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  • 51.
    Hellström, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Upscaling behavioural studies to the field using acoustic telemetry2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 170, s. 384-389Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Laboratory-based behavioural assays are often used in ecotoxicological studies to assess the environmental risk of aquatic contaminants. While results from such laboratory-based risk assessments may be difficult to extrapolate to natural environments, technological advancements over the past decade now make it possible to perform risk assessments through detailed studies of exposed individuals in natural settings. Acoustic telemetry is a technology to monitor movement and behaviour of aquatic organism in oceans, lakes, and rivers. The technology allows for tracking of multiple individuals simultaneously with very high temporal and spatial resolution, with the option to incorporate sensors to measure various physiological and environmental parameters. Although frequently used in fisheries research, aquatic ecotoxicology has been slow to adopt acoustic telemetry as a tool in field-based studies. This mini-review intends to introduce acoustic telemetry to aquatic ecotoxicologists, focusing on the potential of the technology to bridge the gap between laboratory assays and natural behaviours when making toxicological risk assessments.

  • 52. Hey, G.
    et al.
    Vega, S. R.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ledin, A.
    Jansen, J. La Cour
    Andersen, H. R.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals in WWTP effluents by ozone and hydrogen peroxide2014Ingår i: Water S.A., ISSN 0378-4738, E-ISSN 1816-7950, Vol. 40, nr 1, s. 165-173Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ozonation to achieve removal of pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents, with pH values in the upper and lower regions of the typical range for Swedish wastewater, was investigated. The main aim was to study the effects of varying pH values (6.0 and 8.0), and if small additions of H2O2 prior to ozone treatment could improve the removal and lower the reaction time. The effluents studied differed in their chemical characteristics, particularly in terms of alkalinity (65.3-427 mg center dot l(-1) HCO3-), COD (18.2-41.8 mg center dot l(-1)), DOC (6.9-12.5 mg center dot l(-1)), ammonium content (0.02-3.6 mg center dot l(-1)) and specific UV absorbance (1.78-2.76 l center dot mg(-1)center dot m(-1)). As expected, lower ozone decomposition rates were observed in the effluents at pH 6.0 compared to pH 8.0. When pH 8.0 effluents were ozonated, a higher degree of pharmaceutical removal occurred in the effluent with low specific UV absorbance. For pH 6.0 effluents, the removal of pharmaceuticals was most efficient in the effluent with the lowest organic content. The addition of H2O2 had no significant effect on the quantitative removal of pharmaceuticals but enhanced the ozone decomposition rate. Thus, H2O2 addition increased the reaction rate. In practice, this will mean that the reactor volume needed for the ozonation of wastewater effluents can be reduced.

  • 53.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Backstrom, Tobias
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Home alone: the effects of isolation on uptake of a pharmaceutical contaminant in a social fish2016Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 180, s. 71-77Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A wide range of biologically active pharmaceutical residues is present in aquatic systems worldwide. As uptake potential and the risk of effects in aquatic wildlife are directly coupled, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between stress by isolation, uptake and effects of the psychiatric pharmaceutical oxazepam in fish. To do this, we measured cortisol levels, behavioral stress responses, and oxazepam uptake under different stress and social conditions, in juvenile perch (Percafluviatilis) that were either exposed (1.03 mu gl(-1)) or not exposed to oxazepam. We found single exposed individuals to take up more oxazepam than individuals exposed in groups, likely as a result of stress caused by isolation. Furthermore, the bioconcentration factor (BCF) was significantly negatively correlated with fish weight in both social treatments. We found no effect of oxazepam exposure on body cortisol concentration or behavioral stress response. Most laboratory experiments, including standardized bioconcentration assays, are designed to minimize stress for the test organisms, however wild animals experience stress naturally. Hence, differences in stress levels between laboratory and natural environments can be one of the reasons why predictions from artificial laboratory experiments largely underestimate uptake of oxazepam, and other pharmaceuticals, in the wild.

  • 54.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tissue-specific uptake of the benzodiazepine oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016Ingår i: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 13, nr 5, s. 849-853Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Typically, in field surveys and laboratory studies, muscle or whole - body homogenates are used to quantify pharmaceutical concentrations in biota, although uptake of pharmaceuticals may be tissue - specific. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the tissue - specific (muscle, liver, brain and blood plasma) uptake of the anxiolytic oxazepam in adult Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis). In laboratory experiments, perch were exposed to four different concentrations (2, 4, 12 and 20 mu g L-1) of oxazepam for 6 days, and muscle, liver, brain tissue and blood plasma were sampled to determine tissue - specific bioconcentration. We found that the tissue - specific bioconcentration was independent of oxazepam concentration. However, among tissue types, bioconcentration was significantly different, with the concentration in muscle, liver = brain, blood plasma. Hence, it is important to consider the type of tissue used to quantify pharmaceutical uptake in fish, for predictions of species - specific sensitivity and comparisons across studies. Furthermore, our results indicate a somewhat lower transportability (brain/plasma ratio 0.54) of oxazepam from blood to brain in fish compared with in mammals, which should be kept in mind when employing 'read - across' approaches.

  • 55.
    Heynen, Martina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effect of bioconcentration and trophic transfer on realized exposure to oxazepam in 2 predators, the dragonfly larvae (Aeshna grandis) and the Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis)2016Ingår i: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 35, nr 4, s. 930-937Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychoactive substances are used worldwide and constitute one of the most common groups of pharmaceutical contaminants in surface waters. Although these pharmaceuticals are designed to be efficiently eliminated from the human body, very little is known about their trophic-transfer potential in aquatic wildlife. Therefore, the goal of the present study was to quantify and compare uptake of an anxiolytic (oxazepam) from water (bioconcentration) and via the consumption of contaminated diet (trophic transfer) in 2 common freshwater predators: Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) and the dragonfly larvae Aeshna grandis. Bioconcentration and trophic transfer of oxazepam were found in both predator species. However, higher bioconcentrations were observed for perch (bioconcentration factor [BCF], 3.7) than for dragonfly larvae (BCF, 0.5). Perch also retained more oxazepam from consumed prey (41%) than dragonfly larvae (10%), whereas the relative contribution via prey consumption was 14% and 42% for perch and dragonflies, respectively. In addition, bioconcentration was negatively correlated with perch weight, indicating that exposure levels in natural contaminated environments differ between individuals of different size or between different developmental stages. Hence, trophic transfer of pharmaceuticals may indeed occur, and estimates of environmental exposures that do not consider intake via food or size-dependent bioconcentration may therefore lead to wrongful estimations of realized exposure levels in natural contaminated ecosystems. (C) 2016 SETAC

  • 56. Holmberg, Anna
    et al.
    Fogel, Jenny
    Albertsson, Eva
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brown, Jeffrey N
    Paxéus, Nicklas
    Förlin, Lars
    Johnsson, Jörgen I
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Does waterborne citalopram affect the aggressive and sexual behaviour of rainbow trout and guppy?2011Ingår i: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 187, nr 1-3, s. 596-599Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Citalopram is one of several selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) commonly found in treated sewage effluents. Accordingly, there are concerns about possible adverse effects of SSRIs on aquatic organisms, particularly behavioural effects similar to those associated with SSRI use in humans. Rainbow trout fry and adult male guppies were therefore exposed to waterborne citalopram, ranging from environmentally relevant to high concentrations (1, 10, 100μg/L) for 3-7 days. Under these experimental conditions citalopram does not appear to cause significant effects on aggression in rainbow trout fry or on sexual behaviour in male guppies. This may be explained by a relatively low uptake of citalopram from water to fish.

  • 57. Hutinel, Marion
    et al.
    Huijbers, Patricia Maria Catharina
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Ahrenk, Christina
    Larsson, Dan Goran Joakim
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Population-level surveillance of antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli through sewage analysis2019Ingår i: Eurosurveillance, ISSN 1025-496X, E-ISSN 1560-7917, Vol. 24, nr 37, s. 6-16, artikel-id 1800497Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The occurrence of antibiotic resistance in faecal bacteria in sewage is likely to reflect the current local clinical resistance situation.

    Aim: This observational study investigated the relationship between Escherichia coli resistance rates in sewage and clinical samples representing the same human populations.

    Methods: E. coli were isolated from eight hospital (n=721 isolates) and six municipal (n=531 isolates) sewage samples, over 1year in Gothenburg, Sweden. An inexpensive broth screening method was validated against disk diffusion and applied to determine resistance against 11 antibiotics in sewage isolates. Resistance data on E. coli isolated from clinical samples from corresponding local hospital and primary care patients were collected during the same year and compared with those of the sewage isolates by linear regression.

    Results: E. coli resistance rates derived from hospital sewage and hospital patients strongly correlated (r(2) = 0.95 for urine and 0.89 for blood samples), as did resistance rates in E. coli from municipal sewage and primary care urine samples (r(2)=0.82). Resistance rates in hospital sewage isolates were close to those in hospital clinical isolates while resistance rates in municipal sewage isolates were about half of those measured in primary care isolates. Resistance rates in municipal sewage isolates were more stable between sampling occasions than those from hospital sewage.

