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  • 85351.
    Yashiro, Yuichiro
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Shizu, Yoko
    Hirota, Mitsuru
    Shimono, Ayako
    Ohtsuka, Toshiyuki
    The role of shrub (Potentilla fruticosa) on ecosystem CO2 fluxes in an alpine shrub meadow2010In: Journal of Plant Ecology, ISSN 1752-9921, E-ISSN 1752-993X, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 89-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims Recent studies have shown that alpine meadows on the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau act as significant CO2 sinks. On the plateau, alpine shrub meadow is one of typical grassland ecosystems. The major alpine shrub on the plateau is Potentilla fruticosa L. (Rosaceae), which is distributed widely from 3 200 to 4 000 m. Shrub species play an important role on carbon sequestration in grassland ecosystems. In addition, alpine shrubs are sensitive to climate change such as global warming. Considering global warming, the biomass and productivity of P. fruticosa will increase on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Thus, understanding the carbon dynamics in alpine shrub meadow and the role of shrubs around the upper distribution limit at present is essential to predict the change in carbon sequestration on the plateau. However, the role of shrubs on the carbon dynamics in alpine shrub meadow remains unclear. The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the magnitude of CO2 exchange of P. fruticosa shrub patches around the upper distribution limit and to elucidate the role of P. fruticosa on ecosystem CO2 fluxes in an alpine meadow. Methods We used the static acrylic chamber technique to measure and estimate the net ecosystem productivity (NEP), ecosystem respiration (Re), and gross primary productivity (GPP) of P. fruticosa shrub patches at three elevations around the species' upper distribution limit. Ecosystem CO2 fluxes and environmental factors were measured from 17 to 20 July 2008 at 3 400, 3 600, and 3 800 m a.s.l. We examined the maximum GPP at infinite light (GPP(max)) and maximum R-e (R-emax) during the experimental time at each elevation in relation to aboveground biomass and environmental factors, including air and soil temperature, and soil water content. Important Findings Patches of P. fruticosa around the species' upper distribution limit absorbed CO2, at least during the daytime. Maximum NEP at infinite light (NEPmax) and GPP(max) of shrub patches in the alpine meadow varied among the three elevations, with the highest values at 3 400 m and the lowest at 3 800 m. GPP(max) was positively correlated with the green biomass of P. fruticosa more strongly than with total green biomass, suggesting that P. fruticosa is the major contributor to CO2 uptake in the alpine shrub meadow. Air temperature influenced the potential GPP at the shrub-patch scale. R-max was correlated with aboveground biomass and R-emax normalized by aboveground biomass was influenced by soil water content. Potentilla fruticosa height (biomass) and frequency increased clearly as elevation decreased, which promotes the large-scale spatial variation of carbon uptake and the strength of the carbon sink at lower elevations.

  • 85352.
    Yasmin, Lubna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences.
    Exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: cellular targets and interaction with 14-3-32007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is a serious problem for immuno-compromised patients. Toxins such as exoenzyme (Exo) S, ExoT, ExoY and ExoU are secreted and translocated from the bacteria into the eukaryotic cell via the bacterial encoded type III secretion system. Our research focuses on ExoS, a bifunctional toxin comprising a Rho-GTPase-activating protein domain (RhoGAP) and a 14-3-3 dependent ADP-ribosyltransferase domain. In addition, ExoS contains a membrane localization domain termed MLD. In this study, cell lines expressing activated forms of various components of the Ras signaling pathway have been used to understand the functional and mechanical activation of ExoS-ADP-ribosyltransferase activity and to reveal its cellular targets in the cell. Our observations suggested that Ras GTPase is the dominant target by which ExoS mediates cell death and activated Ras is able to protect cells against cell death, regardless of whether it has been ADP-ribosylated by ExoS.

    It has been reported that the 14-3-3 cofactor protein is required for ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of ExoS and a phosphorylation-independent interaction occurs between 14-3-3 and the C-terminal part of ExoS. We have undertaken a deeper analysis including structural and biological investigation of this interaction. Our results suggested that leucine-428 of ExoS is the most critical residue for ExoS enzymatic activity. Structural analysis showed that ExoS binds to 14-3-3 in a novel binding mode mostly relying on hydrophobic contacts. Our structure was supported by biochemical and cytotoxicity analyses, which revealed that the substitution of important residues of ExoS significantly weakens the ability of ExoS to modify endogenous targets such as RAS/RAP1 and to induce cell death. Further, mutation of key residues within the ExoS binding site for 14-3-3 impairs virulence in a mouse pneumonia model. Leucine residues-422, 423, 426, and 428 of ExoS are important for the interaction with the ″roof″ of the amphiphatic groove of 14-3-3.

    In conclusion, we show the mechanism of cell signal transduction pathways affected upon ExoS infection and also demonstrate that the hydrophobic residues of ExoS in 14-3-3 interaction motif have a significant role for ExoS enzymatic activity.

  • 85353.
    Yasmin, Lubna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Jansson, Anna L
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Panahandeh, Tooba
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Palmer, Ruth H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Pathogenesis (UCMP) (Faculty of Medicine).
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Delineation of exoenzyme S residues that mediate the interaction with 14-3-3 and its biological activity.2006In: The FEBS Journal, ISSN 1742-464X, E-ISSN 1742-4658, Vol. 273, no 3, p. 638-646Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85354.
    Yasmin, Lubna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences.
    L. Jansson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Warne, Patricia
    Downward, Julian
    H. Palmer, Ruth
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Exoenzyme S of Pseudomonas aeruginosa is not able to induce apoptosis when cells express activated proteins, such as Ras or protein kinase B/Akt2006In: Cellular Microbiology, ISSN 1462-5814, E-ISSN 1462-5822, Vol. 8, no 5, p. 815-822Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85355.
    Yasmin, Lubna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Medical Biosciences.
    S Francis, Matthew
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Electrostatic interaction is of secondary importance for the interaction between ExoS and 14-3-3Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 85356.
    Yasmin, Lubna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Veesenmeyer, Jeffrey L
    Diaz, Maureen H
    Francis, Matthew S
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Ottmann, Christian
    Palmer, Ruth H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Science and Technology).
    Hauser, Alan R
    Hallberg, Bengt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Electrostatic interactions play a minor role in the binding of ExoS to 14-3-3 proteins2010In: Biochemical Journal, ISSN 0264-6021, E-ISSN 1470-8728, Vol. 427, no 2, p. 217-224Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    14-3-3 proteins belong to a family of conserved molecules expressed in all eukaryotic cells that play an important role in a multitude of signalling pathways. 14-3-3 proteins bind either to phosphoserine/phosphothreonine residues or to sequence-specific non-phosphorylated motifs in more than 200 interaction partners [Pozuelo Rubio, Geraghty, Wong, Wood, Campbell, Morrice and Mackintosh (2004) Biochem. J. 379, 395-408]. These interactions result in cell-cycle regulation, apoptosis, stress responses, cell metabolism and malignant transformation. One example of a phosphorylation-independent interaction is the binding of 14-3-3 to ExoS (exoenzyme S), a bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferase toxin of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In the present study, we have utilized additional biochemical and infection analyses to define further the structural basis of the interaction between ExoS and 14-3-3. An ExoS leucine-substitution mutant dramatically reduced the interaction potential with 14-3-3 suggesting that Leu422, Leu423, Leu426 and Leu428 of ExoS are important for its interaction with 14-3-3, its enzymatic activity and cytotoxicity. However, ExoS substitution mutants of residues that interact with 14-3-3 through an electrostatic interaction, such as Ser416, His418, Asp424 and Asp427, showed no reduction in their interaction potential with 14-3-3. These ExoS substitution mutants were also as aggressive as wild-type ExoS at inducing cell death and to modify endogenous ExoS target within the cell. In conclusion, electrostatic interaction between ExoS and 14-3-3 via polar residues (Ser416, His418, Asp424 and Asp427) appears to be of secondary importance. Thus the interaction between the 'roof' of the groove of 14-3-3 and ExoS relies more on hydrophobic interaction forces, which probably contributes to induce cell death after ExoS infection and activation.

