risk for exacerbations and death2015Ingår i: Respiratory Medicine, ISSN 0954-6111, E-ISSN 1532-3064, Vol. 109, nr 1, s. 88-95Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic bronchitis is related to worse general health status, exacerbations and mortality among subjects with COPD. Also less longstanding cough and phlegm may be related to worse prognosis in COPD but this has rarely been evaluated in population-based studies. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between productive cough, exacerbations and mortality among subjects with and without COPD. Method: All subjects with COPD (n = 993) were identified together with sex-and age matched reference subjects without obstructive lung function impairment from four population-based cohorts in 2002-04. Baseline spirometry and structured interview including data on exacerbations last 12 months were used in this study (n = 1986) together with mortality data collected until February 2012. Results: Productive cough was more common in COPD than non-COPD (42.8 vs. 23.5%, p < 0.001), more common in men than women, but associated to exacerbations in both sexes. COPD-subjects with productive cough had the highest risk for exacerbations in both sexes and they had a significantly increased risk for death (HR 1.48, 95% CI 1.13-1.94) also when adjusted for sex, age, BMI, smoking habits and heart disease. Conclusion: Productive cough was common and increased the risk for exacerbations in both sexes, in both COPD and non-COPD. COPD-subjects with productive cough had the highest risk for exacerbations and a significantly higher risk for death also after adjustment for common risk factors.

  • 99.
    Linder, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Behndig, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Serum metalloproteinase-9 is related to COPD severity and symptoms - cross-sectional data from a population based cohort-study2015Ingår i: Respiratory Research, ISSN 1465-9921, E-ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 16, artikel-id 28Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD, is an increasing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and an imbalance between proteases and antiproteases has been implicated to play a role in COPD pathogenesis. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are important proteases that along with their inhibitors, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases (TIMP), affect homeostasis of elastin and collagen, of importance for the structural integrity of human airways. Small observational studies indicate that these biomarkers are involved in the pathogenesis of COPD. The aim of this study was to investigate serum levels of MMP-9 and TIMP-1 in a large Swedish population- based cohort, and their association with disease severity and important clinical symptoms of COPD such as productive cough.

    Methods: Spirometry was performed and peripheral blood samples were collected in a populations-based cohort (median age 67 years) comprising subjects with COPD (n = 594) and without COPD (n = 948), in total 1542 individuals. Serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) and related to lung function data and symptoms.

    Results: Median serum MMP-9 values were significantly higher in COPD compared with non-COPD 535 vs. 505 ng/ml (P = 0.017), without any significant differences in serum TIMP-1-levels or MMP-9/TIMP-1-ratio. In univariate analysis, productive cough and decreasing FEV1% predicted correlated significantly with increased MMP-9 among subjects with COPD (P = 0.004 and P = 0.001 respectively), and FEV1% predicted remained significantly associated to MMP-9 in a multivariate model adjusting for age, sex, pack years and productive cough (P = 0.033).

    Conclusion: Productive cough and decreasing FEV1 were each associated with MMP-9 in COPD, and decreasing FEV1 remained significantly associated with MMP-9 also after adjustment for common confounders in this population-based COPD cohort. The increased serum MMP-9 concentrations in COPD indicate an enhanced proteolytic activity that is related to disease severity, and further longitudinal studies are important for the understanding of MMP-9 in relation to the disease process and the pathogenesis of different COPD phenotypes.

  • 100.
    Linder, Robert
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin. The OLIN unit.
    Pourazar, Jamshid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Behndig, Annelie F.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindberg, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Proteolytic biomarkers are related to prognosis in COPD: report from a population-based cohort2018Ingår i: Respiratory Research, ISSN 1465-9921, E-ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 19, artikel-id 64Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The imbalance between proteases and anti-proteases is considered to contribute to the development of COPD. Our aim was to evaluate the protease MMP-9, the antiprotease TIMP-1 and the MMP-9/TIMP-1-ratio as biomarkers in relation to prognosis. Prognosis was assessed as lung function decline and mortality. This was done among subjects with COPD in a population-based cohort.

    METHODS: In 2005, clinical examinations including spirometry and peripheral blood sampling, were made in a longitudinal population-based cohort. In total, 1542 individuals participated, whereof 594 with COPD. In 2010, 1031 subjects participated in clinical examinations, and 952 subjects underwent spirometry in both 2005 and 2010. Serum MMP-9 and TIMP-1 concentrations were measured with enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Mortality data were collected from the Swedish national mortality register from the date of examination in 2005 until 31st December 2010.

    RESULTS: The correlation between biomarkers and lung function decline was similar in non-COPD and COPD, but only significant for MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1-ratio in non-COPD. Mortality was higher in COPD than non-COPD (16% vs. 10%, p = 0.008). MMP-9 concentrations and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratios in 2005 were higher among those who died during follow up, as well as among those alive but not participating in 2010, when compared to those participating in the 2010-examination. In non-COPD, male sex, age, burden of smoking, heart disease and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio were associated with increased risk for death, while increased TIMP-1 was protective. Among those with COPD, age, current smoking, increased MMP-9 and MMP-9/TIMP-1 ratio were associated with an increased risk for death.

    CONCLUSIONS: The expected association between these biomarkers and lung function decline in COPD was not confirmed in this population-based study, probably due to a healthy survivor effect. Still, it is suggested that increased proteolytic imbalance may be of greater prognostic importance in COPD than in non-COPD.

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