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  • 651.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Hassler, Sven
    Sjölander, Per
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Unnatural deaths in reindeer-herding Sami families in Sweden, 1961-20012010In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 69, no 2, p. 129-137Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Unnatural deaths among Indigenous populations, including the Swedish Sami, occur more often than among the general population. To find prevention strategies, we explored the circumstances of the unnatural deaths of members of reindeer-herding Sami families.

    STUDY DESIGN: The number of deaths from among a cohort of 7,482 members of reindeer-herding Sami families were retrieved from the National Board of Health and Welfare for the years 1961- 2001.

    METHODS: An evaluation of the information from autopsy records at the National Board of Forensic Medicine, police reports, and available medical records identified 158 unnatural deaths. These were then analysed in detail.

    RESULTS: Transport-related deaths and suicides were the most common unnatural deaths among Swedish reindeer-herding Sami family members. Suicides contributed to 23% of all deaths, road traffic accidents to 16%, and snowmobile fatalities to 11%. The accidents generally reflected an "outdoor lifestyle" and the working conditions were characterized by the use of off-road vehicles such as snowmobiles. Half of the number of victims tested positive for alcohol and alcohol abuse was documented in 15% of all victims.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that alcohol is an important factor in preventing unnatural deaths among reindeer-herding Sami, together with increased safety of both on-road and off-road transportation.

  • 652.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in Northern Sweden 1992-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 653.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Division of Social and Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in northern Sweden 1992-2009: the role of mental disorder and intoxication2015In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 34, p. 168-172Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicides by drowning have received limited attention by researchers. A recent finding that almost onethird of all drowning deaths in Sweden were classified as suicide instigated this study. We identified 129 cases of suicide by drowning in Northern Sweden and analyzed the circumstances and the psychiatric history prior to the suicide. Information was obtained from autopsy, police and medical records, as well as from the National Inpatient Register. One-third of the suicide victims had previously attempted suicide and half of the victims had been hospitalized due to mental health problems. One-third of these had left the hospital less than one week before the suicide. Alcohol and psychoactive drugs were present in 16% and 62% of the cases, respectively. A history of mental disorder and previous suicide attempt (s), especially by drowning, is an ominous combination necessitating efficient clinical identification, treatment and follow-up if a complete suicide is to be prevented.

  • 654.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Drowning deaths in Sweden with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs: a retrospective study, 1992-20092013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, p. 216-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drowning deaths constitute a significant proportion of unnatural deaths globally. In Sweden and other high-income countries, drowning deaths have decreased. This study investigates the epidemiology and current trends of unintentional, intentional, and undetermined drowning deaths with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and other drugs.

    Methods: During an 18-years period, 5,125 drowning deaths were autopsied in Sweden. Data on cases including toxicological analysis on alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    Results: During the study period, the annual incidence of drowning deaths in Sweden was 3.1/100,000 inhabitants and decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). The highest incidence was found among males and in middle/older age groups. The incidence increased 3% for each year of age. Children/adolescents (<= 18 years) constituted 5% of all drowning deaths. Of all drowned females in the study, 55% (847/1,547) committed suicide, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with males (21%, 763/3,578) (p<0.001). In total, 38% (1,656/4,377) of tested drowned persons had alcohol in their blood and the mean concentration was 1.8 g/l. In the unintentional drowning group, intentional drowning group, and the undetermined group, the proportion of alcohol positive was 44%, 24%, and 45%, respectively. One or several psychoactive drugs were present in the blood in 40% (1,688/4,181) of all tested persons and in 69% (965/1,394) of tested persons who died from suicidal drowning. The most common drug was benzodiazepines (21%, 891/4,181). Illicit drugs were detected in 10% (82/854) of tested persons.

    Conclusion: Presence of alcohol and drugs were frequent and may have contributed to the drowning deaths. The incidence of drowning deaths significantly decreased during the study period. Males and the middle/older age groups had a higher incidence compared to females and children. Suicidal drowning was common especially among women. Alcohol and drugs are significant contributors in drowning deaths in Sweden and should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention program.

  • 655.
    Ahlm, Kristoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Prey specialization and diet of frogs in Borneo2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Earlier studies of the diet of frogs indicate that most adult frogs are mainly insectivorous. Overall, frogs are viewed more as generalists than specialists in terms of their diet. However, despite earlier studies, there are still gaps in our knowledge regarding what frogs tend to eat and the degree of specialization. The aim of this study was to investigate the diet choice of frogs in a tropical ecosystem. The present study was conducted in a well-known hotspot for frogs with 66 of the 156 known frog species in Borneo found in a protected area comprising of primary rainforest.

     

    Frogs were caught in the field and their stomachs were flushed. The stomach content was retrieved, sorted to prey categories, and the diet analysed. In addition, the frogs were identified to species level. The frogs belonged to five families: Bufonidae, Dicroglossidae, Megophryidae, Microhylidae and Ranidae. My results show that the most common food source was ants, which constituted 63.7 % of the total food for all studied frog families. Termites, beetles and spiders made up 11.7 %, 4.2 % and 2.8 % of the total prey, respectively. The results from the analysis of Shannon’s diversity index supported two diet specialist families, the Bufonidae and Megophridae, which had a significantly lower mean diversity index compared to the generalist Dicroglossidae. To better reveal differences in frog’s diet in this ecosystem, further studies using larger sample size are needed.

     

     

     

  • 656.
    Ahlman, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Sharing Future: A look at the playing field of the Swedish sharing economy2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The way we share is changing. Where we used to knock on a neighbour’s door to borrow a cup of sugar, we are now using apps to share cars with strangers around the world.

    Why do some people share, and why do others not? What is the role of the different players in the sharing economy, and how can sustainable growth be encouraged?

    The purpose of this research was to identify drivers and obstacles of engagement and paths to sustainable growth in the sharing economy. This thesis builds on previous research by expanding it to a Swedish context and by taking a broader look at the stakeholders. Interviews were conducted with five sharing economy experts in order to answer the research questions.

    The findings include the identification of drivers and obstacles of engagement in the sharing economy for the key stakeholder groups of users, firms (divided into established firms and startups) and the State. In total 30 factors were identified. Highlights of the discovered factors include the importance of convenience for driving participation among users, brand positioning for established firms, low barriers to entry for startups, and sustainability agendas for the State. Identified obstacles of engagement included lack of benefits for users, regulation and taxes for established firms, lack of demand for startups, and speed of change for the State.

    A model is developed to answer the questions of reaching critical mass and encouraging sustainability. The model describes the  players and the  playing field of the sharing economy and combines new and established theories for sustainable growth. Two of the highlighted concepts were the need for non-traditional business models and value-based investments, as exemplified by the platform cooperatives, which are user-owned sharing platforms.

