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  • 85351.
    Ögren, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Edlund, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Affärssystemsanvändning i små och medelstora företag: En utvärderingsmodell2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85352.
    Ögren, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Goodwillstorlek - ett incitament för opportunistiskt beteende?: En kvantitativ studie om förhållandet mellan goodwills storlek och företagens antaganden vid nedskrivningsprövningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85353.
    Ögren, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Is above- and belowground phenology of Eriophorum vaginatum in sync in a peatland underlain by permafrost?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenology of plants in northern ecosystems is currently changing. Roots have a key role in these ecosystems, though the phenology of roots is still poorly understood. The aim of this report was to investigate if above- and belowground phenology of the circumpolar sedge Eriophorum vaginatum was synchronized in a subarctic peatland underlain by permafrost, and to investigate which abiotic factors are limiting root growth. Additionally, the length of the belowground growing season was examined. The study was performed with a non-destructive in situ method (minirhizotrons and NDVI measurements) in the northernmost part of Sweden. Both above- and belowground phenology was measured biweekly during the whole growing season in 2016. The depth of the active layer, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured to investigate the determinants of root growth. Root growth and aboveground activity was asynchronous, as peak in root growth occurred on average 21 days before maximum NDVI was reached. Soil temperature and thaw depth seem to be important factors regulating root growth in this peatland. The result highlight that solely studying the aboveground parts of plants can give a misleading interpretation about the phenology of the entire plant and thus during which time periods important ecosystem processes take place. Hence, to more accurate forecast ecosystem responses to global warming, both aboveground and belowground phenology should be considered.

  • 85354.
    Ögren, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Restaurering för störda områden i kalfjällsmiljö: Utvärdering av pilotförsök för återvegetering av området kring den nedlagda underjordsgruvan i Stekenjokk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate restoration methods used in a revegetation project for the heavily disturbed area around the abandoned underground mine Stekenjokk, located in an alpine area in Västerbotten County, Sweden. The studies were initiated in 2013 by Enetjärn Natur AB on behalf of Boliden Mineral AB and several methods were adopted in the purpose of investigating the feasibility of different restoration methods. Seeding, plantation of adult plants and transplantation of vegetation turfs were performed in combination with addition of organic matter. In addition, ‘safe sites’ were created either by addition of cobbles to the surface, creation of holes in the ground or by putting out coconut mats. All plant material, e.g. seeds, plantation of adult plants and transplantation of vegetation turfs, resulted in new establishment of plants in the area. Spontaneous establishment of plants was also observed in several of the examined plots. Several of the methods used are probably suitable for restoration of the old industrial area in Stekenjokk. However, the success varied among different methods and there was a tendency for higher survival of plants in experimental plots to which soil had been added. A combination of addition of plant material (seeds or adult plants), addition of organic matter and creation of ‘safe sites’ seemed most effective in accelerating revegetation in the heavily degraded area in Stekenjokk. However, sample sizes were small and more studies should be conducted to confirm the generality of this conclusion.

  • 85355.
    Ögren, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Wredle, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ny teknik i hemmet: Mellersta norrland under fyra decennier2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the first half of the 20th century, women’s work in the household altered. New technology was introduced as a help to make housework easier.This study contains a research on how new technology transformed housework. We have based this study on interviews where eight people born between 1924 and 1941 have participated. The questions deal with their experiences on how household work changed due to new technology. The general aim of this research is to study the impact new technology had on housework. Another focus point has been the purchases and who it was that decided what to buy or not. We have also analysed if the housewife experienced that she received more spare time after new technology had been introduced and if so, how she used the left over time. The qualification for enabling new technology, and by new technology we mean electrical devices, was of course that electricity had been installed and all of our informants experienced electricity during their childhood. The analysis discusses the informants’ experiences and is furthermore compared to previous research.The majority of our informants agreed that new technology decreased the amount of time spent doing housework and therefore they also believed that their spare time increased, however, the remaining informants said that they have little remembrance of having any spare time. They believe that the amount of house work was never-ending. The woman in the household decided on what to buy according to most of our informants, some said that the man decided and in one case the husband and wife had a mutual agreement on what to purchase.The results of how the informants received information about new technology are discussed in comparison to the conception of “consumption junction” mentioned by Ruth Schwarz Cowan about the choice the consumer make when deciding whether or not to purchase new technology. The concept “social constructions of technology” composed by Bijker and Pinch discuss that technology is formed by human pursuance and that the social context control how technology is being used. 