    Conclusion: Our findings provide support for development of a low-cost, sewage-based surveillance system for antibiotic resistance in E. coli, which could complement current monitoring systems and provide clinically relevant antibiotic resistance data for countries and regions where surveillance is lacking.

  • 58.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    et al.
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Ledin, Anna
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jansen, Jes la Cour
    Water and Environmental Engineering at Department of Chemical Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersen, Henrik R
    Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Lyngby, Denmark .
    Determination of sorption of seventy five pharmaceuticals in sewage sludge2011Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, nr 15, s. 4470-4482Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Sorption of 75 active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) to three different types of sludge (primary sludge, secondary sludge with short and long sludge age respectively) were investigated. To obtain the sorption isotherms batch studies with the APIs mixture were performed in four nominal concentrations to water containing 1 g of sludge. The range of APIs concentrations was between ng L-1 to μg L-1 which are found in the wastewater effluents. Isotherms were obtained for approximately 45 of the APIs, providing distribution coefficients for linear (Kd), Freundlich (Kf) and Langmuir (KL) isotherms. Kd, Kf and KL ranging between 7.1×104-3.8×107, 1.1×10-2- 6.1×104 and 9.2×10-3- 1.1L kg-1, respectively. The obtained coefficients were applied to estimate the fraction of APIs in the water phase (see Abstract Graphic). For 37 of the 75 APIs the predicted presence in the liquid phase was estimated to > 80%. 24 APIs were estimated to be present in the liquid phase between 20 - 80 %, and 14 APIs were found to have < 20% presence in the liquid phase, i.e. high affinity towards sludge. Furthermore, the effect of pH at values 6, 7 and 8 was evaluated using one way ANOVA-test. A significant difference in Kds due to pH changes were found for 6 of the APIs (variation 10-20%).

    Graphical abstractHiglights

    ► Sorption isotherms were experimentally obtained for roughly 45 of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 31 APIs were estimated to be < 20%.in the WWTP. ► By sorption to sludge the removal of 15 APIs were estimated to be >80% in the WWTP. ► For 13of the API the sorption to sludge was stronger than 1.2 ×106 L kg-1. ► For 10 of the API the sorption to sludge was less than 100 L kg-1

  • 59.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Formation and chlorination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the post-combustion zone during MSW combustion2008Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 72, nr 8, s. 1138-1144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Non- to octa-chlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were analyzed in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at three different temperatures (450 °C, 300 °C and 200 °C, respectively) in the post-combustion zone during waste combustion experiments using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. PCN homologue profiles in all samples were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues (mono- to triCN), with successive reductions in abundance with each additional degree of chlorination. The isomer distribution patterns reflected ortho-directionality behavior of the first chlorine substituent, and the β-positions, i.e. the 2,3,6,7-substitution sites, seemed to be favored for chlorination. Injection of naphthalene into the post-combustion zone resulted in increased PCN levels at 200 °C, demonstrating the occurrence of chlorination reactions in the post-combustion zone. However, the increases were restricted to the least-chlorinated homologue (monoCN), probably because there was insufficient residence time for further chlorination. In addition, an episode of poor combustion (manifested by high CO levels) was accompanied by extensive formation of 1,8-diCN, 1,2,3- and 1,2,8-triCN; congeners with substitution patterns that are not thermodynamically favorable. These are believed to be products of PAH breakdown reactions and/or chlorophenol condensation. Overall, PCN formation is likely to occur via more than one pathway, including chlorination of naphthalene that is already present, de novo synthesis from PAHs and, possibly, chlorophenol condensation.

  • 60.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Unit of Biomass Technology and Chemistry, SE-901 83 Umeå, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Effect of injection of di- and tricyclic aromatic compounds on post-combustion formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans2011Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 409, nr 18, s. 3386-3393Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The formation of mono- to octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PC(1-8)DD) and dibenzofurans (PC(1-8)DF) was studied using a model waste in a laboratory-scale combustion reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas at three different temperatures (450°C, 300°C, and 200°C) in the post-combustion zone. To investigate the influence of chlorination reactions and the effects of carbon backbone-containing compounds present in the flue gases, five aromatic compounds were injected into the flue gas, namely dibenzofuran (DF), biphenyl (BP), naphthalene, phenanthrene and fluorene. The injection of DF induced a reduction in the concentration of PC(3-5)DD, but did not significantly influence the concentration of PCDF. A reduction in the concentration of PC(3-5)DD was also observed during the injection of fluorene, which is structurally very similar to DF. The injection of biphenyl, naphthalene and phenanthrene had less pronounced effects on the formation of PCDD and PCDF. A possible explanation of the observed changes during injection of DF and fluorene, based on homologue profiles and affected congeners, involves formation of radical species from fluorene and/or dibenzofuran. The fluorene radical is stabilized by the delocalization of electrons across the aromatic ring structure and has the propensity to react with highly abundant hydrogen chloride, whereas the molecular species would require reaction with Cl(2) or chlorine radicals.

  • 61.
    Jansson, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Post-combustion formation of PCDD, PCDF, PCBz, and PCPh in a laboratory-scale reactor: Influence of dibenzo-p-dioxin injection2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, nr 6, s. 818-25Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD), dibenzofurans (PCDF), benzenes (PCBz), and phenols (PCPh) was studied during combustion of an artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) in a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor with simultaneous collection of flue gas samples at three different temperatures in the post-combustion zone (450 degrees C, 300 degrees C, and 200 degrees C). PCDF, PCBz, and PCPh were predominantly formed at or above the first sampling point (450 degrees C) with a dominance of the lower chlorinated homologues. PCDDs, on the other hand, were dominated by the intermediately chlorinated homologues with concentrations peaking at 300 degrees C. The dominating PCPh congeners clearly displayed the ortho-para directionality, which is indicative of electrophilic aromatic substitution, as did the PCBz isomer distribution patterns to some extent. Comparison of the observed PCBz isomer distribution patterns to prior work may indicate coupling of aliphatic species in chlorobenzene formation. The PCDDs seemed to be largely influenced by chlorophenol condensation reactions and to some extent chlorination reactions, while the PCDFs displayed a chlorination-oriented pattern for the mono- to tri-chlorinated homologues and a PCPh condensation pattern for the higher chlorinated homologues. Injection of non-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin at 650 degrees C resulted in increased formation of Tri-HxCDD and a decrease in the dibenzofuran levels. The affected PCDD and PCDF congeners were not products expected to form from chlorine substitution, but instead are well known chlorophenol condensation products.

  • 62. Johnning, Anna
    et al.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Weijdegard, Birgitta
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Resistance Mutations in gyrA and parC are Common in Escherichia Communities of both Fluoroquinolone-Polluted and Uncontaminated Aquatic Environments2015Ingår i: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 6, artikel-id 1355Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Alterations in the target proteins of fluoroquinolones, especially in GyrA and ParC, are known to cause resistance. Here, we investigated environmental Escherichia communities to explore the possible link between the abundance of mutations, and the exposure to fluoroquinolones. Sediment samples were collected from a relatively pristine lake, up and downstream from a sewage treatment plant, and from several industrially polluted sites. The quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA and parC were analyzed using amplicon sequencing of metagenomic DNA. Five non-synonymous substitutions were present in all samples, and all of these mutations have been previously linked to fluoroquinolone resistance in Escherichia coli. In GyrA, substitutions S83L and D87N were on average detected at frequencies of 86 and 32%, respectively, and 31% of all amplicons encoded both substitutions. In ParC, substitutions S80I, E84G, and E84V were detected in 42, 0.9, and 6.0% of the amplicons, respectively, and 6.5% encoded double substitutions. There was no significant correlation between the level of fluoroquinolone pollution and the relative abundance of resistance mutations, with the exception of the most polluted site, which showed the highest abundance of said substitutions in both genes. Our results demonstrate that resistance mutations can be common in environmental Escherichia, even in the absence of a fluoroquinolone selective pressure.

  • 63.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Piovano, Susanna
    School of Marine Studies, The University of the South Pacific, Suva, Fiji.
    High-speed imaging reveals how antihistamine exposure affects escape behaviours in aquatic insect prey2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 648, s. 1257-1262Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Aquatic systems receive a wide range of pharmaceuticals that may have adverse impacts on aquatic wildlife. Among these pharmaceuticals, antihistamines are commonly found, and these substances have the potential to influence the physiology of aquatic invertebrates. Previous studies have focused on how antihistamines may affect behaviours of aquatic invertebrates, but these studies probably do not capture the full consequences of antihistamine exposure, as traditional recording techniques do not capture important animal movements occurring at the scale of milliseconds, such as prey escape responses. In this study, we investigated if antihistamine exposure can impact escape responses in aquatic insect, by exposing damselfly (Coenagrion hastulatum) larvae to two environmentally relevant concentrations (0.1 and 1 μg L−1) of diphenhydramine. Importantly, we used a high-speed imaging approach that with high-time resolution captures details of escape responses and, thus, potential impacts of diphenhydramine on these behaviours. Our results show overall weak effects of antihistamine exposure on the escape behaviours of damselfly larvae. However, at stage 2 of the C-escape response, we found a significant increase in turning angle, which corresponds to a reduced swimming velocity, indicating a reduced success at evading a predator attack. Thus, we show that low concentrations of an antihistamine may affect behaviours strongly related to fitness of aquatic insect prey – effects would have been overlooked using traditional recording techniques. Hence, to understand the full consequences of pharmaceutical contamination on aquatic wildlife, high-speed imaging should be incorporated into future environmental risk assessments.