  • 657.
    Ahlmark, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Villkor för god användarmedverkan1990Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 658.
    Ahlmén, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    1a,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits the Expression of Interleukin-1b in Human Gingival Fibroblasts2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The level of osteotropic cytokines is a crucial factor for alveolar bone loss in patients with periodontal disease. These cytokines,are produced by infiltrating immune cells as an inflammatory response. Besides their immunoregulatory function, certain osteotropic cytokines present in periodontitis can stimulate osteoclastogenes and alveolar bone resorption. Also resident cells, including gingival fibroblasts, produce these types of cytokines, a production which is regulated by different local inflammatory mediators. The role of systemic factors, such as hormones, in regulation of cytokine expression in gingival fibroblasts is, however, much less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate how vitamin D (1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) affects the production of certain osteotropic cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF).

     

    The fibroblasts were isolated from patients with clinically healthy gingiva. The evaluation of cytokine expression was made using RT-PCR after incubation of the fibroblasts in the presence or absence of 1a,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3. Assessments of protein expression of cytokines and hormone receptors were performed using Western blot or ELISA.

     

    In TNF-a stimulated HGFs, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 caused a time- and concentration dependent decreased expression of IL-1β mRNA with no significant effect on the expression of IL-6 mRNA.  1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibited also the increased intracellular levels of pro-IL-1b in TNF-a stimulated cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that HGF expressed vitamin D receptor protein as well as its dimerizing partner retinoid X receptor-a. These data show that vitamin D is a potent regulator of IL-1b in HGF which may help to explain the anti-inflammatory effect by vitamin D in vivo.

  • 659.
    Ahlner, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Avdic, Kenan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Acceptance and Commiment Therapy: Enbent existentiell efterapning eller härlig humanistisk hybrid?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete undersöker ACT och ställer frågan om terapiformen kan betraktas som en existentiell beteendeterapi. Ett material bestående av 53 vetenskapliga artiklar undersöktes med en tematisk innehållsanalys för att få en bred och aktuell bild av ACT i avseende på teori, praxis och människosyn. Resultatet sattes in i en psykologihistorisk kontext i allmänhet och en beteendepsykologiskt kontext i synnerhet. Det som talar emot ACT som en existentiell beteendeterapi är främst bristen på oppositionella inslag och kritik av den vetenskapliga normen. I andra vågskålen placerar resultatet det holistiska perspektivet samt synen på människan som ickedeterminerad. Även synen på den mänskliga ångesten som oundviklig samt tyngdvikten på värdestyrt beteende pekar i riktning mot att ACT kan betraktas som en existentiell beteendeterapi. Författarna diskuterar slutligen om detta kan säga något om dagens syn på olika psykologiska ideologier.

  • 660.
    Ahlqvist, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Vad arbetar du med? Specialpedagogens funktion i skolan: Vilka skillnader finns i synen på specialpedagogens arbete i en kommunal skola respektive en friskola – En intervjustudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studies är ett försök att ge en ökad förståelse för hur rektorer och lärare vid en kommunal skola och en friskola på gymnasienivå ser på specialpedagogens funktion i skolan. Detta görs genom en kvalitativ intervjustudie vars syfte är att är att ge en bild av specialpedagogens funktion i skolan genom att belysa sex lärares, tre på en kommunal skola och tre på en friskola, och två rektorers, en vid en kommunal skola och en vid en friskola, syn på och tankar om detta. Detta för att få en ökad förståelse för vad lärare och rektorer förväntar sig av den funktion som specialpedagogen fyller i skolan. De tre frågor som ska hjälpa till att belysa detta är:

    - Hur ser rektorerna på specialpedagogens funktion?

    - Hur ser skolans lärare på specialpedagogens funktion?

    - Skiljer sig synen på specialpedagogens funktion beroende på om läraren och rektorn är verksam vid en kommunal skola eller en friskola?

    Studiens resultat tolkas utifrån de två vanligaste förekommande specialpedagogiska perspektiven, kategoriskt och relationellt, tidigare forskning och skolans styrdokument. Resultaten ger sammantaget en bild av specialpedagogens yrkesroll som komplex, där synen på den specialpedagogiska yrkesrollen hos rektorerna spänner från att vara en specialundervisare för enskilda elever i behov av särskilt stöd till att arbeta med handledning och skolutveckling. Den bild av specialpedagogerna och deras funktion som rektorerna målar upp är mer relationell till sin karaktär än kategorisk. Lärarna i studien anser att specialpedagogerna är viktig för att de ska kunna klara av att hjälpa de elever som har behov av särskilt stöd och att de skulle vilja ha mer tillgång till det stöd som specialpedagogerna ger. Även lärarna bild av specialpedagogens funktion överväger något åt det relationella perspektivet. Resultaten i studien pekar även mot att det är svårt att finna några betydande skillnader mellan hur synen ser ut på specialpedagogens funktion oavsett om läraren eller rektorn är verksam vid en kommunal skola eller en friskola.

  • 661.
    Ahlqvist, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Fallstudie över Luleå kommuns implementering av gröna nyckeltal2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 662.
    Ahlqvist, David
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kan de gröna nyckeltalen vara ett effektivt verktyg i arbetet mot hållbar utveckling och i så fall hur?2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 663.
    Ahlqvist, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Implementing a Resume Database with Online Learning to Rank2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Learning to Rank is a research area within Machine Learning. It is mainly used in Information Retrieval and has been applied to, among other systems, web search engines and in computational advertising. The purpose of the Learning to Rank model is to rank a list of items, placing the most relevant at the top of the list, according to the users' requirements. Online Learning to Rank is a type of this model, that learns directly from the users' interactions with the system.

    In this thesis a resume database is implemented, where the search engine applies an Online Learning to Rank algorithm, to rank consultant's resumes, when queries with required skills and competences are issued to the system. The implementation of the Resume Database and the ranking algorithm, as well as an evaluation, is presented in this report. Results from the evaluation indicates that the performance of the search engine, with the Online Learning to Rank algorithm, could be desirable in a production environment.

  • 664.
    Ahlqvist, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    CO-LIVING: Proposal for a collective community in relation to nature2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Manifest

    Today we live in a society were we live longer, with access to food,medicine, pure water with all services we could possibly need around the corner. Still we struggle with growing issues that our way of living and planning have affected us. Together we face issues of rising housing prices with a steady progressing marginalized rental market. Causing segregated gentrified areas of high income in comparison to low income. At the same time we contaminate the environment around us without reflecting of how we can alter our way of building and living instead. Previously we had access to pure air, water with tighter relations with our community, living with the nature without being a bystander that have distanced herself from it.

    What have we lost along the way? I will through my project propose an alternative to how we plan our city today, by working from following points.

    -Living in a natural landscape without implementing a generic city plan that do not consider the qualities of the site. I instead intend to take advantage of the natural qualities while combining them with our modern way of living.

