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  • 751.
    Ahmed, Fathimath
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Nedev, Nikolay
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    How does a Currency Board Reflect on the Economic Development in the Long Run?: A Comparative Approach of Central Banking System and  Currency Board Arrangement2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) is one of the exchange rate regimes where domestic currency is 100% backed up by a foreign (anchor) currency. When a country adopts a CBA, it acts as the central bank but only with limited authoritative power. Unlike a central bank, CBA does not lend to the government and does not act as a lender of last resort to the commercial banks. Moreover, CBA was created to solve the problem of lack of transparency of the central bank and government’s relationship. The central bank controls the monetary policy and plays an important role in the economic development of countries. One of the main problems associated with the central banks is adverse selection. To avoid adverse selection, to achieve economic stability, and to support the development, some countries choose conservative policies like a CBA. Hence our goal of this research is to understand if CBA results in a better performance compared to the independent central bank system. Therefore the following research question is developed:

    “Do the countries using a CBA benefit from it in terms of long term macroeconomic performance, financial stability and business environment, compared to other transition economies functioning under an independent central bank?”

    Before proceeding with the research question, a research gap in the literature was identified. The gap exists as there are not that many recent studies done on CBA, especially to evaluate the performance of its adopters. To carry out the research study, researchers adopted the positivism as the epistemological consideration and objectivism as the ontological consideration. This research followed a deductive approach with a quantitative strategy and a comparative design. After declaring these methodological choices, a cross-national comparative research was conducted, using six countries with currency board system and with an independent central bank institution. These countries were chosen carefully by comparing the similarities and differences, in terms of history, geography and size. In order to analyse the performances based on twelve macroeconomic indicators, like the Expat Capital’s model.

    Once the data was collected from online databases, a self-designed scoring model was used to analyze the data. These results are presented clearly using tables and graphs. After analyzing the result, the 5 hypothesises that were developed based on the theories were tested. A couple of them were accepted while the rest (H1, H4, and H5) were rejected. To conclude the paper the research question was answered and the results suggest that under currency board inflation, debt and deficit are substantially lower than under a central bank system. To maintain the credibility of the results, truth criteria were discussed and the paper concludes suggesting what further research one could do on this research topic.

  • 752.
    Ahmed, Hammad
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Batinic, Mario
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology, School of Dentistry.
    Prevalence and Risk Factors of Neck Pain Among Dentists and Dental Hygienists2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the past years it has been reported that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) have increased in working life. The body region with the highest prevalence of reported pain is the neck region. Several studies show that MSD in the neck region varies between 20–68% among dentists and dental hygienists. The dental personnel work with a limited field of vision and space, which often results in an unnatural work posture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of neck pain in dentists and dental hygienists working in the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden and to explore possible work-related and individual risk factors. The study was based on a questionnaire, which was sent out to all dentists and dental hygienists (n = 473) who worked at Folktandvården (response rate 60%). The overall prevalence of neck pain (neck pain every day the past month) was 23%. Female dentists and dental hygienists had an increased risk of neck pain compared to male dentists (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.22 - 6.75). Dental personnel that experienced severe stress tended to have an increased risk of neck pain compared to those who perceived low stress (OR 2.08, 95% CI 0.94 - 4.53). We conclude that neck pain is a common problem among dental personnel in the county of Västra Götaland. Female dentists and female dental hygienists are at greater risk concerning the prevalence of neck pain.

  • 753.
    Ahmed Hassan Ahmed, Osama
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Virology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Rift Valley fever: challenges and new insights for prevention and control using the “One Health” approach2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rift Valley fever (RVF) is an emerging viral zoonosis that causes frequent outbreaks in east Africa and on the Arabian Peninsula. The likelihood of RVF global expansion due to climate change and human anthropogenic factors is an important issue. The causative agent, RVF virus, is an arbovirus that is transmitted by several mosquito species and is able to infect a wide range of livestock as well as people. The infection leads to mass abortions and death in livestock and a potentially deadly hemorrhagic fever in humans. RVF has severe socio-economic consequences such as animal trade bans between countries, disruption of food security, and economic disaster for farmers and pastoralists as well as for countries. Human behavior such as direct contact with infected animals or their fluids and exposure to mosquito bites increases the risk for contracting the disease.

    To better understand the challenges associated with RVF outbreaks and to explore prevention and control strategies, we used the One Health approach. The local community had to be involved to understand the interaction between the environment, animals, and humans. We focused on Sudan, Saudi Arabia, and Kenya. First, we systematically reviewed the literature and then we performed cross sectional community-based studies using a special One Health questionnaire. Climatic and remote sensing data were used in combination with statistics to develop a sub-region predictive model for RVF.

    For both Saudi Arabia and Sudan, the ecology and environment of the affected areas were similar. These areas included irrigation canals and excessive rains that provide an attractive habitat for mosquito vectors to multiply. The surveillance systems were unable to detect the virus in livestock before it spread to humans. Ideally, livestock should serve as sentinels to prevent loss of human lives, but the situation here was reversed. Differences between countries regarding further spread of RVF was mainly determined by better economic and infrastructure resources.

    In Sudan, there was a lack of knowledge and appropriate practices at the studied community regarding RVF disease symptoms and risk factors for both animals and humans. The community was hesitant in notifying the authorities about RVF suspicion in livestock due to the lack of a compensation system. The perceived role of the community in controlling RVF was fragmented, increasing the probability of RVF transmission and disease.

    In Kenya, our study found that better knowledge about RVF does not always translate to more appropriate practices that avoid exposure to the disease. However, the combination of good knowledge, attitudes, and practices may explain why certain communities were less affected. Strategies to combat RVF should consider socio-cultural and behavioral differences among communities. We also noticed that RVF outbreaks in Kenya occurred in regions with high livestock density exposed to heavy rains and wet soil fluxes, which could be measured by evapotranspiration and vegetation seasonality variables. We developed a RVF risk map on a sub-regional scale. Future outbreaks could be better managed if such relevant RVF variables are integrated into early warning systems.

    To confront RVF outbreaks, a policy is needed that better incorporates ecological factors and human interactions with livestock and environment that help the RVF pathogen spread. Early detection and notification of RVF is essential because a delay will threaten the core of International Health Regulations (IHR), which emphasizes the share of information during a transboundary disease outbreak to avoid unnecessary geographical expansion.

  • 754.
    Ahmed, Kemal
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Auditing Fair Value measurements and Disclosures: A case of the Big 4 Audit Firms2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Problem: In today’s business environment, rising demand in financial reporting and frequent changes in accounting frameworks lead to an increased focus on reliability in Fair Value Measurement (FVM) and disclosures. The frequent changes in accounting frameworks create a challenge for managers in measuring accounting estimates accurately and have been an exceedingly difficult task. The difficult task is that of the auditors. How would auditors endorse and ensure the reliability and relevance of financial statements? Also how could they evaluate the accuracy of the measurement of fair values as presented in the financial statements? (IFAC, 2011, ISA 540).

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to explore the methods and approaches used by auditors while auditing fair values from practical perspectives.

    Method: A multiple case study with pure qualitative methods and an inductive approach has been adopted. The qualitative method used a semi-structured interview to collect data. 

