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  • 84901.
    Yuan, Ming
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Carlsson, Sara E.
    Fahlgren, Anna
    Fällman, Maria
    Mammalian actin-binding protein 1 influences spreading of macrophagesManuscript (Other academic)
  • 84902.
    Yuan, Ming
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Deleuil, Fabienne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Interaction between the Yersinia tyrosine phosphatase YopH and its macrophage substrate, Fyn-binding protein, Fyb2005In: Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 1464-1801, E-ISSN 1660-2412, Vol. 9, no 3-4, p. 214-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pathogenic Yersinia species can evade phagocytosis by injecting virulence effectors that interfere with the phagocytic machinery of host cells. One of these virulence effectors is the protein tyrosine phosphatase YopH. Through its enzymatic activity, YopH interferes with the initial phagocytic process by affecting signalling for cytoskeletal rearrangements. Fyb (Fyn-binding protein), which is an immune cell-specific adaptor protein, has been identified as a substrate of YopH in macrophages. In this study, the interaction between YopH and Fyb is studied. We show that YopH binds to Fyb via different regions in both phosphotyrosine-dependent and phosphotyrosine-independent ways. The phosphotyrosine substrate binding N-terminal part (1-130) of YopH as well as the C-terminal catalytic region binds to Fyb in a phosphotyrosine-dependent manner. We also show that a central part of YopH (130-260) interacts with the Fyb C-terminus (548-783) in a phosphotyrosine-independent manner. Further, we demonstrate that the N-terminal binding region of YopH is important for YopH-mediated functions on macrophages such as dephosphorylation of Fyb, blockage of phagocytosis, and cytotoxic effects. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  • 84903.
    Yuan, Ming
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Mogemark, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Fällman, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Fyn binding protein, Fyb, interacts with mammalian actin binding protein, mAbp1.2005In: FEBS Letters, ISSN 0014-5793, E-ISSN 1873-3468, Vol. 579, no 11, p. 2339-2347Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The immune cell specific protein Fyn-T binding protein (Fyb) has been identified as a target of the Yersinia antiphagocytic effector Yersinia outer protein H (YopH), but its role in macrophages is unknown. By using Fyb domains as bait to screen a mouse lymphoma cDNA library, we identified a novel interaction partner, mammalian actin binding protein 1 (mAbp1). We show that mAbp1 binds the Fyb N-terminal via its C-terminally located src homology 3 domain. The interaction between Fyb and mAbp1 is detected in macrophage lysates and the proteins co-localize with F-actin in the leading edge. Hence, mAbp1 is likely to constitute a downstream effector of Fyb involved in F-actin dynamics.

  • 84904.
    Yuan, ZhongQing
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Kihlberg, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Synthesis of a beta-turn mimetic suitable for incorporation in the peptide hormone LHRH2005In: TETRAHEDRON, ISSN 0040-4020, Vol. 61, no 21, p. 4901-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    LHRH is a decapeptide hormone which plays a central role in neuroendocrinology. Conformational studies have suggested that LHRH may adopt a beta-turn involving residues 5-8 when bound to its receptor. A beta-turn mimetic with side chains corresponding to those of a Tyr-Gly-Leu-Orn tetrapeptide has therefore been synthesized for incorporation at positions 5-8 in LHRH. In the turn mimetic, residues i and i + 1 are connected by a psi [CH2O] isostere instead of an amide bond, while a covalent ethylene bridge replaces the hydrogen bond which is often found between residues i and i+3 in beta-turns. The turn mimetic was assembled from three types of building blocks: an azido aldehyde, an Fmoc protected amino acid and a protected dipeptide amine.

  • 84905.
    Yuanxin, Ma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Noichangkid, Pittana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Bored with Ads?: A Study Investigating Attitude towards Social Media Advertising2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84906.
    Yung, I
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Automation of front-end loaders: electronic self leveling and payload estimation2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing population is driving automatization in agricultural industry to strive for more productive arable land. Being part of this process, this work is aimed to investigate the possibility to implement sensor-based automation in a particular system called Front End Loader, which is a lifting arms that is commonly mounted on the front of a tractor. Two main tasks are considered here, namely Electronic Self Leveling (ESL) and payload estimation. To propose commercially implementable solutions for these tasks, specific objectives are set, which are: 1) to propose a controller to perform ESL under typical disturbances 2) to propose a methodology for payload estimation considering realistic estimation conditions. Lastly, aligned with these goals, 3) to propose models for the Front End Loader under consideration for derivation of solutions of the specified tasks.

    The self-leveling task assists farmers in maintaining the angular position of the mounted implements, e.g. a bale handler or a bucket, with respect to the ground when the loader is manually lifted or lowered. Experimental results show that different controllers are required in lifting and lowering motions to maintain the implement's angular position with a required accuracy due to principle differences in gravity impact. The gravity helps the necessary correction in lifting motion, but works against the correction in lowering motions. This led us to propose a controller with a proportional term, a discontinuous term and an on-line disturbance estimation and compensation as well as the tuning procedure to achieve a 2 degrees tracking error for lowering motions in steady state. The proposed controller shows less sensitive performance to lowering velocity, as the main disturbance, in comparison to a linear controller.

    The second task, payload estimation, assists farmers to work within safety range as well as to work with a weight measurement tool. A mechanical model derived based on equations of motion is improved by a pressure based friction to sufficiently accurately represent the motion of the front end loader under consideration. The proposed model satisfies the desired estimation accuracy of 2\% full scale error in a certain estimation condition domain in constant velocity regions, with off-line calibration step and off-line payload estimation step. An on-line version of the estimation based on Recursive Least Squares also fulfills the desired accuracy, while keeping the calibration step off-line.