    --Living with nature without impeding long lasting harm to nature, this include treatment of wastewater from the housing.

    -Creating a social diverse community by combining housing to prevent the development of a gentrified area of high income elite. As a part of this is to design affordable housing that low income groups can afford to rent or buy.

    -Vivid community life by offering both public and private spaces, with community activities.

  • 665.
    Ahlqvist, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Förskollärare ska…: Om uppdraget att arbeta medpedagogisk dokumentation2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Genom intervjuer har fyra förskollärare fått berätta om sina erfarenheter att arbeta med pedagogisk dokumentation och vilka aspekter de tror kan påverka realiseringen av uppdraget. Det som kommit fram har handlat om tydligheten i uppdraget men sen att hur den omsätts i praktiken skiljer sig åt på olika sätt. Förskollärare arbetar i enlighet med uppdraget då de ser hur pedagogisk dokumentation kan bidra till utveckling av en pedagogisk verksamhet som positivt gagnar barns utveckling och lärande. Det som förskollärarna beskrivit som svårt med uppdragsarbetet är att få tiden att gå ihop och sen vilka tillvägagångssätt som är mest gynnsamma.

  • 666.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    The temporomandibular joint: Tomopraphic and CT assesment of its bone demarcations with reference to adjacent organs1998Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The wall of the temporal bone separating the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) from surroundings organs, can be very thin and also have development defects. Distortion effects in the radiographic reproduction of these bone walls can result in misinterpretations when exanimating suspected pathologic changes in the region. These areas need to be radiographic identified prior to taking any invasive measures. Incorrect assessment of bone thickness may lead to serious sequelae due to the risk of penetration injury during invasive investigation or treatment of the TMJ or ear. The purpose of this project was to gain more detailed knowledge about the anatomy and topography of the TMJ with special reference to its bone demarcations regarding adjacent organs and to evaluate the tomographic and computed tomographic (CT) depiction of these bone walls. To obtain a basic analysis of the tissue anatomy and tomographic and CT reproduction of the TMJ region, autopsy specimens were studied. After CT and conventional tomography, the specimens were sectioned in a microtom. Three- dimensional orientation systems allowed identification of section depth in the radiograms and in the histologic sections, allowing the radiograms in turn to be correlated with the true anatomy. The angle of inclination relative to the perpendicular to established imaging planes the bone walls studied was examined in three projections in order to identify regions where the bone demarcation showed an unfavorable inclination regarding the possibility of valid radiographic representation. The thickness of the bone wall between the TMJ and the middle cranial fossa, measured in the thinnest part, varied between 0.08 and 3.62 mm, averaging 1.14 mm. The bone wall between the TMJ and the middle ear showed less variation in thickness ranging from 0.00 to 1.80 mm. The thickness of the bone wall separating the TMJ from the external auditory canal varied between  1.50 mm (lateral part) and 1.21 mm (central part), with a range of between 0.21 and 4.10 mm. Development defects of this bone wall were found in 5.2 % of the examined joints. The validity in tomographic depiction of these walls was highly dependent on an optimal orientation of the bone wall in relation to the image plane. The variations in the anatomy and sagittal dimension of the external auditory canal led to variations in tomographic blurring, and suggested the need for examinations after patient repositioning in cases of suspected bone resorbing lesions so that image aberration due to unfavorable inclination of the bone wall relative to the image plane may be excluded. CT of these bone walls was valid (± 10 %) for walls thicker than approximately 1 mm, forming an angle of less than 35® with the perpendicular to the scan plane when the bone wall thickness was determined as the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). For bone walls thinner than 1 mm, and for those thicker than 1 mm and at an angle exceeding 35®, partial volume averaging effects resulted in a progressively increasing magnification of bone dimensions. Observer estimations of bone thickness from images obtained using conventional bone window settings (c=400, W=2000) showed good agreement for bone walls thicker than 1 mm and with an angle of inclination relative to the perpendicular to the image plane of less than approximately 25®. For bone walls thinner than 1 mm and for thicker than 1 mm with an inclination exceeding approximately 25®, the estimations resulted in a progressively increasing overestimation amounting 200% for gracile bone walls with an inclination of 45® to 50®. Determination of width or absence of the central white zone in images obtained with the described parameters could help to reduce the risk of overestimation of bone thickness. A considerable part of the bone walls separating the TMJ from the middle cranial fossa and the external auditory canal/middle ear, respectively, have dimensions and inclinations to established imaging planes used at TMJ examinations that make the depiction of these walls highly susceptible to image distortion. 

  • 667.
    Ahlqvist, Jan B
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Nilsson, Tore A
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Hedman, Leif R
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Desser, Terry S
    Dev, Parvati
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Youngblood, Patricia L
    Cheng, Robert P
    Gold, Garry E
    A randomized controlled trial on 2 simulation-based training methods in radiology: effects on radiologic technology student skill in assessing image quality.2013In: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, ISSN 1559-2332, E-ISSN 1559-713X, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 382-387Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: A simulator for virtual radiographic examinations was developed. In the virtual environment, the user can perform and analyze radiographic examinations of patient models without the use of ionizing radiation. We investigated if this simulation technique could improve education of radiology technology students. We compared student performance in the assessment of radiographic image quality after training with a conventional manikin or with the virtual radiography simulator.

    METHODS: A randomized controlled experimental study involving 31 first-year radiology technology students was performed. It was organized in 4 phases as follows: (I) randomization to control or experimental group based on the results of an anatomy examination; (II) proficiency testing before training; (III) intervention (control group, exposure and analysis of radiographic images of the cervical spine of a manikin; experimental group, exposure and analysis of the cervical spine images in the virtual radiography simulator); and (IV) proficiency testing after training.

    RESULTS: The experimental group showed significantly higher scores after training compared with those before training (P < 0.01). A linear mixed-effect analysis revealed a significant difference between the control and experimental groups regarding proficiency change (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Virtual radiographic simulation is an effective tool for learning image quality assessment. Simulation can therefore be a valuable adjunct to traditional educational methods and reduce exposure to x-rays and tutoring time.

  • 668.
    Ahlqvist, Jan, Birger
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Borg, Kennet
    Gunne, Johan
    Nilson, Hans
    Olsson, Morgan
    Åstrand, Per
    Osseointegrated implants in edentulous jaws: a 2-year longitudinal study.1990In: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, E-ISSN 1942-4434, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 155-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Osseointegrated implants in 50 edentulous jaws were studied during a 2-year observation period. The implant survival rate was 89% in the maxillae and 97% in the mandibles. The marginal bone loss averaged 1.7 mm in the maxillae and 1.1 mm in the mandibles. Most of this bone loss occurred during the first year. The bone loss was greater in jaws with a preoperatively minor resorption of the alveolar ridge than in those with moderate or advanced resorption. The bone loss was also greater at the medially positioned implants than at those more posterior.