    Result: The result shows that by understanding the challenges and following the phases of auditing, auditors can maintain the quality of financial reporting. Four key audit phases are relevant to audit FVM. These are: understanding the Client-Business environment, Engagement, Internal Control, and Planning phases of auditing. Furthermore, the results revealed key challenges of auditing FVM and disclosures. These challenges are information insufficiency in the market (reliability), competence, auditors’ lack of fair value audit exposure, and the manager's leadership role and style. Moreover, as previous studies on FV have primarily relied on synthesis of academic literature, the thesis contributes knowledge to academia by using an empirical approach.

  • 755.
    Ahmed Nazad, Zina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    MicroRNAs as biomarkers in some cardiovascular diseases: A bioinformatics and review study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 756.
    Ahmed, Shibbir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Cadmium sulphide / Zinc sulphide quantum dot decoration of three-dimensional porous graphene2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 757.
    Ahmed, Shibbir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Micro-wave synthesis of co-doped transition metal oxides anchored on reduced graphene oxide and their implementation as catalysts for water oxidation2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract: Artificial photosynthesis is a very attractive and a desirable way to solve the rising energy demand. In order to harvest energy directly from sunlight catalyst for oxygen reduction and evolution reaction are at the core of key renewable-energy technologies including fuel cells and water splitting. Herein, tungsten oxide-reduced graphene oxide (WO3-rGO), cobalt oxide-reduced graphene oxide (Co3O4-rGO) and tungsten oxide-cobalt oxide-reduced graphene oxide (WO3-Co3O4-rGO) nano-composites were synthesized via a facile, efficient, one-pot microwave assisted method as an efficient electro-catalyst for water oxidation. The structural and chemical compositions of the produced nano-structures were investigated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Raman Spectroscopy as well as thremogravimetric analysis. Catalytic performances of the engineered nano hybrids for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) were evaluated using a standard three electrode system in 0.1 M KOH aqueous solution, with a coiled Pt wire as the counter electrode and an Ag/AgCl as the reference electrode. In the produced nano-composites, WO3 and Co3O4 nano-particles are uniformly decorated on the reduced graphene oxide sheets without any agglomeration. The WO3-Co3O4-rGO hybrids afforded current density 1 mA/cm2 at 1.693 V vs RHE and the Co3O4-rGO reached the current density 1 mA/cm2 at 1.769 V vs RHE regarding the catalytic performance for OER in alkaline solution. The over potential was significantly reduced by 76 mV after co-doping of WO3 with Co3O4-rGO nano hybrids. The WO3-Co3O4-rGO gives current density 1 mA/cm2 at 1.658 V vs RHE. We also show that the over potential for oxygen evolution of the WO3-Co3O4-rGO was further reduced by illuminating the catalyst to visible light thus manifesting the photo-catalytic properties of the hybrid catalyst.

  • 758. Ahmed, Syed Masud
    et al.
    Hadi, Abdullahel
    Razzaque, Abdur
    Ashraf, Ali
    Juvekar, Sanjay
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine. Indonesia.
    Kanungsukkasem, Uraiwan
    Soonthornthada, Kusol
    Van Minh, Hoang
    Huu Bich, Tran
    Clustering of chronic non-communicable disease risk factors among selected Asian populations: levels and determinants2009In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, no 1, p. 68-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The major chronic non-communicable diseases (NCDs) operate through a cluster of common risk factors, whose presence or absence determines not only the occurrence and severity of the disease, but also informs treatment approaches. Primary prevention based on mitigation of these common risk factors through population-based programmes is the most cost-effective approach to contain the emerging epidemic of chronic NCDs.

    OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to explore the extent of risk factors clustering for the major chronic NCDs and its determinants in nine

    INDEPTH Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) sites of five Asian countries. DESIGN: Data originated from a multi-site chronic NCD risk factor prevalence survey conducted in 2005. This cross-sectional survey used a standardised questionnaire developed by the WHO to collect core data on common risk factors such as tobacco use, intake of fruits and vegetables, physical inactivity, blood pressure levels, and body mass index. Respondents included randomly selected sample of adults (25-64 years) living in nine rural HDSS sites in Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam.

    RESULTS: Findings revealed a substantial proportion (>70%) of these largely rural populations having three or more risk factors for chronic NCDs. Chronic NCD risk factors clustering was associated with increasing age, being male, and higher educational achievements. Differences were noted among the different sites, both between and within country.

    CONCLUSIONS: Since there is an extensive clustering of risk factors for the chronic NCDs in the populations studied, the interventions also need to be based on a comprehensive approach rather than on a single factor to forestall its cumulative effects which occur over time. This can work best if it is integrated within the primary health care system and the HDSS can be an invaluable epidemiological resource in this endeavor.

  • 759.
    Ahmed, Zina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Poly-ADP ribos polymeras (PARP) inhibitorers effekt på bröstcancer: Poly-ADP ribos polymeras (PARP) inhibitorers effekt på bröstcancer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 760.
    Ahmedin, Ahmedin Osman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    A socio-legal study of the Swedish anti-discrimination policy and its implementation in the labour market: Discrimination against immigrants in the labour market and its affect2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The point of departure for this study is that people with immigrant backgrounds are discriminated in the Swedish labour market and they are discriminated on several grounds. Discrimination is violation against human rights and it affects gender equality and integration policy negatively. Different studies show that immigrants hold the jobs which are lowest paid and not preferred by the swedes. The studies show also that immigrants from Africa and middle east are those who are discriminated most. This discrimination occurs despite the Swedish clear anti-discrimination policy and its regional and international obligations to combat discrimination. The Swedish discriminations act prohibits discrimination on the seven grounds mentioned in the act. This thesis analyses the Swedish discriminations act, its implementation and efficacy. It sheds some light on Sweden’s regional and international obligations in this regard. Finally, the impact of discrimination against immigrants on Swedish gender equality and integrations policy is discussed.

    Purpose: The purposes of this thesis are, based on the earlier studies, to highlight the ways in which immigrants are discriminated in the Swedish labour market and contributing to the improvement of the anti-discrimination policy in a long run. To accomplish this task, I have Scrutinized and analysed the efficacy of the Swedish discrimination policy, based on earlier studies, I have analysed different ways in which immigrants are discriminated in the Swedish labour market and discussed the impact of immigration on gender equality and integrations policy.

    Method: For conducting this research, qualitative method has been used. For accomplishing this study, both primary sources such as legal documents and legislations and secondary sources such as books, article, newspapers and internet websites have been used. To achieve this task, I have used intersectional analysis, and this is because immigrants are discriminated on multiple grounds and intersectional perspective is the best perspective in analysing such grounds.

    Conclusion: Based on earlier studies, the idea that people with immigrant background are discriminated in Swedish labour market is supported. They are discriminated in different ways such as recruitment process, in salaries, working conditions and promotion process. Discrimination can be due to different reasons and based on different grounds. According to the studies, though discrimination affects immigrants in general, immigrants from Middle east and Africa most discriminated. The same studies show that Muslim women who can be identified as Muslims due to headscarves, burqa or niqab are discriminated most and the face harassment in the public areas. Additional findings in this thesis are that discrimination in general is obstacle to gender equality and integrations policy given that it widens the already wide gap between women and men as well as between immigrants and swedes. Besides this, discrimination in the criminal system also leads to discrimination in the labour market. This is because prejudices based on the reports of biased police, judges, prosecutors etc. lead to discrimination against immigrants by relating them to crime. Therefore, though it is not deeply studied, there is a significant correlation between discrimination in the criminal legal system and discrimination in the labour market.