  • 84907.
    Yung, I
    et al.
    Umeå University. Ålö AB, Brännland 300 Umeå, Sweden .
    Freidovich, Leonid
    Umeå University.
    Vazquez, Carlos
    Ålö AB.
    Payload Estimation in Front-End Loaders2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A methodology based on an equation of motion and a two-steps off-line optimization procedure is proposed and investigated to estimate a payload in an industry-standard Front-End Loader. The location of the boom center of gravity is first calibrated via optimization using a known payload to become the base to estimate an unknown payload. This method is compared to an existing method and is verified to be less sensitive to different estimation conditions. Moreover, it also requires less additional operations in the calibration phase.

  • 84908.
    Yung, I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Freidovich, Leonid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Vázquez, Carlos
    Improvement of Model-Based Payload Estimation for Agricutural Front-End LoadersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider here the development of a better payload estimation system for an agricultural Front-End Loader, equipped with position and pressure sensors, that enable monitoring of various routine operations. We show that an additional pressure-based friction model improves the achievable accuracy of the estimation procedure for payload estimation based on equations of motion. Preceded by estimating the friction parameters in the calibration step, the improvement is verified by employing the updated model in off-line payload estimations for an industry standard Front-End Loader with different estimation conditions under consideration. The overall estimation accuracy is below 2% full scale error. This performance is also maintained in the online implementation of the second step.

  • 84909.
    Yung, I
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Vázquez, Carlos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Freidovich, Leonid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Control and Tuning Procedure of a Cylinder in Mobile HydraulicsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of various agricultural tasks, which are routinely executed nowadays by operators of hydraulically actuated tractors equipped with front-end loaders, is an important open problem. The so-called self leveling task is considered here, where the lifting and lowering motions of the loader are performed manually while the orientation of the implement must be adjusted automatically. The proposed controller is constituted by a proportional feedback, a compensator based on a disturbance observer and a relay controller. A tuning procedure for parameters is discussed and an implementation is validated experimentally on an industry-standard commercial set-up.

  • 84910.
    Yung, I.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics. Ålö AB, Brännland 300, Umeå, SE-901 37, Sweden.
    Vázquez, Carlos
    Freidovich, Leonid B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Robust position control design for a cylinder in mobile hydraulics applications2017In: Control Engineering Practice, ISSN 0967-0661, E-ISSN 1873-6939, Vol. 69, p. 36-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automation of various agricultural tasks, which are nowadays routinely executed by operators of hydraulically actuated tractors equipped with front-end loaders, is an important open problem. The so-called self-leveling task is considered here, where the lifting and lowering motions of the loader are performed manually while the orientation of the tool must be adjusted automatically. The proposed controller is constituted by a proportional feedback, a disturbance compensator based on an observer and a relay controller. A model-based tuning procedure for the controller parameters is discussed and an implementation is validated experimentally on an industry-standard commercial set-up.

  • 84911. Yurova, A.
    et al.
    Sirin, A.
    Buffam, I.
    Bishop, K.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Modeling the dissolved organic carbon output from a boreal mire using the convection-dispersion equation: Importance of representing sorption2008In: Water Resources Research, Vol. 44, no 7, p. W07411-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we present a model of the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and fluxes in mire water based on the convection-dispersion equation. The dynamics of sorbed, potentially soluble organic carbon (SPSOC) in the peat matrix are simulated in parallel with DOC. First, the model is applied solely to stagnant water conditions in order to interpret the results of laboratory peat incubations, with the focus on sorption processes. Some important model parameters are derived using literature data complemented by information from new incubation experiments. Second, the model is fully applied to simulate the DOC concentrations in the outlet of a steam draining a small headwater mire in northern Sweden during the period 1993-2001. A relatively good model fit (mean bias error (MBE) = -0.6-2.2 mg L-1, Willmott index of agreement d > 0.7 for the daily concentrations) was found for all the categories of stream discharge, except periods with very low flow (q < 0.3 mm d(-1)). When seeking explanations for the interannual variability in DOC concentrations, we, like previous authors, could find the influence of temperature, flow path, and intensity. However, the model has helped to demonstrate that the system also has a "memory'': the store of sorbed, potentially soluble organic carbon in a year affects the DOC concentrations and fluxes in the following year.

  • 84912. Yurova, A.
    et al.
    Wolf, A.
    Sagerfors, J.
    Nilsson, M.
    Variations in net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in a boreal mire: Modeling mechanisms linked to water table position2007In: Journal of Geophysical Research G: Biogeosciences, Vol. 112, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84913.
    Yurova, Alla
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Anal, Solvegatan 12, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Wolf, Annett
    Umeå University. Lund Univ, Dept Phys Geog & Ecosyst Anal, Solvegatan 12, SE-22362 Lund, Sweden..
    Sagerfors, Jorgen
    Nilsson, Mats
    Variations in net ecosystem exchange of carbon dioxide in a boreal mire: Modeling mechanisms linked to water table position2007In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, E-ISSN 2156-2202, Vol. 112, no G2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    [1] In mires, which occupy large areas of the boreal region, net ecosystem CO2 exchange ( NEE) rates vary significantly over various timescales. In order to examine the effect of one of the most influencing variables, the water table depth, on NEE the general ecosystem model GUESS-ROMUL was modified to predict mire daily CO2 exchange rates. A simulation was conducted for a lawn, the most common microtopographical feature of boreal oligotrophic minerotrophic mires. The results were validated against eddy covariance CO2 flux measurements from Degero Stormyr, northern Sweden, obtained during the period 2001 - 2003. Both measurements and model simulations revealed that CO2 uptake was clearly controlled by interactions between water table depth and temperature. Maximum uptake occurred when the water table level was between 10 and 20 cm and the air temperature was above 15 degrees C. When the water table was higher, the CO2 uptake rate was lower, owing to reduced rates of photosynthetic carbon fixation. When the water table was lower, NEE decreased owing to the increased rate of decomposition of organic matter. When the water table level was between 10 and 20 cm, the NEE was quite stable and relatively insensitive to both changes within this range and any air temperature changes above + 15 degrees C. The optimal water table level range for NEE corresponds to that characteristic of mire lawn plant communities, indicating that the annual NEE will not change dramatically if climatic conditions remain within the optimal range for the current plant community.