  • 669.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Bryndahl, Frerik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Eckerdal, Olof
    Isberg, Annika
    Sources of radiographic distortion in conventional and computed tomography of the temporal bone.1998In: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 27, no 6, p. 351-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To identify those bony regions of the glenoid fossa where, due to the inclination, there is an increased risk of radiographic distortion in conventional and computed tomography (CT).

    METHODS: The inclination of the roof and posterior wall of the glenoid fossa was determined relative to established imaging planes. Measurements were performed on 50 corrected coronal MR and 50 axial CT images and 200 sagittal cryosections of 50 temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The location of regions with unfavourable bone wall inclination was identified using the condyle as a reference.

    RESULTS: The inclination of parts of the fossa roof exceeded the limit for reliable depiction in corrected sagittal and coronal planes in 40% and 8% of the joints respectively. The inclination of parts of the posterior wall of the fossa exceeded the limit for reliable depiction in corrected sagittal and in true sagittal planes in 100% and 84% of the joints respectively. In 84% of the joints the inclination exceeded the limit for reliable depiction in the axial plane. For both bone walls the regions with unfavourable inclination were in the medial part of the joint.

    CONCLUSIONS: The angulation of parts of the roof and posterior wall of the glenoid fossa in relation to established imaging planes makes them highly susceptible to distortion. The oblique coronal projection is well suited for depiction of the roof of the fossa and preferable to a sagittal projection. An oblique axial projection is required for the posterior wall.

  • 670. Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Eliasson, S
    Welander, U
    The effect of projection errors on cephalometric length measurements1986In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 141-148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The magnitude of projection errors, calculated theoretically on length measurements in cephalometry was studied. Rotation of the object by up to 5° from the proper position, resulted in errors in length measurements that were usually less than one percent. Rotations of more than 5° may increase the error but imply misalignments of the head that should be evident when positioning the patient. The advantage of extremely long focus film distances seems doubtful.

  • 671. Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Eliasson, S
    Welander, Ulf
    The cephalometric projection. Part II. Principles of image distortion in cephalography.1983In: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 12, no 2, p. 101-8Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 672. Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Eliasson, S
    Welander, Ulf
    The effect of projection errors on angular measurements in cephalometry.1988In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 10, no 4, p. 353-61Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 673.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Isberg, A M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Bone demarcation of the temporomandibular joint. Validity of clinical assessment of bone thickness by means of CT.1998In: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 39, no 6, p. 649-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the CT depiction of bone demarcations in the temporomandibular joint, using conventional window level and window width; and to evaluate observer performance in estimating bone thickness in these images.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven joint specimens were imaged by CT and then cryosectioned. The measurements of bone wall thickness in the images were compared to the true bone thickness at each cutting level. In addition, 4 experienced radiologists estimated the thickness of the bone walls in the images.

    RESULTS: The relative difference between the CT reproduction and the true bone thickness was small for bone walls thicker than 2 mm. This difference increased with the decrease in bone thickness and the increase in the inclination of the bone wall from the perpendicular to the image plane. Bone walls thinner than 1 mm were reproduced as considerably thicker than their true thickness. This resulted in a clinical overestimation of bone thickness.

    CONCLUSION: Both the CT representation and the interpretation of bone demarcation in the temporomandibular joint may constitute a problem. Partial volume averaging effects can result in an overestimation of bone dimensions amounting to 200% for thin bones. The central white zone in images of thin bone walls obtained with the parameters described here could serve as an indicator that could help to reduce the risk of overestimating bone thickness.

  • 674.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Isberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Validity of computed tomography in imaging thin walls of the temporal bone1999In: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 13-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of computed tomography (CT) for reproduction of the bone margins of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

    METHODS: Seven TMJ specimens were examined with a CT and then cryosectioned. The bone separating the TMJ from the middle cranial fossa, middle ear and external auditory canal was measured as the full width at half maximum (FWHM). Measurements were compared with the true thickness of the bone wall.

    RESULTS: There was good agreement when the bone walls were thicker than 1 mm: accuracy was influenced only by the angle of the bone wall to the scanning plane. Conversely, bone walls thinner than 1 mm were reproduced with a magnification that increased with decreasing bone thickness. The difference increased further as the inclination of the bone wall became greater.

    CONCLUSION: Measurements performed at FWHM are reliable within +/- 10% for bone walls more than approximately 1 mm thick which form an angle of less than 35 degrees to the perpendicular of the scanning plane. For bone walls thinner than 1 mm and for those thicker than 1 mm with an inclination exceeding approximately 35 degrees, partial volume effects result in a progressively increasing magnification of bone thickness.

  • 675. Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Legrell, Per Erik
    A technique for the accurate administration of corticosteroids in the temporomandibular joint.1993In: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, E-ISSN 1476-542X, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 211-3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new technique for intra-articular injection of a corticosteroid in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is presented. The corticosteroid is mixed with contrast medium and the administration visualized and controlled using fluoroscopy. When superior and inferior joint spaces have been filled and the soft tissues of the joint have been identified in the fluoroscopic image, additional corticosteroid can be administered to selected sites within the TMJ.

  • 676.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologi i Umeå stads hamn och slagfältsarkeologi på Krutbrånet: Två fallstudier inom historisk arkeologi i Umeås 1800-tal2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis deals with two case studies in environmental archaeology and battlefield archaeology focusing on two major events in the late history of the Swedish coastal town Umeå and its nearby village Sävar. Established in the early 1600's, Umeå was known for its export of timber and import of cereals. The town has suffered from numerous fires, the fire in 1888 being the most devastating. Few written records of the town remain from before the 1900's. The latest war in Sweden's history is documented in historical sources and took place at Krutbrånet, Sävar where the Swedish troops suffered defeat against the russian forces in 1809. The old port in Umeå has not been previously excavated archaeologically and only a small part of the battlefield area at Krutbrånet has been surveyed. Neither of the sites have yet been protected sites under Swedish heritage conservation act. The purpose of these two case studies is to present new research results from these two sites.In the first case study, archaeobotany and soil chemistry methods were used to analyse soil samples from undisturbed cultural layers in a construction trench at the old port of Umeå. A thick burnt layer consisted of charcoal, oats and weeds, suggesting storage and possibly intended as food for horses. Oat and pea were radiocarbon dated to most likely late 1800's which places the burned layer with oats to the big city fire in 1888. The area could have intact cultural layers that are important to investigate for understanding the  unknown history of Umeås old port.The basis for the second case study is the material evidence of lead musket bullets found during a small field survey at Krutbrånet, conducted in 2010. The bullets were studied using X-ray Fluorescence together with spatial analysis to determine if troop nationality could be possible to distinguish based on composition, characteristics and spatial positions. The results revealed bullets  in varied sizes and composed of lead but also alloys of copper, antimony and tin that appear in mixed quantities spread in all the studied areas of the battlefield. Field surveys of uninvestigated areas at Krutbrånet are needed to understand the context of the studied material and of troop formations. Further studies could also be isotope analyses to determine the origins of the oats and bullets. 

