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  • 551.
    Ahlgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Folkesson, Robert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    The association between self-paced walking speed and cognitive function among very old people.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning:

    I Sverige förväntas medelåldern att stiga och den äldsta åldersgruppen förutspås växa sig allt större. Nedgång i fysisk funktion och kognitiv funktion är vanligt bland människor som är äldre. Nyligen genomförda tvärsnitts- och longitudinella studier visar att det finns ett samband mellan gång och kognition. Tyvärr är forskningen begränsad då den nästintill exkluderar mycket gamla människor.Syfte:

    Utforska sambandet mellan självvald gånghastighet och kognition hos mycket gamla människor. Det specifika syftet är att analysera sambandet vid baslinjen och vid 5 års uppföljning samt sambandet i förändringen hos mycket gamla människor. Metod:

    Deltagare undersökta i Umeå 85 + / Gerontologisk regional databas-studie (GERDA), med en ålder på 85 år eller äldre, bedömdes vid baslinjen och med 5 års uppföljning. Självvald gånghastighet mättes med 2,4 meters gångtest och individernas kognitiva funktion undersöktes med hjälp av Mini-Mental State Examination.Resultat:

    Medelåldern vid baslinjen var 89,76 (SD ± 4,82). Korrelation för förändringen i självvald gånghastighet och Mini-Mental State Examination mellan baslinjen och vid uppföljningen (n = 277), r = .251, p <.001, r2 värde .063. Konklusion:

    Det finns ett samband mellan självvald gånghastighet och kognitiv funktion bland de mycket gamla, både tvärsnitt och longitudinellt. Sambandet är starkt bland de som utvecklar demens.

  • 552.
    Ahlgren, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lundström, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Företagsrekonstruktion ur ett organisationsdesignsperspektiv: Rekonstruktörens beaktande av organisationsdesign2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Konkurrensen mellan företag i Sverige är fortsatt hård, samtidigt som världen blir mer globaliserad och multinationella företag söker nya marknader. Mellan åren 2008 och 2013 försattes i snitt 6260 företag i konkurs per år. Konkurser påverkar företagsägare, leverantörer, anställda, staten och samhället negativt.

     

    För företag nära konkurs finns möjlighet att försöka rädda företaget, genom företagsrekonstruktion. Det överordnade målet med företagsrekonstruktion är att rädda värdefulla affärsrörelser, undvika kapitalförstörelse samt att återställa livskraften i företag. Under perioden 2008-2013 genomförde 1045 företag rekonstruktion men endast 18 % överlevde. Därmed uppfattar författarna ett tydligt problem, att inte fler företag överlever efter företagsrekonstruktion. Författarna har funnit ett samband mellan de åtgärder som syftar till att skapa långsiktig överlevnad och organisationsdesign.  Den tidigare forskningen om företagsrekonstruktion har ett juridiskt perspektiv eller studerat det egna ägandet i företag. Utifrån det uppfattade problemet med få överlevande företag och det teoretiska gap författarna sett mellan företagsrekonstruktion och organisationsdesign, grundades en forskningsfråga: Hur har organisationsdesign beaktats av rekonstruktörer i fall med företag som är fortsatt verksamma efter avslutad företagsrekonstruktion?

     

    Studiens syfte är att skapa en djupare förståelse för företagsrekonstruktion ur ett organisationsdesignsperspektiv, samt undersöka hur rekonstruktörer beaktat organisationsdesign för att uppnå långsiktig överlevnad. En kvalitativ studie utformades från en teoretisk referensram med utgångspunk i Star-modellen skapad av Jay R. Galbraith. Star-modellen är en organisationsdesign modell som är uppdelad i fem olika komponenter; strategi, struktur, process, belöning och kompetens, dessa fördjupades i den teoretiska referensramen med annan litteratur. Studien har undersökt rekonstruktörer i åtta rekonstruktionsfall och hur dessa rekonstruktörer beaktat organisationsdesign. Empirin samlades in genom åtta intervjuer med rekonstruktörer för de enskilda rekonstruktionsfallen, samt genom data från tillhörande rekonstruktionsplan.

     

    Resultat av studien visade ett högt beaktande av organisationsdesign under företagsrekonstruktion, där företag är fortsatt verksam efter avslutad rekonstruktion. Komponenterna strategi, struktur, process och kompetens visades ha starkast koppling mot rekonstruktörens beaktande av organisationsdesign. Studien visade också att belöning inte beaktades i lika hög grad av rekonstruktören.

     

    Författarna rekommenderar att rekonstruktörer bör inneha en särskild insikt och erfarenhet av organisationsdesign, samt ett förtydligande av rekonstruktörens roll. Författarna rekommenderar också att rekonstruktörer bör se organisationsdesign ur ett helhetsperspektiv, samt att rekonstruktören om denne genomför förändring i strategi, också bör beakta effekt på andra komponenter. Organisationens representanter rekommenderas att under rekonstruktion vara öppen för förändring, samt att det är fördelaktigt att det finns en bra dialog mellan rekonstruktör och organisationens representanter. 

  • 553.
    Ahlgren, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Rönnberg, Greta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    När konkurrensen hårdnar: - En kvantitativ studie om ett detaljhandelsföretag i Umeå2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur detaljhandelsföretaget Expo Stormarknad i Umeå AB kan använda olika komponenterför att stärka sin konkurrenskraft på marknaden i Umeå, i takt med att konkurrensen kommer att öka. Att konkurrensen kommer att öka beror på att Ikeainom en snar framtid slår upp sina dörrar i Umeå. För att ett litet företag som Expo ska kunna konkurrera med möbeljätten är det nödvändigt att Expo utvärderar hur de kan agera och vilka verktyg de kan använda sig av för att stå sig i konkurrensen. Den problemformulering som vi utformat och som ligger till grund för studien är:“Hur uppfattar Expos kunder företagets produkter och tjänster, och hur kan Expo utformafem av oss valda komponenter för att stärka sin konkurrenskraft i Umeå?”.Studiens syfte är därmed att med hjälp av enmarknadsundersökning undersöka den uppfattning om och attityder gentemot Expo företagets kunder har, för att ge Expo en nulägesrapport ochför attidentifiera eventuellaförbättringsområden. Marknadsundersökningen genomförde vi med hjälp av enkäter, vilket innebär att vi genomfört en kvantitativ studie. Vi beskriver hur Expos kunder uppfattar företaget, och vi gör därmed en deskriptiv studie, vilket går i linje med vår positivistiska kunskapssyn som utgår från att vetenskap är objektiv.Det angreppssätt vi har är av deduktiv karaktär, där vi med utgångspunkt i existerande teorier undersökt de data vi samlat in. De data vi samlade in bearbetades och sammanställdes i statistikprogrammet SPSS. Underlaget för vår resultatredovisning utgörs av enkätsvar från 114 respondenter, både kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20 till över 60år. I vår teoretiska referensram lyfter vi fram teorier som är relevanta för studiens ändamål och som dels behandlar allmänna teorier gällande konkurrenskraft och dels de fem komponentervår studie undersöker: Utbud, pris, miljö i butik, personal och annonsering. De teorier som utgör vår teoretiska referensram stödjer vår analys och följaktligen våra slutsatser.Resultaten vi fått fram visar att Exposkunder generellt sett är positivt inställda till fyra av de fem komponentersom studerats, där annonseringutgör den komponent som kunderna har svårast att uttala sig om ochhar en mer negativ inställning till. Vi konstaterar också att alla komponenterär av betydelse för kunderna när de handlar på Expo, men attannonsering är av minst betydelse. Vi anser att Expo bör ta alla fem erbjudanden i beaktning för att stärka sin konkurrenskraft. De slutsatser och rekommendationer vigerExpo är att inte förändra sitt utbud, butikens läge ellermiljön i butiken. Vidare råder vi Expo att behålla sina nuvarande priser och att fortsätta med deras goda kundbemötande. Annonseringen rekommenderar vi däremot Expo att öka, och vi lyfter även fram några aspekter för de övriga komponenternasom Expo måste ha i åtanke när konkurrensenblir tuffare.