  • 84914. Yusenko, Maria V
    et al.
    Kuiper, Roland P
    Boethe, Tamas
    Ljungberg, Börje
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    van Kessel, Ad Geurts
    Kovacs, Gyula
    High-resolution DNA copy number and gene expression analyses distinguish chromophobe renal cell carcinomas and renal oncocytomas.2009In: BMC cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 9, p. 152-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of benign renal oncocytomas (RO) and chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (RCC) based on their morphology remains uncertain in several cases. METHODS: We have applied Affymetrix GeneChip Mapping 250 K NspI high-density oligoarrays to identify small genomic alterations, which may occur beyond the specific losses of entire chromosomes, and also Affymetrix GeneChip HG-U133 Plus2.0 oligoarrays for gene expression profiling. RESULTS: By analysing of DNA extracted from 30 chRCCs and 42 ROs, we have confirmed the high specificity of monosomies of chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 10, 13, 17 and 21 in 70-93% of the chRCCs, while ROs displayed loss of chromosome 1 and 14 in 24% and 5% of the cases, respectively. We demonstrated that chromosomal gene expression biases might correlate with chromosomal abnormalities found in chromophobe RCCs and ROs. The vast majority genes downregulated in chromophobe RCC were mapped to chromosomes 2, 6, 10, 13 and 17. However, most of the genes overexpressed in chromophobe RCCs were located to chromosomes without any copy number changes indicating a transcriptional regulation as a main event. CONCLUSION: The SNP-array analysis failed to detect recurrent small deletions, which may mark loci of genes involved in the tumor development. However, we have identified loss of chromosome 2, 10, 13, 17 and 21 as discriminating alteration between chromophobe RCCs and ROs. Therefore, detection of these chromosomal changes can be used for the accurate diagnosis in routine histology.

  • 84915.
    Yusifova, Samira
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Analysis of Volatility for East Asian Major Stock Indices.: Application of Egarch Model.2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84916.
    Yusuf, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Åtgärder för ökad måluppfyllelse: En kvantitativ studie om hur fem skolor utarbetar åtgärdsprogram för elever som löper risk att inte nå unskapsmålenIndependent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det är numera vanligt att skolor upprättar åtgärdsprogram för elever i behov av särskilt stöd då

    kravet på att utarbeta ett sådant program omfattar alla skolformer utom förskoleklassen (Skolverket

    2003). Denna studie strävar efter att med hjälp av enkäter försöka ta reda på hur åtgärdsprogram tas

    fram, vad de innehåller, hur de används samt vilka inställningar lärare har till dem. Undersökningen

    genomfördes både på friskolor och kommunala skolor och urvalet bestod av samtliga lärare i skolår

    F-9. Enkäten delades ut till lärare som är delaktiga i eller har erfarenhet av arbete med

    åtgärdsprogram. Totalt fördelades 100 enkäter på fem olika grundskolor och 72 personer besvarade

    enkäten. Undersökningens resultat visar att det mestadels är klasslärare och mentorer som tar

    initiativet till och aktivt deltar i upprättandet av åtgärdsprogram och att elever och föräldrar har

    mycket lägre delaktighet. Resultatet visar också att innehållet i åtgärdsprogrammet har ett

    individoreinterat synsätt på elevers skolsvårigheter och relativt många lärare upplever att elever med

    stödbehov inte får stöd på skolan i tillräckligt utsträckning. Dessa resultat är i överensstämmelse med

    vad som framkommit i tidigare forskning inom området. Det som emelletid kan anses vara

    utmärkande för denna studie är att en betydande majoritet av lärarna i undersökningen

    upplever att

    eleverna vid dessa skolor är

    i behov av särskilt stöd i mycket hög eller ganska hög utsträckning.

  • 84917.
    Yvette Tanila, Nchombua
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    A Systematic Analysis of the Factors that Drive SMEs to Internationalisation and the Paths followed by these Firms: An Exploratory Study of Four Highly Technological Firms in Sweden2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to globalization and other factors, the business environment of small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs) is radically changing. In order for these firms to cope with increased competition and business opportunities in globalised markets, they have to strengthen their innovative capabilities and internationalise their business activities (Rammer and Schmiele, 2008, p.3). In this paper, I investigate the determinants that drive highly technological SMES from Umea (Sweden) to other markets abroad and the paths followed by these SMES.The choice of Highly technological SMES (i.e. SMES with innovative solutions) is mainly due to the fact that they internationalise at a fast pace and often bypass the traditional methods of internationalisation proposed by the Uppsala model of internationalisation. The Uppsala model of internationalisation was used as a reference point where similarities and discrepancies between findings was analysed. In addition to this, a general analysis on how managerial internationalisation strategies are drawn was carefully outlined. Core focus is placed on the importance of resource evaluation, proper entry modes, networking and the inclusion of deinternationalisation as a contingency plan in case the market becomes unresponsive due to rise in cost or high competitive pressures.

     

    By carrying out a qualitative research and a cross-sectional analysis of some four firms operating in the highly technological sector of the Swedish economy, I obtained findings that; Swedish SMEs do not seem to be pushed to internationalisation by increased competition (such as threat of market position through new entrants or a fierce price competition), but rather go abroad with innovative activities when they have a niche market position, i.e. a low number of competitors and a patent-based technology advantage (Rammer and Shmiele,2008,p.3). Concerning the paths followed by these SMEs to international markets, I outlined that the starting point of SMEs is to carry out an evaluation of their resources (physical, human and financial).Careful evaluation of these resources will enable managers detect if the company can cope with foreign expansion. With this information, they can seek for resources that are not internally possess by the company through establishing networks with distributors, firms, suppliers and their customers. With this network, the firm can obtain both market specific and general knowledge of the foreign market. With all this information at hand, the entry mode must be considered. It is of great importance because the cost and risk involve in foreign markets are mostly associated with the chosen entry mode. Because international expansion involves taking risk, I advise managers on setting up a threshold where they can withdraw if the value of the firm begins to drop. However, I urge them to be careful not to withdraw either prematurely or too late. Therefore, I conclude that though international expansion can help SMEs overcome resource constraints, they should however be careful on how they internationalised by following the paths I outlined.