  • 677.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Engelmark, Roger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Makrofossil- och markkemisk analys av prover från Tanum Raä 1885, Tanum sn, Bohuslän2016Report (Other academic)
  • 678.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Wallin, Jan-Erik
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Olsson, Fredrik
    Miljöarkeologiska analyser av prover från Drognes 196/270 ID114281, Nes kommune, Akershus, Norge2018Report (Other academic)
  • 679.
    Ahlqvist, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Östman, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Eriksson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Linderholm, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies, Environmental Archaeology Lab.
    Miljöarkeologiska analyser av prover från huslämningar i Dobbeltspor Dilling, ID 216874, Rygge kommune, Østfold, Norge2018Report (Other academic)
  • 680.
    Ahlqvist, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Polishundverksamheten i Skellefteå2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska polisen har stor användning av hundar i det operativa polisarbetet. Hundar används bland annat för att eftersöka försvunna personer, spåra gärningsmän, skingra folkmassor, uppleta bevisföremål, söka narkotika och mycket mer. Polishundar brukar delas in i kategorierna ÖVS-hundar (övervakningshundar), specialsökhundar och kombihundar. De regionala myndigheterna bestämmer själva hur hundverksamhen ska vara utformad i länet. Den här rapporten tar sikte på att beskriva hur polishundsverksamheten ser ut i Skellefteå. Under våren 2007 skedde en omstrukturering av hundverksamheten i Västerbotten. Myndigheten bestämde att det inte längre skulle finnas någon egen ÖVS-hund i Skellefteå. Det bestämdes även att det i Skellefteå skulle startas upp ett nytt projekt med att utbilda en brottsplatsundersökningshund. För att få en bild av varför omstruktureringarna genomfördes har intervjuer hållits med personer som är insatta i frågan. Rapporten visar att omstruktureringen främst berodde på svårigheter att hitta kompetent personal som kunde utbilda polishundarna i Skellefteå. Vidare visar rapporten på ekonomiska motiv bakom omstruktureringen.

  • 681.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Makslahti, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Varumärkesbyggande inom hotellbranschen: En studie av tre hotell i Norrbotten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Resandet i Europa prognostiseras att öka med 2,3 procent varje år fram till år 2030. Den svenska turismnäringen tros ha stora möjligheter att ta del av ökningen. De norrbottniska lokaltidningarna har under det senaste året rapporterat om nyetableringar inom hotell- och restaurangbranschen. Eftersom både konkurrensen och gästnätterna ökar i Norrbotten ligger större vikt vid att erbjuda rätt koncept till rätt pris.

    Vi ser att starka ledare som Steve Jobs hos Apple och Dave Horton hos Hilton Hotels & Resorts har visat på starkt engagemang, gediget arbete och målmedvetenhet. De har också vågat ta risker samtidigt som de varit lyhörda gentemot marknaden. Med anledning av ökad konkurrens och fler valmöjligheter blir det desto viktigare med starka varumärken.

    Utifrån denna bakgrund har vi utformat frågeställningen ”Hur förmedlas ett hotells varumärke till medarbetare samt hur arbetar hotellet med policys och riktlinjer för att stärka sitt varumärke?” med syftet att ta reda på vad som finns bakom företagens policys och implementeringen av dessa. Vi ville även se till medarbetarnas utbildning och vilka instruktioner de erhöll för att arbeta efter företagets värderingar och för varumärkets främjande. Vi hade även förhoppningar om att öka vår förståelse för uppbyggandet av varumärken inom hotellbranschen, samt att fördjupa våra kunskaper både teoretiskt och praktiskt.

    Vår teoretiska referensram skapades utifrån Aakers teori kring ett varumärkes beståndsdelar, Robles och Leyvas studie om kund- och varumärkeslojalitet i hotellbranschen, kommunikation av varumärket genom employer branding, McClellands motivationsteori samt Chen et als. studie om frontpersonals agerande på hotell. Utifrån teorierna har vi skapat ett intervjuunderlag med tre centrala teman; varumärke, kundsegment och kundlojalitet samt varumärket och medarbetarnas motivation.

    Vid intervjutillfället besökte vi tre hotell i Norrbotten där vi höll åtta personliga intervjuer med individer från olika befattningar. Detta resulterade i att vi kunde se både ledarens roll och varumärkesbyggandet från flera olika synvinklar.

    Det visade sig att varumärkesbyggandet hade mindre fokus än väntat och att hotellen indirekt arbetade med det genom frontpersonal och kvalitet samt att ett stort fokus ligger på personalen och deras bemötande mot gäst. Lojalitet visade sig vara av större vikt. Den visades både mot samhälle och gäst via kundservice genom tillgänglighet och lyhördhet för gästens behov. Alla hotellen innehar ett miljötänk, men det är inget som de marknadsför utåt. Det är på uppgång att marknadsföra sig som arbetsgivare via sociala medier. Arbetsgivarna lägger vikt på medarbetare med inre motivation och den övervägande motivatorn visade sig vara mötet med människor.

    Slutligen gav vi rekommendationer om en ökad miljömarknadsföring samt användandet av sociala medier. Vi ansåg också att ett mer utformat arbete kring lojalitetspolicys kan gynna organisationerna samt att det är viktigt att hålla liv i gemenskapen på arbetsplatsen.

  • 682.
    Ahlqvist, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå School of Architecture.
    Charging the Void: (Perception Odd Logic)2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As a concern for how new city developments invest in commercial

    public space of economic activity rather than cultural activity and

    inclusion, part of a global trend and also the case of Umeå’s ambition

    to reach the population growth of 200 000 inhabitants by the year of

    2050. The question to be asked in this regard is what kind of effect

    does this produce on the way we as local inhabitants can take control

    and be part of the creation of our own living environment? Or are

    we just victims of a life consumed by slow decay due to the capital

    dominance?

    In relation to this main concern, the project has been developing

    through the aspect of acknowledging inferior space and abandoned

    objects as a method and typology to analyze alternative ways to

    perceive the city off based the logic of clear function and use, but in

    terms of human interaction and subjective perception of space. The

    point of departure and important key element for this development

    derived from the early stages of research and influential work by

    Robert Smithson’s Monuments of Passaic New Jersey, (1967) with

    a main quote on the description of Smithson’s work and the term of

    monuments, here defined by Ann Reynolds as: “how something plot

    out and charge a space with meaning”

    Learning from memory traces of an abandoned set of futures evoked

    the idea and strive towards creating space not tied to a specific

    use or function, but as a collaboration and juxtaposition between

    form and the viewer’s experience. In add to an understanding of a

    presence which ties together the past and the present as an indirect

    translation of the developed concept for contemporary Ruins, as the

    perception of void. The ruins association to object defined through

    the observer became a guideline towards the aim of designing nonhierarchical

    space, free of us and interpreted by the visitor within the

    city scape.