  • 554.
    Ahlgren, Benjamin
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Tian, Zhiyong
    Perers, Bengt
    Dragsted, Janne
    Johansson, Emma
    Umeå University.
    Lundberg, Kajsa
    Umeå University.
    Mossegard, Jonatan
    Bystrom, Joakim
    Olsson, Olle
    A simplified model for linear correlation between annual yield and DNI for parabolic trough collectors2018In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 174, p. 295-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a simple method for estimating annual thermal performance of parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) based on a linear relation with annual DNI for a certain latitude. A case study with simulations for a novel concentrating solar collector in 316 locations for three operating temperature scenarios worldwide was carried out and showed promising results for the latitudes and continents investigated. For a certain latitude and mean operating temperature, the annual yield of a PTC was found to be linearly proportional to yearly DNI. The proposed method will serve as a simplified alternative to the steady-state and quasi-dynamic methods already used. Estimating performance based on yearly DNI can be used by design engineers to do quick preliminary planning of solar plants. Customers can also use this method to evaluate existing solar collector installations. A TRNSYS/TRNSED tool that uses a steady-state model has been developed to carry out the simulations and it has been validated against a PTC array at Technical University of Denmark (DTU). The results show that the simplified method can give reliable estimates of long-term performance of parabolic trough collectors.

  • 555. Ahlgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Molin, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Prosthetic Dentistry. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilner, Krister
    Levels of gold in plasma after dental gold inlay insertion.2007In: Acta odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 331-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported increased levels of gold (Au) in the blood of patients with dental gold restorations. This study analyzed gold levels in blood plasma before dental gold inlay insertion, 0-12 months after, and 15 years after. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples from 9 patients were taken before and 0-10 months after gold inlay insertion. Fifteen years after gold inlay insertion, further blood samples taken from 8 of these patients were analyzed for gold using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An oral examination was also carried out before and 15 years after gold inlay insertion. RESULTS: Gold levels in plasma were significantly higher 0-12 months after gold inlay insertion than before treatment (p=0.008). No significant difference in gold plasma levels was found between 0-12 months after and 15 years after insertion (p=0.109), although there was a significant correlation between the number of gold alloy surfaces and the amount of gold in plasma 15 years after insertion (p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a dose-related release of gold into plasma from dental gold restorations, a release that appears to be stable over time.

  • 556.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Rehabilitation Medicine.
    The meanings given to gender in studies on multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a literature review2016In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, no 23, p. 2255-2270Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess and describe the meanings given to "gender" in scientific publications that evaluate multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Method: A systematic literature search for papers evaluating multimodal rehabilitation was conducted. The PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Two or three researchers independently read each paper, performed a quality assessment and coded meanings of gender using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Twenty-seven papers were included in the review. Gender was used very differently in the MMR studies investigated but primarily it referred to factual differences between men and women. Only one paper provided a definition of the concept of gender and how it had been used in that study. In the content analysis, the meaning of gender formed three categories: "Gender as a factual difference", "The man is the ideal" and "Gender as a result of social role expectations".

    Conclusions: The meaning of the concept of gender in multimodal rehabilitation is undefined and needs to be developed further. The way the concept is used should be defined in the design and evaluation of multimodal rehabilitation in future studies.

    Implications for rehabilitation

    Healthcare professionals should reflect on gender relations in encounters with patients, selection of patients into rehabilitation programs and design of programs. In rehabilitation for chronic pain the patients' social circumstances and cultural context should be given the same consideration as biological sex and pain symptoms.

  • 557.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Gadin, Katja Gillander
    Struggle for time to teach: Teachers' experiences of their work situation2011In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, Vol. 40, no S1, p. S111-S118Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to from a gender perspective, explore elementary school teacher' experiences of their work situation, and identify conditions that could be health risks. Participants: Eighteen female teachers who work in an elementary school in Northern Sweden. Method: Thematic interviews were conducted using an interview guide. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed text and interpretations were made within gender theory. Results: Four categories emerged: "Squeezed between dream and reality", "Effort to keep up with demands", "We can make it together" and "The school needs men's qualities". The categories were linked together with the theme "A struggle for time to teach". The theme describes the conflict between the teachers' ambitions to teach and create a stimulating learning environment versus the increased need for behaviour control that took time from classroom work. Beside work at the school, the teachers carried a large burden of domestic work. Conclusions: Teachers' work includes both endless demands and great joy. Their work is structured within the schools gender system in which caring duties are subordinated despite a growing demand for behaviour control. Traditional gender roles affect their domestic work load.

  • 558.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Social medicine.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 84-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 559.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Malmgren Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Gender analysis of musculoskeletal disorders and emotional exhaustion: interactive effects from physical and psychosocial work exposures and engagement in domestic work2012In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, no 2, p. 212-228Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between physical and psychosocial work exposures, engagement in domestic work and work-home imbalance in relation to symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders and emotional exhaustion in white- and blue-collar men and women. Three thousand employees from 21 companies were asked to answer a questionnaire on family structure, household and child care tasks, work exposure, work-home imbalance and symptoms of neck/shoulder disorders, low back disorders and emotional exhaustion. Women reported more musculoskeletal disorders and engagement in domestic work. Adverse at-work exposures were highest in blue-collar women. High engagement in domestic work was not separately associated with symptoms but paid work exposure factors were associated. High engagement in domestic work interacted with adverse work exposure and increased risk estimates for low back disorders and emotional exhaustion. Reported work-home imbalance was associated with neck/shoulder disorders in women and with emotional exhaustion in both women and men.