  • 761. Ahmeti, Artan
    et al.
    Henein, Michael Y.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine. Molecular & Clinical Sciences Research Institute, St George University London.
    Ibrahimi, Pranvera
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosova.
    Elezi, Shpend
    Haliti, Edmond
    Poniku, Afrim
    Batalli, Arlind
    Bajraktari, Gani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Cardiology. Clinic of Cardiology, University Clinical Centre of Kosova; Medical Faculty, University of Prishtina.
    Quality of life questionnaire predicts poor exercise capacity only in HFpEF and not in HFrEF2017In: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders, ISSN 1471-2261, E-ISSN 1471-2261, Vol. 17, article id 268Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire (MLHFQ) is the most widely used measure of quality of life (QoL) in HF patients. This prospective study aimed to assess the relationship between QoL and exercise capacity in HF patients.

    Methods: The study subjects were 118 consecutive patients with chronic HF (62 +/- 10 years, 57 females, in NYHA I-III). Patients answered a MLHFQ questionnaire in the same day of complete clinical, biochemical and echocardiographic assessment. They also underwent a 5 min walk test (6-MWT), in the same day, which grouped them into; Group I: <= 300 m and Group II: > 300 m. In addition, left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF), divided them into: Group A, with preserved EF (HFpEF) and Group B with reduced EF (HFrEF).

    Results: The mean MLHFQ total scale score was 48 (+/- 17). The total scale, and the physical and emotional functional MLHFQ scores did not differ between HFpEF and HFpEF. Group I patients were older (p = 0.003), had higher NYHA functional class (p = 0.002), faster baseline heart rate (p = 0.006), higher prevalence of smoking (p = 0.015), higher global, physical and emotional MLHFQ scores (p < 0.001, for all), larger left atrial (LA) diameter (p = 0.001), shorter LV filling time (p = 0.027), higher E/e' ratio (0.02), shorter isovolumic relaxation time (p = 0.028), lower septal a' (p = 0.019) and s' (p = 0.023), compared to Group II. Independent predictors of 6-MWT distance for the group as a whole were increased MLHFQ total score (p = 0.005), older age (p = 0.035), and diabetes (p = 0.045), in HFpEF were total MLHFQ (p = 0.007) and diabetes (p = 0.045) but in HFrEF were only LA enlargement (p = 0.005) and age (p = 0.013. A total MLHFQ score of 48.5 had a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 63% (AUC on ROC analysis of 72%) for limited exercise performance in HF patients.

    Conclusions: Quality of life, assessment by MLHFQ, is the best correlate of exercise capacity measured by 6-MWT, particularly in HFpEF patients. Despite worse ejection fraction in HFrEF, signs of raised LA pressure independently determine exercise capacity in these patients.

  • 762. Ahn, Ji Hoon
    et al.
    Schmid, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    Editorial overview: Growth and development: Change is in the air: how plants modulate development in response to the environment2017In: Current opinion in plant biology, ISSN 1369-5266, E-ISSN 1879-0356, Vol. 35, p. IV-VIArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 763. Ahn, Jiyoung
    et al.
    Schumacher, Fredrick R
    Berndt, Sonja I
    Pfeiffer, Ruth
    Albanes, Demetrius
    Andriole, Gerald L
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Boeing, Heiner
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Chanock, Stephen J
    Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise
    Diver, W Ryan
    Feigelson, Heather Spencer
    Gaziano, J Michael
    Giovannucci, Edward
    Haiman, Christopher A
    Henderson, Brian E
    Hoover, Robert N
    Kolonel, Laurence N
    Kraft, Peter
    Ma, Jing
    Le Marchand, Loïc
    Overvad, Kim
    Palli, Domenico
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Stampfer, Meir
    Stram, Daniel O
    Thomas, Gilles
    Thun, Michael J
    Travis, Ruth C
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Virtamo, Jarmo
    Weinstein, Stephanie J
    Yeager, Meredith
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Hunter, David J
    Hayes, Richard B
    Quantitative trait loci predicting circulating sex steroid hormones in men from the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).2009In: Human molecular genetics, ISSN 1460-2083, Vol. 18, no 19, p. 3749-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Twin studies suggest a heritable component to circulating sex steroid hormones and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). In the NCI-Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium, 874 SNPs in 37 candidate genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway were examined in relation to circulating levels of SHBG (N = 4720), testosterone (N = 4678), 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (N = 4767) and 17beta-estradiol (N = 2014) in Caucasian men. rs1799941 in SHBG is highly significantly associated with circulating levels of SHBG (P = 4.52 x 10(-21)), consistent with previous studies, and testosterone (P = 7.54 x 10(-15)), with mean difference of 26.9 and 14.3%, respectively, comparing wild-type to homozygous variant carriers. Further noteworthy novel findings were observed between SNPs in ESR1 with testosterone levels (rs722208, mean difference = 8.8%, P = 7.37 x 10(-6)) and SRD5A2 with 3 alpha-androstanediol-glucuronide (rs2208532, mean difference = 11.8%, P = 1.82 x 10(-6)). Genetic variation in genes in the sex steroid hormone pathway is associated with differences in circulating SHBG and sex steroid hormones.

  • 764.
    Ahne, Gustaf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Andersson, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    EN UTMANING SOM BERÖR ALLA.: n studie om kompetensförsörjning i en inlandsort.2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle blir det allt tuffare för glesbebyggda inlandskommuner att kunna attrahera och rekrytera personal för samhällsviktiga tjänster. Dessa kommuner måste lägga ner mer resurser på att ha en väl grundad kompetensförsörjningsplan. Genom arbetet med kompetensförsörjning kan kommunerna ge en tydligare bild kring möjligheterna för de som arbetar inom kommunerna. Men vad behöver dessa glesbebyggda inlandskommuner göra för att kunna attrahera människor till kommunen? Och vad kan ett samarbete mellan kommun och näringsliv bidra till gällande kompetensförsörjning?Det huvudsakliga syftet med den här studien är att kunna ge ett underlag för kompetensförsörjning för glesbebyggda inlandskommuner. Den här studien har genomförts i Malå kommun med kommunen och näringslivet. Studien har genomförts med en kvalitativ ansats genom semistrukturerade intervjuer med chefer från både kommun och näringsliv.Studien har visat att marknadsföringen av både Malå kommun och näringslivet som arbetsgivare kan förbättras. Vidare behöver samarbetet mellan kommunen och näringslivet behöver fungera väl för att få en förståelse mellan partnerna. Detta för att tillsammans arbeta ut vad som är bra för Malå kommun.

  • 765.
    Ahnemark, Nathalie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Ranggård, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Lansering av smink med sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal: En kvalitativ studie om hur konsumenter påverkas att sprida marknadsföringsbudskap2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har den globala kosmetikaindustrin genomgått en enorm ekonomisk tillväxt. Sminkföretagen lägger stora summor på marknadsföringsinsatser för att upprätthålla konsumtionsmönstret bland konsumenter. Då människors förtroende för traditionell marknadsföring sinar och alternativa kanaler samt personliga rekommendationer genom Word of Mouth värderas högre, blir detta allt viktigare för företag att beakta i utformningen av marknadsföring. Detta utgör mycket viktiga implikationer för sminkföretag. Då sminkföretag årligen lanserar stora mängder smink och då marknadsföring är avgörande för en ny produkts framgång på marknaden, innebär det att alternativa marknadsföringskanaler måste nyttjas och Word of Mouth måste uppmuntras för att därigenom stimulera köp bland konsumenter och uppnå en marknadsacceptans av nya produkter.