  • 85357. Yates, Thomas
    et al.
    Zaccardi, Francesco
    Dhalwani, Nafeesa N.
    Davies, Melanie J.
    Bakrania, Kishan
    Celis-Morales, Carlos A.
    Gill, Jason M. R.
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Khunti, Kamlesh
    Association of walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality: a UK Biobank observational study2017In: European Heart Journal, ISSN 0195-668X, E-ISSN 1522-9645, Vol. 38, no 43, p. 3232-3240Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To quantify the association of self-reported walking pace and handgrip strength with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer mortality. A total of 230 670 women and 190 057 men free from prevalent cancer and cardiovascular disease were included from UK Biobank. Usual walking pace was self-defined as slow, steady/average or brisk. Handgrip strength was assessed by dynamometer. Cox-proportional hazard models were adjusted for social deprivation, ethnicity, employment, medications, alcohol use, diet, physical activity, and television viewing time. Interaction terms investigated whether age, body mass index (BMI), and smoking status modified associations. Over 6.3 years, there were 8598 deaths, 1654 from cardiovascular disease and 4850 from cancer. Associations of walking pace with mortality were modified by BMI. In women, the hazard ratio (HR) for all-cause mortality in slow compared with fast walkers were 2.16 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.68-2.77] and 1.31 (1.08-1.60) in the bottom and top BMI tertiles, respectively; corresponding HRs for men were 2.01 (1.68-2.41) and 1.41 (1.20-1.66). Hazard ratios for cardiovascular mortality remained above 1.7 across all categories of BMI in men and women, with modest heterogeneity in men. Handgrip strength was associated with cardiovascular mortality in men only (HR tertile 1 vs. tertile 3 = 1.38; 1.18-1.62), without differences across BMI categories, while associations with all-cause mortality were only seen in men with low BMI. Associations for walking pace and handgrip strength with cancer mortality were less consistent. A simple self-reported measure of slow walking pace could aid risk stratification for all-cause and cardiovascular mortality within the general population.

  • 85358.
    Yath, Channa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chiral Persistent Organic Pollutants as Tracers of Transport and Accumulation Processes2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85359.
    Yavari, Leila
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Antibiotic Resistance in Salmonella enterica and the Role of Animal and Animal Food Control - A literature review of Europe and USA2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85360. Yazdanpanah, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Hanson, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Molecular Plant Physiology, Utrecht University, Utrecht, The Netherlands..
    Hilhorst, Henk W. M.
    Bentsink, Leónie
    Differentially expressed genes during the imbibition of dormant and after-ripened seeds: a reverse genetics approach2017In: BMC Plant Biology, ISSN 1471-2229, E-ISSN 1471-2229, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Seed dormancy, defined as the incapability of a viable seed to germinate under favourable conditions, is an important trait in nature and agriculture. Despite extensive research on dormancy and germination, many questions about the molecular mechanisms controlling these traits remain unanswered, likely due to its genetic complexity and the large environmental effects which are characteristic of these quantitative traits. To boost research towards revealing mechanisms in the control of seed dormancy and germination we depend on the identification of genes controlling those traits.

    METHODS: We used transcriptome analysis combined with a reverse genetics approach to identify genes that are prominent for dormancy maintenance and germination in imbibed seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana. Comparative transcriptomics analysis was employed on freshly harvested (dormant) and after-ripened (AR; non-dormant) 24-h imbibed seeds of four different DELAY OF GERMINATION near isogenic lines (DOGNILs) and the Landsberg erecta (Ler) wild type with varying levels of primary dormancy. T-DNA knock-out lines of the identified genes were phenotypically investigated for their effect on dormancy and AR.

    RESULTS: We identified conserved sets of 46 and 25 genes which displayed higher expression in seeds of all dormant and all after-ripened DOGNILs and Ler, respectively. Knock-out mutants in these genes showed dormancy and germination related phenotypes.

    CONCLUSIONS: Most of the identified genes had not been implicated in seed dormancy or germination. This research will be useful to further decipher the molecular mechanisms by which these important ecological and commercial traits are regulated.

  • 85361. Yazdi, Samira
    et al.
    Stein, Matthias
    Elinder, Fredrik
    Andersson, Magnus
    KTH, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lindahl, Erik
    KTH, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    The Molecular Basis of Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Interactions with the Shaker Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel2016In: PloS Computational Biology, ISSN 1553-734X, E-ISSN 1553-7358, Vol. 12, no 1, article id e1004704Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated potassium (K-V) channels are membrane proteins that respond to changes in membrane potential by enabling K+ ion flux across the membrane. Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) induce channel opening by modulating the voltage-sensitivity, which can provide effective treatment against refractory epilepsy by means of a ketogenic diet. While PUFAs have been reported to influence the gating mechanism by electrostatic interactions to the voltage-sensor domain (VSD), the exact PUFA-protein interactions are still elusive. In this study, we report on the interactions between the Shaker K-V channel in open and closed states and a PUFA-enriched lipid bilayer using microsecond molecular dynamics simulations. We determined a putative PUFA binding site in the open state of the channel located at the protein-lipid interface in the vicinity of the extracellular halves of the S3 and S4 helices of the VSD. In particular, the lipophilic PUFA tail covered a wide range of non-specific hydrophobic interactions in the hydrophobic central core of the protein-lipid interface, while the carboxylic head group displayed more specific interactions to polar/charged residues at the extracellular regions of the S3 and S4 helices, encompassing the S3-S4 linker. Moreover, by studying the interactions between saturated fatty acids (SFA) and the Shaker K-V channel, our study confirmed an increased conformational flexibility in the polyunsaturated carbon tails compared to saturated carbon chains, which may explain the specificity of PUFA action on channel proteins.

  • 85362.
    Ybrandt, Helen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Changes in self-image in a psychotherapy supervisor training program2009In: The Clinical Supervisor, ISSN 0732-5223, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 113-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Structural Analysis of Social Behavior (SASB) was  used to assess the self-image of psychotherapists enrolled in a psychotherapy supervisor training program in the initial and final phases of their training, as well as four months after the completion of their training. Their self-image was compared to that of experienced supervisors. The results show that the self-image of the supervisor trainees changed over the course of the training. By the end of the training, their self-image was as autonomous as that of experienced supervisors. Positive self-acceptance also developed. The relation between the outcome of psychotherapy, the style of trainees’ supervisor, and changes in the self-image of the trainees is also discussed.

  • 85363.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    A normative study of the Swedish adolescent drug abuse diagnosis (ADAD)2013In: Journal of Substance Use, ISSN 1465-9891, E-ISSN 1475-9942, Vol. 18, no 2, p. 138-147Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to provide a standardization of the use of the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) among Swedish adolescents using interview self-reported and interviewer-rated problem severity. Data relating to nine life areas (medical status, school history and status, employment, social activities and peer relations, family background and relationships, psychological status and problems, legal involvement, alcohol use and drug use) were gathered from a randomized population-based sample of 847 adolescents aged 13–18 years. The results show that the effects of age, gender and geographic region were small but significant, with older adolescents, girls and adolescents in cities scoring higher for problem severity. Adolescents’ scorings were in the range “no problems” to “small problems” and the interviewer severity ratings were in the range “no real problems” to “no need for further help”. The conclusion is that individual score variations are much greater than can be attributed to age, gender or residential area. Consequently, the ADAD has the potential to serve as an instrument for assessing individual adolescents’ self-reported problems in Sweden.

