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  • 701.
    Xin, Yuxiang
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    The influence of educational preferences and occupational levels on gender earnings differential in Sweden2016Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 702.
    Yonis, Manex
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Trading Volume and Stock Return: Empirical Evidence for Asian Tiger Economies2014Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 703.
    Yusuf, Sulman
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Income Inequality and Economic Growth: The Effect of Gini Coefficient on GNI2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Using panel data from 1960-2000 for 28 countries, this paper explores the relationship between inequality and economic growth.To mitigate the problem of endogeneity, dynamic panel data estimation technique such as difference GMM was used. Estimated results showed positive significant relationship in short to medium term between income inequality and economic growth. The results are robust to sensitivity analysis when the estimation was carried out by running the regression on sub samples to check if the sample selection influnces the results. The results obtained in this study oppose the common belief that growthwill increase by bringing down inequality.

  • 704.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Zollikofen, Switzerland.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Ekvall, Hans
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Policies for forest landscape management: a conceptual approach with an empirical application for Swedish conditions2017Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are major factors leading to forest biodiversity decline. This paper discusses landscape planning as strategy to improve connectivity in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of ecologically valuable areas across land owners. A tax-fund system is proposed, that following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, tries to spread the burden of conservation equally across land owners while optimizing the environmental outcome. Design options of such a tax-fund system are discussed along the lines of a simple theoretical model. Financial effects of a tax-fund system are computed for a small model landscape set in Sweden. Two design questions stand out as particularly important. The first is whether the policy is intended to be self-sustained among the land owners or if the budget can be supplemented by general tax money. The second is whether the land owners or the relevant authority select the stands for conservation set-aside.

  • 705.
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Det privata sparandets bestämningsfaktorer: En panelanalys av individers förmögenheter2010Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
  • 706.
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Scenes from a Marriage: Divorce and Financial Behavior2015Rapport (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the impact of divorce ­­­on individual financial behavior is empirically examined. Evidence that divorcing individuals increase their saving rates before the divorce is presented. This may be seen as a response of the increase in background risk. After the divorce, negative divorce effects on individual saving rates and risky shares are established, which may lead to disparities in wealth accumulation possibilities between married and divorced. Women are, on average, shown to not adjust their precautionary savings to the same extent as men before the divorce. I also provide tentative evidence that women reduce their financial risk-taking more than men after a divorce. This could potentially be a result of inequalities in financial positions or an adjustment towards individual preferences.  

  • 707.
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Take a risk: social interaction, gender identity, and the role of family ties in financial decision-making2015Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory part and four self-contained papers related to individual financial behavior and risk-taking in financial markets.

    In Paper [I] we estimate within-family and community social interaction effects upon an individual’s stock market entry, participation, and exit decision. Interestingly, community sentiment towards the stock market (based on portfolio outcomes in the community) does not influence individuals’ likelihood to enter, while a positive sentiment increases (decreases) the likelihood of participation (exit). Overall, the results stress the importance of accounting for family social influence and highlight potentially important differences between family and community effects in individuals’ stock market participation.

    In Paper [II] novel evidence is provided indicating that the influence from family (parents and partners) and peer social interaction on individuals’ stock market participation vary over different types of individuals. Results imply that individuals’ exposure to, and valuation of, stock market related social signals are of importance and thus, contribute to the understanding of the heterogeneous influence of social interaction. Overall, the results are interesting and enhance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of social interaction on individuals’ financial decision making.

    In Paper [III] the impact of divorce ­­­on individual financial behavior is empirically examined in a dynamic setting. Evidence that divorcing individuals increase their saving rates before the divorce is presented. This may be seen as a response to the increase in background risk that divorce produces. After the divorce, a negative divorce effect on individual saving rates and risky asset shares are established, which may lead to disparities in wealth accumulation possibilities between married and divorced. Women are, on average, shown to not adjust their precautionary savings to the same extent as men before the divorce. I also provide tentative evidence that women reduce their financial risk-taking more than men after a divorce, which could be a result of inequalities in financial positions or an adjustment towards individual preferences.  