    Historiskt sett har ingen forskning bedrivits som utforskar samband och relationer mellan områdena sminkföretag, sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal samt produktlanseringar. Detta leder oss till vår problemformulering som lyder: ”Hur påverkas konsumenter i Sverige vid en lansering av en ny sminkprodukt att sprida positiv Word of Mouth?” Studien främsta syfte är att agera en brygga mellan samhällsutvecklingen inom de berörda studieområdena och akademisk forskning. Dessutom vill vi skapa en förståelse för konsumenters beteende med avseende på spridning av Word of Mouth på sociala medier för att därigenom formulera praktiska rekommendationer för ledningen i sminkföretag i Sverige.

    I studien har vi valt att anta ett företagsperspektiv och nyttja en kvalitativ insamlingsmetod med en hermeneutisk kunskapssyn och en konstruktionistisk verklighetssyn. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna som utgör grunden i denna studie har delats in i två huvudsakliga sektioner. Den första sektionen består av teorier och forskning kring produktlanseringar och den andra sektionen av teorier och forskning inom fenomen på sociala medier. Vi har med hjälp av tre fokusgrupper motsvarande 13 respondenter insamlat det empiriska materialet. Samtliga respondenter i studien är kvinnliga användare av såväl smink som sociala medier. Valet av dessa respondenter gjordes genom ett icke-sannolikhetsurval med inslag av en så kallad snöbollseffekt.

    Vid analysen av det empiriska materialet framkom att konsumenter, trots en stark negativitet mot flera av de alternativa marknadsföringskanaler som nyttjas av sminkföretag, påverkas inför köp. Emellertid har vissa kanaler och marknadsföringsinsatser en större positiv inverkan på såväl konsumenters köpbeteende som benägenhet att sprida Word of Mouth. En av de viktigaste slutsatserna utifrån analysen är det samband som återfunnits mellan konsumenters spridningstendens av marknadsföringsbudskap och förtroende, ärlighet, transparens, humor, genuinitet och igenkänningsfaktorer.

     

     

     

  • 766.
    Ahnlund, Anna-Ella
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Svennberg, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Att främja anknytning när barnet föds för tidigt: -Barnsjuksköterskors erfarenheter2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Premature births often leads to poorer conditions for the child to develop a safe attachment. Nurses in the neonatal unit have therefore a significant role to play to enhance early attachment.

    Motive: Research shows that nurses in neonatal care often experience difficulties in the work of supporting the parents in the process of attaching with their premature child. Few studies shed light on the subject from the perspective of the nurse, which may be of importance for future work. It is therefore of interest to seek more knowledge about nurses’ experiences of promoting the attachment.

    Aim: To shed light on nurses' experiences of enhanceing early attachment between the parents and their premature born child in neonatal units.

    Methods: A semi-structured interview study with eight pediatric nurses in neonatal units in southeastern Sweden. Data is analyzed using content analysis. Result: The analysis resulted in four categories: Enabling closeness between the child and the parents, Supporting the parents to participation, Strengthening the parents' sense of parenthood, Obstacles in the work of enhancing attachment.

    Discussion: The result is strengthened and discussed in relation to previous research showing that the attachment is promoted between parents and children when they experience closeness to each other, when parents are involved in the child's nursing care and when parents feel secure in their parenting role. The result shows that nurses often find that they lack enough skills to support the parents who end up in crisis, something that has also been shown in previous research. It also emerged that nurses often lack formal competence in, enhancing early attachment which, however, does not appear in previous research.

    Conclusion: The nurses' experience shows that when responsibility for the child is safely transferred to the parents, the attachment is promoted. Increased knowledge of how the nurse can support parents in crisis can lead to improvements in the work of enhanceing early attachment. Organizational changes that enable cooperation between clinics can also lead to changes that facilitate the work of enhanceing early attachment

  • 767.
    Ahnlund Bäckman, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Folk är väl tuffare bakom skärmen": En fokusgruppstudie om ungas tankar beträffande nätkränkningar2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna kvalitativa fokusgruppstudie har författaren intervjuat 13 ungdomar i åldern 16-18 år på ett gymnasium i Göteborg. Idén till studien uppkom i och med att de uppmärksammade Instagramupploppen (nätkränkningar som ledde till upplopp i centrala Göteborg i december 2012) skedde och skapade en debatt bland ungdomarna på två skolor. Dessa skolor var författarens verksamhetsförlagda utbildningsplats.  Syftet med studien var således att undersöka hur nätkränkningar som fenomen förstås bland ungdomar på gymnasiet. Ett delsyfte blev att förstå hur kön var verksamt i dessa kränkningar genom att använda genus som analytiskt verktyg. Genom att veta hur unga talade om fenomenet, var förhoppningen att  en förståelse för varför nätkränkningar mellan ungdomar sker. Ungdomarna delades in i tre fokusgrupper, två tjejgrupper och en killgrupp och intervjuerna skedde på ungdomarnas skola under skoltid, den 19 mars 2013. De huvudresultat studien kom fram till var bland annat att ungdomar upplevde att tjejer var mer utsatta än killar, men att de också utsatte andra människor oftare än killar. Killar uppfattades oftast nätkränka i grupp, medans tjejer kränkte både i grupp och enskilt. Att själv lägga ut material, exempelvis en bild, som blev kritiserat var nära sammankopplat med skuld för tjejerna. Killarna misstroddes snarare om de hade utsatts. Vuxna ansågs ha ett ansvar endast om en ungdom hade berättat om nätkränkningen för denna. Polis och myndighetspersoner ansågs däremot behöva ta ett större ansvar än idag. Upploppet som skedde sågs som ett nödvändigt ont, då ungdomarna ansåg att detta var det enda sättet för att få vuxna, och då främst polisen att reagera. 

  • 768.
    Ahnlund, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, History and Theory of Art.
    Norrbyskär: om tillkomsten av ett norrländskt sågverkssamhälle på 1890-talet1978Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 769.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Influence in elderly and disability care2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence in elderly and disability care

    Care for elderly and care for persons with disabilities are two sectors in the welfare state, aiming to give support, care and service when needed. There are both similarities and differences between the two sectors, our interest is how the concept influence has been discussed and understood in this both sectors. Influence is regulated in the Swedish Social Service Act and in the act concerning Support and Service for Persons with Certain Functional Impairments but is operationalized in different ways in care for elderly and care for persons with disabilities. It is for example much more concrete described for the care of persons with disabilities. In the care for elderly, influence is described in a more general way whit diffuse terminology.

    The aim with the presentation is to discus differences and similarities in relation to influence and its consequences for the every day life. Laws, policies and previous research are discussed as is interviews with personnel working in respectively sector focusing on their descriptions of what they do at work. Our results show that personnel in the care for persons with disabilities include their clients in their work, influence is more visible for that group, and it is something obvious to consider at work in relation to participation and influence in ones own life. For the personnel in the care for elderly, influence is not as visible as a concept and when they talk about their work, they talk about routines and organisational needs. Our conclusions are that organisational guidelines as well as laws and policy decisions creates different opportunities to make influence for clients possible. 

  • 770.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Omsorg som arbete: Om utbildning, arbetsmiljö och relationer i äldre- och handikappomsorgen2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: At the central administrative level in Sweden, care work is presented as a complex task for which personnel require special qualifications. In elderly care, questions of training and qualifications form the highly topical theme noticed by central actors. According to The National Board of Health and Welfare, the supply of manpower and the educational levels of the workers are the most important factors in ensuring high quality care for the elderly. The question of educational levels is, however, with the exception of personal assistants, not given as much attention in care for people with disabilities.