  • 85364.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Risky alcohol use, peer and family relationships and legal involvement in adolescents with antisocial problems2010In: Journal of Drug Education, ISSN 0047-2379, E-ISSN 1541-4159, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 243-262Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine risk and vulnerability factors contributing to problems with alcohol use in adolescence. Data relating to seven life areas (medical status, school status, social relationships, family background and relationships, psychological functioning, legal involvement, and alcohol use) was gathered using the ADAD (Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis) interview. A total of 1163 Swedish adolescents (809 boys and 354 girls) between the ages of 12 and 20 years old were interviewed. All had antisocial problems and were detained at special youth homes. It was found that for those aged between 12 and 18 years, the general risk factors for alcohol use were leisure and peer problems, problems associated with family background and relationships, and criminal behavior. These results suggest that drug abuse treatment planning should focus on altering the predisposing factors that exist in these domains. It was also found that the ADAD problem areas seem to be most useful as prognostic indicators of treatment outcome for adolescents with antisocial problems who are under 18 years of age.

  • 85365.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ten-year trends in self-reported family and psychological problems among swedish adolescents2014In: European Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 1788-4934, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 54-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to compare problem severity among Swedish adolescents, using self-reported and interviewer-rated data from 2000 and 2010, gathered with the Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD) interview. Data relating to family relationships, psychological status and problems were collected in two samples randomly selected from the adolescent population aged 15–17 years (121 adolescents in the year 2000 and 485 adolescents in the year 2010). The results show that the self-rated and interviewer-rated problem severity of adolescents in 2000 and in 2010 seems to be unchanged, with no increased polarisation for sex and socio-economic groups. There was a difference, however, was of girls reporting more severe problems in family relationships compared to boys. In 2010, compared to 2000, adolescents reported on fewer psychological problems (e.g. experiences of serious anxiety and tension, comprehension and concentration disorder, memory loss and, in addition, problems with relationships in and outside the family sphere – e.g. problems with getting along with siblings, and with trusting other people). In order to promote the mental health of adolescents, it is essential, during the next decade to reveal relationship problems, such as problems of insecurity with people outside the family.

  • 85366.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The relation between self-concept and social functioning in adolescence2008In: Journal of Adolescence, ISSN 0140-1971, E-ISSN 1095-9254, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 1-16Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A model of the relation between self-concept and internalizing and externalizing problem behaviours in adolescence, with the self-concept influencing problem behaviours (S→IE), was assessed using a sample of 277 Swedish adolescents. The model was tested in a path analysis with data from Youth Self Report (YSR) and Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (SASB) questionnaires. Consistent with the model, a positive self-concept was found to be the most important factor for adjustment and for protection against common problem behaviour. A negative self-concept combined with female gender were risk factors for internalized problems. Self-control had only a direct effect on externalizing behaviour for boys. Adolescents of 15, 16 years of age had a stronger relationship between a negative self-concept and externalizing problem behaviour than younger and older adolescents. Internalizing problem behaviours such as anxiety and depression predicted aggressive and delinquent behaviour. These findings highlight the importance of promoting of a positive self-concept in every adolescent in various psychosocial contexts.

  • 85367.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Adolescents' mental health and their images of self and parents2010In: European Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 1788-4934, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The relation between images of self and parents as defined in interpersonal theory and by the Structural Analysis of Social Behaviour (Benjamin), and internalizing and externalizing problems, as defined by the Youth Self-Report (Achenbach) was studied in a sample of 199 nonclinical adolescents (92 boys and 107 girls) aged between 13 and 17 years. Regression analyses showed that the pattern relating images of self and parents to mental health problems was different for boys and girls. Internalizing problems for girls were best predicted from aspects of their self-image while for boys parental behaviour played a larger role. A pattern of self-blame and lower self-affirmation together with parental blame was important for girls’ externalizing problems and a pattern of self-neglect and low self-autonomy and an uncertainty of parental love were important for boys externalizing problems. Results emphasize that boys and girls have different kinds of vulnerabilities as risk factors for mental health problems.

  • 85368.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peer aggression and mental health problems: self-esteem as a mediator2010In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 146-163Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined whether self-esteem mediates the association problems in adolescents. A total of 204 Swedish adolescents aged between 12- and 16-years-old completed self-report measures; self-esteem was assessed with ‘I think I am’ (ITIA) and internalizing and externalizing problems with Youth Self-Report (YSR). Our results showed that internalizing problems in peer aggressors could be understood as problems with low self-esteem, while internalizing problems in peer victims could be understood both as problems with low selfesteem and as an effect of being victimized. Externalizing problems in peer aggressors and peer aggressor–victims could be understood as problems with being involved in peer aggression, while the same problems in peer victims could be understood as problems with low self-esteem. This article also discusses the importance of self-esteem in adolescents’ development of their own identities and for peer aggressive- related psychological psychopathology.

  • 85369.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Börjesson, Josefine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Armelius, Bengt-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Measurments instruments scales tests: The Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis composite scores in Swedish normal and antisocial adolescents2008In: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 43, no 10, p. 1411-1423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study evaluates the utility and issues around the composite scores in Adolescent Drug Abuse Diagnosis (ADAD). Participants were Swedish normal adolescents (121) and adolescents manifesting antisocial problems (1,168), ages 10 to 21. The results show that the interviewer severity ratings seem to be the most appropriate outcome when the objective is to differentiate between normal and antisocial adolescents. The composite scores appear to function as an indicator of current problems in all areas except for Medical and Alcohol sections. The critical items within the Medical and Alcohol composite scores are explored and discussed.

  • 85370.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordqvist, Stefan
    SiS-placerade ungdomars problematik i relation till andra ungdomar: en jämförelse med referensdata insamlade med ADAD 20102015Report (Refereed)
  • 85371.
    Ybrandt, Helene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Capone, Georgina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trainee therapists' wievs on the alliance in psychotherapy and supervision: a longitudinal study2016In: British Journal of Guidance and Counselling, ISSN 0306-9885, E-ISSN 1469-3534, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 530-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The shape of alliance in psychotherapy and supervision using growth curve modeling was examined for clinically inexperienced trainee therapists, who were engaged in long-term cognitive behavioral - or psychodynamic individual psychotherapy at a Psychology Clinic in Sweden. Trainee therapists rated their view of the alliance with their clients and their supervisors on the Working Alliance Inventory at five time points. The alliance to the client show a consistent, positive development throughout the therapy. The alliance to the supervisors show initially a decrease, followed by an increase, and then again, the rate of increase in the supervisory alliance ratings slowed down indicating a more complex view of the supervisory alliance compared to the view of the alliance in psychotherapy.