  • 85356.
    Ögren, Anne-Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vägen till flytande läsning: En klassrumsstudie om hur man arbetar på mellanstadiet med elever med avkodningssvårigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how students with decoding difficulties are taught, and what support they receive, in order to find out how it affects their reading flow. The aim was also to examine how these students view the support they get and finally their attitudes towards reading and how they see their own reading ability in comparison with that of the other students in the class. A method triangulation of interviews, questionnaires and classroom observations were used in order to answer the research questions. The teaching was adapted by reading factual texts aloud together in the class, and two to three times a week the students read literacy texts quietly. Approximately twice a week students with decoding difficulties received reading instruction. Over a year three out of four focus students increased their reading flow more than the average increase in the class. The majority of students in the class are well aware of the importance of reading. Three out of four focus students believe that reading is more difficult for them than for others.

  • 85357.
    Ögren, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants behind Household Saving Behavior: -Empirical analysis on 15 OECD countries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors behind what determine household saving behaviour. Observing the persistence differences of household saving ratio in OECD countries, serves as the base for the empirical study. Taking stance from economic theory and previous papers to formulate the method and likely explanatory variables suitable for this study, a model is specified based on the theoretical and empirical discussions.

    The result of the empirical analysis estimation finds that the explanatory variables accomplish to explain some of the household saving behaviour. Confirming and expanding on the discussion on the theoretical and empirical discussions. Factors such as uncertainty and fiscal policy are found to have a significant effect on household saving, while failing to prove other established determinants, like demographic factors. Among other included factors considered.

  • 85358.
    Ögren, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Generation of thumbnails2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den moderna människan interagerar med ett stort antal system dagligen. Detta tillsammans med dagens överflöd av applikationer ställer högre krav än någonsin på prestanda och användbarhet. Om ett program läser sig eller på annat sätt upplevs långsamt, finns det ofta ett flertal andra program som kan utföra samma uppgift. I detta arbete utförs en utvärdering av olika konverteringsstrategier i form av olika programvaror och bibliotek. Här görs det en utvärdering av hur optimering, felhantering och andra viktiga faktorer hanteras i dessa olika konverteringsstrategier och vilken inverkan det har på ett system i sin helhet. Det vi har kommit fram till i denna studie är att dåligt optimerade program kan använda stora delar av ett systems resurser och en begränsad felhantering kan leda till situationer som är svåra att återhämta sig från. Vid jämförelsen av olika konverteringsprogram är det observerat att vissa program använder betydligt mer systemresurser än andra program. Denna begränsade felhantering används som standard i de tillämpningar som ar utvärderade, men det går dock att observera att det finns utökad funktionalitet för att hantera fel i många av de konverteringsstrategier som har utvärderats.

  • 85359. Ögren, Erling
    et al.
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature. II. Photosynthetic electron transport1984In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba L. was induced by exposing intact plants to a high photosynthetic photon flux density of 1 750 μmol m−2 s−1 at a low temperature of 3°C. Subsequently isolated chloroplasts showed pronounced reductions in the capacity of whole chain electron transport, measured as Hill activity, and in the efficiency of electron transport to the primary electron acceptor Q of photosystem II, measured as variable chlorophyll fluorescence at 20°C. These changes proceeded with similar kinetics (probably of the first-order reaction), suggesting that the site of photoinhibition is in the electron transfer to Q. A partial uncoupling of the whole chain electron transport also occured. The capacity of electron transport mediated by photosystem I was unaffected. The extent of photoinhibition of photosynthetic electron transport, as produced by a 2 h exposure of L. gibba to three different combinations of photon flux density and temperature was studied. It was shown that intrinsically similar states of photoinhibition, on the evidence of their time courses of recovery, were induced by either a high photon flux density and 25°C or by a moderate photon flux density and 3°C.