    Aim: The aim of this dissertation is firstly to compare elderly care and care for persons with disabilities with the focus to describe and analyse education and work environment in these sectors. Secondly, the aim is to analyse if, and if so how, questions of education interacts with personnel’s view of the social work environment.

    Methods: The thesis is comprised of four studies and paper 1, 2 and 3 are based on the results of a qualitative interview study, which was comprised of 48 persons who worked in elderly care and the care for persons with disabilities. Of the 48 persons who took part in the study, 11 of them worked as middle managers and 37 worked as care workers in the every day care. Paper 4 consists of a research summary on how education for care workers is being studied in a Swedish and an international context.

    The personnel who participated in the interview study work in different care settings; in elderly care the personnel work in both sheltered housing and public home care services. In the care for disabled persons, the personnel work in residential housing with special services, in public daily activities for people with intellectual disabilities and as personal assistants.

    Result: Both managers and personnel find it important for care workers to have a degree of educational background as a basis for the learning process at the work place. The results also show that educational levels and the work environment are themes that are discussed differently by different actors. In previous research on education for care workers in both elderly care and the care for People with disabilities, academic education or education at a ground level has been seen as problematic due to the distance it is said to create between the worker and the care recipient. My results show that the discussion about education for care workers has become rather biased, and that highly educated personnel tend to be more aware of the power they possesses and that the relation to the care receiver is important. In elderly care the issue of education seems to be more a question of a general educational level. In the care for people with disabilities, the question of education for personnel is on a more individual basis, where the care workers learn together with the care recipient. Educational levels, the work environment and relations with colleagues and care recipients are connected and support from the managers is important for understanding the work and the relational perspective.

  • 771.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    To organise for care work: Work environment and relational aspects of care work in Sweden2008In: Care work in crisis:: Reclaiming the Nordic ethos of care, Studentlitteratur , 2008, p. 304-322Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 772.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Utbildning och mångfald2010In: Omsorg och mångfald / [ed] Stina Johansson, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2010, p. 179-192Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 773.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Andersson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundström, Madelene
    NCK.
    Heimer, Gun
    NCK.
    Prevalence and correlates of sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men of 60 to 74 years in Sweden2017In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past-year sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men aged 60 to 74 years was studied. The data derived from a nationally representative survey on violence in which approximately 2,800 women and men aged 60 to 74 years in Sweden participated. Women were significantly more likely to have been subjected to at least one form of violence in the past year. The prevalence of sexual violence as well as systematic and repeated psychological violence was found to be significantly higher for women than for men. Sexual violence was the most common form of violence against women. Systematic and repeated psychological violence was the most common form of violence against men. Additional gender differences were found in relation to victim characteristics. While associations among women were found between violence victimization and sociodemographic characteristics, health as well as social capital, only health-related characteristics were found to be associated with past-year violence victimization among men. Among women, economic problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, lack of trust in other people, and not having anyone to talk to were associated with violence victimization. Poor psychological health and an at-risk consumption of alcohol were found to be associated with violence victimization among men. The results highlight the importance of research on violence victimization to assess gender differences also when inquiring into the situation among persons in older generations. The results also indicate practical implications for caring professions; the need to inquire into the experiences of violence among older persons and to pay particular attention to these characteristics when encountering women and men in this age interval.

  • 774.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Omvårdnadsprogrammet: genomströmning, etableringsgrad och utbildningens relevans2011Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I den offentliga omsorgen om äldre och personer med funktionshinder arbetar i dag personal som tillsammans utgör det största yrkesområdet i Sverige. I rapporten studeras hur intentionerna med att höja utbildningsnivån för äldreomsorgens personal genom att formalisera all kompetens kring en utbildning lyckats. Till grund för analysen ligger enkätdata samt statistik från SCB.

    Undersökningen visar att gymnasieskolans omvårdnadsprogram inte som enda aktör kan utbilda personal i en omfattning som motsvarar de framtida rekryteringsbehoven. Detta trots att omvårdnadsprogrammet har en god genomströmning och trots att en stor andel av eleverna arbetar inom avsedda målgruppsområden efter avslutade studier. Av de som avgick från omvårdnadsprogrammet 2000 och som finns i arbete 2008, arbetade 78 procent i ett målgruppsområde, de flesta som vård- och omsorgspersonal (SSYK 513) följt av sjukstöterskor (SSYK 223 och 323).

    Rapporten visar att utbildningen på omvårdnadsprogrammet har förberett eleverna för kommande arbetsliv på ett bra sätt, ett påstående som både de som arbetade och de som inte arbetade inom vård- och omsorg instämde i. Däremot råder det en stor variation bland de som arbetade inom vård- och omsorgsfältet vad gäller om kunskapen tas tillvara på den nuvarande arbetsplatsen.

  • 775.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social Welfare.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social Welfare.
    Omvårdnadsutbildning som mål eller medel?: Om legitimitetsproblem och kunskapssyn2006In: Socialvetenskaplig tidskrift, ISSN 1104-1420, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 212-227Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 776.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Upper secondare health care programme as means or measure?: On the problem of legitimacy and the view of knowledge2008In: Care work in crisis: Reclaiming the Nordic ethos of care, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2008, p. 324-340Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 777.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Utbildning och kompetensfrågor för äldre- och handikappomsorgens personal: En forskningsöversikt2008In: Tidskriften Socionomens forskningsöversikt, ISSN 0283-1929, no 6, p. 70-82Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 778.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sauer, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Inflytande2016In: Förändringsperspektiv på äldreomsorg: att leva som andra / [ed] Stina Johansson & Annika Taghizadeh Larsson, Malmö: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2016, 1, p. 119-128Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 779.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sauer, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Omsorg, pratik och retorik: Om skillnader i uttryckssätt bland personal i äldre- och handikappomsorgen2008In: Nordisk sosialt arbeid, ISSN 0333-1342, E-ISSN 1504-3037, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 42-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to analyse the stories told by care workers engaged in formal care of the elderly and persons with disabilities. The empirical material consists of qualitative interviews with 28 Swedish care workers. The analysis reveals that the personnel in both care settings are focusing on routines and support for their caretakers, but are doing so in different ways. Our interpretation focuses on the differences between the personnel engaged in elderly and disability care and on how the relations between care workers and caretakers are being revealed in the narratives. The conclusion is that the personnel are affected by structural conditions such as ideologies, laws and the design of the settings.