  • 85372.
    Ydrefors, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Välkommen till biblioteket: En kvalitativ utvärdering av läsfrämjande verksamhet för förstaklassare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här utvärderingen undersöker den läsfrämjande verksamheten Ettorna på Östersunds stadsbibliotek. Ettorna tar emot besök av förstaklassare med målet att välkomna dem till biblioteket. Syftet med utvärderingen är att undersöka främst barnens upplevelser av besöket och därigenom få en förståelse förom verksamheten verkar läsfrämjande. Syftet med utvärderingen är också att undersöka verksamhetens genomförande gentemot de mål verksamheten har och se om den skulle kunna förändras och/eller förbättras med hjälp av en utveckling av mål och styrning.Utvärderingen har genomförts genom observationer av tre besök, intervjuer med tolv av de barn som medverkat på besöken, intervjuer med de tre ansvariga lärarna för de aktuella besöken samt intervjuer med den ansvariga bibliotekarien. Resultaten av utvärderingen har visat att barnen och lärarna varit överens om vad som är positivt och negativt med besöket. De positiva minnena är främst kopplade till de stunder barnen själva har varit delaktiga samt faktumet att de får en bok med sig hem. De negativa upplevelserna kommer främst ifrån de tillfällen barnen inte får besöka de faktiska bibliotekslokalerna. Här pekar utvärderingen på en konkret förbättringsmöjlighet, då målet med besöket är att barnen ska känna sig välkomna och se bibliotekets möjligheter, något inte alla de deltagande barnen får uppleva idag då inte alla får gå in på det faktiska biblioteket. Det finns i dagsläget inget styrdokument för verksamheten, något som skulle kunna utgöra ytterligare en betydelsefull utvecklingsmöjlighet då man genom att ha nedskrivna mål avsevärt skulle kunna förbättra förutsättningarna för att vidareutveckla verksamheten. En ytterligare utveckling skulle kunna innebära att det som händer på besöken ses över, då de främst är inriktade på att medelst berättade anekdoter visa barnen varför man behöver kunna läsa och vad som händer om man inte kan läsa. Då målen med besöket är att välkomna barnen till biblioteket och att de ska tycka att det är en rolig plats skulle en utveckling som innebär att man flyttar fokus från läskunnandet till läsmöjligheterna, och därmed till det roliga med läsningen och med biblioteket, vara önskvärd. Det finns alltså klara förbättringsmöjligheter för en verksamhet som pågått på ungefär samma sätt väldigt länge men alltså ändå inte uppfyller de mål den har.

  • 85373.
    Ydén, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Olika kön - olika undervisning?: En studie om kvinnliga respektive manliga idrottslärares undervisning i dans inom Idrott och hälsa 1 på gymnasiet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research show that dance historically has been viewed at as an activity belonging to the female PE culture. Although there has been co-education in PE since the early 80th, dance is still viewed at as a female activity. Dance is generally a more popular activity among girls in school, and dance as an activity is being characterized by heteronormativity. That is, to be seen as a ”normal” boy, you should not like to dance. Research shows that teacher´s previous experiences of dance effects the way that they teach. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate if there are any quantitative differences in the dance education based on the teacher’s sex. The results are based on a survey which reached a total of 68 teachers, among them 32 women and 36 men. The result of this study shows no significant differences in the dance education based on the teacher´s sex. Female and male teachers spent roughly the same time on teaching dance.

  • 85374. Ye, L
    et al.
    Li, YL
    Mellström, K
    Mellin, C
    Bladh, LG
    Koehler, K
    Garg, N
    Garcia Collazo, AM
    Litten, C
    Husman, B
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology.
    Ljunggren, J
    Grover, G
    Sleph, PG
    George, R
    Malm, J
    Thyroid receptor ligands. 1. Agonist ligands selective for the thyroid receptor beta1.2003In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, Vol. 24;46, no 9, p. 1580-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endogenous thyroid receptor hormones 3,5,3',5'-tetraiodo-l-thyronine (T(4), 1) and 3,5,3'-triiodo-l-thyronine (T(3), 2) exert a significant effects on growth, development, and homeostasis in mammals. They regulate important genes in intestinal, skeletal, and cardiac muscles, the liver, and the central nervous system, influence overall metabolic rate, cholesterol and triglyceride levels, and heart rate, and affect mood and overall sense of well being. The literature suggests many or most effects of thyroid hormones on the heart, in particular on the heart rate and rhythm, are mediated through the TRalpha(1) isoform, while most actions of the hormones on the liver and other tissues are mediated more through the TRbeta(1) isoform of the receptor. Some effects of thyroid hormones may be therapeutically useful in nonthyroid disorders if adverse effects can be minimized or eliminated. These potentially useful features include weight reduction for the treatment of obesity, cholesterol lowering for treating hyperlipidemia, amelioration of depression, and stimulation of bone formation in osteoporosis. Prior attempts to utilize thyroid hormones pharmacologically to treat these disorders have been limited by manifestations of hyperthyroidism and, in particular, cardiovascular toxicity. Consequently, development of thyroid hormone receptor agonists that are selective for the beta-isoform could lead to safe therapies for these common disorders while avoiding cardiotoxicity. We describe here the synthesis and evaluation of a series of novel TR ligands, which are selective for TRbeta(1) over TRalpha(1). These ligands could potentially be useful for treatment of various disorders as outlined above. From a series of homologous R(1)-substituted carboxylic acid derivatives, increasing chain length was found to have a profound effect on affinity and selectivity in a radioreceptor binding assay for the human thyroid hormone receptors alpha(1) and beta(1) (TRalpha(1) and TRbeta(2)) as well as a reporter cell assay employing CHOK1-cells (Chinese hamster ovary cells) stably transfected with hTRalpha(1) or hTRbeta(1) and an alkaline phosphatase reporter-gene downstream thyroid response element (TRAFalpha(1) and TRAFbeta(1)). Affinity increases in the order formic, acetic, and propionic acid, while beta-selectivity is highest when the R(1) position is substituted with acetic acid. Within this series 3,5-dibromo-4-[(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenoxy)phenyl]acetic acid (11a) and 3,5-dichloro-4-[(4-hydroxy-3-isopropylphenoxy)phenyl]acetic acid (15) were found to reveal the most promising in vitro data based on isoform selectivity and were selected for further in vivo studies. The effect of 2, 11a, and 15 in a cholesterol-fed rat model was monitored including potencies for heart rate (ED(15)), cholesterol (ED(50)), and TSH (ED(50)). Potency for tachycardia was significantly reduced for the TRbeta selective compounds 11a and 15 compared with 2, while both 11a and 15 retained the cholesterol-lowering potency of 2. This left an approximately 10-fold therapeutic window between heart rate and cholesterol, which is consistent with the action of ligands that are approximately 10-fold more selective for TRbeta(1). We also report the X-ray crystallographic structures of the ligand binding domains of TRalpha and TRbeta in complex with 15. These structures reveal that the single amino acid difference in the ligand binding pocket (Ser277 in TRalpha or Asn331 in TRbeta) results in a slightly different hydrogen bonding pattern that may explain the increased beta-selectivity of 15.

  • 85375. Ye, Yazoume
    et al.
    Hoshen, Moshe
    Kyobutungi, Catherine
    Louis, Valerie R
    Sauerborn, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. University of Heidelberg, Department of Tropical Hygiene & Public Health, Medical school, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Local scale prediction of Plasmodium falciparum malaria transmission in an endemic region using temperature and rainfall2009In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 2, p. 103-115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To support malaria control strategies, prior knowledge of disease risk is necessary. Developing a model to explain the transmission of malaria, in endemic and epidemic regions, is of high priority in developing health system interventions. We develop, fit and validate a non-spatial dynamic model driven by meteorological conditions that can capture seasonal malaria transmission dynamics at the village level in a malaria holoendemic area of north-western Burkina Faso.