     

     

     

    Keywords; Internationalisation, Networking, Resourced Based Perspectives, International Entry Mode, SMEs, Deinternationalisation

  • 84918. Yvon-Durocher, Gabriel
    et al.
    Allen, Andrew P.
    Bastviken, David
    Conrad, Ralf
    Gudasz, Cristian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. ARCUM; Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology, Uppsala University, Norbyvägen 18D, SE-752 36, Uppsala Sweden; Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, Princeton University, Princeton, 106A Guyot Hall, New Jersey 08544, USA.
    St-Pierre, Annick
    Thanh-Duc, Nguyen
    del Giorgio, Paul A.
    Methane fluxes show consistent temperature dependence across microbial to ecosystem scales2014In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 507, no 7493, p. 488-491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Methane (CH4) is an important greenhouse gas because it has 25 times the global warming potential of carbon dioxide (CO2) by mass over a century(1). Recent calculations suggest that atmospheric CH4 emissions have been responsible for approximately 20% of Earth's warming since pre-industrial times(2). Understanding how CH4 emissions from ecosystems will respond to expected increases in global temperature is therefore fundamental to predicting whether the carbon cycle will mitigate or accelerate climate change. Methanogenesis is the terminal step in the remineralization of organic matter and is carried out by strictly anaerobic Archaea(3). Like most other forms of metabolism, methanogenesis is temperature-dependent(4,5). However, it is not yet known how this physiological response combines with other biotic processes (for example, methanotrophy(6), substrate supply(3,7), microbial community composition(8)) and abiotic processes (for example, water-table depth(9,10)) to determine the temperature dependence of ecosystem-level CH4 emissions. It is also not known whether CH4 emissions at the ecosystem level have a fundamentally different temperature dependence than other key fluxes in the carbon cycle, such as photosynthesis and respiration. Here we use meta-analyses to show that seasonal variations in CH4 emissions from a wide range of ecosystems exhibit an average temperature dependence similar to that of CH4 production derived from pure cultures of methanogens and anaerobic microbial communities. This average temperature dependence (0.96 electron volts (eV)), which corresponds to a 57-fold increase between 0 and 30 degrees C, is considerably higher than previously observed for respiration (approximately 0.65 eV)(11) and photosynthesis (approximately 0.3 eV)(12). As a result, we show that both the emission of CH4 and the ratio of CH4 to CO2 emissions increase markedly with seasonal increases in temperature. Our findings suggest that global warming may have a large impact on the relative contributions of CO2 and CH4 to total greenhouse gas emissions from aquatic ecosystems, terrestrial wetlands and rice paddies.

  • 84919.
    Yxfeldt, A
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Wållberg-Jonsson, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Hultdin, J
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences.
    Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Reumatology.
    Homocysteine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in relation to inflammation and B-vitamin treatment2003In: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0300-9742, E-ISSN 1502-7732, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 205-210Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84920.
    Zaaroura, Samia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Psoriasis och biologiska läkemedelsbehandlingar2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84921.
    Zaba, Basia
    et al.
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Calvert, Clara
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Marston, Milly
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Isingo, Raphael
    National Institute for Medical Research, Tanzania, Mwanza, Tanzania.
    Nakiyingi-Miiro, Jessica
    MRC/UVRI Uganda Research Unit on AIDS, Entebbe, Uganda.
    Lutalo, Tom
    Rakai Health Sciences Program, Rakai, Uganda.
    Crampin, Amelia
    Karonga Prevention Study, Karonga, Malawi and London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Robertson, Laura
    INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Herbst, Kobus
    Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Newell, Marie-Louise
    Africa Centre for Health and Population Studies, University of KwaZulu-Natal, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
    Todd, Jim
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Byass, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. INDEPTH Network, Accra, Ghana.
    Boerma, Ties
    WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Ronsmans, Carine
    London School of Hygiene & Tropical Medicine, London, UK.
    Effect of HIV infection on pregnancy-related mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: secondary analyses of pooled community-based data from the network for Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA)2013In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 381, no 9879, p. 1763-1771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Model-based estimates of the global proportions of maternal deaths that are in HIV-infected women range from 7% to 21%, and the effects of HIV on the risk of maternal death is highly uncertain. We used longitudinal data from the Analysing Longitudinal Population-based HIV/AIDS data on Africa (ALPHA) network to estimate the excess mortality associated with HIV during pregnancy and the post-partum period in sub-Saharan Africa.

    METHODS: The ALPHA network pooled data gathered between June, 1989 and April, 2012 in six community-based studies in eastern and southern Africa with HIV serological surveillance and verbal-autopsy reporting. Deaths occurring during pregnancy and up to 42 days post partum were defined as pregnancy related. Pregnant or post-partum person-years were calculated for HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, and HIV-infected to HIV-uninfected mortality rate ratios and HIV-attributable rates were compared between pregnant or post-partum women and women who were not pregnant or post partum.

    FINDINGS: 138,074 women aged 15-49 years contributed 636,213 person-years of observation. 49,568 women had 86,963 pregnancies. 6760 of these women died, 235 of them during pregnancy or the post-partum period. Mean prevalence of HIV infection across all person-years in the pooled data was 17.2% (95% CI 17.0-17.3), but 60 of 118 (50.8%) of the women of known HIV status who died during pregnancy or post partum were HIV infected. The mortality rate ratio of HIV-infected to HIV-uninfected women was 20.5 (18.9-22.4) in women who were not pregnant or post partum and 8.2 (5.7-11.8) in pregnant or post-partum women. Excess mortality attributable to HIV was 51.8 (47.8-53.8) per 1000 person-years in women who were not pregnant or post partum and 11.8 (8.4-15.3) per 1000 person-years in pregnant or post-partum women.