    Practitioner Summary. The current article adds to earlier research by showing that high engagement in domestic work is not separately associated with increased symptoms, but interacts with psychosocial work exposure variables to produce emotional exhaustion in both women and men and low back disorders in women.

  • 560.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Steinholtz, K
    Slunga- Birgander, L
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Perceived benefits from a rehabilitation program: A study on patients with burnout2007Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 561.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Waling, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå , Sweden.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Effects on physical performance and pain from three dynamic training programs for women with work-related trapezius myalgia2001In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 162-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To compare training programs for women with trapezius myalgia regarding physical performance and pain, 102 women were randomized to strength, endurance, co-ordination and non-training groups. Before and after the intervention, static strength and dynamic muscular endurance in shoulder muscles were measured on a Cybex II dynamometer. Muscle activity in shoulder muscles was monitored via surface EMG. The signal amplitude ratio between the active and passive phase of repeated contractions indicated the ability to relax. Pain at present, pain in general and pain at worst were measured on visual analogue scales. After training, within group comparisons showed that the training groups rated less pain, and in the strength training group ratings of pain at worst differed from the non-training group. Using the non-training group as a reference, static strength increased in the strength and endurance training groups and muscular endurance in all training groups. The study indicates that regular exercises with strength, endurance or co-ordination training of neck/shoulder muscles might alleviate pain for women with work-related trapezius myalgia.

  • 562.
    Ahlgren, Gunnel
    et al.
    Department of Ecology and Evolution (Limnology), Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Vrede, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Goedkoop, Willem
    Department of Environmental Assessment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Fatty Acid Ratios in Freshwater Fish, Zooplankton and Zoobenthos - Are There Specific Optima?2009In: Lipids in Aquatic Ecosystems / [ed] Martin Kainz, Michael T. Brett, Michael T. Arts, New York: Springer-Verlag New York, 2009, p. 147-178Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two groups of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), termed omega-3 and omega-6 in food (or here as n-3 and n-6 PUFA, respectively), are essential for all vertebrates and probably also for nearly all invertebrates. The absolute concentrations of the different PUFA are important, as is an appropriate balance between the two. The optimal ratio of n-3/n-6 is not known for most organisms but is anticipated to be more or less species-specific (Sargent et al. 1995). The three most important PUFA in vertebrates are eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA, 20:5n-3), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, 22:6n-3) and arachidonic acid (ARA, 20:4n-6). Both EPA and ARA are precursors for biologically active eicosanoids that are vital components of cell membranes and play many dynamic roles in mediating and controlling a wide array of cellular activities (Crawford et al. 1989; Harrison 1990; Henderson et al. 1996; see Chap. 9). Since n-3 and n-6 PUFA cannot be synthesized de novo by most metazoans, they must be included in the diet, either as EPA, DHA and ARA, or as their precursors, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA, 18:3n-3, precursor of EPA and DHA) and linoleic acid (LIN, 18:2n-6, precursor of ARA) (Bell et al. 1986; Sargent et al. 1995). Both ALA and LIN are produced in the thylacoid membranes of algae and plants with chlorophyll (Sargent at al. 1987).

  • 563.
    Ahlgren, Jessika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Att Skriva sig till Framgång: En studie om skriv- och läsinlärning i skolan med fokus på arbetssättet ASL, Att Skriva sig till Läsning.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a discussion for many years now in Sweden regarding the use of computers in the classrooms. In some schools teachers and pupils are working with a type of method called ASL, wich freely translated means ”writing your way into reading”. With this method the pupils use computor keyboards instead of pencils when learning how to read and write. The purpose with this method is that it is believed to be easier to learn how to write than how to read. Another purpose with this method is that children lacking the fine motor skills needed can also learn how to write in early age.In this study a number of interviews has been made with teachers regarding their experience of the method. The main questions were about the teachers experiences regarding advantages and disadvantages using this method and how they had adjusted the method, if needed, at their schools.The result of this study shows that when working with ASL, the teachers find the pupils become more positive and more engaged in their school work, they also see a quicker progress of the pupils writing skills.. The factors that the teachers found less satisfying was that the teachers need to have a lot of knowledge about different methods used in the reading and writing education in order to optimaize ASL, they also found that some pupils, even when working with computors, still have difficulties reaching their goals. These pupils still need extra help and support.The schools has made some adjustments in order to optimize the method. Some schools start to train handwriting in earlier years than ASL suggests. All of the schools in the study combines this way of working with other methods. The teachers at the different schools are also helped to deepen their knowledge about the method with further training in ASL.

  • 564. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    De Brabandere, Heidi
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Rydin, Emil
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Waldeback, Monica
    Sediment phosphorus extractants for phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance analysis: A quantitative evaluation2007In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 892-898Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of pre-extractant, extractant, and post-extractant on total extracted amounts of P and organic P compound groups measured with 31 P nuclear magnetic resonance (P-31-NMR) in lacustrine sediment was examined. The main extractants investigated were sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hydroxide ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (NaOH-EDTA) with bicarbonate buffered dithionite (BD) or EDTA as pre-extractants. Post extractions were conducted using either NaOH or NaOH-EDTA, depending on the main extractant. Results showed that the most efficient combination of extractants for total P yield was NaOH with EDTA as pre-extractant, yielding almost 50% more than the second best procedure. The P compound groups varying the most between the different extraction procedures were polyphosphates and pyrophosphates. NaOH with BD as pre-extractant was the most efficient combination for these compound groups.