    Methods: A total of 676 children aged 6-59 months took part in this study. Trained interviewers visited children at home weekly from December 2003 to November 2004 for Plasmodium falciparum malaria infection detection. Anopheles daily biting rate, mortality rate and growth rate were evaluated. Digital meteorological stations measured ambient temperature, humidity and rainfall in each site.

    Results: The overall P. falciparum malaria infection incidence was 1.1 episodes per person year. There was strong seasonal variation in P. falciparum malaria infection incidence with a peak observed in August and September, corresponding to the rainy season and a high number of mosquitoes. The model estimates of monthly mosquito abundance and the incidence of malaria infection correlated well with observed values. The fit was sensitive to daily mosquito survival and daily human parasite clearance.

    Conclusion: The model has demonstrated potential for local scale seasonal prediction of P. falciparum malaria infection. It could therefore be used to understand malaria transmission dynamics using meteorological parameters as the driving force and to help district health managers in identifying high-risk periods for more focused interventions.

  • 85376. Yeager, Meredith
    et al.
    Chatterjee, Nilanjan
    Ciampa, Julia
    Jacobs, Kevin B
    Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus
    Hayes, Richard B
    Kraft, Peter
    Wacholder, Sholom
    Orr, Nick
    Berndt, Sonja
    Yu, Kai
    Hutchinson, Amy
    Wang, Zhaoming
    Amundadottir, Laufey
    Feigelson, Heather Spencer
    Thun, Michael J
    Diver, W Ryan
    Albanes, Demetrius
    Virtamo, Jarmo
    Weinstein, Stephanie
    Schumacher, Fredrick R
    Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine
    Cussenot, Olivier
    Valeri, Antoine
    Andriole, Gerald L
    Crawford, E David
    Haiman, Christopher A
    Henderson, Brian
    Kolonel, Laurence
    Le Marchand, Loic
    Siddiq, Afshan
    Riboli, Elio
    Key, Timothy J
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Isaacs, William
    Isaacs, Sarah
    Wiley, Kathleen E
    Gronberg, Henrik
    Wiklund, Fredrik
    Stattin, Pär
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Urology and Andrology.
    Xu, Jianfeng
    Zheng, S Lilly
    Sun, Jielin
    Vatten, Lars J
    Hveem, Kristian
    Kumle, Merethe
    Tucker, Margaret
    Gerhard, Daniela S
    Hoover, Robert N
    Fraumeni, Joseph F
    Hunter, David J
    Thomas, Gilles
    Chanock, Stephen J
    Identification of a new prostate cancer susceptibility locus on chromosome 8q24.2009In: Nature genetics, ISSN 1546-1718, Vol. 41, no 10, p. 1055-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a genome-wide association study in 10,286 cases and 9,135 controls of European ancestry in the Cancer Genetic Markers of Susceptibility (CGEMS) initiative. We identify a new association with prostate cancer risk on chromosome 8q24 (rs620861, P = 1.3 x 10(-10), heterozygote OR = 1.17, 95% CI 1.10-1.24; homozygote OR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.21-1.45). This defines a new locus associated with prostate cancer susceptibility on 8q24.

  • 85377.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Analysis, Control, and Design Optimization of Engineering Mechanics Systems2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis considers applications of gradient-based optimization algorithms to the design and control of some mechanics systems. The material distribution approach to topology optimization is applied to design two different acoustic devices, a reactive muffler and an acoustic horn, and optimization is used to control a ball pitching robot.

    Reactive mufflers are widely used to attenuate the exhaust noise of internal combustion engines by reflecting the acoustic energy back to the source. A material distribution optimization method is developed to design the layout of sound-hard material inside the expansion chamber of a reactive muffler. The objective is to minimize the acoustic energy at the muffler outlet. The presence or absence of material is represented by design variables that are mapped to varying coefficients in the governing equation. An anisotropic design filter is used to control the minimum thickness of materials separately in different directions. Numerical results demonstrate that the approach can produce mufflers with high transmission loss for a broad range of frequencies.

    For acoustic devices, it is possible to improve their performance, without adding extended volumes of materials, by an appropriate placement of thin structures with suitable material properties. We apply layout optimization of thin sound-hard material in the interior of an acoustic horn to improve its far-field directivity properties. Absence or presence of thin sound-hard material is modeled by a surface transmission impedance, and the optimization determines the distribution of materials along a “ground structure” in the form of a grid inside the horn. Horns provided with the optimized scatterers show a much improved angular coverage, compared to the initial configuration.

    The surface impedance is handled by a new finite element method developed for Helmholtz equation in the situation where an interface is embedded in the computational domain. A Nitschetype method, different from the standard one, weakly enforces the impedance conditions for transmission through the interface. As opposed to a standard finite-element discretization of the problem, our method seamlessly handles both vanishing and non-vanishing interface conditions. We show the stability of the method for a quite general class of surface impedance functions, provided that possible surface waves are sufficiently resolved by the mesh.

    The thesis also presents a method for optimal control of a two-link ball pitching robot with the aim of throwing a ball as far as possible. The pitching robot is connected to a motor via a non-linear torsional spring at the shoulder joint. Constraints on the motor torque, power, and angular velocity of the motor shaft are included in the model. The control problem is solved by an interior point method to determine the optimal motor torque profile and release position. Numerical experiments show the effectiveness of the method and the effect of the constraints on the performance.

  • 85378.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Control and design of engineering mechanics systems2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 85379.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    On the use of thin structures to control the far-field properties of an acoustic device2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This work presents a sensitivity analysis for topology optimization of thin structures inside an acoustic horn in order to improve its far-field directivity properties. The objective function gradient is computed using an adjoint-based method, a well-known approach in the design optimization community due to its ability to compute the design sensitivities when there is a large number of design variables. The accuracy of the computed gradient is verified numerically against a first order finite difference approximation. The report also covers the matrix representations of the far-field pattern evaluation and the variational problem with an interface condition to model the thin structures. 

  • 85380.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Optimal ball pitchingArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 85381.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Optimal control of a ball pitching robot2012In: 2012 17TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON METHODS AND MODELS IN AUTOMATION AND ROBOTICS (MMAR), 2012, p. 456-456Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study a two-link pitching robot, with an active gripping mechanism and aim to make it throw a ball as far as possible. The two links are connected at the elbow joint by a linear torsional spring. The gripping mechanism is able to hold a ball and release it at any specified time. The two-link pitching robot is connected to a motor shaft at the shoulder joint by a non-linear torsional spring. The shoulder joint is held fixed at the origin of the coordinate system. The configuration of the arm and the motor shaft is illustrated in Figure 1 and described by the angels q1 and qm, measured with respect to the horizontal axis, respectively, whereas q2 denote the angle change between the arm and forearm at the elbow joint.

  • 85382.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    State constrained optimal control of a ball pitching robot2013In: Mechanism and machine theory, ISSN 0094-114X, E-ISSN 1873-3999, Vol. 69, p. 337-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a method for offline optimal control of a two-link ball pitching robot with the aim of throwing a ball as far as possible. The pitching robot is connected to a motor via a non-linear torsional spring at the shoulder joint. The elbow joint is passive and loaded with a linear torsional spring. We model the system based on an Euler–Lagrange formulation. Constraints on the motor torque and power as well as the angular velocity of the motor shaft are included in the model. By using an interior point method with gradients supplied by a discrete adjoint method, we numerically solve the resulting constrained control problem of finding the optimal piecewise constant motor torque profile and release position. Numerical experiments illustrate the effectiveness of our strategy as well as the effect of the constraints on the objective. In our experiments, the optimal motor torque gives rise to motions comprising an initial backswing; a transition, where the elbow spring accumulates potential energy; and finally a fast acceleration phase leading up the ball release.