  • 64.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ershammar, Ellen
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Effects of an antihistamine on carbon and nutrient recycling in streams2015Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 538, s. 240-245Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In stream ecosystems, microbes and macroinvertebrates consume leaf litter deposited from the riparian vegetation, and thereby recycle resources tied up in the litter. Several environmental variables influence rates of this recycling, but it is not well known if common pharmaceuticals, such as antihistamines, originating from waste-water effluent, have additional impacts. Exposure to dilute concentrations of antihistamines may adversely influence aquatic detritivorous invertebrates, because invertebrates use histamines for neurotransmission, resulting in hampered recycling of resource tied up in leaf detritus. In this study, we therefore investigated if the antihistamine fexofenadine, at a concentration of 2000 ng l(-1), alters rates of leaf litter decomposition in stream microcosms. Stonefly larvae (n = 10, per microcosm), together with natural microbial communities, served as main decomposer organisms on alder leaf litter. First, we used 30 microcosms containing fexofenadine, while the other 30 served as non-contaminated controls, and of each 30 microcosms, 14 contained stonefly larvae and microbes, while the remaining 16 contained only microbes. We found, in contrast to our hypothesis, that fexofenadine had no effect on leaf litter decomposition via impacts on the stonefly larvae. However, independent on if stoneflies were present or not, concentrations of organic carbon (TOC) and nitrogen (N) were strongly affected, with 20-26 and 24-31% lower concentrations of TOC and N, respectively, in the presence of fexofenadine. Second, in a scaled down follow-up experiment we found that microbial activity increased by 85%, resulting in a 10% decrease in pH, in the presence of fexofenadine. While the antihistamine concentration we used is higher than those thus far found in the field (1-10 ng l(-1)), it is still 100 times lower than the predicted no-effect concentration for fexofenadine. As such, our results indicate that low mu g l(-1) levels of antihistamines can have an effect on carbon and nutrient recycling in aquatic system. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 65.
    Jonsson, Micael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Antihistamines and aquatic insects: Bioconcentration and impacts on behavior in damselfly larvae (Zygoptera)2014Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 472, s. 108-111Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Because aquatic insects use histamines as neurotransmitters, adverse impacts on aquatic insects living in aquatic environments that receive antihistamines with wastewater effluent are plausible. In this study, we exposed damselfly larvae to low concentrations of two commonly used antihistamines (Hydroxyzine and Fexofenadine, 360 +/- 42 and 2200 +/- 43 ng 1(-1), respectively), and recorded damselfly larvae behavior before and after exposure. Further, after the second set of behavioral assays was performed, we quantified bioconcentration of the antihistamines in the damselfly bodies. Our results showed significant changes in damselfly behavior following antihistamine exposure. After Hydroxyzine exposure, the damselfly larvae became less active, and they showed reduced fleeing response (i.e. increased boldness) after being exposed to Fexofenadine, the latter also being significantly different from the non-exposed (control) individuals. Further, we found high levels of bioconcentration in the damselflies; Hydroxyzine showed an average bioconcentration factor (BCF) of 2000. As such, our results indicate that low concentrations of antihistamines can have sub-lethal effects on aquatic insects manifested as behavioral changes, and that bioconcentration of these substances can be high. Therefore, the need to investigate the impact of emergent aquatic contaminants also on aquatic insects, and on behaviors that are of ecological importance, is further highlighted. (c) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 66. Järhult, Josef D
    et al.
    Muradrasoli, Shaman
    Wahlgren, John
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Orozovic, Goran
    Gunnarsson, Gunnar
    Brojer, Caroline
    Latorre-Margalef, Neus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lennerstrand, Johan
    Waldenstrom, Jonas
    Lundkvist, Åke
    Olsen, Björn
    Environmental levels of the antiviral oseltamivir induce development of resistance mutation H274Y in influenza A/H1N1 virus in mallards2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 9, s. e24742-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir (Tamiflu (R)) is the most widely used drug against influenza infections and is extensively stockpiled worldwide as part of pandemic preparedness plans. However, resistance is a growing problem and in 2008-2009, seasonal human influenza A/H1N1 virus strains in most parts of the world carried the mutation H274Y in the neuraminidase gene which causes resistance to the drug. The active metabolite of oseltamivir, oseltamivir carboxylate (OC), is poorly degraded in sewage treatment plants and surface water and has been detected in aquatic environments where the natural influenza reservoir, dabbling ducks, can be exposed to the substance. To assess if resistance can develop under these circumstances, we infected mallards with influenza A/H1N1 virus and exposed the birds to 80 ng/L, 1 mu g/L and 80 mu g/L of OC through their sole water source. By sequencing the neuraminidase gene from fecal samples, we found that H274Y occurred at 1 mu g/L of OC and rapidly dominated the viral population at 80 mu g/L. IC(50) for OC was increased from 2-4 nM in wild-type viruses to 400-700 nM in H274Y mutants as measured by a neuraminidase inhibition assay. This is consistent with the decrease in sensitivity to OC that has been noted among human clinical isolates carrying H274Y. Environmental OC levels have been measured to 58-293 ng/L during seasonal outbreaks and are expected to reach mu g/L-levels during pandemics. Thus, resistance could be induced in influenza viruses circulating among wild ducks. As influenza viruses can cross species barriers, oseltamivir resistance could spread to human-adapted strains with pandemic potential disabling oseltamivir, a cornerstone in pandemic preparedness planning. We propose surveillance in wild birds as a measure to understand the resistance situation in nature and to monitor it over time. Strategies to lower environmental levels of OC include improved sewage treatment and, more importantly, a prudent use of antivirals.

  • 67. Kallenborn, R
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Moe, M
    Nielsen, K M
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Vasskog, T
    Pharmaceutical residues in Northern European Environments: Consequences and Perspectives2008Ingår i: Pharmaceuticals in the Environment: Sources, Fate, Effects and Risks, 2008, s. 61-74Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 68.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Berglund, Björn
    Khan, Kashif Maqbool
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Occurrence and abundance of antibiotics and resistance genes in rivers, canal and near drug formulation facilities: a study in Pakistan2013Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, nr 6, s. e62712-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance (AR) is a global phenomenon that has severe epidemiological ramifications world-wide. It has been suggested that antibiotics that have been discharged into the natural aquatic environments after usage or manufacture can promote the occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARG). These environmental ARGs could serve as a reservoir and be horizontally transferred to human-associated bacteria and thus contribute to AR proliferation. The aim of this study was to investigate the anthropogenic load of antibiotics in Northern Pakistan and study the occurrence of ARGs in selected samples from this region. 19 sampling sites were selected; including six rivers, one dam, one canal, one sewage drain and four drug formulation facilities. Our results show that five of the rivers have antibiotic levels comparable to surface water measurements in unpolluted sites in Europe and the US. However, high levels of antibiotics could be detected in the downstream river in close vicinity of the 10 million city Lahore, 1100, 1700 and 2700 ng L-1 for oxytetracycline, trimethoprim, and sulfamethoxazole respectively. Highest detected levels were at one of the drug formulation facilities, with the measured levels of 1100, 4100, 6200, 7300, 8000, 27000, 28000 and 49000 ng L 21 of erythromycin, lincomycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin, oxytetracycline, trimethoprim and sulfamethoxazole respectively. ARGs were also detected at the sites and the highest levels of ARGs detected, sulI and dfrA1, were directly associated with the antibiotics detected at the highest concentrations, sulfamethoxazole and trimethoprim. Highest levels of both antibiotics and ARGs were seen at a drug formulation facility, within an industrial estate with a low number of local residents and no hospitals in the vicinity, which indicates that the levels of ARGs at this site were associated with the environmental levels of antibiotics

  • 69.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    The development and application of a system for simultaneously determining anti-infectives and nasal decongestants using on-line solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry2012Ingår i: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, ISSN 0731-7085, E-ISSN 1873-264X, Vol. 66, s. 24-32Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for the simultaneous analysis of antibiotics, antiviral and nasal decongestants in treated sewage effluent and surface water has been developed and validated. The method uses on-line solid phase extraction (SPE) of injected high-volume samples in conjunction with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). This method includes a range of antibiotics (Trimethoprim, Oxytetracycline, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin, Ciprofloxacin, Azithromycin, Doxycycline, Sulfamethoxazole, Erythromycin and Clarithromycin), an antiviral (Oseltamivir) and nasal decongestants (Naphazoline, Oxymetazoline and Xylometazoline). The method's detection limits (MDLs) ranged from (0.2ngL(-1)) to (3.1ngL(-1)), based on a 1mL extraction volume. Its intra-day precision was determined by performing nine runs with 200ngL(-1) samples; the intra-day relative standard deviation (RSD) ranged from 1% to 19%. Inter-day precision was determined by analyzing samples in triplicate over the course of three days, yielding relative standard deviations ranging from <5% to <26%. The linearity (R(2)) for all compounds tested was >0.90. Spike relative recoveries ranged from 40% to 157% and 40% to 152% for STP effluent and surface water samples, respectively. Finally, the method was used to analyze real effluent and surface water.