  • 565. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 566. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 567.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Omstedt, Anders
    Rolff, Carl
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). The Swedish Institute for the Marine Environment, PO Box 260, SE-40530 Göteborg, Sweden.
    Temperature, DOC level and basin interactions explain the declining oxygen concentrations in the Bothnian Sea2017In: Journal of Marine Systems, ISSN 0924-7963, E-ISSN 1879-1573, Vol. 170, p. 22-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypoxia and oxygen deficient zones are expanding worldwide. To properly manage this deterioration of the marine environment, it is important to identify the causes of oxygen declines and the influence of anthropogenic activities. Here, we provide a study aiming to explain the declining oxygen levels in the deep waters of the Bothnian Sea over the past 20 years by investigating data from environmental monitoring programmes. The observed decline in oxygen concentrations in deep waters was found to be primarily a consequence of water temperature increase and partly caused by an increase in dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the seawater (R-Adj(2). = 0.83) as well as inflow from the adjacent sea basin. As none of the tested eutrophication-related predictors were significant according to a stepwise multiple regression, a regional increase in nutrient inputs to the area is unlikely to explain a significant portion of the oxygen decline. Based on the findings of this study, preventing the development of anoxia in the deep water of the Bothnian Sea is dependent on the large-scale measures taken to reduce climate change. In addition, the reduction of the nutrient load to the Baltic Proper is required to counteract the development of hypoxic and phosphate-rich water in the Baltic Proper, which can form deep water in the Bothnian Sea. The relative importance of these sources to oxygen consumption is difficult to determine from the available data, but the results clearly demonstrate the importance of climate related factors such as temperature, DOC and inflow from adjacent basins for the oxygen status of the sea.

  • 568. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Danielsson, Rolf
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rydin, Emil
    Biogenic phosphorus in oligotrophic mountain lake sediments: Differences in composition measured with NMR spectroscopy2006In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 40, no 20, p. 3705-3712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus (P) composition in alkaline sediment extracts from three Swedish oligotrophic mountain lakes was investigated using P-31-NMR spectroscopy. Surface sediments from one natural lake and two mature reservoirs, one of which has received nutrient additions over the last 3 years, were compared with respect to biogenic P composition. The results show significant differences in the occurrence of labile and biogenic P species in the sediments of the different systems. The P compound groups that varied most between these three systems were pyrophosphate and polyphosphates, compound groups known to play an important role in sediment P recycling. The content of these compound groups was lowest in the reservoirs and may indicate a coupling between anthropogenic disturbances (i.e., impoundment) to a water system and the availability of labile P species in the sediment. A statistical study was also conducted to determine the accuracy and reliability of using P-31-NMR spectroscopy for quantification of sediment P forms. (c) 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 569. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    De Brabandere, Heidi
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rydin, Emil
    Release of organic P forms from lake sediments2011In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 565-572Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different physical and chemical conditions on the decomposition and release of organic and inorganic P compound groups from the sediment of Lake Erken were investigated in a series of laboratory experiments. Conditions investigated were temperature, oxygen level, and the effects of additions of carbon substrate (glucose) and poison (formalin). The effects on the P compound groups were determined by measurements with (31)P NMR before and after the experiments, as well as analysis of P in effluent water throughout the experiment. Phosphate analysis of the effluent water showed that oxygen level was the most influential in terms of release rates, with the sediments under anoxic conditions generally releasing more phosphate than the other treatments. (31)P NMR showed that the various treatments did influence the P compound group composition of the sediment. In particular, the addition of glucose led to a decrease in orthophosphate and polyphosphate while the addition of formalin led to a decrease in phosphorus lipids, DNA-phosphate and polyphosphate. Oxic conditions resulted in an increase in polyphosphates, and anoxic conditions in a decrease in these. Temperature did not seem to affect the composition significantly. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 570. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Reitzel, Kasper
    Tranvik, Lars
    Gogoll, Adolf
    Rydin, Emil
    Degradation of organic phosphorus compounds in anoxic Baltic Sea sediments: A P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance study2006In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 2341-2348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The composition and abundance of phosphorus extracted by NaOH-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid from anoxic Northwest Baltic Sea sediment was characterized and quantified using solution P-31 nuclear magnetic resonance. Extracts from sediment depths down to 55 cm, representing 85 yr of deposition, contained 18.5 g m(-2) orthophosphate. Orthophosphate monoesters, teichoic acid P, microbial P lipids, DNA P, and pyrophosphate corresponded to 6.7, 0.3, 1.1, 3.0, and 0.03 g P m(-2), respectively. The degradability of these compound groups was estimated by their decline in concentration with sediment depth. Pyrophosphate had the shortest half-life (3 yr), followed by microbial P lipids with a half-life of 5 yr, DNA P (8 yr), and orthophosphate monoesters (16 yr). No decline in concentration with sediment depth was observed for orthophosphate or teichoic acid P.

  • 571.
    Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Rolff, Carl
    Stockholms universitet.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Omstedt, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Marine Sciences Centre (UMF). Havsmiljöinstitutet.
    Orsaker till minskande syrehalter i Bottenhavet2017Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Resultat från den nationella miljöövervakningen visar att syrehalterna i Bottenhavet har minskat sedan 1970-talet, en minskning som accelererat från 1990. För att ha möjlighet att på något sätt kunna åtgärda denna försämring av den marina miljön är det nödvändigt att identifiera orsakerna till denna syreminskning, eftersom olika orsaker kan kräva olika former av åtgärder. Om orsaken till exempel är ökad syreförbrukning beroende på regional övergödning, skulle detta innebära ökat behov av regionala reningsåtgärder. Målsättningen med projektet var därmed att ge en tillförlitlig förklaring till de sjunkande syrehalterna i Bottenhavet under de senaste 20 åren genom att använda data från de nationella miljöövervakningsprogrammen. De huvudhypoteser som undersöktes som orsaker till de sjunkande syrehalterna var:  • Ökad regional gödning av Bottenhavet och därmed ökad produktion.  • Tillförsel av syrefattigt och fosfatrikt från Egentliga Östersjön.  • Starkare haloklin och försämrad ventilation av Bottenhavets djupvatten.  • Ökad temperatur och ökad tillförsel av löst organiskt kol. Analys av tidsserier och modellanalyser utifrån miljöövervaknings- och forskningsdata visade att den observerade syrehaltsminskningen i Bottenhavets djupvatten främst beror på en ökning av vattentemperaturen och delvis på en ökning av löst organiskt kol i vattnet, samt tillflöde från Egentliga Östersjön. Dataanalysen visade däremot inget tydligt stöd för att ökad produktion av biomassa i Bottenhavet orsakat de minskande syrehalterna. Detta gäller indikatorer för växtplankton, sedimentation och bakterieplankton som alla förväntas öka vid ökad produktion och det finns således inga direkta indicier för att stödja hypotesen om ökad gödning av Bottenhavet.  Sammantaget visar de analyser som gjorts inom projektet att Bottenhavets framtida hälsa främst gynnas av en kombination av åtgärder för att motverka globala klimatförändringar, samt åtgärder för att förbättra vattenkvaliteten i Egentliga Östersjön. Näringstillförsel från Bottenhavets avrinningsområden bedöms främst ha haft betydelse för syresituationen i kustnära vattenförekomster. Den bedöms därför inte i betydande omfattning ha orsakat de minskande syrehalterna i Bottenhavets utsjöområden.  