  • 85383.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Anisotropic Topology Optimization of a Reactive Muffler with a Perforated PipeArticle in journal (Other academic)
  • 85384.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Interior layout topology optimization of a reactive muffler2016In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 645-656Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article presents a material distribution method that is tailored to the interior design of reactive mufflers. Such devices are typically acoustically small, except in the length direction, and their interior consists of a combination of pipes, expansions, contractions, and Helmholtz resonators. In order to design the interior layout using material distribution optimization, it is necessary to be able to resolve thin sound-hard materials as well as thin sheets with a given acoustic impedance, such as perforated plates, and manage small channels to Helmholtz resonators. We develop a method that uses an anisotropic design filter in combination with a fine mesh in order to control the minimum thickness separately in different directions. A two-stage post processing procedure is used to control openings to resonators, and embedded thin impedance surfaces are modeled by a mortar-element method. Numerical results demonstrate that the approach can produce mufflers with high transmission loss for a broad range of frequencies. The optimized mufflers include components that resemble combinations of expansion chambers, cylindrical pipes, and Helmholtz resonators.

  • 85385.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Layout optimization of thin sound-hard material to improve the far-field directivity properties of an acoustic horn2017In: Structural and multidisciplinary optimization (Print), ISSN 1615-147X, E-ISSN 1615-1488, Vol. 55, no 3, p. 795-808Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To improve the far-field directivity properties of a given mid-range acoustic horn, previously designed by shape optimization to exhibit almost ideal transmission properties in the frequency range 1.6–9.05 kHz, we apply layout optimization of thin sound-hard material in the interior of the horn. The purpose of the optimization is to place scattering material to prevent the sound intensity to increasingly be concentrated, with increasing frequency, along the horn axis. Absence or presence of thin sound-hard material is modeled by an equivalent surface transmission impedance, and the optimization algorithm determines the distribution of air or sound-hard material along a “ground structure” in the form of a grid inside the horn. The surface impedance is numerically handled using a newly developed finite-element formulation that allows exact enforcement of a vanishing impedance, corresponding to air, which would not be possible using a standard formulation. Horns provided with the optimized scatterers show a much improved angular coverage, compared to the initial configuration, with beam widths that exceed 60 ∘ uniformly over the operational frequency range, without destroying the good transmission properties of the initial horn.

  • 85386.
    Yedeg, Esubalewe Lakie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Wadbro, Eddie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Hansbo, Peter
    Larson, Mats G.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Berggren, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    A Nitsche-type Method for Helmholtz Equation with an Embedded Acoustically Permeable Interface2016In: Computer Methods in Applied Mechanics and Engineering, ISSN 0045-7825, E-ISSN 1879-2138, Vol. 304, p. 479-500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We propose a new finite element method for Helmholtz equation in the situation where an acoustically permeable interface is embedded in the computational domain. A variant of Nitsche's method, different from the standard one, weakly enforces the impedance conditions for transmission through the interface. As opposed to a standard finite-element discretization of the problem, our method seamlessly handles a complex-valued impedance function Z that is allowed to vanish. In the case of a vanishing impedance, the proposed method reduces to the classic Nitsche method to weakly enforce continuity over the interface. We show stability of the method, in terms of a discrete Gårding inequality, for a quite general class of surface impedance functions, provided that possible surface waves are sufficiently resolved by the mesh. Moreover, we prove an a priori error estimate under the assumption that the absolute value of the impedance is bounded away from zero almost everywhere. Numerical experiments illustrate the performance of the method for a number of test cases in 2D and 3D with different interface conditions. 

  • 85387. Yego, Faith
    et al.
    D'Este, Catherine
    Byles, Julie
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyongesa, Paul
    Risk factors for maternal mortality in a Tertiary Hospital in Kenya: a case control study2014In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 14, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maternal mortality is high in Africa, especially in Kenya where there is evidence of insufficient progress towards Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Five, which is to reduce the global maternal mortality rate by three quarters and provide universal access to reproductive health by 2015. This study aims to identify risk factors associated with maternal mortality in a tertiary level hospital in Kenya. Methods: A manual review of records for 150 maternal deaths (cases) and 300 controls was undertaken using a standard audit form. The sample included pregnant women aged 15-49 years admitted to the Obstetric and Gynaecological wards at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Kenya from January 2004 and March 2011. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors for maternal mortality. Results: Factors significantly associated with maternal mortality included: having no education relative to secondary education (OR 3.3, 95% CI 1.1-10.4, p = 0.0284), history of underlying medical conditions (OR 3.9, 95% CI 1.7-9.2, p = 0.0016), doctor attendance at birth (OR 4.6, 95% CI 2.1-10.1, p = 0.0001), having no antenatal visits (OR 4.1, 95% CI 1.6-10.4, p = 0.0007), being admitted with eclampsia (OR 10.9, 95% CI 3.7-31.9, p < 0.0001), being admitted with comorbidities (OR 9.0, 95% CI 4.2-19.3, p < 0.0001), having an elevated pulse on admission (OR 10.7, 95% CI 2.7-43.4, p = 0.0002), and being referred to MTRH (OR 2.1, 95% CI 1.0-4.3, p = 0.0459). Conclusions: Antenatal care and maternal education are important risk factors for maternal mortality, even after adjusting for comorbidities and complications. Antenatal visits can provide opportunities for detecting risk factors for eclampsia, and other underlying illnesses but the visits need to be frequent and timely. Education enables access to information and helps empower women and their spouses to make appropriate decisions during pregnancy.

  • 85388. Yego, Faith H
    et al.
    D Este, Catherine
    Byles, Julie
    Nyongesa, Paul
    Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Research Centre for Gender, Health and Ageing, University of Newcastle, Newcastle, Australia.
    A case-control study of risk factors for fetal and early neonatal deaths in a tertiary hospital in Kenya2014In: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, ISSN 1471-2393, E-ISSN 1471-2393, Vol. 14, p. 389-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundIt is important to understand the risk factors for fetal and neonatal mortality which is a major contributor to high under five deaths globally. Fetal and neonatal mortality is a sensitive indicator of maternal health in society. This study aimed to examine the risk factors for fetal and early neonatal mortality at the Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital in Kenya.MethodsThis was a case-control study. Cases were fetal and early neonatal deaths (n¿=¿200). The controls were infants born alive immediately preceding and following the cases (n¿=¿400). Bivariate comparisons and multiple logistic regression analyses were undertaken.ResultsThe odds of having 0-1 antenatal visits relative to 2-3 visits were higher for cases than controls (AOR=4.5; 95% CI: 1.2-16.7; p=0.03). There were lower odds among cases of having a doctor rather than a midwife as a birth attendant (OR¿=¿0.2; 95% CI: 0.1-0.6; p¿<¿0.01). The odds of mothers having Premature Rupture of Membranes (OR¿=¿4.1; 95% CI: 1.4-12.1; p¿=¿0.01), haemorrhage (OR¿=¿4.8; 95% CI: 1.1-21.9; p¿=¿0.04) and dystocia (OR¿=¿3.6; 95% CI: 1.2-10.9; p¿=¿0.02) were higher for the cases compared with the controls. The odds of gestational age less than 37 weeks (OR¿=¿7.0; 95% CI 2.4-20.4) and above 42 weeks (OR¿=¿16.2; 95% CI 2.8-92.3) compared to 37-42 weeks, were higher for cases relative to controls (p¿<¿0.01). Cases had higher odds of being born with congenital malformations (OR¿=¿6.3; 95% CI: 1.2-31.6; p¿=¿0.04) and with Apgar scores of below six at five minutes (OR¿=¿26.4; 95% CI: 6.1-113.8; p¿<¿0.001).ConclusionInterventions that focus on educating mothers on antenatal attendance, screening, monitoring and management of maternal conditions during the antenatal period should be strengthened. Doctor attendance at each birth and for emergency admissions is important to ensure early neonatal survival and avert potential risk factors for mortality.