    Based on this foundation this thesis aims to examine the possibilities

    of architectural structures which can encourage and create conditions

    for new cultural and social meetings. The abstract concept of space

    and deliberate openness to interpretation can allow the visitor to

    take co-authorship of their own living environment based on their

    personal understanding and imagination of that space. The action

    is by deliberate disjunction between form and viewer’s experience

    forced by a superimposition plan as a design strategy for redeveloping

    the current Döbelns Park into a new culture park in the city context

    of Umeå, Västerbotten, Sweden. Fragments of the park will in add

    create a system of integrated monumental sculpture scapes, as a

    network of in-between small scale interventions adapting to specific

    site conditions together with implemented greenery. To secure areas

    within the city scape with access to greenery and social interactive

    meeting points, part of the Urban strategy.

  • 683.
    Ahlqvist, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    EMU & de demokratiska argumenten2000Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 684.
    Ahlqvist, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Högre utbildning och globalisering2001Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 685.
    Ahlqvist, Tobias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Kina i Afrika: Motiv, strategier och konsekvenser?2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 686. Ahlqvist, Viktor H.
    et al.
    Persson, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ortega, Francisco B.
    Tynelius, Per
    Magnusson, Cecilia
    Berglind, Daniel
    Birth weight and grip strength in young Swedish males: a longitudinal matched sibling analysis and across all body mass index ranges2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 9719Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low birth weight is associated with a lower grip strength later in life. However, associations between birth weight among infants born at-term and factors driving associations between birth weight and grip strength are largely unknown. A cohort of 144,369 young men born at-term, including 10,791 individuals who had at least one male sibling/s, were followed until conscription where they performed a grip strength test. We used linear and non-linear regression analyses in the full cohort, and fixed-effects regression analyses in the sibling cohort, to address confounding by factors that are shared between siblings. After adjustment, each unit increase in birth weight z-score was associated with increases of 17.7 (95% CI, 17.2-18.2) and 13.4 (10.1-16.6) newton grip strength, which converts to approximately 1.8 and 1.4 kilogram-force in the full and within-families cohorts, respectively. The associations did not vary with young adulthood BMI. Birth weight, within the at-term range, is robustly positively associated with grip strength in young adulthood among men across all BMI categories and associations appears to be mainly driven by factors that are not shared between siblings. These findings underline the importance of recognizing the influence of low birth weight, also within the at-termrange, on young adulthood muscle strength.

  • 687. Ahlqvist-Rastad, Jane
    et al.
    Albertsson, Maria
    Bergh, Jonas
    Birgegård, Gunnar
    Johansson, Peter
    Jonsson, Bertil
    Kjellén, Elisabeth
    Påhlman, Sven
    Zackrisson, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Österborg, Anders
    Erythropoietin therapy and cancer related anaemia: updated Swedish recommendations.2007In: Med Oncol, ISSN 1357-0560, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 267-272Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 688. Ahlroth Pind, C.
    et al.
    Gunnbjörnsdottír, M.
    Bjerg, A.
    Järvholm, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Lundbäck, B.
    Malinovschi, A.
    Middelveld, R.
    Nilsson Sommar, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Norbäck, D.
    Janson, C.
    Patient-reported signs of dampness at home may be a risk factor for chronic rhinosinusitis: a cross-sectional study2017In: Clinical and Experimental Allergy, ISSN 0954-7894, E-ISSN 1365-2222, Vol. 47, no 11, p. 1383-1389Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: An association between dampness at home and respiratory conditions has been convincingly demonstrated in children. Fewer studies have been performed in adults, and data are lacking for chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). With a prevalence of 10.9% in Europe, CRS imposes a significant burden on quality of life, as well as economy.

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to study CRS and other respiratory conditions in relation to dampness at home in a representative sample of adults.

    METHODS: The Swedish GA(2) LEN questionnaire was answered by 26 577 adults (16-75 years) and included questions on respiratory symptoms, smoking, education and environmental exposure. CRS was defined according to the EP(3) OS criteria. Dampness was defined as reporting water damage, floor dampness or visible moulds in the home during the last 12 months. The dampness score was ranked from 0 to 3, counting the number of signs of dampness reported.

    RESULTS: Dampness at home was reported by 11.3% and was independently related to respiratory conditions after adjustment for demographic and socio-economic factors and smoking: CRS odds ratio (OR) 1.71; allergic rhinitis OR 1.24; current asthma OR 1.21; wheeze OR 1.37; nocturnal dyspnoea OR 1.80; nocturnal coughing OR 1.34; and chronic bronchitis OR 1.64. The risk of CRS and most of the other respiratory conditions was further elevated in subjects reporting multiple signs of dampness.

    CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: This study demonstrated an independent association between dampness at home and CRS in adults. The high burden of this and the other respiratory conditions studied is a strong argument in favour of countering indoor dampness by improving building standards.

  • 689.
    Ahlskog, Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Karlsson, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    HBT-arbete utifrån likabehandlingspolicy: Första och andra linjens chefers möjligheter för och föreställningar kring arbetet med HBT-frågor på Skellefteå kommun2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    HBT-frågor är idag en alltmer omtalad fråga i den samhälleliga debatten. Sedan diskrimineringslagstiftningen ändrades år 2009 har organisationer ett alltmer omfattande ansvar att arbeta för att motverka diskriminering i alla dess former. Då Skellefteå kommun har fattat beslut om att öka sitt invånarantal till 80 000 invånare år 2030 görs stora insatser föratt se till att alla människor har samma förutsättningar att leva och verka i kommunen.Uppdraget var därför att undersöka första och andra linjens chefers möjligheter att utifrån den befintliga likabehandlingspolicyn arbeta med HBT-frågor. Studien baseras på 12 intervjuer med första- och andra linjens chefer på en kvinnodominerad och en mansdominerad arbetsplats inom kommunen. Resultatet visar att cheferna upplever en begränsning i hur de kan använda sig av likabehandlingspolicyn i sitt dagliga arbete. Dokumentet ses mer som spelregler snarare än något som konkret kan användas praktiskt. Den mest framträdande föreställningen kring HBT-frågor bland cheferna på de arbetsplatser som undersökts var att det inte fanns någon problematik med diskriminering inom deras verksamhetsområde. Därför fanns en föreställning bland några av cheferna att något förebyggande arbete med dessa frågorinte behövdes. Det går att utläsa vissa skillnader mellan kvinnodominerade och mansdominerade arbetsplatser i hur man arbetar med HBT-frågor samt de föreställningar som finns kring hur dessa frågor talas om på arbetsplatserna. Cheferna på de kvinnodominerade arbetsplatserna var mer benägna att bedriva ett proaktivt likabehandlingsarbete än cheferna påde mansdominerade arbetsplatserna. Ingen bedriver dock ett specifikt arbete med HBT-frågori dagsläget.