  • 70.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Anderson, N. J.
    Fahlman, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, M.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Long-Term Persistence of an Anxiolytic Drug (Oxazepam) in a Large Freshwater Lake2015Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 49, nr 17, s. 10406-10412Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Production and human consumption of pharmaceuticals result in contamination of surface waters worldwide. Little is known about the long-term (i.e., over decades) fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems. Here, we show that the most prescribed anxiolytic in Sweden (oxazepam) persists in its therapeutic form for several decades after being deposited in a large freshwater lake. By comparing sediment cores collected in 1995 and 2013, we demonstrate that oxazepam inputs from the early 1970s remained in the sediments until sampling in 2013, despite in situ degradation processes and sediment diagenesis. In laboratory and pond experiments, we further reveal that therapeutic forms of oxazepam can persist over several months in cold (5 degrees C) lake water free from UV light. We conclude that oxazepam can persist in lakes over a time scale much longer than previously realized and that levels can build up in lakes due to both a legacy of past inputs and a growing urban population.

  • 71.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergman, Eva
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Drug-Induced Behavioral Changes: Using Laboratory Observations to Predict Field Observations2016Ingår i: Frontiers in Environmental Science, E-ISSN 2296-665X, Vol. 4, artikel-id 81Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral assays constitute important research tools when assessing how fish respond to environmental change. However, it is unclear how behavioral modifications recorded in laboratory assays are expressed in natural ecosystems, a limitation that makes it difficult to evaluate the predictive power of laboratory-based measurements. In this study, we hypothesized that exposure to a benzodiazepine (i.e., oxazepam) increases boldness and activity in laboratory assays as well as in field assays – that is, laboratory results can be used to predict field results. Moreover, we expected the modified behavior to affect other important ecological measures such as habitat selection and home range. To test our hypothesis, we exposed European perch (Perca fluviatilis) to oxazepam and measured subsequent changes in behavioral trials both in laboratory assays and in a lake ecosystem populated with a predatory fish species, pike (Esox lucius). In the lake, the positions of both perch and pike were tracked every three minutes for a month using acoustic telemetry. In the laboratory assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were bolder and more active than the non-exposed perch. In the lake assay, the oxazepam-exposed perch were also more bold and active, had a larger home range, and used pelagic habitats more than the non-exposed perch. We conclude that ecotoxicological behavioral assays are useful for predicting the effects of exposure in natural systems. However, although individual responses to exposure were similar in both the laboratory and field trials, effects were more obvious in the field study, mainly due to reduced variability in the behavior measures from the lake. Hence, short-term behavioral assays may fail to detect all the effects expressed in natural environments. Nevertheless, our study clearly demonstrates that behavior modifications observed in laboratory settings can be used to predict how fish perform in aquatic ecosystems. 

  • 72.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    The conceptual imperfection of aquatic risk assessment tests: highlighting the need for tests designed to detect therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants2014Ingår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 9, nr 8, s. 084003-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Standardized ecotoxicological tests still constitute the fundamental tools when doing risk-assessment of aquatic contaminants. These protocols are managed towards minimal mortality in the controls, which is not representative for natural systems where mortality is often high. This methodological bias, generated from assays where mortality in the control group is systematically disregarded, makes it difficult to measure therapeutic effects of pharmaceutical contaminants leading to lower mortality. This is of concern considering that such effects on exposed organisms still may have substantial ecological consequences. In this paper, we illustrate this conceptual problem by presenting empirical data for how the therapeutic effect of Oxazepam-a common contaminant of surface waters-lower mortality rates among exposed Eurasian perch (Perca fluviatilis) from wild populations, at two different life stages. We found that fry hatched from roe that had been exposed to dilute concentrations (1.1 +/- 0.3 mu g l(-1)) of Oxazepam for 24 h 3-6 days prior to hatching showed lower mortality rates and increased activity 30 days after hatching. Similar effects, i.e. increased activity and lower mortality rates were also observed for 2-year old perch exposed to dilute Oxazepam concentrations (1.2 +/- 0.4 mu g l(-1)). We conclude that therapeutic effects from pharmaceutical contaminants need to be considered in risk assessment assays to avoid that important ecological effects from aquatic contaminants are systematically missed.

  • 73.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Leander, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Less anxious salmon smolt become easy prey during downstream migration2019Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 687, s. 488-493Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hatchery-reared salmon smolt used for supplementary stocking often display poor migration behavior compared to wild smolt, which reduces the success of this management action. Oxazepam, an anxiolytic drug, has been shown to intensify salmon smolt migration in mesocosm experiments, and treatment with this drug has, therefore, been suggested as a management option to improve downstream smolt migration. In this study, we tested this by assessing migration performance of hatchery-reared Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) smolt along a 21-km long natural river-to-sea migration route in a boreal river in Northern Sweden. Using acoustic telemetry, the migration rate and survival of smolt that had been exposed to oxazepam (200 mu g L-1, N = 20) was monitored and compared with a control group (N = 20) of unexposed smolt. Exposed smolt took significantly longer time to initiate migration after release compared to the control fish, but after that we observed no significant difference in downstream migration speed. However, exposed smolt had considerably higher probability of being predated on compared to control smolt. We attribute these results to increased risk-taking and higher activity in oxazepam-exposed smolt, which in turn increased initial non-directional exploratory behavior and decreased predator vigilance. These results are discussed based on current concerns for ecological implications of behavioral modifications induced by pharmaceutical pollution and climate change. We conclude that exposure to oxazepam is an unsuitable management option to prime migration of reared salmon in natural systems.

  • 74. Kraupner, Nadine
    et al.
    Ebmeyer, Stefan
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Selective concentration for ciprofloxacin resistance in Escherichia coli grown in complex aquatic bacterial biofilms2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 116, s. 255-268Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is concern that antibiotics in the environment can select for and enrich bacteria carrying acquired antibiotic resistance genes, thus increasing the potential of those genes to emerge in a clinical context. A critical question for understanding and managing such risks is what levels of antibiotics are needed to select for resistance in complex bacterial communities. Here, we address this question by examining the phenotypic and genotypic profiles of aquatic communities exposed to ciprofloxacin, also evaluating the within-species selection of resistant E. coli in complex communities. The taxonomic composition was significantly altered at ciprofloxacin exposure concentrations down to 1 mu g/L. Shotgun metagenomic analysis indicated that mobile quinolone resistance determinants (qnrD, qnrS and qnrB) were enriched as a direct consequence of ciprofloxacin exposure from 1 mu g/L or higher. Only at 5-10 mu g/L resistant E. coli increased relative to their sensitive counterparts. These resistant E. coli predominantly harbored non-transferrable, chromosomal triple mutations (gyrA S83 L, D87N and parC S80I), which confer high-level resistance. In a controlled experimental setup such as this, we interpret effects on taxonomic composition and enrichment of mobile quinolone resistance genes as relevant indicators of risk. Hence, the lowest observed effect concentration for resistance selection in complex communities by ciprofloxacin was 1 mu g/L and the corresponding no observed effect concentration 0.1 mu g/L. These findings can be used to define and implement discharge or surface water limits to reduce risks for selection of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

  • 75. Kristiansson, Erik
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Janzon, Anders
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Rutgersson, Carolin
    Weijdegård, Birgitta
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Pyrosequencing of antibiotic-contaminated river sediments reveals high levels of resistance and gene transfer elements2011Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 6, nr 2, s. e17038-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The high and sometimes inappropriate use of antibiotics has accelerated the development of antibiotic resistance, creating a major challenge for the sustainable treatment of infections world-wide. Bacterial communities often respond to antibiotic selection pressure by acquiring resistance genes, i.e. mobile genetic elements that can be shared horizontally between species. Environmental microbial communities maintain diverse collections of resistance genes, which can be mobilized into pathogenic bacteria. Recently, exceptional environmental releases of antibiotics have been documented, but the effects on the promotion of resistance genes and the potential for horizontal gene transfer have yet received limited attention. In this study, we have used culture-independent shotgun metagenomics to investigate microbial communities in river sediments exposed to waste water from the production of antibiotics in India. Our analysis identified very high levels of several classes of resistance genes as well as elements for horizontal gene transfer, including integrons, transposons and plasmids. In addition, two abundant previously uncharacterized resistance plasmids were identified. The results suggest that antibiotic contamination plays a role in the promotion of resistance genes and their mobilization from environmental microbes to other species and eventually to human pathogens. The entire life-cycle of antibiotic substances, both before, under and after usage, should therefore be considered to fully evaluate their role in the promotion of resistance.