  • 85389. Yego, Faith
    et al.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Research Centre for Gender, Health and Ageing, HMRI Building, University of Newcastle, University Drive, 2308, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
    Byles, Julie
    Nyongesa, Paul
    Aruasa, Wilson
    D'Este, Catherine
    A retrospective analysis of maternal and neonatal mortality at a teaching and referral hospital in Kenya2013In: Reproductive health, ISSN 1742-4755, Vol. 10, p. 13-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the incidence of maternal and early neonatal mortality in women who gave birth at Moi Teaching and Referral Hospital (MTRH) in Kenya and describe clinical and other characteristics and circumstances associated with maternal and neonatal deaths following deliveries at MTRH.

    METHODS: A retrospective audit of maternal and neonatal records was conducted with detailed analysis of the most recent 150 maternal deaths and 200 neonatal deaths. Maternal mortality ratios and early neonatal mortality rates were calculated for each year from January 2004 to December 2011.

    RESULTS: Between 2004 and 2011, the overall maternal mortality ratio was 426 per 100,000 live births and the early neonatal mortality rate (<7 days) was 68 per 1000 live births. The Hospital record audit showed that half (51%) of the neonatal mortalities were for young mothers (15-24 years) and 64% of maternal deaths were in women between 25 and 45 years. Most maternal and early neonatal deaths occurred in multiparous women, in referred admissions, when the gestational age was under 37 weeks and in latent stage of labour. Indirect complications accounted for the majority of deaths. Where there were direct obstetric complications associated with the delivery, the leading cause of maternal death was eclampsia and the leading cause of early neonatal death was pre-mature rupture of membranes. Pre-term birth and asphyxia were leading causes of early neonatal deaths. In both sets of records the majority of deliveries were vaginal and performed by midwives.

    CONCLUSION: This study provides important information about maternal and early neonatal mortality in Kenya's second largest tertiary hospital. A range of socio demographic, clinical and health system factors are identified as possible contributors to Kenya's poor progress towards reducing maternal and early neonatal mortality.

  • 85390. Yeh, Johannes T. -H.
    et al.
    Nam, Kwangho
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas at Arlington, Arlington, TX, 76019-0065, USA.
    Yeh, Joshua T. -H.
    Perrimon, Norbert
    eUnaG: a new ligand-inducible fluorescent reporter to detect drug transporter activity in live cells2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 41619Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) of metabolites and toxic organic solutes are orchestrated by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and the organic solute carrier family (SLC) proteins. A large number of ABC and SLC transpoters exist; however, only a small number have been well characterized. To facilitate the analysis of these transporters, which is important for drug safety and physiological studies, we developed a sensitive genetically encoded bilirubin (BR)-inducible fluorescence sensor (eUnaG) to detect transporter-coupled influx/efflux of organic compounds. This sensor can be used in live cells to measure transporter activity, as excretion of BR depends on ABC and SLC transporters. Applying eUnaG in functional RNAi screens, we characterize l(2) 03659 as a Drosophila multidrug resistant-associated ABC transporter.

  • 85391.
    Yekeh, Farahnaz
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Pordel, Mostafa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Almeida, Luís
    University of Porto.
    Behnam, Moris
    Mälardalen University.
    Portugal, Paulo José
    University of Porto.
    Exploring alternatives to scale FTT-SE to large networks2011In: 6th IEEE International Symposium on Industrial Embedded Systems, 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays, most complex embedded systems follow a distributed approach in which a network interconnects potentially large numbers of nodes. One technology that is being increasingly used is switched Ethernet, but real-time variants of this protocol typically limit scalability. In this paper, we focus on the scalability of the Flexible Time Triggered communication over Switched Ethernet (FTT-SE), which has been proposed to support hard real-time applications in a flexible and predictable manner. Moreover, time-triggered and event-triggered communication methods are supported in this protocol. FTT-SE has already been explored and investigated for small scale networked applications. In this paper we address the protocol scalability and suggest three different solutions with a qualitative assessment. © 2011 IEEE.

  • 85392.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Patterns and risk factors of social exclusion among older people in India2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85393.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Associations between craniomandibular disorders, sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in an adult population2014In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 1054-1065Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationships between pain in the craniomandibular region and jaw dysfunction, respectively, to sociodemographic factors and self-perceived general and oral health in a middle-aged and elderly population in Västerbotten County, Sweden.

    Materials and methods. Six hundred individuals, 35-, 50-, 65- and 75 years old, from inland and 600 individuals from coastal areas were randomly selected in 2002. Of these, 987 individuals completed a questionnaire and 779 participated in a clinical examination. Thirty-five- and 50-year-olds together constituted a middle-aged group and the rest an elderly group.

    Results. Among the middle-aged, craniomandibular pain was associated with impaired general health status, signs of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain were associated with female gender and living alone, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with university degree and chewing with caution; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the more densely populated coastal region. Among the elderly, craniomandibular pain was more common among those living in the inland region, craniomandibular pain and signs of TMD pain were associated with impaired general health status, jaw dysfunction symptoms were associated with higher education level and self-perceived impaired general health and oral health; and signs of TMD dysfunction were associated with female gender and living in the coastal region. Dental status was not associated with craniomandibular pain.

    Conclusions. Socioeconomic factors and impaired general state of health were related to signs and symptoms indicative of CMD. These factors may influence demand for treatment among the affected.

  • 85394.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Factors associated with clinical decision-making in relation to treatment need for temporomandibular disorders2016In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 74, no 2, p. 134-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze dentist's clinical decision-making related to treatment need for temporomandibular disorders (TMD) in an adult population. Materials and methods. The study population comprised 779 randomly selected 35, 50, 65 and 75 year old individuals living in the county of Vasterbotten, Sweden. The participants filled out a questionnaire and were examined clinically according to a structured protocol. The four examiners (two men, two women) were experienced dentists and were calibrated before the start of the study. After examination they individually assessed the need of treatment owing to TMD. Results. In total, 15% of the study population was considered to have a treatment need owing to TMD. The highest estimate was noted for 35 and 50 years old women and the lowest for 65 and 75 years old men. Overall, 21% of the women and 8% of the men were considered to have a treatment need owing to TMD, with statistically significant differences between men and women for the 35 and 50 years old groups. Inter-individual variations in dentists' decisions were observed. In a multivariate analysis, female gender, signs and symptoms of TMD pain, signs and symptoms of TMD dysfunction and smoking were associated with estimated treatment need. Conclusions. The prevalence of estimated treatment need owing to TMD was fairly high, but the dentists' clinical decision-making process showed large inter-individual variability. The observation calls for further research on the factors affecting the decision-making process in care providers.

  • 85395.
    Yekkalam, Negin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Wänman, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Prevalence of signs and symptoms indicative of temporomandibular disorders and headaches in 35-, 50-, 65- and 75-year-olds living in Västerbotten, Sweden2014In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 6, p. 458-465Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare prevalence of signs and frequently occurring symptoms indicative of temporomandibular disorder (TMD) and headaches in 35-, 50-, 65- and 75-year-old men and women in Västerbotten County, Sweden.