  • 572. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Tranvik, L
    Gogoll, A
    Waldeback, M
    Markides, K
    Rydin, E
    Sediment depth attenuation of biogenic phosphorus compounds measured by P-31 NMR2005In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 867-872Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Being a major cause of eutrophication and subsequent loss of water quality, the turnover of phosphorus (P) in lake sediments is in need of deeper understanding. A major part of the flux of P to eutrophic lake sediments is organically bound or of biogenic origin. This P is incorporated in a poorly described mixture of autochthonous and allochthonous sediment and forms the primary storage of P available for recycling to the water column, thus regulating lake trophic status. To identify and quantify biogenic sediment P and assess its lability, we analyzed sediment cores from Lake Erken, Sweden, using traditional P fractionation, and in parallel, NaOH extracts were analyzed using (31)p NMR. The surface sediments contain orthophosphates (ortho-P) and pyrophosphates (pyro-P), as well as phosphate mono- and diesters. The first group of compounds to disappear with increased sediment depth is pyrophosphate, followed by a steady decline of the different ester compounds. Estimated half-life times of these compound groups are about 10 yr for pyrophosphate and 2 decades for mono- and diesters. Probably, these compounds will be mineralized to ortho-P and is thus potentially available for recycling to the water column, supporting further growth of phytoplankton. In conclusion, P-31 NMR is a useful tool to asses the bioavailability of certain P compound groups, and the combination with traditional fractionation techniques makes quantification possible.

  • 573.
    Ahlgren, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Hed, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Vi eller dom?: En fallstudie om anställdas tillhörighet2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 574.
    Ahlgren, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Kalciumbrist - osteoporos: parathyreoideaes roll vid adaptionen till lågt kalciumintag hos vuxna råttor1975Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 575.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Högskolebiblioteket.
    Document-document similarity approaches and science mapping: experimental comparison of five approaches2009In: Journal of Informetrics, ISSN 1751-1577, E-ISSN 1875-5879, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 49-63Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper treats document-document similarity approaches in the context of science mapping. Five approaches, involving nine methods, are compared experimentally. We compare text-based approaches, the citation-based bibliographic coupling approach, and approaches that combine text-based approaches and bibliographic coupling. Forty-three articles, published in the journal Information Retrieval, are used as test documents. We investigate how well the approaches agree with a ground truth subject classification of the test documents, when the complete linkage method is used, and under two types of similarities, first-order and second-order. The results show that it is possible to achieve a very good approximation of the classification by means of automatic grouping of articles. One text-only method and one combination method, under second-order similarities in both cases, give rise to cluster solutions that to a large extent agree with the classification.

  • 576.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Field normalized citation rates, field normalized journal impact and Norwegian weights for allocation of university research funds2012In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 92, no 2, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared three different bibliometric evaluation approaches: two citationbased approaches and one based on manual classification of publishing channels into quality levels. Publication data for two universities was used, and we worked with two levels of analysis: article and department. For the article level, we investigated the predictive power of field normalized citation rates and field normalized journal impact with respect to journal level. The results for the article level show that evaluation of journals based on citation impact correlate rather well with manual classification of journals into quality levels. However, the prediction from field normalized citation rates to journal level was only marginally better than random guessing. At the department level, we studied three different indicators in the context of research fund allocation within universities and the extent to which the three indicators produce different distributions of research funds. It turned out that the three distributions of relative indicator values were very similar, which in turn yields that the corresponding distributions of hypothetical research funds would be very similar.

  • 577.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Umeå University, Umeå University Library.
    Sjögårde, Peter
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden; Department of ALM, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Exploring the Relation Between Referencing Practices and Citation Impact: A Large-Scale Study Based on Web of Science Data2018In: Journal of the Association for Information Science and Technology, ISSN 2330-1635, E-ISSN 2330-1643, Vol. 69, no 5, p. 728-743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this large-scale contribution, we deal with the relationship between properties of cited references of Web of Science articles and the field normalized citation rate of these articles. Using nearly 1 million articles, and three classification systems with different levels of granularity, we study the effects of number of cited references, share of references covered by Web of Science, mean age of references and mean citation rate of references on field normalized citation rate. To expose the relationship between the predictor variables and the response variable, we use quantile regression. We found that a higher number of references, a higher share of references to publications within Web of Science and references to more recent publications correlate with citation impact. A correlation was observed even when normalization was done with a finely grained classification system. The predictor variables affected citation impact to a larger extent at higher quantile levels. Regarding the relative importance of the predictor variables, citation impact of the cited references was in general the least important variable. Number of cited references carried most of the importance for both low and medium quantile levels, but this importance was lessened at the highest considered level.

  • 578.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    School of Education and Communication in Engineering Sciences (ECE), KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 100 44 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Pagin, Peter
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Svedberg, Maria
    Department of Philosophy, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bibliometric analysis of two subdomains in philosophy: free will and sorites2015In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 103, no 1, p. 47-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we tested the fruitfulness of advanced bibliometric methods for mapping subdomains in philosophy. The development of the number of publications on free will and sorites, the two subdomains treated in the study, over time was studied. We applied the cocitation approach to map the most cited publications, authors and journals, and we mapped frequently occurring terms, using a term co-occurrence approach. Both subdomains show a strong increase of publications in Web of Science. When we decomposed the publications by faculty, we could see an increase of free will publications also in social sciences, medicine and natural sciences. The multidisciplinary character of free will research was reflected in the cocitation analysis and in the term co-occurrence analysis: we found clusters/groups of cocited publications, authors and journals, and of co-occurring terms, representing philosophy as well as non-philosophical fields, such as neuroscience and physics. The corresponding analyses of sorites publications displayed a structure consisting of research themes rather than fields. All in all, both philosophers involved in this study acknowledge the validity of the various networks presented. Bibliometric mapping appears to provide an interesting tool for describing the cognitive orientation of a research field, not only in the natural and life sciences but also in philosophy, which this study shows.