  • 76.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Persson, J.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    No evidence of increased growth or mortality in fish exposed to oxazepam in semi-natural ecosystems2018Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 615, s. 608-614Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of short-term laboratory studies on fish reports behavioral effects from exposure to aquatic contaminants or raised carbon dioxide levels affecting the GABAAreceptor. However, how such GABAergic behavioral modifications (GBMs) impact populations in more complex natural systems is not known. In this study, we induced GBMs in European perch (Perca fluviatilis) via exposure to a GABA agonist (oxazepam) and followed the effects on growth and survival over one summer (70 days) in replicated pond ecosystems. We hypothesized that anticipated GBMs, expressed as anti-anxiety like behaviors (higher activity and boldness levels), that increase feeding rates in laboratory assays, would; i) increase growth and ii) increase mortality from predation. To test our hypotheses, 480 PIT tagged perch of known individual weights, and 12 predators (northern pike, Esox lucius) were evenly distributed in 12 ponds; six control (no oxazepam) and six spiked (15.5 ± 4 μg l− 1 oxazepam [mean ± 1 S.E.]) ponds. Contrary to our hypotheses, even though perch grew on average 16% more when exposed to oxazepam, we found no significant difference between exposed and control fish in growth (exposed: 3.9 ± 1.2 g, control: 2.9 ± 1 g [mean ± 1 S.E.], respectively) or mortality (exposed: 26.5 ± 1.8 individuals pond− 1, control: 24.5 ± 2.6 individuals pond− 1, respectively). In addition, we show that reduced prey capture efficiency in exposed pike may explain the lack of significant differences in predation. Hence, our results suggest that GBMs, which in laboratory studies impact fish behavior, and subsequently also feeding rates, do not seem to generate strong effects on growth and predation-risk in more complex and resource limited natural environments.

  • 77.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fahlman, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Byström, Pär
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bioaccumulation of five pharmaceuticals at multiple trophic levels in an aquatic food web: Insights from a field experiment2016Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 568, s. 208-215Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals derived from manufacturing and human consumption contaminate surface waters worldwide. To what extent such pharmaceutical contamination accumulates and disperses over time in different compartments of aquatic food webs is not well known. In this study we assess to what extent five pharmaceuticals (diphenhydramine, oxazepam, trimethoprim, diclofenac, and hydroxyzine) are taken up by fish (European perch) and four aquatic invertebrate taxa (damselfly larvae, mayfly larvae, waterlouse, and ramshorn snail), by tracing their bioconcentrations over several months in a semi-natural large-scale (pond) system. The results suggest both significant differences among drugs in their capacity to bioaccumulate and differences among species in uptake. While no support for in situ uptake of diclofenac and trimethoprim was found, oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine were detected in all analyzed species. Here, the highest bioaccumulation factor (tissue:water ratio) was found for hydroxyzine. In the food web, the highest concentrations were found in the benthic species ramshorn snail and waterlouse, indicating that bottom-living organism at lower trophic positions are the prime receivers of the pharmaceuticals. In general, concentrations in the biota decreased over time in response to decreasing water concentrations. However, two interesting exceptions to this trend were noted. First, mayfly larvae (primarily grazers) showed peak concentrations (a fourfold increase) of oxazepam, diphenhydramine, and hydroxyzine about 30 days after initial addition of pharmaceuticals. Second, perch (top-predator) showed an increase in concentrations of oxazepam throughout the study period. Our results show that drugs can remain bioavailable for aquatic organism for long time periods (weeks to months) and even re-enter the food web at a later time. As such, for an understanding of accumulation and dispersion of pharmaceuticals in aquatic food webs, detailed ecological knowledge is required.

  • 78.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Saaristo, M.
    Brodin, T.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Martin, J. M.
    Wong, B. B. M.
    Fish on steroids: Temperature-dependent effects of 17 beta-trenbolone on predator escape, boldness, and exploratory behaviors2019Ingår i: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 245, s. 243-252Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One MPG of particular concern is 17 beta-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17 beta-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17 beta-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusio holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17 beta-trenbolone (average measured concentration 3.0 +/- 0.2 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30 degrees C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioral effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30 degrees C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20 degrees C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17 beta-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioral effects of environmental contaminants.

  • 79.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Saaristo, Minna
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia. Department of Biosciences, Åbo Academy University, Turku, Finland..
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå, Sweden..
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Martin, Jake M.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia..
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Wong, Bob B.M.
    School of Biological Sciences, Monash University, Victoria, Australia..
    Fish on steroids: Temperature dependent effects of 17β-trenbolone on anti-predator, risk-taking and exploratory behaviours2018Ingår i: Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Hormonal growth promoters (HGPs), widely used in beef cattle production globally, make their way into the environment as agricultural effluent—with potential impacts on aquatic ecosystems. One HPG of particular concern is 17β-trenbolone, which is persistent in freshwater habitats and can affect the development, morphology and reproductive behaviors of aquatic organisms. Despite this, few studies have investigated impacts of 17β-trenbolone on non-reproductive behaviors linked to growth and survival, like boldness and predator avoidance. None consider the interaction between 17β-trenbolone and other environmental stressors, such as temperature, although environmental challenges confronting animals in the wild seldom, if ever, occur in isolation. Accordingly, this study aimed to test the interactive effects of trenbolone and temperature on organismal behavior. To do this, eastern mosquitofish (Gambusia holbrooki) were subjected to an environmentally-relevant concentration of 17β-trenbolone (≤ 5.1 ± 0.5 ng/L) or freshwater (i.e. control) for 21 days under one of two temperatures (20 and 30°C), after which the predator escape, boldness and exploration behavior of fish were tested. Predator escape behavior was assayed by subjecting fish to a simulated predator strike, while boldness and exploration were assessed in a separate maze experiment. We found that trenbolone exposure increased boldness behavior. Interestingly, some behavioural effects of trenbolone depended on temperature, sex, or both. Specifically, significant effects of trenbolone on male predator escape behavior were only noted at 30°C, with males becoming less reactive to the simulated threat. Further, in the maze experiment, trenbolone-exposed fish had a higher activity and explored the maze faster than control fish, but only at 20°C. We conclude that field detected concentrations of 17β-trenbolone can impact ecologically important behaviors of fish, and such effects can be temperature dependent. Such findings underscore the importance of considering the potentially interactive effects of other environmental stressors when investigating behavioural effects of environmental contaminants.

  • 80. Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    et al.
    Andremont, Antoine
    Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    Brandt, Kristian Koefoed
    Husman, Ana Maria de Roda
    Fagerstedt, Patriq
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Gaze, William H.
    Kuroda, Makoto
    Kvint, Kristian
    Laxminarayan, Ramanan
    Manaia, Celia M.
    Nielsen, Kaare Magne
    Plant, Laura
    Ploy, Marie-Cécile
    Segovia, Carlos
    Simonet, Pascal
    Smalla, Kornelia
    Snape, Jason
    Topp, Edward
    van Hengel, Arjon J.
    Verner-Jeffreys, David W.
    Virta, Marko P. J.
    Wellington, Elizabeth M.
    Wernersson, Ann-Sofie
    Critical knowledge gaps and research needs related to the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance2018Ingår i: Environment International, ISSN 0160-4120, E-ISSN 1873-6750, Vol. 117, s. 132-138Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is growing understanding that the environment plays an important role both in the transmission of antibiotic resistant pathogens and in their evolution. Accordingly, researchers and stakeholders world-wide seek to further explore the mechanisms and drivers involved, quantify risks and identify suitable interventions. There is a clear value in establishing research needs and coordinating efforts within and across nations in order to best tackle this global challenge. At an international workshop in late September 2017, scientists from 14 countries with expertise on the environmental dimensions of antibiotic resistance gathered to define critical knowledge gaps. Four key areas were identified where research is urgently needed: 1) the relative contributions of different sources of antibiotics and antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment; 2) the role of the environment, and particularly anthropogenic inputs, in the evolution of resistance; 3) the overall human and animal health impacts caused by exposure to environmental resistant bacteria; and 4) the efficacy and feasibility of different technological, social, economic and behavioral interventions to mitigate environmental antibiotic resistance.

  • 81.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    et al.
    Department of Neuroscience and Physiology, the Sahlgrenska Academy at University of Göteborg, Box 434, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Transparency throughout the production chain: a way to reduce pollution from the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals?2009Ingår i: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 53, nr 3, s. 161-163Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent findings have shown that wastewater from bulk drug production can be a source of very high environmental concentrations of drugs in certain locations. The release of active ingredients is often not specifically regulated, and thus rapid initiatives from the industries themselves are warranted. Possible ways to stimulate action include changes in local and international regulations, including the implementation of appropriate environmental standards within existing industry guidelines as well as demands from prescribers and consumers of medicines. The lack of readily available information regarding the origin of drugs and the environmental impact of the production, however, prevents consumers from making informed decisions. Here, we investigated the origin of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 242 selected products on the Swedish market. By comparing registers from Sweden and India we found that the APIs in 71 products (31%) originated from Indian manufacturers sending their waste to a treatment plant where unprecedented amount of environmental pollution with broad spectrum antibiotics and other drugs recently has been documented. We propose that increased transparency throughout the production chain would be one of several important steps to reducing pollution from the manufacturing of drugs.