    INTERPRETATION: HIV-infected pregnant or post-partum women had around eight times higher mortality than did their HIV-uninfected counterparts. On the basis of this estimate, we predict that roughly 24% of deaths in pregnant or post-partum women are attributable to HIV in sub-Saharan Africa, suggesting that safe motherhood programmes should pay special attention to the needs of HIV-infected pregnant or post-partum women.

  • 84922.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    School of Agricultural, Forest and Food Sciences, Bern University of Applied Sciences, Zollikofen, Switzerland.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Ekvall, Hans
    Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Policies for forest landscape management: a conceptual approach with an empirical application for Swedish conditions2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Habitat loss and habitat fragmentation are major factors leading to forest biodiversity decline. This paper discusses landscape planning as strategy to improve connectivity in a landscape with a heterogeneous distribution of ecologically valuable areas across land owners. A tax-fund system is proposed, that following the principle of common but differentiated responsibility, tries to spread the burden of conservation equally across land owners while optimizing the environmental outcome. Design options of such a tax-fund system are discussed along the lines of a simple theoretical model. Financial effects of a tax-fund system are computed for a small model landscape set in Sweden. Two design questions stand out as particularly important. The first is whether the policy is intended to be self-sustained among the land owners or if the budget can be supplemented by general tax money. The second is whether the land owners or the relevant authority select the stands for conservation set-aside.

  • 84923.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    Berner Fachhochshule.
    Bostedt, Göran
    CERE, Center of Environmental and Resource Economics and Department of Forest Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Engel, Stefanie
    ETH Zurich.
    Performance payments for groups: the case of carnivore conservation in Northern Sweden2014In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 59, no 4, p. 613-631Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first empirical assessment of carnivore conservation under a performance payment scheme. In Sweden, reindeer herder villages are paid based on the number of lynx (lynx lynx) and wolverine (gulo gulo) offspring certified on their pastures. The villages decide on the internal payment distribution. It is generally assumed that benefit distribution rules are exogenous. We investigate them as an endogenous decision. The data reveals that villages’ group size has a direct negative effect on conservation outcomes and an indirect positive effect which impacts conservation outcomes through the benefit distribution rule. This result revises the collective action hypothesis on purely negative effects of group size.

  • 84924.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Decisions (IED), Environmental Policy and Economics Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Center for Environmental and Resource Economics (CERE).
    Engel, Stephanie
    Institute of Environmental Decisions (IED), Environmental Policy and Economics Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Outcomes and determinants of success of performance payment schemes for carnivore conservation2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a first empirical assessment of the outcomes and determinants of carnivore conservation success in Sweden’s pioneer performance payment scheme. Carnivores in northern Sweden depend on reindeer as prey which causes conflicts with reindeer herders. As compensation and conservation incentive, the government issues performance payments to reindeer herder villages based on the number of carnivore offspring certified on their land. The villages decide on the internal use and distribution of the payments. In the literature, it is generally assumed that benefit distribution rules are exogenously given. We extend the literature by developing a model to investigate such rules as endogenous decision. We hypothesize that conservation success is determined by natural geographical factors and each village’s capability to engage in collective action to manage the internal payments so that conserving rather than hunting carnivores becomes villagers’ optimal strategy. The hypotheses developed are tested with empirical village and household-level data from Sweden. The paper concludes that if limited hunting is legal, conservation success strongly depends on villages’ potential for collective action and their payment distribution rule. In cases without legal hunting, performance payments together with penalties on poaching provide sufficient incentives for herders to refrain from illicit hunting. Furthermore, the data reveals that villages’ group size has a direct negative effect on conservation outcomes as predicted by collective action theory. However, there is also an indirect effect which positively impacts conservation outcomes through the payment distribution rule. This result, at least in part, revises the general collective action hypothesis on purely negative effects of group size and highlights the importance of investigating factors driving groups’ internal benefit distribution rules.

  • 84925.
    Zabel, Astrid
    et al.
    Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Environmental Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Pittel, Karen
    Ifo Institute for Economic Research and the University of Munich, Munich, Germany .
    Bostedt, Göran
    Department of Forest Economics and Centre for Environmental and Resource Economics, CERE, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, Umeå, Sweden .
    Engel, Stephanie
    Institute for Environmental Decisions (IED), Environmental Policy and Economics, Swiss Federal Institute of Technology, ETH, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Comparing conventional and new policy approaches for carnivore conservation: Theoretical results and application to tiger conservation2011In: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 287-301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New policy approaches to facilitate the co-existence of wildlife and livestock are needed for situations where predation incidents greatly impact households’ income and retaliatory killing threatens endangered carnivore species’ survival. In this paper, models are developed to assess how two alternative policy approaches impact a herder’s decisions on carnivore hunting and livestock protection. We find that while the well-established ex-post compensation policy induces suboptimal livestock protection it can generate sufficient incentives for the herder to refrain from hunting so that the carnivore population reaches its socially optimal level. Performance payments are proposed as alternative policy. They are found not to distort livestock protection incentives and can also help achieve a socially optimal carnivore population level. Which of the two scheme types gives rise to less cost is ambiguous. An empirical analysis of the model with data from tiger-livestock conflicts in India is presented.