    Paper [IV] provides novel empirical evidence that gender identity is of importance for individuals’ financial risk-taking. Specifically, by use of matching and by dividing male and females into those with “traditional” versus “nontraditional” gender identities, comparison of average risk-taking between groupings indicate that over a third (about 35-40%) of the identified total gender risk differential is explained by differences in gender identities. Results further indicate that risky financial market participation is 19 percentage points higher in groups of women with nontraditional, compared with traditional, gender identities. The results, obtained while conditioning upon a vast number of controls, are robust towards a large number of alternative explanations and indicate that some individuals (mainly women) partly are fostered by society, through identity formation and socially constructed norms, to a relatively lower financial risk-taking.   

  • 708.
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ladies and Gentlemen: Gender Identity and Financial Risk-Taking2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel empirical evidence indicates the importance of gender identity and gender norms on individuals’ financial risk-taking. Specifically, by use of matching and by dividing male and females into those with “traditional” versus “nontraditional” gender identities, comparison of average risk-taking between groupings indicate that over a third (about 35-40%) of the identified total gender risk differential is explained by differences in gender identities. Results further indicate that risky financial market participation is 19 percentage points higher in groups of women with nontraditional, compared with traditional, gender identities. The results, obtained while conditioning upon a vast number of controls, are robust towards a large number of alternative explanations and indicate that some individuals (mainly women) partly are fostered by society, through identity formation and socially constructed norms, to a relatively lower financial risk-taking.  

  • 709.
    Zetterdahl, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Hellström, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Who's listening? Heterogeneous Impact of Social Interaction on Individuals' Stock Market Participation2015Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel evidence is provided indicating that the influence from family (parents and partners) and peer social interaction on individuals’ stock market participation vary over different types of individuals. Focusing on distinct features of concern for the social interaction process, results imply that individuals’ exposure to, and valuation of, stock market related social signals are of importance and thus, contribute to the understanding of the heterogeneous influence of social interaction. Overall, the results are interesting and enhance the understanding of the underlying mechanisms of social interaction on individuals’ financial decision making. 

  • 710.
    Åström, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Nakosteen, Robert A.
    Isenberg School of Management, University of Massachusetts, 01003, USA.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Zimmer, Michael A.
    Department of Economics, University of Evansville, USA.
    Twice chosen: Spouse matching and earnings among women in first and second unions2013Ingår i: The Social science journal (Fort Collins), ISSN 0362-3319, E-ISSN 1873-5355, Vol. 50, nr 3, s. 277-288Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines spouse matching for females in second order marriages or cohabitating relationships. It is based on detailed data from longitudinal Swedish population registers. We follow women who marry, divorce, and subsequently remarry compared to women who marry and remain married over the course of the study interval. The earnings of both groups, along with the earnings of their respective husbands, are modeled on the basis of data in the year prior to their marriages. From the regressions we obtain spouse-to-be pairs of earnings residuals and measure the correlation between spouses within each marital regime. Overall, we find significant positive residual correlations for both sample partitions. The correlation is smaller for the first of two marriages for women who divorce than for women who marry and remain married. For the second of successive marriages, however, the correlation is larger than that for women who marry but once. Also for twice-married women, we find evidence of matching between successive husbands. Women who marry men with unmeasured positive earnings capacities, in the event of divorce, tend to select and match in a similar fashion the second time around. (C) 2013 Western Social Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  • 711.
    Ögren, Anton
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Determinants behind Household Saving Behavior: -Empirical analysis on 15 OECD countries2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors behind what determine household saving behaviour. Observing the persistence differences of household saving ratio in OECD countries, serves as the base for the empirical study. Taking stance from economic theory and previous papers to formulate the method and likely explanatory variables suitable for this study, a model is specified based on the theoretical and empirical discussions.