  • 82.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Screening of antimycotics in Swedish sewage treatment plants - Waters and sludge2010Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 44, nr 2, s. 649-57Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Concentrations of six pharmaceutical antimycotics were determined in the sewage water, final effluent and sludge of five Swedish sewage treatment plants (STPs) by solid phase extraction, liquid/solid extraction, and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. The antimycotics were quantified by internal standard calibration. The results were used to estimate national flows that were compared to predictions based on sales figures. Fluconazole was the only one of the six investigated antimycotics that was detected (at concentrations ranging from 90 to 140ngL(-1)) in both raw sewage water and final effluent. Negligible amounts of this substance were removed from the aqueous phase, and its levels were below the limit of quantification in all of the analyzed sludge samples. In contrast, clotrimazole, ketoconazole and econazole were present in all of the sludge samples, at concentrations ranging between 200 and 1000mugkg(-1), dry weight. There were close correlations between the national measured and predicted antimycotic mass flows. Antimycotic fate analysis, based on sales figures, indicated that 53% of the total amount of fluconazole sold appeared in the final effluents of the STPs, while 1, 155, 35, 209 and 41% of the terbinafine, clotrimazole, ketoconazole, econazole and miconazole sold appeared in the digested dewatered sludge.

  • 83.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olofsson, Ulrika
    Grabic, Roman
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Occurrence and behaviour of 105 active pharmaceutical ingredients in sewage waters of a municipal sewer collection system2014Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 58, s. 221-229Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The concentrations and behaviour of 105 different active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in the aqueous phase of sewage water within a municipal sewer collection system have been investigated. Sewage water samples were gathered from seven pump stations (one of which was located within a university hospital) and from sewage water treatment influent and effluent. The targeted APIs were quantified using a multi-residue method based on online solid phase extraction liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The method was thoroughly validated and complies with EU regulations on sample handling, limits of quantification, quality control and selectivity. 51 APIs, including antibiotics, antidepressants, hypertension drugs, analgesics, NSAIDs and psycholeptics, were found frequently within the sewer collection system. API concentrations and mass flows were evaluated in terms of their frequency of detection, daily variation, median/minimum/maximum/average concentrations, demographic dissimilarities, removal efficiencies, and mass flow profiles relative to municipal sales data. Our results suggest that some APIs are removed from, or introduced to, the aqueous phase of sewage waters within the studied municipal collection system.

  • 84. Loos, Robert
    et al.
    Carvalho, Raquel
    António, Diana C
    Comero, Sara
    Locoro, Giovanni
    Tavazzi, Simona
    Paracchini, Bruno
    Ghiani, Michela
    Lettieri, Teresa
    Blaha, Ludek
    Jarosova, Barbora
    Voorspoels, Stefan
    Servaes, Kelly
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Schwesig, David
    Gawlik, Bernd M.
    EU-wide monitoring survey on emerging polar organic contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents2013Ingår i: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 47, nr 17, s. 6475-6487Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In the year 2010, effluents from 90 European wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) were analyzed for 156 polar organic chemical contaminants. The analyses were complemented by effect-based monitoring approaches aiming at estrogenicity and dioxin-like toxicity analyzed by in vitro reporter gene bioassays, and yeast and diatom culture acute toxicity optical bioassays. Analyses of organic substances were performed by solid-phase extraction (SPE) or liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) or gas chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry (GC-HRMS). Target microcontaminants were pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), veterinary (antibiotic) drugs, perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), organophosphate ester flame retardants, pesticides (and some metabolites), industrial chemicals such as benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), iodinated x-ray contrast agents, and gadolinium magnetic resonance imaging agents; in addition biological endpoints were measured. The obtained results show the presence of 125 substances (80% of the target compounds) in European wastewater effluents, in concentrations ranging from low nanograms to milligrams per liter. These results allow for an estimation to be made of a European median level for the chemicals investigated in WWTP effluents. The most relevant compounds in the effluent waters with the highest median concentration levels were the artificial sweeteners acesulfame and sucralose, benzotriazoles (corrosion inhibitors), several organophosphate ester flame retardants and plasticizers (e.g. tris(2-chloroisopropyl)phosphate; TCPP), pharmaceutical compounds such as carbamazepine, tramadol, telmisartan, venlafaxine, irbesartan, fluconazole, oxazepam, fexofenadine, diclofenac, citalopram, codeine, bisoprolol, eprosartan, the antibiotics trimethoprim, ciprofloxacine, sulfamethoxazole, and clindamycine, the insect repellent N,N'-diethyltoluamide (DEET), the pesticides MCPA and mecoprop, perfluoroalkyl substances (such as PFOS and PFOA), caffeine, and gadolinium.

  • 85. Ludovica Saccà, Maria
    et al.
    Accinelli, Cesare
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Olsen, Björn
    Environmental fate of the antiviral drug Tamiflu in two aquatic ecosystems2009Ingår i: Chemosphere, Vol. 75, nr 1, s. 28-33Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug Tamiflu (Oseltamivir Phosphate, OP), has been indicated by the World Health Organization as a first-line defense in case of an avian influenza pandemic. Recent studies have demonstrated that Oseltamivir Carboxylate (OC), the active metabolite of the prodrug OP, has the potential to be released into water bodies. The present laboratory study focused on basic processes governing the environmental fate of OC in surface water from two contrasting aquatic ecosystems of northern Italy, the River Po and the Venice lagoon.

    Results of this study confirmed the potential of OC to persist in surface water. However, addition of 5% of sediments resulted in rapid OC degradation. Estimated half-life of OC in water/sediment of the River Po was 15 days. After three weeks of incubation at 20 °C, more than 8% of 14C-OC evolved as 14CO2 from water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon. At the end of the 21-day incubation period, more than 65% of the 14C-residues were recovered from the liquid phase of both Po and Venice water/sediment samples. OC was moderately retained onto coarse sediments from the two sites. In water/sediment samples of the River Po and Venice lagoon treated with 14C-OC, more than 30% of the 14C-residues remained water-extractable after three weeks of incubation. The low affinity of OC to sediments suggests that presence of sediments would not reduce its bioavailability to microbial degradation.

  • 86.
    McCallum, Erin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Slow-Release Implants for Manipulating Contaminant Exposures in Aquatic Wildlife: A New Tool for Field Ecotoxicology2019Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 53, nr 14, s. 8282-8290Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Field-based ecotoxicology studies are invaluable for uncovering the effects of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) on aquatic organisms. However, large-scale exposures are still very rare due to prohibitive costs, the availability of replicated habitats, and the potential for exposure to cause lasting damage to the environment. Here, we evaluated the viability of internal slow-release implants as an alternative method for manipulating CEC exposures in aquatic wildlife using two fat-based carriers (coconut oil and vegetable shortening). We treated roach (Rutilus rutilus) with implants containing a high (50 mu g/g), low (25 mu g/g), or control (0 mu g/g) concentration of the behavior-modifying pharmaceutical oxazepam. We then measured oxazepam uptake in four tissues (plasma, muscle, liver, and the brain) over 1 month. The two carriers released oxazepam differently: coconut oil was the superior implant type because it delivered a more consistent dose across time, while vegetable shortening released oxazepam rapidly at the start of the exposure period. For both carriers and treatments, the brain and liver contained the most oxazepam. Overall, the method is a promising technique for controlled manipulations of pharmaceuticals in fish, and we have provided some of the first data on the suitability and contaminant release kinetics from different implant types.

  • 87.
    McCallum, Erin S.
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Krutzelmann, Emily
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Balshine, Sigal
    Exposure to wastewater effluent affects fish behaviour and tissue-specific uptake of pharmaceuticals2017Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 605-606, s. 578-588Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical active compounds (PhACs) are increasingly being reported in wastewater effluents and surface waters around the world. The presence of these products, designed to modulate human physiology and behaviour, has created concern over whether PhACs similarly affect aquatic organisms. Though laboratory studies are beginning to address the effects of individual PhACs on fish behaviour, few studies have assessed the effects of exposure to complex, realistic wastewater effluents on fish behaviour. In this study, we exposed a wild, invasive fish species—the round goby (Neogobius melanostomus)—to treated wastewater effluent (0%, 50% or 100% effluent dilutions) for 28 days. We then determined the impact of exposure on fish aggression, an important behaviour for territory acquisition and defense. We found that exposure to 100% wastewater effluent reduced the number of aggressive acts that round goby performed. We complimented our behavioural assay with measures of pharmaceutical uptake in fish tissues. We detected 11 of 93 pharmaceutical compounds that we tested for in round goby tissues, and we found that concentration was greatest in the brain followed by plasma, then gonads, then liver, and muscle. Fish exposed to 50% and 100% effluent had higher tissue concentrations of pharmaceuticals and concentrated a greater number of pharmaceutical compounds compare to control fish exposed to no (0%) effluent. Exposed fish also showed increased ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in liver tissue, suggesting that fish were exposed to planar halogenated/polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PHHs/PAHs) in the wastewater effluent. Our findings suggest that fish in effluent-dominated systems may have altered behaviours and greater tissue concentration of PhACs. Moreover, our results underscore the importance of characterizing exposure to multiple pollutants, and support using behaviour as a sensitive tool for assessing animal responses to complex contaminant mixtures, like wastewater effluent.