  • 84926.
    Zachariadis, V
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gauffin, F
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kuchinskaya, E
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Heyman, M
    Department of Woman and Child Health, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schoumans, J
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Blennow, E
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, B
    Department of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Barbany, G
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Golovleva, Irina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Ehrencrona, H
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Cavelier, L
    Department of Genetics and Pathology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, L
    Department of Clinical Chemistry and Transfusion Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Lönnerholm, G
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, University Children's Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nordenskjöld, M
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, B
    Department of Clinical Genetics, University and Regional Laboratories, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Forestier, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Nordgren, A
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The frequency and prognostic impact of dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2) in childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia: results from the NOPHO ALL-2000 trial2011In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 622-628Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2) is reported to be present in ∼2% of childhood B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP ALL). However, it easily escapes detection by G-banding analysis and its true prevalence is hence unknown. We performed interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization analyses-in a three-step manner-using probes for: (i) CDKN2A at 9p21, (ii) 20p and 20q subtelomeres and (iii) cen9 and cen20. Out of 1033 BCP ALLs diagnosed from 2001 to 2006, 533 were analyzed; 16% (84/533) displayed 9p21 deletions, of which 30% (25/84) had dic(9;20). Thus, dic(9;20)-positivity was found in 4.7% (25/533), making it the third most common genetic subgroup after high hyperdiploidy and t(12;21)(p13;q22). The dic(9;20) was associated with a female predominance and an age peak at 3 years; 18/25 (72%) were allocated to non-standard risk treatment at diagnosis. Including cases detected by G-banding alone, 29 dic(9;20)-positive cases were treated according to the NOPHO ALL 2000 protocol. Relapses occurred in 24% (7/29) resulting in a 5-year event-free survival of 0.69, which was significantly worse than for t(12;21) (0.87; P=0.002) and high hyperdiploidy (0.82; P=0.04). We conclude that dic(9;20) is twice as common as previously surmised, with many cases going undetected by G-banding analysis, and that dic(9;20) should be considered a non-standard risk abnormality.

  • 84927. Zachariadis, V.
    et al.
    Schoumans, J.
    Ofverholm, I.
    Barbany, G.
    Halvardsson, E.
    Forestier, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Johansson, B.
    Nordenskjold, M.
    Nordgren, A.
    Detecting dic(9;20)(p13.2;p11.2)-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia in a clinical setting using fluorescence in situ hybridization2014In: Leukemia, ISSN 0887-6924, E-ISSN 1476-5551, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 196-198Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84928. Zachariadis, Vasilios
    et al.
    Schoumans, Jacqueline
    Barbany, Gisela
    Heyman, Mats
    Forestier, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Medical and Clinical Genetics.
    Johansson, Bertil
    Nordenskjöld, Magnus
    Nordgren, Ann
    Homozygous deletions of CDKN2A are present in all dic(9;20)(p13.2;q11.2)-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemias and may be important for leukaemic transformation2012In: British Journal of Haematology, ISSN 0007-1048, E-ISSN 1365-2141, Vol. 159, no 4, p. 488-491Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84929. Zachau, A C
    et al.
    Strigård, Karin
    Division of Surgery, CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Surgical Gastroenterology, Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Baig, S
    Höjeberg, B
    Olsson, Tomas
    Distribution of plasma cells secreting antibodies against nervous tissue antigens during experimental allergic encephalomyelitis enumerated by a nitrocellulose immunospot assay.1989In: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, ISSN 0022-510X, E-ISSN 1878-5883, Vol. 91, no 3, p. 323-336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The B cell response to central nervous system (CNS) myelin and myelin basic protein, as well as total numbers of IgG secreting cells, was studied in acute experimental allergic encephalomyelitis using a nitrocellulose immunospot assay. The method was able to detect single plasma cells secreting antibodies. Cells secreting antibodies against myelin antigens were detected in regional lymph node cell suspension by day 5 post-immunization (p.i.). At that time no anti-myelin antibodies were detected free in serum. Later, at day 15 p.i., specific antibody secreting cells were found in bone marrow and spleen indicating a generalization of the immune response. The B cell response became partly sequestered to the target of immune attack since an increased number of IgG secreting cells was detected among mononuclear cells recovered from the CNS. Studies of cellular secretion of antibodies rather than free levels in body fluids may be a more accurate reflection of the in vivo B cell response. These findings may be generally considered in studies of B cell mediated immunity in neuroinflammatory diseases.

  • 84930.
    Zachmann, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Characterisation of a Gas Modulation Refractometer for Detection of Gases at 1550 nm2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Only very few molar polarizabilities are known with high accuracy; and when so, they are in general only known at a given wavelength. There is therefore a need to assess the molar polarizability with high accuracy of various gases, at different wavelengths.

    The molar polarizability of a gas is a measure of the susceptibility of a molecule to have its charge distribution affected by light. It is also the entity that relates the index of refraction to the (molar) density of a gas in Lorentz-Lorenz equation.

    Hence, for high precision measurements of the density of a gas, it is important to know the molar polarizability of the gas to high accuracy.

    In this work a GAMOR system has been used to determine the wavelength-dependent molar polarizability of Ar at 1550 nm.  However, a high accuracy assessment of the molar polarizability of a gas requires that the gas density is known with high accuracy. Since this is not trivial to assess, the molar polarizability of argon has been assessed in terms of that of nitrogen, which is assumed to be known with high accuracy. Hence, to minimise measurement errors, the measurement cavity was alternately filled with nitrogen and argon and the ratio between the signals provided by the GAMOR system represents the ratio of the molar polarizabilities of the two gases. It was found that the molar polarizability of argon was  0.94393(5) times that of nitrogen. Since the latter one has been assessed to 4.34828(3) x 10^-6  m^/mol, the molar polarizability of argon could be assessed to 4.10446(5) x 10^-6 m^3/mol.

  • 84931.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    5.4 Vad skiljer och förenar i fjällänens vilt och fiskförvaltning?2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84932.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Co-Management of Natural Resources: Paradigm Shifts, Key Concepts and Cases2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84933.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Commons protected for or from the people?: Co-management in the Swedish mountain region?2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Protected areas have so far been the primary means to conserve biodiversity, an increasingly important environmental issue, but proposals to establish protected areas are often met by local resistance due to fears that user rights will be severely restrained. Nature conservation traditionally aims to preserve an ideal state of nature, in which interference by people is minimized through a number of regulations, and where central authorities are in charge. Increasingly, however, conservation policy emphasizes participation. Protected area designations are about institutional change where customary and legal rights to use and manage certain resources are renegotiated. Protected areas can be considered as multi-use and multi-level commons that may benefit from co-management where the state cooperates with user groups, municipalities, research institutions and others.