  • 579.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Globalization of citations and collaboration: a study of twelve journals2012In: Proceedings of 17th International Conference on Science and Technology Indicators / [ed] Éric Archambault, Yves Gingras and Vincent Larivière, 2012, p. 23-32Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We treated citations and collaboration from a spatial point of view with respect to twelve journals. Eleven of the journals are from the field of information science, the remaining one from the nanotechnology field. Publication data from Web of Science were used. The twelve journals were compared with respect to mean global impact (in terms of geographical citation distance), citation impact, share of foreign country citation links, degree of concentration of country citation links, and mean geographical collaboration distance. The information science journals oriented towards research evaluation tended to have lower global impact than the more general information science journals, whereas a reversed pattern was observed regarding share of foreign country citation links. For the relation between global impact and citation impact, there was a weak similarity between the global impact ordering and the citation impact ordering of the journals. Regarding the degree of concentration of country citation links, the links were found to be highly concentrated to certain countries, irrespective of if cited or citing countries were considered. For geographical collaboration distance, the nanotechnology journal in the study, Nature Nanotechnology, had the highest indicator value, which is in agreement with the outcome for global impact.

  • 580.
    Ahlgren, Per
    et al.
    Department of e-Resources, University Library, Stockholm University.
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Tijssen, Robert
    Centre for Science and Technology Studies (CWTS), Leiden University, PO Box 905, 2300 AX Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Geographical distance in bibliometric relations within epistemic communities2013In: Scientometrics, ISSN 0138-9130, E-ISSN 1588-2861, Vol. 95, no 2, p. 771-784Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientists collaborate increasingly on a global scale. Does this trend also hold for other bibliometric relations such as direct citations, cocitations and shared references? This study examines citation-based relations in publications published in the journal Scientometrics from 1981 to 2010. Different measures of Mean Geographical Distance (MGD) are tested. If we take all citation links into consideration, there is no indication of MGD increase, but when we look at maximum distances of each relation, a weak tendency of increasing MGD could be observed. One major factor behind the lack of growth of mean distances is the form of the distribution of citation links over distances. Our data suggest that the interactions might grow simultaneously for both short and long distances.

  • 581.
    Ahlgren, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Bergh, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Hauer, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Jonsson, Mona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Lindberg, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Nygren, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Reivell, Gun-Britt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Rönnlund, Ulla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sandahl, Carla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Dahlgren, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Kostvetenskaplig kompetens: belyst med kvalitativ metod1996Report (Other academic)
  • 582.
    Ahlgren, Roger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Malmros, Bengt
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library, Centre for teaching and learning (UPL).
    Sjödin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Tieva, Åse
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Att bryta en trend och förändra en tradition2015In: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2015: Gränslös kunskap, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, p. 6-7Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 583.
    Ahlgren, Stefan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Nestander, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Redo! Alltid redo!: Lärare och lärarstudenters åsikter om bemötande av barn i kris2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förr eller senare kommer vi som lärare att ställas inför det faktum att vi måste hantera krissituationer där en eller flera elever behöver omsorg. Vårt syfte med detta examensarbete har varit att försöka beskriva och jämföra erfarna lärares och lärarstudenters åsikter och erfarenheter om bemötande av barn i kris. Vi ville genom vår undersökning ta reda på vad lärare har för beredskap för att möta barn som drabbats av en kris och hur lärare bemöter dessa barn på bästa sätt. Vi har använt oss av kvalitativa intervjuer där vi intervjuat sex lärare med minst fem års yrkeserfarenhet och sex lärarstudenter i slutskedet av sin utbildning. Intervjuerna har tillsammans med den litteratur vi läst gett oss följande resultat: Skilsmässa är den krisorsak för barn som enligt resultatet är den vanligaste. Upplevelser av kriser kan variera mycket för barn beroende på vilken ålder de är i. Signalerna kan ibland vara svaga och svåra att tolka men ofta förändrar barnet sitt sätt att vara på ett märkbart sätt. Ingen kris är den andra lik, därför är det svårt att vara förberedd på att hantera en krissituation då de ser så olika ut från gång till gång. Den viktigaste känslan läraren kan förmedla är trygghet till den som är drabbad. Få av de intervjuade kände sig beredda att möta barn i kris, men lärarna tillade att de inte var rädda för det. Samtliga informanter ansåg att de fått för lite eller ingen kunskap om krishantering under sin utbildning. Alla var överens om att det skulle behövas.

  • 584.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Exploring the pancreas with optical projection tomography2012In: Imaging in Medicine, ISSN 1755-5191, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 5-7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 585.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Imaging shows insulin-producing cells in diabetes2013In: TrAC. Trends in analytical chemistry, ISSN 0165-9936, E-ISSN 1879-3142, Vol. 44, p. III-IIIArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 586.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Gotthardt, Martin
    Department of Nuclear Medicine, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Approaches for imaging islets2010In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 654, p. 39-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The establishment of improved technologies for imaging of the pancreas is a key element in addressing several aspects of diabetes pathogenesis. In this respect, the development of a protocol that allows for non-invasive scoring of human islets, or islet beta-cells, is of particular importance. The development of such a technology would have profound impact on both clinical and experimental medicine, ranging from early diagnosis of diabetes to the evaluation of therapeutic regimes. Another important task is the development of modalities for high-resolution imaging of experimental animal models for diabetes. Rodent models for diabetes research have for decades been instrumental to the diabetes research community. The ability to image, and to accurately quantify, key players of diabetogenic processes with molecular specificity will be of great importance for elucidating mechanistic aspects of the disease. This chapter aims to overview current progress within these research areas.

  • 587.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Hörnblad, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Optical imaging of islets: new possibilities by the development of infrared fluorescent proteins2009In: Islets, ISSN 1938-2022, Vol. 1, no 2, p. 163-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to record the spatial and quantitative distribution of cellular subtypes involved in diabetogenic processes is a key element in experimental diabetes research. A non-invasive technique to accurately monitor parameters such as pancreatic β-cell mass (BCM) and its distribution would provide a stepping stone in understanding different aspects of diabetes pathogenesis. It would also assist in the development of therapeutic regimes by providing a tool for the evaluation of anti-diabetic drugs or other curative or diagnostic measures. At present, a range of imaging modalities are being explored for this purpose. Whereas nuclear imaging techniques, characterised by their high tissue penetration depth but relatively low spatial resolution, appear most promising for the study of humans and large animals, optical imaging enables a route to cost-effective, high sensitivity, high resolution imaging in rodent models for disease. In this commentary, the potential impact of infrared fluorescent proteins (IFPs), as recently reported by Shu et al in Science, for imaging of the pancreas in small animals will be discussed.