  • 780.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Wikström, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Arbetslinjen i fokus. En analys av flykting- och etableringspolitiken.2015In: Book of Abstracts FALF 2015 Conference, 10-12 June 2015, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I december 2010 sjösattes en ny reform för flyktingmottagandet i Sverige: Lagen om etableringsinsatser förvissa nyanlända (2009/10:197). Ett övergripande syfte med flyktingpolitiken är att ingen ska hamna i utanförskap,och därför fokuseras i reformen snabb arbetsmarknadsetablering genom betoningen på aktivering. Denna aktiveringspolitik återfinns i stora dela av Europa och inbegriper ’Welfare to work’, ett skifte från enpassiv välfärdslogik till en aktiv sådan för att förhindra beroende och passivitet främst för grupper som anses stå långt ifrån arbetsmarknaden. Den svenska versionen av en aktiv arbetsmarknadspolitik brukar benämnassom ”arbetslinje” och har ett tydligt fokus på att genom olika strategier stimulera alla med arbetsförmåga till sysselsättning. Dessa strategier kan handla om att öka anställbarhet men kan också innefatta villkorade ersättningar eller olika slags prestationsbelönande system.Syftet med presentationen är att beskriva hur etableringsinsatser för nyanlända legitimerar en arbetslinje i integrationen av flyktingar och deras anhöriga och hur flyktingen som subjekt konstrueras som en aktiv arbetare. Två centrala dokument, SOU 2008:58 och Regeringens proposition 2009/10:60, i vilken den nya lagen ingår, har analyserats med inspiration av kritisk diskursanalys och Bacchis problemdefinition (1999). Genom att ställa frågor om vad som utgör problemet, vilka dess orsaker är och hur lösningar konstrueras, med fokus på flyktingen, framkommer argumenten för flyktingpolitiken och dess inramning. Resultat från diskursanalysen visar bl.a. att lagen vilar på en princip om att snabbt komma till någon form av sysselsättning ses som en överordnat mål för att förebygga ett möjligt utanförskap och bidragsberoende. Det finns idag en tydlig markering i dokumenten att individen måste anpassa sig till arbetsmarknadens krav ochefterfrågan, ta ansvar för sitt deltagande och sin försörjning. Våra analyser visar en tydlig förskjutning från att betrakta ”flyktingen” som kategori grundat i ett humanrättsligt erkännande med ett visst behov av särskildastödinsatser, till att ses som en arbetssökande där arbete är en rättighet såväl som en skyldighet.

  • 781.
    Ahnlund, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Ryderman, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Basic training programme for Police Officers.
    Stereotyper: och dess påverkan på polisens arbete2004Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet belyser problemet med stereotypa uppfattningar, både inom och utom polisväsendet. Vi har tittat närmare på vad som definierar en stereotyp och beskriver två av de vanligaste stereotyperna; könsstereotyper och etnostereotyper. Könsstereotyper ligger till grund för diskriminering i både privata och offentliga sektorn. En diskussion som i allra högsta grad är aktuell i media och samhällsdebatten. Detta framgår bland annat i tidningen Svensk Polis om det i Stockholm tidigare använda vitsordssystemet. Kring etnostereotyper har en grupp kanadensiska poliser i en undersökning sagt att afroamerikanska ungdomar alltid hade något olagligt för sig om de stod i grupp. Detta kan förklaras med att polisen har en stereotyp bild av svarta ungdomar som mer brottsbenägna. Vi ger också en bild av huruvida en stereotyp uppfattning är negativ eller kan ha positiva effekter. Därefter diskuteras polisens påverkan av stereotypa uppfattningar. I polisyrket, i vilket man dagligen möter en mängd olika människor och har lagstadgat krav på likabehandling, torde det vara extra viktigt att hålla sig till fakta och undvika att påverkas av sina stereotypa uppfattningar. Frågan är alltså inte om stereotyppåverkan inom polisen existerar, utan hur och om den är användbar eller om den minskar effektiviteten och kanske t.o.m. motverkar polisarbetets syfte. Vi har även belyst problematiken kring diskriminering och ingripanden utifrån stereotypa uppfattningar ställt mot kravet på effektivitet och problemorienterat polisarbete. I diskussionen analyseras problem som framkommit och förslag ges på lösningar som vi tror kan vara ett steg mot ett mer fördomsfritt polisväsende.

  • 782.
    Ahnqvist, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Brännström, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    ”Torktumlarhuvuden” och ”teflonhjärnor”.: En fallstudie om det specialpedagogiska arbetet kring ADHD och dyslexi på tre gymnasieskolor i norra Sverige.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This case study examines how upper secondary schools in a municipality in the northern parts of Sweden structure their special pedagogy with students who have ADHD and dyslexia, students’ and parents’ experiences of this, and what regulates the schools management in this particular aspect. The results show that all the schools have special pedagogues and other support staff employed, though in varied extent. Furthermore, the resources are distributed differently from school to school. The focus, however, is always around communication between the concerned parties. Unfortunately, their good efforts to reach all students have not been successful. Not every special needs student have received the support they are entitled to. Students, as well as parents, have pointed out the shortages that they have experienced in communication, support and information about what rights they have, both as special needs students and as just students in a Swedish upper secondary school. Many of our informants have pointed out the teachers’ ignorance as one reason for the disappointment regarding the support from the schools.

  • 783.
    Ahnqvist, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Ja eller nej till kommunala hälsoförbund2003Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 784.
    Ahnskog, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Svensson, Paulina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Hållbarhet och prestation: En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan Sveriges ekokommuners gröna nyckeltal och finansiella resultat2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhetsredovisning är ett ämne som har blivit mycket aktuellt under den senaste tiden i såväl den privata sektorn som i den offentliga. Begreppen “hållbar utveckling” och “Corporate Social Responsibility” (CSR), eller hållbart företagande är grunden till hållbarhetsredovisningen och de yttre krav på transparens organisationer har. Den oberoende organisationen Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) har haft stor betydelse för hållbarhetsredovisning då de erbjuder riktlinjer för hur organisationer ska redovisa sin hållbarhetspåverkan. För svenska bolag har hållbarhetsredovisning tidigare skett på frivillig grund men nu har det för vissa företag kommit att bli obligatoriskt. Statligt ägda företag har sedan 2007 varit tvingade att hållbarhetsredovisa enligt GRI:s riktlinjer. Dessa regler omfattar dock inte andra offentliga inrättningar såsom myndigheter, regioner, landsting eller kommuner vilket innebär att de inte har några gemensamma regler eller principer kring redovisning av hållbarhet. Det finns många studier som undersökt på sambandet mellan hållbarhet och ekonomisk prestation hos hos vinstdrivande företag, och majoriteten av dessa har funnit ett svagt positivt samband mellan hållbarhet och finansiella värden men måttenheterna som används har varit inkonsekventa. De studier som finns har fokuserat på vinstdrivande företag och det efterfrågas mer forskning kring sambandet inom den offentliga sektorn. Det finns dock en brist på gemensamma riktlinjer och mått inom den offentliga sektorn, men det finns ett antal intresseorganisationer där kommuner gemensamt arbetar mot hållbarhet. En sådan organisation är Sveriges ekokommuner (SEKOM) som samlar in och publicerar tolv “gröna nyckeltal” och denna undersökning kommer med hjälp av dessa nyckeltal undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan kommunernas finansiella prestation och hållbarhet.

    Studiens huvudsyfte är att undersöka sambandet mellan hållbarhetsrelaterade nyckeltal som Sveriges ekokommuner publicerar och finansiella mått från kommunernas årsredovisningar under åren 2012-2014. De finansiella måtten i undersökningen är årets resultat, avkastning på totala tillgångar samt årets kostnader och av de tolv gröna nyckeltalen kommer vi undersöka sex stycken. Utöver de finansiella måtten kommer vi även att undersöka sambandet mellan de gröna nyckeltalen och befolkningstillväxt, och till sist kommer vi att testa om det finns några skillnader i resultat mellan de kommuner som är medlemmar i SEKOM och de som inte är det. För att undersöka detta formulerades sex hypoteser som sedan testades med hjälp av fem regressionsanalyser och ett t-test. Resultatet visade att det fanns signifikanta variabler i alla utom ett test och vi kunde därmed förkasta fyra av fem hypoteser. De signifikanta resultaten visade främst på positiva resultat gällande sambandet mellan hållbarhet och finansiell prestation.