    This thesis analyzes the establishment phase of the co-management of multi-level, multi-use commons in order to characterize design principles common to the emergence of co-management processes which improve institutional robustness.

    The thesis is based on a quantitative survey study and a small-n comparative case study. Paper I compares national, regional and local public opinions about protected areas through a multi-level survey. Papers II to IV each presents a case study of a designation process within the Swedish mountain region. The qualitative case studies are based on the structured, focused comparison method and employ within-case analysis and process-tracing. The material examined consisted of written documenta­tion and 41 semi-structured interviews.

    The two studies contribute to commons theory; the focus on the establishment phase provides opportunities to acquire abundant information about how contextual and process factors influence the functioning of a co-management arrangement. Paper I suggests that national public opinion is an important contextual variable for natural resources of national interest, and shows that 65% of the Swedish population support local or co-management of protected areas. Papers II to IV reveal that the rigidity of the existing institutional framework is another important contextual variable that influences the degree of learning taking place. Further, the comparative analysis proposes that certain characteristics of a process (the co-management process principles) are essential for the realization of co-management arrangements of multi-level and multi-use commons. The principles are representation, reason(ableness), powers, accountability and learning.

  • 84934.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Conflict resolution mechanisms in co-management: the Laponia world heritage siteManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To accommodate changes in the environment and society, a diverse range of institutional tools is needed. One such tool is co-management, which is particularly relevant for management of the commons, but little is known about the socio-political processes (ideal and actual) involved in the emergence of co-management arrangements. Conflicts have been proposed as catalysts for the development of co-management and conflict resolution mechanisms have recognized importance, but they have not been intensively examined in the literature regarding commons. The aim of this paper is to analyze the processes that occur in the shift from policymaking to implementation during the emergence of co-management arrangements, in order to further understand institutional and policy change. The study was prompted partly by a perceived need to clarify concepts related to conflict resolution mechanisms. Hence, concepts in alternative dispute resolution theory and in the literature on com­mons and policy change are compared. A theoretical framework is then developed in which process models of collaboration are discussed in relation to learning orders. Finally, the process involved in the establishment of the Laponia World Heritage Site is examined, as both an illustration and an initial test of the relevance of the theoretical framework.

  • 84935.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Deliberative democracy and co-management of natural resources: snowmobile regulation in western Sweden2010In: International Journal of the Commons, ISSN 1875-0281, E-ISSN 1875-0281, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 273-292Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Deliberation is an understudied aspect of co-management institutions and common pool theory that can be improved by a closer connection to deliberative democratic theory. Analyses of co-management arrangements provide needed empirical insights to deliberative democratic theory, although such arrangements are group-based and not readily accepted as examples of deliberative democracy. A framework is developed to analyze to what degree co-management arrangements incorporate deliberative elements and how they contribute to improved decision-making. To test its usefulness, a case study of a co-management process in Sweden is analyzed. In Funäsdalsfjällen, a mountainous area of western Sweden, a conflict-ridden situation caused by expanded use of snowmobiles eventually led to the establishment of a municipal regulation area. Central and regional authorities initially failed to resolve the conflict, but when they started working directly with the municipality and relevant interest groups, agreement was reached. Deliberative elements are shown to have been central to the success of the co-management process, and it is concluded that co-management and deliberative democratic approaches cross-fertilize one another.

  • 84936.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Fulufjällets nationalpark: på folkets villkor?2008In: Omstridd natur: Trender och utmaningar i nordisk naturförvaltning, Boréa, Umeå , 2008, p. 105-125Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 84937.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Kräver gemensamma resurser samförvaltning?2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84938.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Länsstyrelsernas förvaltning av jakt och fiske i fjällen: Likheter och skillnader2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84939.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Managing conflicts and commons2003Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84940.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    The designation of Fulufjället National Park: efficient co-management through downward accountability?2009In: Local Environment: the International Journal of Justice and Sustainability, ISSN 1354-9839, E-ISSN 1469-6711, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 259-271Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    International obligations in nature conservation policy demand for decentralisation and co-management. Co-management arrangements are increasingly seen as forms of governance, which opens up for the critique that accountability becomes blurred when public–private relations are characterised by informality and negotiations. The purpose of this article is to examine the issue of accountability by comparing comanagement theory and the decentralisation framework of Agrawal and Ribot, and by empirically analysing the designation of Fulufja¨llet National Park. This case constitutes a blueprint for Swedish efforts to adhere to the international obligations for decentralisation and is thus an example of their implementation.

  • 84941.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Who should manage protected areas in the Swedish mountain region?: A survey approach to co-management2008In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 87, no 1, p. 154-164Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates attitudes towards co-management of protected areas in Sweden, at the national, county and local level. In Sweden, protected areas are still primarily designated and managed hierarchically—a practice increasingly contested by people living close to them, including indigenous Sámi reindeer herders whose economic activities are located within protected areas. The general view could, on the contrary, be anticipated to be pro-state since protected areas are considered to be of national interest. For democratic reasons, however, the opinions of the whole population should be considered. In order to measure both local and general views, this study is based on a two-sample survey of 8868 respondents. The objectives are to map and explain attitudes regarding who should manage protected areas in Sweden, and to test the usefulness of a multi-level quantitative method. Such an approach is unusual in co-management literature that is empirically mainly based on local case studies. The explanatory ambition sets out to test three hypotheses drawn from common-pool resource theory; resource dependency, common understanding, and trust. Perhaps surprisingly, the results show that a considerable majority of the respondents (at all levels) wish to see self- or co-management. All three hypotheses are important to understand attitudes toward the management of protected areas, but not always in the way that the theory anticipates.