    Materials and methods. From a total target population of 11 324 subjects living in Västerbotten County in the year 2002, 300 individuals in each age group were randomly selected. Of these, 998 (82% response rate) answered and returned a postal questionnaire and 779 (65% response rate) individuals accepted a clinical examination.

    Results. The prevalence of frequent TMD symptoms peaked among 50-year-old women and then declined. Women at this age reported significantly higher prevalence compared to men for all TMD symptoms except temporomandibular joint locking. In the 65- and 75-year-olds, the prevalence was practically equal between men and women as well as between these ages. Frequent headaches showed the highest prevalence among 35- and 50-year-old women, with a statistically significant difference between men and women of 50 years of age (p < 0.05). Fifty-year-old women had statistically significantly higher prevalence of muscle pain to palpation (p < 0.001), temporomandibular joint sounds (p < 0.01) and impaired maximal jaw opening capacity (p < 0.01), compared to 50-year-old men.

    Conclusions. The different symptoms indicative of TMD and headaches showed a similar pattern, with higher prevalence among the 35- and 50-year-old, as compared to the 65- and 75-year-old, participants. The pattern may be related to biological, psychosocial or generation-related factors.

  • 85396. Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri
    et al.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Stehr, Jan Eric
    Dario, Mårten
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Björn, Annika
    Pretreatment of anaerobic digester samples by hydrochloric acid for solution-state H-1 and C-13 NMR spectroscopic characterization of organic matter2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 199, p. 201-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pretreatment of anaerobic digester samples by hydrochloric acid (HCl) resulted in removal of Fe-based mineral and coordination compounds, attenuating their interferences with solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic characterization of the solid phase organic matter. Substrate (influent) and digestate (effluent) samples from two full-scale anaerobic digesters, designated CD (co-digester) and SSD (sewage sludge digester), were investigated. Pretreatment of CD samples with 0.2-2.0 mol l(-1) HCl and pretreatment of SSD samples with 1.0-3.0 mol l(-1) HCl removed 96-100% and 76-80% of total Fe, respectively. Pretreatment declined overall paramagnetic characteristics of digestate samples, manifested by 50% (CD) and 70% (SSD) decrease in electron paramagnetic resonance signal intensities. As a result, meaningful solution-state H-1,C-13 heteronuclear single quantum coherence and H-1 NMR spectra of DMSO-d(6) soluble organic matter could be acquired. Sample pretreatment with the lowest concentration of HCl resulted in alteration of C:N ratios in solid phase, likely due to removal of labile organic and inorganic C- and N-containing compounds, while elevating the HCl concentration did not further change the C:N ratios. Furthermore, sample pretreatment increased the solubility of carbohydrates and proteins in DMSO-d(6), enabling the detection of NMR resonances from certain structural units of carbohydrates (e.g. anomeric O2CH) and proteins (e.g. CH alpha in amino acids). Both attenuation of the paramagnetic matrix as well as art enhanced solubility of carbohydrate and protein fractions of the samples in DMSO-d(6) solvent contributed to an improved molecular characterization of anaerobic digester samples by solution-state NMR analysis. 

  • 85397. Yekta, Sepehr Shakeri
    et al.
    Hedenström, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Sundgren, Ingrid
    Dario, Marten
    Enrich-Prast, Alex
    Hertkorn, Norbert
    Bjorn, Annika
    Molecular characterization of particulate organic matter in full scale anaerobic digesters: An NMR spectroscopy study2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 685, p. 1107-1115Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the molecular characteristics of particulate organic matter (POM) in agricultural and food waste digesters and elucidates the molecular properties of the recalcitrant POM fraction, which remains in the digestate after AD process. Molecular properties of POM in influent (substrate) and effluent (digestate) of seven full-scale AD plants (three agricultural waste and four food waste digesters) were characterized and compared using solid-state (13)C( )cross-polarization magic angle spinning (CP-MAS) and solution-state H-1,C-13 heteronuclear single-quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Comparison of the POM structural compositions of substrate and digestate from each AD plant revealed an enrichment of protein structures relative to the carbohydrates in most cases, implying a preferential degradation of the carbohydrates over proteins and/or increase of microbial biomass upon AD of agricultural and food wastes. Distinctive molecular structures of labile and recalcitrant fractions of POM, subjected to AD, were identified by comparing the NMR spectra of all substrate and digestate POM. Accordingly, the labile POM fraction in food and agricultural solid wastes is characterized by structural entities of lipids and starch-like carbohydrates, whereas recalcitrant POM structures resemble alkyl and aromatic subunits of amino acids, lignin, and polysaccharides with beta-glycosidic linkages. This information serves as a basis to further explore optimization approaches for improving AD of the underutilized POM and the fate of organic matter in digestate-amended arable lands. (C) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  • 85398. Yektaei, Elham
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Nasman-Glaser, Barbro
    Ekblom, Marja
    Qian, Hong
    Radmark, Olof
    Zovko, Ana
    Kanter, Lena
    Wallvik, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Stenke, Leif
    Modulation of Leukotriene Signaling Affecting Cell Growth in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: A Key Pathway to Cure?2015In: Blood, ISSN 0006-4971, E-ISSN 1528-0020, Vol. 126, no 23Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 85399. Yektaei-Karin, E.
    et al.
    Zovko, A.
    Nilsson, A.
    Kanter, L.
    Radmark, O.
    Ekblom, M.
    Qian, H.
    Wallvik, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Stenke, L.
    MODULATION OF LEUKOTRIENE SIGNALING INHIBITING CELL GROWTH IN CHRONIC MYELOID LEUKEMIA2016In: Haematologica, ISSN 0390-6078, E-ISSN 1592-8721, Vol. 101, p. 731-731Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 85400. Yektaei-Karin, Elham
    et al.
    Zovko, Ana
    Nilsson, Anders
    Näsman-Glaser, Barbro
    Kanter, Lena
    Rådmark, Olof
    Wallvik, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Ekblom, Marja
    Dolinska, Monika
    Qian, Hong
    Stenke, Leif
    Modulation of leukotriene signaling inhibiting cell growth in chronic myeloid leukemia2017In: Leukemia and Lymphoma, ISSN 1042-8194, E-ISSN 1029-2403, Vol. 58, no 8, p. 1903-1913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have dramatically improved clinical outcome in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), cure rarely occurs. This may be due to BCR-ABL-independent, aberrant signaling pathways, one of which leads to leukotriene (LT) formation. Well-recognized as inflammatory mediators, LT can also affect oncogenic mechanisms of several tumors. We have previously discovered elevated LT-synthesis and up-regulated cysteinyl-LT-inducing enzyme in CML. Here we report on dose-dependent inhibition of CML cell growth exerted by specific blockers of LT-signaling. Thus, the cysteinyl-LT1-receptor-antagonist montelukast significantly reduced the growth of K562, KCL22, and KU812 cells, as well as primary CD34(+) blood cells from two CML patients. Adding montelukast to the TKI imatinib caused combined inhibition. No effect was seen on normal bone marrow cells. Similarly, growth inhibition was also observed with the 5-lipoxygenase (LO)-inhibitor BWA4C, the 5-LO-activating-protein-(FLAP)-inhibitor licofelone and the LTB4(BLT1)-receptor-antagonist LY293111. Thus, blocking of aberrant LT-signaling may provide an additional, novel therapeutic possibility in CML.

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