  • 785.
    Aho, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Massmedier2005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 786.
    Ahokangas, Petri
    et al.
    Oulu Business School, University of Oulu.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå School of Business and Economics, Umeå University.
    Iivari, Marika
    Oulu Business School, University of Oulu.
    Ecosystems Perspective on Entrepreneurship2018In: The Palgrave Handbook of Multidisciplinary Perspectives on Entrepreurship / [ed] Turcan, R.V. and Fraser, N.M., Cham: Palgrave Macmillan, 2018Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 787.
    Ahokas, Miska
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Kuikka, Kari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Motivating Entrepreneurs Towards The "New Industrial Revolution": A Multiple Case Study Of Sustainability-Driven Entrepreneurial And Institutional Motivations In Finland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability and sustainable development are concerned as major topics in the current business and academic context. Although business entities are seen as a cause of the problem, they are similarly seen as a solution helping the world to survive from this enormous challenge. The current academic literature underlines the role of sustainable entrepreneurship as a decisive force, which helps to transform the profit-oriented paradigm into the “new industrial revolution”. In this context the motivating factors and their interactions behind the sustainable entrepreneurship are further unclear, which has lead to the following research questions:

    (1)  What entrepreneurial motivations in Finland affect entrepreneur’s decision to form and exploit sustainability-oriented opportunities?

    (2)  What institutional motivations in Finland affect entrepreneur’s decision to form and exploit sustainability-oriented opportunities?

    (3)  What are the interactions between entrepreneurial and institutional motivations affecting entrepreneur’s decision to form and exploit sustainability-oriented opportunities in Finland?

    The theoretical framework was constructed with a strong emphasis on entrepreneurial processes and opportunity theories. The main deviation from the conventional entrepreneurship towards the sustainable entrepreneurship was drawn through the wider nature of value creation in terms of triple bottom line approach. In addition the main motivational concepts were mirrored through the entrepreneurial motivations literature and the institutional theory, which provided effective theoretical lenses for the purpose of the empirical study. 

    The empirical study was conducted in Finland as a multiple case study with an exploratory research approach. The data was collected from sustainability-driven entrepreneurs and experts who had personal knowledge related to the phenomenon. More practical data collection methods were semi-structured interviews and questionnaires concerning entrepreneurial motivations. These selected methodological choices enabled accumulation of a rich set of data and provided further possibilities for fruitful data analysis. 

    The study indicated that human motivations related to the conventional entrepreneurship research are feasible in enhancing sustainable entrepreneurship. In the similar vein entrepreneurial motivations concerning self-realization, opportunities, personal values and prior experience have motivational effects on the sustainability-driven entrepreneur. Institutional motivations towards sustainable entrepreneurship are influential for the sustainability-oriented opportunity process. The analysis indicated that for example governmental incentives, consumption norms and social networks are motivating factors for sustainability-driven entrepreneurs. Finally the study indicated that both motivational sources have co-evolutive interactions throughout the process, but the intensity of these interactions similarly varied.

  • 788.
    Ahokas, Pia
    Umeå University, Umeå School of Education (USE). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Förskollärares tankar om tvåspråkighet: En studie om likheter och skillnader från två samhällen med olika språk villkor2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete handlar om förskollärares tankar och attityder till tvåspråkighet när det gäller att anpassa den pedagogiska verksamheten utifrån tvåspråkiga barns behov. Det handlar även om att jämföra likheter och skillnader mellan förskollärare som kommer från två samhällen med olika språkvillkor. Examensarbetet fokuserar mest på tvåspråkighet med inriktning på finska och svenska. För studien gjordes intervjuer med sju informanter varav sex var förskollärare och en var förskolechef. De förskollärare som deltog i studien var både en- och tvåspråkiga och kom från två olika samhällen; ett samhälle i Sverige där majoritetsspråket är svenska och det andra var ett samhälle i Tornedalen där de två majoritetsspråken är finska och svenska. En slutsats som drogs av studien är att samtliga av studiens informanter, oavsett i vilken kommun de arbetade och om de själva var tvåspråkiga, såg positivt på tvåspråkighet och ansåg att det är bra för barns senare utveckling att vara tvåspråkiga. En annan slutsats var deras pedagogiska anpassning utifrån tvåspråkiga barns behov. I Tornedalen fokuserade de mer på att barnen skulle lära sig svenska eftersom finskan dominerade både i hemmet och i samhället. Det kunde anses som en problematik för barnen om de inte hade lärt sig att behärska det svenska språket innan de börja skolan. En annan skillnad var att man i det andra samhället i Sverige använde sig mer av hemspråksundervisning för att utveckla barns tvåspråkighet, men i Tornedalen hade man i varje avdelning en förskollärare eller barnskötare som behärskade både finska och svenska.

  • 789.
    Ahonen, Jani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Can morphologic restoration of hydropower outlet channels create hydraulically suitable spawning and larvae habitats for grayling?: Modelling the effects of environmental measures with HEC-RAS.2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to model if hydraulically suitable habitats for juvenile and spawning grayling could be created by morphological restoration alone in the Bjurfors Övre hydropower outlet channel in the Ume River Basin. The study was done by 2D modelling with HEC-RAS using hourly water flow and level data collected during the period 20160521-20161029. Suitable water depth and velocity values for larvae and spawning grayling were collected from literature. Environmental measures for the Bjurfors Övre outlet channel were designed based on the morphology in outlet channels with documented reproducing grayling populations and large habitat diversities. The outlet channel at present morphology and after morphological modifications were modelled at different flow scenarios (0-369m3/s) and areas of suitable water velocities and depths before and after proposed measures were compared. Results show that suitable velocity areas would increase with a factor of between 1,03-1,81 and the suitable depth areas with a factor of 2,34-19,09 and that suitable depths may be the major limiting factor in current conditions. Results also show that zero-flow events at Bjurfors Övre hydropower plant create unsuitable velocities for larvae and spawning grayling and that the frequency and duration of such events could be more limiting than the mere occurrence of such events. The study indicates that the morphological restoration in hydropeaking outlet channels could improve the availability of habitats with suitability water depth and velocity not only for larvae and spawning grayling, but for other lotic organisms. The study also showed that HEC-RAS modelling is a potential resource effective way to assess to what extent certain proposed environmental measures may create suitable water depths and velocities in hydropeaking outlet channels.

  • 790.
    Ahonen, Jani
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Korttidsregleringsmönster i Ångermanälvens avrinningsområde: Har elmarknadens avreglering påverkat regleringsintensiteten?2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of the deregulation of the electricity market 1996 in Sweden on short-term hydropower regulation are unknown. This report investigates patterns in subdaily regulation in the Ångerman River Basin during the period 1993-2011. Differences in subdaily flows and zero flow events between the periods 1993-1995 and 1996-2011 were studied by analyzing hourly data from 8 regulated and 8 unregulated locations with four subdaily flow variation indices. No correlations between the market deregulation and the regulation intensity in the Ångerman River basin were detected. The number of days natural ranges of variability were exceeded and the magnitude of subdaily variation were significantly higher at regulated locations. Zero flow events increased substantially when the periods 1993-2007 and 2008-2011 were compared. Significant correlations were detected in the summer periods between dry years and high magnitudes for the indices that measured variation in volume and low magnitudes for subdaily flow reversals. Zero flow events in the summer periods increased during dry years if the period 2008-2011 were excluded. The major conclusions are that the deregulation of the electricity market has not affected the subdaily regulation of the Ångerman River and that the regulated sites show highly unnatural subdaily variations. Regulation intensity and zero flows events increases during summertime in dry years and the latter also increased substantially after 2007. The current regulation regime is considered harmful for riverine ecosystems and the high and increasing levels of subdaily flow alteration shows the urgent need of national directives for subdaily hydropower operation.