  • 690. Ahlsson, Anders
    et al.
    Jideus, Lena
    Albage, Anders
    Kallner, Goran
    Holmgren, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Boano, Gabriella
    Hermansson, Ulf
    Kimblad, Per-Ola
    Schersten, Henrik
    Sjogren, Johan
    Stahle, Elisabeth
    Aberg, Bengt
    Berglin, Eva
    A Swedish consensus on the surgical treatment of concomitant atrial fibrillation2012In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 46, no 4, p. 212-218Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common arrhythmia among patients scheduled for open heart surgery and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. According to international guidelines, symptomatic and selected asymptomatic patients should be offered concomitant surgical AF ablation in conjunction with valvular or coronary surgery. The gold standard in AF surgery is the Cox Maze III ("cut-and-sew") procedure, with surgical incisions in both atria according to a specified pattern, in order to prevent AF reentry circuits from developing. Over 90% of patients treated with the Cox Maze III procedure are free of AF after 1 year. Recent developments in ablation technology have introduced several energy sources capable of creating nonconducting atrial wall lesions. In addition, simplified lesion patterns have been suggested, but results with these techniques have been unsatisfactory. There is a clear need for standardization in AF surgery. The Swedish Arrhythmia Surgery Group, represented by surgeons from all Swedish units for cardiothoracic surgery, has therefore reached a consensus on surgical treatment of concomitant AF. This consensus emphasizes adherence to the lesion pattern in the Cox Maze III procedure and the use of biatrial lesions in nonparoxysmal AF.

  • 691.
    Ahlstrand, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Svedberg, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kuratorers tankar om relationens betydelse i samtalsbehandling2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det övergripande syftet med denna kandidatuppsats är att utforska hur professionella hjälpare inom psykiatrin i Norrland etablerar och upprätthåller hjälpande relationer samt vilken syn de har på betydelsen av relationen för behandlingens utfall. I studien intervjuades fyra kuratorer som var anställda på psykiatriska kliniken i Norrland, varav två kvinnor och två män som representerade olika mottagningar. Det insamlade materialet analyserades med hjälp av en hermeneutisk metod och strukturerades upp med hjälp av kvalitativ innehållsanalys. I resultatet framkom det att intervjupersonerna såg relationen som väldigt viktig, både för att få till stånd en behandling men också för att upprätthålla en pågående behandling. Relationen i sig ansågs vara en bärare av hjälpen såväl som en hjälp i sig. Vi fann också att relationskompetens är en nödvändighet för att en behandling ska fungera. Begrepp som lyftes var autenticitet, att behandlaren är genuin, vågar visa känslor och reaktioner gentemot patienten. Ännu en faktor som särskilt påtalades var vikten av att som behandlare ha ett icke-dömande förhållningssätt gentemot patienten och se denne på ett realistiskt vis, vilket innebär att behandlaren ser patienten för den person den är.

  • 692.
    Ahlstrand, Marika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Digitala Med(ie)borgare: En intervjustudie rörande verksamma fritidslärares förhållnings- och arbetssätt med digitala verktyg och sociala medier2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att synliggöra och identifiera hur verksamma fritidslärare förhåller sig till samt arbetar med digitala verktyg och sociala medier. Vidare så var syftet även att synliggöra vilka effekter som fritidslärarna anser att dessa verktyg och medier kan ha på elevernas lärande.  Den metod som använts till studien har varit forskningsintervjuer, detta för att ta reda på hur det valda ämnet, digitala verktyg och sociala medier, tolkas och förstås utifrån de intervjuades egna perspektiv. Studien bygger på intervjuer gjorda på fem fritidshem med fem olika fritidslärare.

     

    Det resultat som framkommit har varit att de flesta av de intervjuade fritidslärarna har ställt sig positivt till digitala verktyg och sociala medier inom den pedagogiska verksamheten. De anser att elevernas sociala kompetens utvecklas, att eleverna inkluderas i varandras lärande samt att lärandet blir roligare via dessa verktyg och medier. Men det har även nämnts vissa negativa effekter av dessa digitala verktyg och sociala medier. Att eleverna kan bli exkluderade från övriga elevgruppen om hen inte har tillgång till dessa verktyg och medier. En fritidslärare nämnde även att dessa verktyg och medier kan framkalla negativt beteende, främst hos pojkar i form av bråk och slagsmål.

  • 693.
    Ahlstrand, Samuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Partiformning vid intern materialförsörjning och layoutanpassning av lager: En fallstudie vid GE Healthcare Umeå av två-binge, supermarkets ochmaterialspindlar2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    GE Healthcare (GEHC) Umeå har vid sin implementering av Lean genomfört förändringar i lagerstrukturen som är i behov av bättre anpassning. GEHC Umeås nya lagerstruktur innebär öppna supermarkets med förändrade försörjningsrutiner från lager till produktion. Ett två-binge system har implementeras där signalbehållare med material fylls av lageransvariga materialspindlar.

    Det första identifierade problemet och forskningsfrågan utgör två-bingarnas kvantiteter som bestämmer mängden artiklar vid monteringsstationerna. Dessa behöver ses över och en rutin för bestämmande av kvantitet behöver etableras. Som den andra, och oberoende forskningsfrågan, har antalet supermarkets (lager) och dessmaterialspindlar identifieras som är många till antalet och utspridda med begränsad samordning.

    Ett tidigare examensarbete, litteraturstudier, intervjuer samt egna observationer på plats har används för att beskriva nuläget genom både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder. På grund av bristen på liknande problem i litteraturen har externa partiformningsmetoder och lagerstyrning används och komplimenterats med simulering för två-binge systemet som del i besvarandet av den första frågeställningen. För den andra frågeställningen har delar ur förenklad systematisk lokalplanläggning används där bland annat olika centraliseringsgrader undersökts med simulering av materialtransporter vid olika artikelplaceringar.

    Idag sätts kvantiteten efter prognoserat användande utifrån personliga erfarenheter. Samordningen mellan materialspindlarna är bristande och nyttjandegraden upplevs ojämn samtidigt som godsmottagningen skulle gynnas av ökad kapacitet. Standardiserade processer i materialhanteringen saknas och produktionsgrupperna har skilda arbetssätt som antaskunna gynnas av en centralisering där gemensamma rutiner lättare kan etableras.

    De historiska transaktionerna visar att det finns utrymme för förbättringar då vissa artiklar genererar långa transportsträckor på grund lagerplats i förhållande till var de används iproduktionen. De nya binge-kvantiteterna från partiformningsmetoderna EOQ, m-EOQ och Kanbanformeln har testats i simulering av påfyllning och materialåtgång via en implementation i Excel VBA.