  • 88.
    McCallum, Erin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Alanärä, Anders
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife, Fish and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Investigating tissue bioconcentration and the behavioural effects of two pharmaceutical pollutants on sea trout (Salmo trutta) in the laboratory and field2019Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 207, s. 170-178Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals entering aquatic ecosystems via wastewater effluents are of increasing concern for wild animals. Because some pharmaceuticals are designed to modulate human behaviour, measuring the impacts of exposure to pharmaceuticals on fish behaviour has become a valuable endpoint. While laboratory studies have shown that pharmaceuticals can affect fish behaviour, there is a lack of understanding if behaviour is similarly affected in natural environments. Here, we exposed sea trout (Salmo trutta) smolts to two concentrations of two pharmaceutical pollutants often detected in surface waters: temazepam (a benzodiazepine, anxiolytic) or irbesartan (an angiotensin II receptor blocker, anti-hypertensive). We tested the hypothesis that changes to behavioural traits (anxiety and activity) measured in laboratory trials following exposure are predictive of behaviour in the natural environment (downstream migration). Measures of anxiety and activity in the laboratory assay did not vary with temazepam treatment, but temazepam-exposed fish began migrating faster in the field. Activity in the laboratory assay did predict overall migration speed in the field. In contrast to temazepam, we found that irbesartan exposure did not affect behaviour in the laboratory, field, or the relationship between the two end-points. However, irbesartan was also not readily taken up into fish tissue (i.e. below detection levels in the muscle tissue), while temazepam bioconcentrated (bioconcentration factor 7.68) rapidly (t(1/2) < 24 h). Our findings add to a growing literature showing that benzodiazepine pollutants can modulate fish behaviour and that laboratory assays may be less sensitive at detecting the effects of pollutants compared to measuring effects in natural settings. Therefore, we underscore the importance of measuring behavioural effects in the natural environment.

  • 89. Naslund, Johanna
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Asker, Noomi
    Ekman, Elisabet
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Norrgren, Leif
    Diclofenac affects kidney histology in the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) at low mu g/L concentrations2017Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 189, s. 87-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Diclofenac, a commonly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is considered for regulation under the European water framework directive. This is because effects on fish have been reported at concentrations around those regularly found in treated sewage effluents (similar to 1 mu g/L). However, a recent publication reports no effects on fish at 320 mu g/L. In this study, three-spined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus) were exposed to 0, 4.6, 22, 82 and 271 mu g/L diclofenac in flow-through systems for 28 days using triplicate aquaria per concentration. At the highest concentration, significant mortalities were observed already after 21 days (no mortalities found up to 22 mu g/L). Histological analysis revealed a significant increase in the proportion of renal hematopoietic tissue (renal hematopoietic hyperplasia) after 28 days at the lowest concentration and at all higher concentrations, following a clear dose-response pattern. Skin ulcerations of the jaw were noted by macroscopic observations, primarily at the two highest concentrations. No histological changes were observed in the liver. There was an increase in the relative hepatic mRNA levels of c7 (complement component 7), a gene involved in the innate immune system, at 22 mu g/L and at all higher concentrations, again following a clear dose-response. The bio-concentration factor was stable across concentrations, but lower than reported for rainbow trout, suggesting lower internal exposure to the drug in the stickleback. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that diclofenac causes histological changes in the three-spined stickleback at low mu g/L concentrations, which cause concern for fish populations exposed to treated sewage effluents.

  • 90. Orton, F.
    et al.
    Säfholm, M.
    Jansson, E.
    Carlsson, Y.
    Eriksson, A.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Webster, T. Uren
    McMillan, T.
    Leishman, M.
    Verbruggen, B.
    Economou, T.
    Tyler, C. R.
    Berg, C.
    Exposure to an anti-androgenic herbicide negatively impacts reproductive physiology and fertility in Xenopustropicalis2018Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 8, artikel-id 9124Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Amphibians are threatened on a global scale and pollutants may be contributing to population declines, but how chemicals impact on their reproduction is poorly understood. We conducted a life cycle analysis to investigate the impacts of early life exposure to two anti-androgens (exposure until completion of metamorphosis;stage 66): flutamide, (50 µg/L)/linuron (9 and 45 µg/L)) on sexual development and breeding competence in Xenopus tropicalis. Our analyses included: mRNA levels of dmrt1, cyp17, amh, cyp19, foxl2 and ar (tadpoles/metamorphs), gonadal histomorphology (metamorphs/adults), mRNA levels of ar/gr (adult male brain/gonad/forelimb), testosterone/corticosterone levels (adult males), secondary sexual characteristics (forelimb width/nuptial pad: adult males) and breeding competence (amplexus/fertility: adult males). Compared to controls, feminised sex ratios and increased number of spermatogonia (adults) were observed after exposure to flutamide and the lower linuron concentration. Exposure to the lower linuron concentration also resulted in demasculinisation of secondary sexual characteristics and reduced male fertility. Flutamide exposure resulted in masculinisation of the nuptial pad and elevated mRNA levels of dmrt1, cyp17, amh and foxl2 in brains (metamorphs). Testosterone levels were higher in all treatment groups, however, overall few effects were observed in response to the higher linuron concentration. Our findings advance understanding of reproductive biology of X. tropicalis and illustrate negative effects of linuron on reproductive processes at a concentration measured in freshwater environments.

  • 91. Papa, Ester
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Johansson, Magnus
    Gramatica, Paola
    Andersson, Patrik L.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Kemi.
    Multivariate Chemical Mapping of Antibiotics and Identification of Structurally Representative Substances2007Ingår i: Environ. Sci. Technol, Vol. 41, nr 5, s. 1653-61Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotics used in human and veterinary medicine have been found in samples from diverse environments in many parts of the world. To assess the environmental risks associated with them, data regarding their toxicity, occurrence, and fate are needed, but gathering such data is time-consuming and expensive. An efficient approach to address these difficulties would be to select a small subset of antibiotics with a wide variation in chemical characteristics, perform experimental tests on this subset, and then extrapolate the results to larger numbers of antibiotics, including the most potentially hazardous compounds. To assess the potential utility of such an approach, a set of 92 antibiotics for human use was studied and their structural properties were described with 24 chemical descriptors that included information on their steric, lipophilic, and electronic properties. Principal component analysis in combination with statistical experimental design was used to map the chemical diversity of the antibiotics and to select a small subset, a "training set", of 20 antibiotics. The chemical representativity of the training set was assessed in a quantitative structure-activity model established to predict ultimate biodegradation. The selected antibiotics showed to cover the chemical variation of the studied antibiotics and are suggested for use in future testing programs to assess antibiotics' fate and effects in the environment.

  • 92. Pohl, Johannes
    et al.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Carlsson, Gunnar
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Norrgren, Leif
    Örn, Stefan
    Effects of ozonated sewage effluent on reproduction and behavioral endpoints in zebrafish (Danio rerio)2018Ingår i: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 200, s. 93-101Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceutical residues and other micro-contaminants may enter aquatic environments through effluent from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and could cause adverse effects in wild fish. One strategy to alleviate this situation is to improve wastewater treatment by ozonation. To test the effectiveness of full-scale wastewater effluent ozonation at a Swedish municipal STP, the added removal efficiency was measured for 105 pharmaceuticals. In addition, gene expression, reproductive and behavioral endpoints were analyzed in zebrafish (Danio rerio) exposed on-site over 21 days to ozonated or non-ozonated effluents as well as to tap water. Ozone treatment (7 g O-3/m(3)) removed pharmaceuticals by an average efficiency of 77% in addition to the conventional treatment, leaving 11 screened pharmaceuticals above detection limits. Differences in biological responses of the exposure treatments were recorded in gene expression, reproduction and behavior. Hepatic vitellogenin gene expression was higher in male zebrafish exposed to the ozonated effluent compared to the non-ozonated effluent and tap water treatments. The reproductive success was higher in fish exposed to ozonated effluent compared to non-ozonated effluent and to tap water. The behavioral measurements showed that fish exposed to the ozonated STP effluent were less active in swimming the first minute after placed in a novel vessel. Ozonation is a capable method for removing pharmaceuticals in effluents. However, its implementation should be thoroughly evaluated for any potential biological impact. Future research is needed for uncovering the factors which produced the in vivo responses in fish.

  • 93.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Development of a NO2 scrubber for accurate sampling of ambient levels of terpenes2002Ingår i: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, nr 9, s. 1443-1452Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The result of pumping air containing 56 ppb NO2 through a terpene-spiked adsorbent (90–130 ng, 90–100 ml min−1), Tenax TA, for 20 min (1.8–2.0 l) was that 8% of α-pinene, 7% of β-pinene, 21% of Δ3-carene and 5% of limonene were oxidised. In similar experiments with air containing 56 ppb O3, 3% of α-pinene, 4% of β-pinene, 10% of Δ3-carene and 38% of limonene were oxidised. Sampling a mixture of a terpene and NO2 using Tenax TA can give unwanted overestimation of the amount of reaction products from the terpene–NO2 reaction or underestimation of the original terpene levels. A scrubber was needed to reduce the problems caused by interfering reactions on the adsorbent of NO2 and to reduce discrimination of reactive compounds due to their relatively fast decay on the adsorbent. Several chemicals have been tested for their ability of removing NO2 and our objective was to develop a well functioning, reusable, easy to handle, easy manufactured NO2 scrubber. The result of the experiments was a scrubber consisting of two glass fibre filters coated with Na2SO3 assembled in a dust collector. The recovery of the terpenes through the scrubber varied between 75% and 97% at 15–75% relative humidity, and the scrubber is a one-use scrubber due to memory effects. The Na2SO3 scrubber could be stored in room air for at least one month without loosing the capacity of removing NO2.