  • 791.
    Ahosmäki, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Dahlberg, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Systemeringsmetoder, används de?1989Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 792.
    Ahrelid del Rio Leal, Emanuel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Defections In Nonviolent Conflicts: A Theoretical Case Study Based on Nepstad’s Mutiny and Nonviolence Hypotheses2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes the hypotheses by Nepstad’s article, Mutiny and Nonviolence, and applies it to three new cases of nonviolence. The analysis explores each hypothesis in each case and the discussion dissects the most interesting pieces of information, mainly regarding the hypotheses’ high characterization of ethnicity/sectarian groups. Via these discussions’ suggestions are made on how the hypotheses could improve to have greater validity over more cases in the future   

  • 793. Ahren, Bo
    et al.
    Landin-Olsson, Mona
    Jansson, Per-Anders
    Svensson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Holmes, David
    Schweizer, Anja
    Inhibition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 reduces glycemia, sustains insulin levels, and reduces glucagon levels in type 2 diabetes.2004In: The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, ISSN 0021-972X, Vol. 89, no 5, p. 2078-84Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 794.
    Ahrgren, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Post-tonsillectomy hemorrhage in the County of Norrbotten, Sweden between 2008-20132014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 795. Ahrén, C M
    et al.
    Gothefors, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Stoll, B J
    Salek, M A
    Svennerholm, A M
    Comparison of methods for detection of colonization factor antigens on enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.1986In: Journal of Clinical Microbiology, ISSN 0095-1137, E-ISSN 1098-660X, Vol. 23, no 3, p. 586-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fecal Escherichia coli isolates from 196 patients with watery diarrhea and 68 healthy individuals (controls) were analyzed in Bangladesh immediately after isolation for the presence of colonization factor antigen (CFA) I or II (CFA/I or CFA/II, respectively) by a mannose-resistant hemagglutination (MRHA) test with six species of erythrocytes and by a slide agglutination test with absorbed CFA/I or CFA/II antisera. The presence of CFAs was confirmed by immunodiffusion analyses done in Sweden. By these methods, it was found that 49 of 69 enterotoxin-producing E. coli strains isolated from patients carried CFA/I or CFA/II, whereas none of the nonenterotoxigenic E. coli isolates or the three toxin-positive strains isolated from healthy individuals carried these adhesins. All E. coli strains retained their MRHA ability after transportation to Sweden followed by one subculture and after storage at -70 degrees C (but not at room temperature) for 1 to 2 years without further subculturing. After 5 to 10 subcultures of the fresh isolates, however, 70% of the initially CFA/I- and 80% of the initially CFA/II-carrying strains analyzed did not hemagglutinate. The efficacy of different methods for detecting CFAs on the fresh isolates was compared with that of immunodiffusion. The sensitivity of MRHA with human blood group A erythrocytes for the detection of CFA/I was high (97%), but the specificity was only 69%. The sensitivity of MRHA with bovine erythrocytes for the detection of CFA/II in Bangladesh was very low but increased considerably when chicken erythrocytes were also used. Whereas both false-positive and false-negative reactions were obtained when absorbed CFA antisera were used for agglutination, antisera against purified CFAs were equally effective as immunodiffusion in identifying CFA/I and CFA/II-carrying strains.

  • 796. Ahsgren, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Baldwin, Ingela
    Goetzinger-Falk, Christina
    Erikson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Flodmark, Olof
    Gillberg, Christopher
    Ataxia, autism, and the cerebellum: a clinical study of 32 individuals with congenital ataxia.2005In: Developmental medicine and child neurology, ISSN 0012-1622, Vol. 47, no 3, p. 193-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The suggested link between autism and cerebellar dysfunction formed the background for a Swedish clinical study in 2001. Thirty-two children (17 females, 15 males; mean age 12y, SD 3y 10mo; range 6 to 21y) with a clinical suspicion of non-progressive congenital ataxia were examined, and parents were interviewed about the presence of neuropsychiatric problems in the child. Twelve children had simple ataxia, eight had ataxic diplegia, and 12 had 'borderline' ataxia. All but one of the 32 children had a mild to moderate gross motor disability according to Gross Motor Function Classification System (15 were categorized as level I, 16 as level II, and one child as level IV). Neuroimaging and neuropsychological testing were achieved in most cases. There was a strong association between learning disability* and autism spectrum disorder (often combined with hyperactivity disorder) on the one hand, and both simple and borderline 'ataxia' on the other, but a weaker link between ataxic diplegia and neuropsychiatric disorders. A correlation between cerebellar macropathology on neuroimaging and neuropsychiatric disorders was not supported. Congenital ataxia might not be a clear-cut syndrome of cerebellar disease, but one of many signs of prenatal events or syndromes, leading to a complex neurodevelopmental disorder including autism and learning disability.

  • 797.
    Ahvenjärvi, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Kommunikation mellan systemerare och användare - en viktig faktor inom systemutveckling?1991Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 798. Aichroth, Patrick
    et al.
    Weigel, Christian
    Kurz, Thomas
    Stadler, Horst
    Drewes, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Schlegel, Kai
    Berndl, Emanuel
    Perez, Antonio
    Bowyer, Alex
    Volpini, Andrea
    MICO - MEDIA IN CONTEXT2015In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia & Expo Workshops (ICMEW), 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The abundance of digital content requires cost-effective technologies to extract the hidden meaning from media objects. However, current approaches fail to deal with the challenges related to cross-media analysis, metadata publishing, querying and recommendation that are necessary to overcome this challenge. In this paper, we describe the EU project MICO (Media in Context) which aims to provide the necessary technologies based on open-source software (OSS) core components.

  • 799. Aid, T.
    et al.
    Hyvarinen, S.
    Vaher, M.
    Koel, M.
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Saccharification of lignocellulosic biomasses via ionic liquid pretreatment2016In: Industrial crops and products (Print), ISSN 0926-6690, E-ISSN 1872-633X, Vol. 92, p. 336-341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current work focuses on the pretreatment efficiency of ILs combined with heat for woody biomass consisting of spruce, birch and pine as well as winter wheat straw. The latter was investigated as a comparison and with the aim to enhance its digestibility during enzymatic hydrolysis whereby the influence of IL-treatment to cellulose resistance for hydrolysis was investigated. Considering the wood species, the most common and industrially important wood species in Northern Europe were chosen in the present work and the goal was to obtain fermentable sugars and their degradation product, i.e. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), which is known valuable platform chemical. Further, the differences in the yields of IL-obtainable carbohydrates between these species were studied. The highest sugar yields were obtained to glucose in the case of spruce and arabinose in the case of pine sapwood, 12.07 and 7.72 mmol/L, respectively. The highest 5-HMF yield was obtained for spruce heartwood (9.18 mmol/L) with longer treatment time, such as 100h. However, regarding woody biomass, the present work was focused more on the study and analysis of the IL-containing liquid part, wood hydrolysate, after IL-treatment aiming to answer the analysis challenges related to this fraction.

  • 800. Aidanpää, Jan - Olov
    et al.
    Lundström, Niklas L.P.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Developments in rotor dynamical modeling of hydropower units2009Conference paper (Refereed)
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