  • 588.
    Ahlgren, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Kostromina, Elena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Imaging the pancreatic beta cell: chapter 132011In: Type 1 diabetes: pathogenesis, genetics and immunotherapy / [ed] David Wagner, InTech, 2011Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This book is a compilation of reviews about the pathogenesis of Type 1 Diabetes. T1D is a classic autoimmune disease. Genetic factors are clearly determinant but cannot explain the rapid, even overwhelming expanse of this disease. Understanding etiology and pathogenesis of this disease is essential. A number of experts in the field have covered a range of topics for consideration that are applicable to researcher and clinician alike. This book provides apt descriptions of cutting edge technologies and applications in the ever going search for treatments and cure for diabetes. Areas including T cell development, innate immune responses, imaging of pancreata, potential viral initiators, etc. are considered.

  • 589. Ahlin, Cecilia
    et al.
    Fernö, Mårten
    Amini, Rose-Marie
    Tolockiene, Egle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Blomqvist, Carl
    Bergh, Jonas
    Fjällskog, Marie-Louise
    [Ki-67 and cyclin A: prognostic factors in breast cancer. Time to introduce proliferation markers in clinical routine].2010In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 107, no 10, p. 672-675Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 590.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    En paneldatastudie av Beveridgekurvan: Fokus på ungdomsarbetslöshet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 591.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Hur påverkas hälsan av konjunkturförändringar i Sverige?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie avser analysera hur hälsan i den svenska befolkningen varierar med konjunkturcykeln. Relationen mellan hälsa och konjunkturcykeln studeras genom att undersöka hur mortalitet och utnyttjandet av sjukvård påverkas av förändringar i arbetslöshet. Relationen mellan mortalitet och arbetslöshet är välstuderad utomlands och i Sverige men denna studie tar analysen ett steg vidare genom att även använda utnyttjandet av sluten respektive öppen vård som mått på hälsa. Den ekonometriska metoden som tillämpats är regression med fixa effekter som estimerats med paneldata som avser Sveriges 21 län. Överlag kan resultaten i denna studie inte visa på ett tydligt samband mellan arbetslöshet och de studerade hälsovariablerna. Med viss försiktighet i tolkningarna kan resultaten visa tecken på att en ökad arbetslöshet leder till lägre mortalitet och högre sjukvårdsutnyttjande momentant. Den dynamiska analysen i studien visar tecken på att arbetslöshet har en större effekt på mortalitet ett och två år senare, liknande resultat finns i relationen mellan arbetslöshet och utnyttjandet av öppen vård. Utnyttjandet av sluten vård ökar momentant men effekten av stigande arbetslöshet minskar efter ett och två år.

  • 592.
    Ahlin, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Kan ekonomiska styrmedel riktade mot livsmedel förbättra folkhälsan?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie utvärderar ekonomiska styrmedels effekt på konsumtionen av livsmedel samt ifall skatter och subventioner kan vara en metod som styr matkonsumtionen mot hälsosamma livsmedelsval. Sex livsmedelsgrupper analyseras i studien och dessa är sötsaker och glass, kött, grönsaker, mejerivaror, bröd och spannmålsprodukter samt frukt och bär. Fyra scenarier som representerar olika skatte- och/eller subventionsreformer simuleras för att analysera vilken effekt ekonomiska styrmedel kan ha på matkonsumtion och hälsa. Responsen som de ekonomiska styrmedlen har på matkonsumtionen beräknas med elasticiteter som tagits fram från parameterestimat i AIDS-modellen. Den data som ligger till grund för den ekonometriska modellen är aggregerad konsumtionsdata, konsumentprisindex och livsmedelsförsäljning. Resultatet från studien visar att det går att styra konsumtionen av livsmedel men att substitution mellan varor kan leda till att de hälsomål som reformen är menad att nå inte uppfylls.

  • 593.
    Ahlin, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Dansundervisning och genus: Danslärare inom fritidsverksamhetens uppfattning, behandling och förväntningar på sina elever utifrån ett genusperspektivIndependent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den nutida forskningen i Sverige visade att könsklyftorna i skolan mellan killar och tjejer

    fortfarande var stora. Baserat på dessa ojämlikheter mellan pojkar och flickor i skolan

    triggades mitt intresse för om, och i så fall hur, detta även är fallet under danslektioner. Syftet

    med studien var att undersöka utifrån danslärarens perspektiv, om och i så fall hur läraren

    behandlade eleverna olika baserat på kön, samt ifall lärarens förväntningar på sina elever

    skiljde sig mellan tjejer och killar. Studien utgick från frågeställningarna: hur dansläraren

    behandlar sina elever beroende på om de är tjej eller kille, samt om läraren förväntar sig olika

    saker från dem baserat på kön. Observationer genomfördes, vid fyra olika dansskolor. Dessa

    besök, uppföljdes med fyra forskningsintervjuer, med danslärarna från de observerade

    lektionerna. Studien begränsades till fyra dansskolor inom Västra Götalandsregionen.

    Skillnader i hur danslärare behandlade elever baserat på kön observerades, både genom

    initiativ från läraren, men även genom situationer som skapades av eleverna under

    danslektionen. Danslärarna uttryckte att de hade samma förväntningar på eleverna, oavsett

    kön, men erkände att samhällets struktur och kultur påverkade även vad som skedde under på

    lektionstid.

  • 594.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploiting Information: Seeking Long-term Preservation of organisational knowledge2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term preservation of organisational knowledge gives the business opportunities to reusestored knowledge. This preservation of knowledge is present both in the organisation as such,found explicitly in the organisational stock, and also in the individual workers, implicit intheir flow of action. Theoretically have the reuse of knowledge been named organisationalmemory and also been addressed in knowledge management. In a single case-study of amanufacturing company, the authors study the utilisation of product configuration information(PCI) and its role in meeting requirements on long-time preservation of product-relatedknowledge. This structured and standardised information is used throughout the organisation,serving as a base for both organisational and individual knowledge for the entire company.Since the information has been used in the same way for decades it is a part of theorganisation´s culture and influences structures and procedures connected to the informationbase. The result of the study implies that usage of PCI grants the individual worker a highdegree of task-related freedom as well as intra-organisational mobility. The downside for theindividuals is the long time period it takes to get familiar with PCI due to its complexity. Forthe organisation as such, PCI provides a stable stock of knowledge which is available overextended periods of time, drastically reducing dependence upon individual workers.