  • 84942.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Bjärstig, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    When Public Officers Take the Lead in Collaborative Governance: To Confirm, Consult, Facilitate or Negotiate?2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Administration, ISSN 2001-7405, E-ISSN 2001-7413, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 21-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Governments are investing considerable time and resources in the field of collaborative governance as it proliferates throughout many sectors, and how public officers choose to respond to these developments therefore becomes an important question. The increased public involvement that collaborative governance brings is often more costly than traditional forms of governance, while the outcomes are highly uncertain. For these reasons, it is important that collaborative governance is only used when really warranted, and the various forms that it can take should be carefully designed. In this study, we apply a typology of collaboration strategies to examine firstly, the circumstances under which leading officers at four county administrative boards in the Swedish mountain region decide to lead collaboration, and secondly what collaboration strategies they then apply. This study is based on 20 interviews with key officers, and 39 interviews with project leaders of public-private collaborations in the area of natural resource management in the region. We find that officers should take trust levels into account when designing collaboration strategies, not least the lack of official trust. Strategies are found to be not mutually exclusive but complementary, and officers employ several at the same time. Interestingly, the results of this study show that – somewhat counter-intuitively – distrust is a driver for officers to initiate collaboration, a conclusion which questions the common view that more trust unequivocally translates into more participation.

  • 84943.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Defining ecological restoration policy in Sweden2014In: Studying public policy: an international approach / [ed] Michael Hill, Bristol/Chicago: Policy Press, 2014, p. 149-166Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the next contribution Anna Zachrisson and Katarina Eckerberg explore aspects of complexity in the formulation process in an examination of ecological restoration policy (ER), using Sweden as an empirical illustration. In Sweden there is of yet no particular Act directing ER, but elements of ER are found in several Acts and Bills which are included in this analysis. Nevertheless, ER activities are already taking place, often as projects within the context of a public funding programme aiming at ecological sustainability or nature conservation (in agriculture, water environments, forests and so on).

    The analysis thus looks into the top-down element in policy formulation through taking departure in textual analyses of key policy documents, from the government and from the relevant central authorities. Evidence is also drawn from a data base that comprises Swedish central government-funded ER projects over the last ten year period. Specifically, it is analysed how the concept of ER is articulated and documented in government policy from the late 1980s until recently, and how the policy has been translated into implementation. This analysis comprises the policy objectives across levels, sectors and actors, as well as which policy instruments are emphasized and how they play out on the ground.

    A non-dogmatic perspective is adopted here that sees the policy stages as interlinked rather than necessarily following a chronological order. With the programmatic result of the policy as contrast to the articulated policy goals, we are thereby able to discuss the relationship between the formulation and the implementation of ER policy in Sweden, and draw conclusions that go beyond the formulated policy as such.

  • 84944.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Lindahl, Karin Beland
    Conflict resolution through collaboration: preconditions and limitations in forest and nature conservation controversies2013In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 33, p. 39-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing competition over the world's forest resources will likely aggravate conflict, though conflict should not be seen as bad per se. As the challenge is to develop institutions and practices capable of handling conflict constructively, various collaborative approaches involving disputing actors are evolving worldwide. In Sweden, most such approaches pertain to protected areas and few involve commercial forestry. The reasons for the rise of different approaches to collaboration in protected areas and commercially managed forest lands are explored through a comparison of two conflicts embedded in different management regimes. The study suggests that actor interdependence is critical to how collaboration evolves. Interdependence is in turn affected by the institutions, discourses, and economic context in which the process is embedded. When contextual factors are unfavourable, power relations too unequal, and interdependencies between dominant and subordinated actors weak, the prospects for collaboration are slim. In an enabling context, in contrast, mobilization may alter power relations and interdependencies, making collaboration possible. This study suggests that the low occurrence of collaborative land use planning in many parts of Sweden may be related to the presence of strong economic land use interests, un-successful mobilization of weaker parties, and absence of enabling institutional and discursive factors.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 84945.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandell, K
    Fredman, P
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Tourism and protected areas: motives, actors and processes2006In: International Journal of Biodiversity Science and Management, no 2, p. 350-358Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 84946.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Med sikte på en bättre fjällförvaltning2004Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84947.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Samarbete ger mer flexibilitet2004Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 84948.
    Zachrisson, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Political Science.
    Veli-Pekka, Tynkkynen
    Governance, resources and co-management2004In: The Resilient North - Human Responses to Global Change. Proceedings of the third Northern Research Forum, 2004Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 84949.
    Zachrisson, Eliabeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Johansson, Olof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Educational Leadership for Democracy and Social Justice2010In: School Leadership - International Perspectives / [ed] Stephan Huber, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2010, Vol. 10, p. 39-56Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this chapter is to analyze a re-structuring and re-culturing process in a local school system. The motive for the change process was to transform the educational leadership through building a new professional organization, in which the principals can act as values-driven principals in support of their staff, in relation to school democracy and social justice and success for all children.

  • 84950.
    Zachrisson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Hur ser handledaren på sin roll i Yrkesutbildningen.: En fallstudie från hotell och restaurang programmet2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Övergripande syftet med denna studie har varit att belysa komplexiteten med handledarens vardagliga arbete och med att utbilda och bedöma elever. Hur ser handledaren på sin roll i yrkesutbildningen och betygsättning var huvudsyftet med denna undersökning. Studien har genomförts med hjälp av kvalitativa intervjuer och genom text analys jämfört hur skolverket utrycker sig angående handledararbetet. Det var fem kockar som intervjuades på sina respektive restauranger. De var handledare till elever från Timrå gymnasium hotell och restaurang programmet. Resultatet stämmer delvis med vad skolverket och skolinspektionen säger om utbildade handledare. Utbildning ger bättre handledare säger skolverket. Resultatet visar även att handledarna var positiva till att handleda eleverna men det är svårt att få handledarna till utbildning. Resultatet visar även att handledarna hade en egen syn på hur de ska bedöma eleverna de såg med anställningsbarheten i fokus. Handledarna såg inte bedömningen av kurser som det primära det är bedömning mot anställning som de har haft i fokus. Betygsättning upplever handledarna som komplicerat när de enbart skulle bedöma efter kursmål och kriterier. Handledarna såg det som mer rättvist att bedöma hela eleven i förhållande till yrket.

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