    The result of the empirical analysis estimation finds that the explanatory variables accomplish to explain some of the household saving behaviour. Confirming and expanding on the discussion on the theoretical and empirical discussions. Factors such as uncertainty and fiscal policy are found to have a significant effect on household saving, while failing to prove other established determinants, like demographic factors. Among other included factors considered.

  • 712.
    Östberg, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Håkansson, Cecilia
    Environmental Strategies Research, School of Architecture and the Built Environment, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hasselström, Linus
    Enveco Environmental Economics Consultancy Ltd, Skärholmen, Sweden.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Benefit transfer for environmental improvements in coastal areas: General versus Best-Fitting models2013Ingår i: Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics-Revue Canadienne D'Agroeconomie, ISSN 0008-3976, E-ISSN 1744-7976, Vol. 61, nr 2, s. 239-258Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Recognizing the important policy task of securing the benefits from marine coastal waters subject to time and funding constraints has increased interest in benefit transfer (BT). However, many of the advances in BT recommended by researchers would be too costly to implement. This paper presents two choice experiment (CE) studies on marine areas in Sweden where respondents from local and distant populations were surveyed. BT for attributes relevant to the European Union's Water Framework Directive and the implementation of special consideration zones in marine areas were evaluated by equivalence tests. A comparison of the performance between a “general” BT model including only easily available socio-economic information and a statistically “best-fitting” model that requires the collection of more detailed information shows very similar results. Using a general model saves money and time since the information needed can be easily obtained from public databases and it does not lead to any significant reductions in accuracy or reliability. The issue of including socio-economic information in CE modeling for BT is important, since the model specification will determine the type of information that must be collected at the policy site; however, the results are inconclusive as to whether it improves BT or not.

    La reconnaissance de l'importante tâche politique visant à protéger les avantages tirés des eaux marines côtières, exposée à des contraintes de temps et de financement, suscite un intérêt accru pour le transfert d'avantages (TA). Toutefois, la mise en œuvre d'un bon nombre des percées en matière de TA recommandées par les chercheurs serait trop coûteuse. Dans le présent article, nous présentons deux études sur des zones marines de la Suède réalisées selon la méthode des choix multi-attributs et auxquelles ont participé des répondants provenant de populations locales et éloignées. Le TA dans le cas d'attributs figurant dans la Directive-cadre sur l'eau de l’Union européenne et la détermination de zones nécessitant une prise en compte particulière au sein des zones marines ont été évalués à l'aide de tests d'équivalence. Une comparaison de la performance du modèle de TA « général », qui comprend uniquement des données socio-économiques facilement obtenables, et de celle du modèle de TA « optimal », qui comprend une collecte de données détaillées, montre des résultats très similaires. L'utilisation du modèle général permet d'économiser du temps et de l'argent puisque l'information requise est facilement accessible dans les bases de données publiques, sans diminution significative de la précision ou de la fiabilité. La question d'inclure des données socio-économiques dans le modèle de choix multi-attributs pour le TA est importante puisque que la spécification du modèle déterminera le type de données qu'il faut collecter sur l'endroit visé par la politique. Toutefois, les résultats ne permettent pas d'indiquer si le TA est amélioré ou non.

  • 713.
    Östbye, Stein
    et al.
    University of Tromsö.
    Moilanen, Mikko
    University of Tromsö.
    Tervo, Hannu
    University of Jyväskylä .
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. CEDAR.
    The creative class: do jobs follow people or do people follow jobs?2018Ingår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, E-ISSN 1360-0591, Vol. 52, nr 6, s. 745-755Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Regional adjustment models are applied to explore causal interaction between two types of people distinguished by educational attainment, and two types of jobs, creative class jobs and other jobs. Data used are for labour market regions in Finland, Norway and Sweden from the 2000s. Creative class jobs follow people with high educational attainment (oneway causation), but creative class jobs also follow main jobs and vice versa (circular causation). The results suggest that stimulating creative class job growth could be accomplished through attracting people with higher education, but also through attracting main sector business with the added benefit that the initial stimulus would be reinforced through circular and cumulative causation between job creation in the two sectors.

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