    Kanbanformeln uppvisar högsta servicenivån 90 %, för lägsta totalkostnaden och minskad kapitalbindning. Kanbankvantiteterna minskar den totala kostnaden med 20 %. Antalet påfyllningar skulle öka med 7 % och antalet artiklar i produktion minskar med 59%. För layoutanpassningen har även simulering av olika orderplock och artikelplaceringen genomförts. Resultatet visar att en centraliseringsgrad är möjlig med en liten ökning avmaterialtransporterna. Det framgår även att artiklar som plockas väldigt sällan är beräknade att ta upp 89 hyllställage av totalt 230 stycken och bör ses över. Detta tillsammans med kravspecifikationen från analys-delen har hjälpt för att generera olika koncept.

    GEHC Umeå bör använda Kanbanformeln i framtiden för bestämmande av kvantiteten i bingarna. Vissa anpassningar för gemensamma artiklar i Comm-lagret och artiklar utan historiska efterfrågan bör ske. För layouten bör GEHC Umeå först och främst flytta artiklarsom idag bidrar med onödiga transporter. På längre sikt bör en ökad grad centralisering avlagren vara möjlig med hänsyn till fördelar vid samordning och informell spridning av arbetsrutiner. Materialspindlarna bör underlätta för godsmottagningen, delta i bristrapportering samt förbättringsarbetet. Utöver detta bör möjligheter till ökat samarbetet mellan materialplaneringen, produktionsplaneringen och materialspindlarna undersökas

  • 694. Ahlstrand, Tuuli
    et al.
    Kovesjoki, Laura
    Maula, Terhi
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Ihalin, Riikka
    Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans LPS binds human interleukin-82019In: Journal of Oral Microbiology, ISSN 2000-2297, E-ISSN 2000-2297, Vol. 11, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Various gram-negative species sequester host cytokines using outer membrane proteins or surface modulation by sulfated polysaccharides. An outer membrane lipoprotein (BilRI) of the periodontal pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds several cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-8. Because IL-8 is positively charged at physiological pH, we aimed to determine whether IL-8 interacts with negatively charged lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Binding was investigated using electrophoretic mobility shift assays and microwell-based time-resolved fluorometric immunoassay. LPS from each tested strain of A. actinomycetemcomitans (N = 13), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (N = 1) and Escherichia coli (N = 1) bound IL-8. The K-d value of the A. actinomycetemcomitans LPS-IL-8 interaction varied between 1.2-17 mu M irrespective of the serotype and the amount of phosphorus in LPS and was significantly lower than that of the BilRI-IL-8 interaction. Moreover, IL-8 interacted with whole A. actinomycetemcomitans cells and outer membrane vesicles. Hence, LPS might be involved in binding of IL-8 to the outer membrane of A. actinomycetemcomitans. This raises an interesting question regarding whether other gram-negative periodontal pathogens use LPS for IL-8 sequestering in vivo.

  • 695. Ahlstrand, Tuuli
    et al.
    Tuominen, Heidi
    Beklen, Arzu
    Torittu, Annamari
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Sormunen, Raija
    Pöllänen, Marja T.
    Permi, Perttu
    Ihalin, Riikka
    A novel intrinsically disordered outer membrane lipoprotein of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds various cytokines and plays a role in biofilm response to interleukin-1β and interleukin-82017In: Virulence, ISSN 2150-5594, E-ISSN 2150-5608, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 115-134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not have a well-defined and stable 3-dimensional fold. Some IDPs can function as either transient or permanent binders of other proteins and may interact with an array of ligands by adopting different conformations. A novel outer membrane lipoprotein, bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI) of the opportunistic oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds a key gatekeeper proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. Because the amino acid sequence of the novel lipoprotein resembles that of fibrinogen binder A of Haemophilus ducreyi, BilRI could have the potential to bind other proteins, such as host matrix proteins. However, from the tested host matrix proteins, BilRI interacted with neither collagen nor fibrinogen. Instead, the recombinant non-lipidated BilRI, which was intrinsically disordered, bound various pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BilRI played a role in the in vitro sensing of IL-1β and IL-8 because low concentrations of cytokines did not decrease the amount of extracellular DNA in the matrix of bilRI− mutant biofilm as they did in the matrix of wild-type biofilm when the biofilms were exposed to recombinant cytokines for 22 hours. BilRI played a role in the internalization of IL-1β in the gingival model system but did not affect either IL-8 or IL-6 uptake. However, bilRI deletion did not entirely prevent IL-1β internalization, and the binding of cytokines to BilRI was relatively weak. Thus, BilRI might sequester cytokines on the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans to facilitate the internalization process in low local cytokine concentrations.

  • 696.
    Ahlström, Angelica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Plan-och bygglagen i ljuset av en oväntad befolkningsökning - Hur tryggas de sociala rättigheterna?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 697.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Bullying and social objectives: A study of prerequisites for success in Swedish schools2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the relationship between organizations structure, culture and leadership. The specific organization that has been studied is Swedish secondary schools. The Swedish schools have a divided task, first to develop the students academic skills and secondly to develop the students socially and civically. This thesis has its interest on the schools social environment with special interest focused on questions regarding bullying and insulting behaviour. The data that has been used consists of interviews and questionnaires with students, teachers and principals in 24 Swedish schools that have been studied in a larger study. This work is a part of a project called Structure, Culture and Leadership – prerequisites for successful schools?.  The 24 schools that took part in the SCL study were divided in to four different groups depending on how well they are succeeding in reaching the social and academic objectives formulated in the steering documents. The main result show that principals that succeed to align structure and culture in relation to both the social and academic objectives are the ones that can be perceived as successful. It is these schools that have the lowest level of bullying and the highest grades. The principal takes social responsibility and takes questions in relation to bullying and insulting behaviour seriously. By doing that the principal can communicate the seriousness of the topic in order to develop awareness within the organization and a preventive work can therefore be possible. In schools that work with the students’ ability to be participative seems to develop the students both socially and academically.

  • 698.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Med hänsyn till både tid och rum: systematiskt kvalitetsarbete i fyra dimensioner2018In: Att leda skolor med stöd i forskning: exempel, analyser och utmaningar / [ed] Niclas Rönnström & Olof Johansson, Stockholm: Natur och kultur, 2018, 1, p. 297-322Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 699.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Mobbning i svensk forskning2014In: Framgångsriks skolor: mer om struktur, kultur, ledarskap / [ed] Jonas Höög & Olof Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, p. 217-233Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 700.
    Ahlström, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Mobbning och skolans sociala mål2011In: Struktur, kultur och ledarskap: Förutsättningar för framgångsrika skolor / [ed] Jonas Höög, Olof Johansson, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2011, 1, p. 153-174Chapter in book (Other academic)
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