  • 94.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Nilsson, Calle
    The influence of O3, relative humidity, NO and NO2 on the oxidation of α-pinene and Δ3-carene2004Ingår i: Journal of Atmospheric Chemistry, ISSN 0167-7764, E-ISSN 1573-0662, Vol. 48, nr 2, s. 173-189Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Upto 13% of α-pinene and δ3-carene had reacted after 213 s in this dark experimental set-up, where O3, NO and NO2 were mixed with terpenes at different relative humidities (RHs). The different experiments were planned according to an experimental design, where O3, NO2, NO, RH and reaction time were varied between high and low settings (25 and 75 ppb, 15 and 42%, 44 and 213 s). An increased amount of α-pinene and δ3-carene reacted in the chamber was observed, when the level of O3, NO and reaction time was increased and RH was decreased. In the study, it was found that different interactions affected the amount of terpene reacted as well. These interactions were between O3 and NO, O3 and reaction time, NO and RH, and between NO and reaction time.

  • 95.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    An experimental comparison of a kinetic model for the reaction of α-pinene and Δ3-carene with ozone and nitrogen oxides2004Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 14, nr S8, s. 75-83Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A kinetic model was compiled to simulate reactions of the monoterpenes, α-pinene and Δ3-carene, with O3, NO2 and NO. The influence of different initial settings of O3, NO2 and NO on the monoterpene reaction was evaluated. At initial levels of 75 p.p.b. of O3, NO2 and NO each, 1.5% of α-pinene and 1.1% of Δ3-carene were calculated to react after 215 s. The corresponding experimental results showed that 9.3–12.2% of α-pinene and 9.9–11.7% of Δ3-carene reacted. The calculated levels of O3, NO2 and NO were compared to experimental measurements and were shown to correspond well. However, comparison of the amount of monoterpene reacted between calculated and experimental results, demonstrated that the calculations underestimated the amount of monoterpene reacted in the experimental chamber. The difference between experimental and calculated results could, e.g., be the effect of surfaces and the presence of water, which are parameters not included in the kinetic model known to have influence on these reactions.

  • 96.
    Pommer, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Sundell, J
    Nilsson, C
    Sjöström, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Stenberg, Berndt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Dermatologi och venereologi.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Class separation of buildings with high and low prevalence of SBS by principal component analysis2004Ingår i: Indoor Air, ISSN 0905-6947, E-ISSN 1600-0668, Vol. 14, nr 1, s. 16-23Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, we were able to separate buildings with high and low prevalence of sick building syndrome (SBS) using principal component analysis. The prevalence of SBS was defined by the presence of at least one typical skin, mucosal and general (headache and fatigue) symptom. Data from the Swedish Office Illness Study describing the presence and level of chemical compounds in outdoor, supply, and room air, respectively, were evaluated together with information about the buildings in six models. When all data were included the most complex model was able to separate 71% of the high prevalence buildings from the low prevalence buildings. The most important variable that separates the high prevalence buildings from the low prevalence buildings was a more frequent occurrence or a higher concentration of compounds with shorter retention time in the high prevalence buildings. Elevated relative humidity in supply and room air and higher levels of total volatile organic compounds in outdoor and supply air were more common in high prevalence buildings. Ten building variables also contributed to the separation of the two classes of low and high prevalence buildings.

  • 97.
    Ramstedt, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hedlund, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Björn, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Jahnke, Isa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad utbildningsvetenskap. School of Information Science and Learning Technologies, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.
    Rethinking chemistry in higher education towards technology-enhanced problem-based learning2016Ingår i: Education Inquiry, ISSN 2000-4508, E-ISSN 2000-4508, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 115-135Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A range of factors can lead to situations where university courses have to be taught with a very small number of students. In this paper, we report on our experiences of a chemistry course that was especially designed to encourage learning in small groups of students (four to five per course). The course design included inquiry-based approaches, case methodology and problem-based learning concepts. The main goal was to enhance student motivation and to support them to become active agents (‘pro-sumers’). Technology was adopted to support students in their inquiry-based learning processes by using online logs, group wikis and quizzes and with sections of laboratory work. We explored student perceptions during the first 2 years in two courses. The students were, in general, very positive about the course and communicated that the technological tools along with the pedagogical design decisions had assisted them to different extents in their learning. Our conclusion is that such a design is appropriate for an advanced-level chemistry course with small numbers of students, and the course will continue to be given in this form.

  • 98. Richmond, Erinn K.
    et al.
    Rosi, Emma J.
    Walters, David M.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Hamilton, Stephen K.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Department of Wildlife Fish, and Environmental Studies, SLU, Umeå 90187, Sweden.
    Sundelin, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Grace, Michael R.
    A diverse suite of pharmaceuticals contaminates stream and riparian food webs2018Ingår i: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, artikel-id 4491Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A multitude of biologically active pharmaceuticals contaminate surface waters globally, yet their presence in aquatic food webs remain largely unknown. Here, we show that over 60 pharmaceutical compounds can be detected in aquatic invertebrates and riparian spiders in six streams near Melbourne, Australia. Similar concentrations in aquatic invertebrate larvae and riparian predators suggest direct trophic transfer via emerging adult insects to riparian predators that consume them. As representative vertebrate predators feeding on aquatic invertebrates, platypus and brown trout could consume some drug classes such as antidepressants at as much as one-half of a recommended therapeutic dose for humans based on their estimated prey consumption rates, yet the consequences for fish and wildlife of this chronic exposure are unknown. Overall, this work highlights the potential exposure of aquatic and riparian biota to a diverse array of pharmaceuticals, resulting in exposures to some drugs that are comparable to human dosages.

  • 99. Roos, V.
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, L.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Larsson, D. G. J.
    Ruden, C.
    Prioritising pharmaceuticals for environmental risk assessment: Towards adequate and feasible first-tier selection2012Ingår i: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 421, s. 102-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of pharmaceuticals in the aquatic environment, and the concerns for negative effects on aquatic organisms, has gained increasing attention over the last years. As ecotoxicity data are lacking for most active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), it is important to identify strategies to prioritise APIs for ecotoxicity testing and environmental monitoring. We have used nine previously proposed prioritisation schemes, both risk- and hazard-based, to rank 582 APIs. The similarities and differences in overall ranking results and input data were compared. Moreover, we analysed how well the methods ranked seven relatively well-studied APIs. It is concluded that the hazard-based methods were more successful in correctly ranking the well-studied APIs, but the fish plasma model, which includes human pharmacological data, also showed a high success rate. The results of the analyses show that the input data availability vary significantly: some data, such as logP, are available for most API while information about environmental concentrations and bioconcentration are still scarce. The results also suggest that the exposure estimates in risk-based methods need to be improved and that the inclusion of effect measures at first-tier prioritisation might underestimate risks. It is proposed that in order to develop an adequate prioritisation scheme, improved data on exposure such as degradation and sewage treatment removal and bioconcentration ability should be further considered. The use of ATC codes may also be useful for the development of a prioritisation scheme that includes the mode of action of pharmaceuticals and, to some extent, mixture effects. (C) 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 100.
    Rutgersson, Carolin
    et al.
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Dept Infect Dis, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Marathe, Nachiket
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Dept Infect Dis, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Chalmers, Dept Math Stat, S-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Janzon, Anders
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Dept Infect Dis, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Angelin, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk mikrobiologi.
    Shouche, Yogesh
    Natl Ctr Cell Sci, Microbial Culture Collect, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Dept Infect Dis, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Univ Gothenburg, Inst Biomed, Dept Infect Dis, Sahlgrenska Acad, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fluoroquinolones and qnr genes in sediment, water, soil, and human fecal flora in an environment polluted by manufacturing discharges2014Ingår i: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 48, nr 14, s. 7825-7832Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing concern that environmental antibiotic pollution promotes transfer of resistance genes to the human microbiota. Here, fluoroquinolone-polluted river sediment, well water, irrigated farmland, and human fecal flora of local villagers within a pharmaceutical industrial region in India were analyzed for quinolone resistance (qnr) genes by quantitative PCR. Similar samples from Indian villages farther away from industrial areas, as well as fecal samples from Swedish study participants and river sediment from Sweden, were included for comparison. Fluoroquinolones were detected by MS/MS in well water and soil from all villages located within three km from industrially polluted waterways. Quinolone resistance genes were detected in 42% of well water, 7% of soil samples and in 100% and 18% of Indian and Swedish river sediments, respectively. High antibiotic concentrations in Indian sediment coincided with high abundances of qnr, whereas lower fluoroquinolone levels in well water and soil did not. We could not find support for an enrichment of qnr in fecal samples from people living in the fluoroquinolone-contaminated villages. However, as qnr was detected in 91% of all Indian fecal samples (24% of the Swedish) it suggests that the spread of qnr between people is currently a dominating transmission route.

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