  • 595.
    Ahlin, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Den kommunala självstyrelsen: En kvalitativ idéanalys om riksdagspartiers syn på skolan och kommunens mottagande av nyanlända2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 596.
    Ahlinder, Annie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    Labba, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Speech and Language Therapy.
    SIV-Speech clarity, Intelligibility & Voice: Development of a speech assessment tool for use by healthprofessionals who work with patients treated with DeepBrain Stimulation2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) and Essential tremor (ET) who havebeen treated with Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) generally experience a positive effect,particularly regarding the motor symptoms. However, the patients’ communication skillsare often negatively affected and the assessment instrument currently used withinneurological clinical care is not sufficiently sensitive to assess these patients’ speechclarity, voice and intelligibility satisfactorily.Aim: This study’s purpose was to develop a prototype assessment tool for speech clarity,intelligibility and voice, with speech and language pathology (SLP) validity, that isadaptable to a neurological clinical care setting.Method: The assessment tool was designed using general design methodology. Aprototype was constructed and tested on speech samples of read text for reliability. ThreeSLP’s, three DBS nurses and three naive listeners (NL) were represented in the test group.Levels of agreement were calculated using Percent Close Agreement, PCA.Results: The results indicate a relatively high level of agreement between the groups, inparticular the SLP group and the DBS group (μ: 0.82, 0.79, and 0.74).Conclusion: The results demonstrate the need for an assessment tool with SLPcompetence to assess speech clarity, intelligibility and voice within neurological clinicalcare. The assessment tool was shown to be a useful and adequate prototype that can easilyevolve into a truly useful and versatile perceptual speech assessment tool. The results ofthis study should be treated cautiously, considering the test groups’ modest size.

  • 597.
    Ahlinder, Isak
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The impact of labor market insecurity on mental health among immigrants in Europe2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The impact of labor market insecurity on immigrants’ mental health is understudied. This current study investigated whether labor market insecurity, as measured by different employment arrangements, has detrimental impact on immigrants’ depression, and if so, how it compares to the role of unemployment. Furthermore, this study investigated whether labor market insecurity had more detrimental impact on immigrants than non-immigrants. To do so, data from seventh wave of European Social Survey (2014/2015) was divided into three separate immigrant groups; first-generation immigrants, second-generation immigrants and non-immigrants. The results shows that labor market insecurity among immigrants had detrimental impact on mental health. The effects were not restricted to the first- generation immigrants’ mental health, they could also be observed in the second-generation immigrants and among non-immigrants. The results presented in this thesis show that not only unemployment, but also insecure employment arrangement have negative impact on mental health, both among immigrants and non-immigrants.

  • 598.
    Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Mathisen, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Elin
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Forsman, Mats
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Thelaus, Johanna
    Division of CBRN Defence and Security, FOI, Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Oligotyping reveals divergent responses of predation resistant bacteria to aquatic productivity and plankton compositionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Predation-resistance has been suggested to be a key for persistence of pathogenic bacteria in aquatic environments. Little is known about driving factors for different types of protozoa resistant bacteria (PRB). We studied if presence of PRB is linked to specific plankton taxa, the aquatic nutrient state, or predation pressure on bacteria. Nineteen freshwater systems were sampled and analyzed for PRB, plankton composition and physicochemical variables. Three PRB genera were identified; Pseudomonas, Mycobacterium and Rickettsia. Use of minimum entropy decomposition algorithm and phylogenetic analysis showed that different nodes (representing OTUs of high taxonomic resolution) matched to environmental isolates of the three genera. Links between the PRB genera and specific plankton taxa were found, but showed different relationships depending on if 18S rRNA OTU or microscopy data were used in the analysis. Mycobacterium spp. was negatively correlated to aquatic nutrient state, while Pseudomonas showed the opposite pattern. Rickettsia spp. was positively related to predation pressure on bacteria. Both Mycobacterium and Rickettsia were more abundant in systems with high eukaryotic diversity, while Pseudomonas occurred abundantly in waters with low prokaryotic diversity. The different drivers may be explained by varying ecological strategies, where Mycobacterium and Rickettsia are slow growing and have an intracellular life style, while Pseudomonas is fast growing and opportunistic. Here we give an insight to the possibilities of newly advanced methods such as sequencing and oligotyping to link potential pathogens with biomarkers. This as a tool to assist predictions of the occurrence and persistence of environmental pathogens.

  • 599. Ahlinder, Jon
    et al.
    Ohrman, Caroline
    Svensson, Kerstin
    Lindgren, Petter
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Infectious Diseases.
    Forsman, Mats
    Larsson, Pär
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Increased knowledge of Francisella genus diversity highlights the benefits of optimised DNA-based assays2012In: BMC Microbiology, ISSN 1471-2180, E-ISSN 1471-2180, Vol. 12, p. 220-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent advances in sequencing technologies offer promising tools for generating large numbers of genomes, larger typing databases and improved mapping of environmental bacterial diversity. However, DNA-based methods for the detection of Francisella were developed with limited knowledge about genetic diversity. This, together with the high sequence identity between several Francisella species, means there is a high risk of false identification and detection of the highly virulent pathogen Francisella tularensis. Moreover, phylogenetic reconstructions using single or limited numbers of marker sequences often result in incorrect tree topologies and inferred evolutionary distances. The recent growth in publicly accessible whole-genome sequences now allows evaluation of published genetic markers to determine optimal combinations of markers that minimise both time and laboratory costs. Results: In the present study, we evaluated 38 previously published DNA markers and the corresponding PCR primers against 42 genomes representing the currently known diversity of the genus Francisella. The results highlight that PCR assays for Francisella tularensis are often complicated by low specificity, resulting in a high probability of false positives. A method to select a set of one to seven markers for obtaining optimal phylogenetic resolution or diagnostic accuracy is presented. Conclusions: Current multiple-locus sequence-typing systems and detection assays of Francisella, could be improved by redesigning some of the primers and reselecting typing markers. The use of only a few optimally selected sequence-typing markers allows construction of phylogenetic topologies with almost the same accuracy as topologies based on whole-genome sequences.

  • 600.
    Ahlkvist, Emilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Samkönade äktenskaps vara eller icke vara inom Svenska kyrkan.: En argumentationsanalys av debattartiklar från Kyrkans tidning och Dagens Nyheter.2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I Samkönade äktenskaps vara eller icke vara inom Svenska kyrkan utförs en argumentationsanalys, baserad på hermeneutiks metod och kvalitativ textanalys, av debattartiklar som behandlat frågan som Svenska kyrkan ska behålla vigselrätten efter att svenska staten har gjort äktenskapsbalken könsneutral. Alla undersökta debattartiklar är publicerade mellan 2008-12-11 och 2009-10-31 i Kyrkans tidning och Dagens Nyheter. I resultatanalysen framgår det att både ja- och nej-sidan använder sig av ungefär samma typer av argument men med olika vinklingar och tolkningar. Nej-sidan använder sig dock mer av ett toleransperspektiv än ja-sidan. I ja-sidans argumenterande kan man hitta en underliggande normkritik av heteronormativiteten.

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