  • 85360. Ögren, Erling
    et al.
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in lemna-gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature .3. Chlorophyll fluorescence at 77-K1984In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoinhibition in Lemna gibba L. was studied by interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K on the basis of the bipartite model of Butler and co-workers (Butler 1978). Application of this analysis to chloroplasts (isolated from plants before and after exposure to a photosynthetic photon flux density of 1 750 μmol m−2 s−1 at 3°C for 2 h) revealed that photoinhibition had the following effect on primary events in photosynthesis. Firstly, the fluorescence of PS II increased (44%) in the state of open traps (Fo) and decreased (32%) in the state of closed traps (Fm). It is suggested, that the Fo-decrease reflects increased quenching by radiationless decay, both effects occurring at PS II reaction centers. Secondly, the rate constant for transfer of excitation energy from PS II to PS I (kT(μ→J)) increased by 34%. However, in the state of closed traps, the flux of excitation energy via this transfer process decreased, most likely because of increased quenching by radiationless decay at PS II reaction centers. Thirdly, the probability for fluorescence from PS I decreased (19%). This indicates increased quenching by radiationless decay.

  • 85361.
    Ögren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Högskoleprovet våren och hösten 2013: provdeltagargruppens sammansättning och resultat2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskoleprovet har sedan 1977 fungerat som urvalsinstrument för antagning till universitets- och högskolestudier. Provet genomförs en gång på hösten och en gång på våren och det är tillåtet att göra provet hur många gånger man önskar. Vid mer än ett provresultat är det alltid det bästa resultatet som gäller vid urval till en studieplats. Provresultaten är giltiga i fem år och efter varje provtillfälle överförs råpoängen (antal rätt besvarade uppgifter) till en normerad poäng, på en skala från 0.0 till 2.0, där 2.0 är det högsta resultatet. Denna normering görs för att säkerställa att det är lika lätt eller svårt att erhålla en viss normerad poäng oavsett prov och provgrupp. Avsikten med föreliggande rapport är att beskriva provdeltagargruppernavåren och hösten 2013 med avseende på sammansättning och resultat. Resultaten presenteras för provdeltagare med olika kön, ålder och utbildning. Vidare beskrivs hur normeringen av provresultaten genomförs och utfallet av normeringen. Slutligen presenteras några resultat avseende effekterna av att genomföra provet flera gånger. Resultaten i rapporten grundas på databearbetningar gjorda av Luis Cobian, systemansvarig för högskoleprovet.

  • 85362.
    Ögren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Högskoleprovet våren och hösten 2014: provdeltagargruppens sammansättning och resultat2014Report (Other academic)
  • 85363.
    Ögren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Två tre fyra eller fem: Effekter av förändringar av antalet uppgifter och antalet svarsförslag i ett av högskoleprovets delprov2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 85364.
    Ögren, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Take me to Paisley: En autoetnografisk studie av en kreativ process2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 85365.
    Ögren, J.
    et al.
    Hosp Ostersund, Dept Internal Med, Sect Cerebrovasc Dis, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bergström, L.
    Hosp Ostersund, Dept Internal Med, Neurol Sect, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Intracranial hemorrhage after ischemic stroke Incidence, time-trends and predictors in a Swedish nationwide cohort of 196765 patients2014In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 9, p. 165-165Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Epidemiological data on the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH) after ischemic stroke are sparse. The aims of this study were to describe incidence, trends over time, and predictors of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    All patients registered in the Swedish stroke register Riksstroke for 1998 to 2009 were included (n=196 765), and data were combined with the National Patient Register to identify ICrH occurrence. A matched reference population was obtained. Incidence rates and cumulative incidences were calculated. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify predictors. Analyses were performed separately for the first 30 days and days 31 to 365 after ischemic stroke. The incidence rate was 1.97% per year at risk for the first year (0.13% in the reference population) and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Over time, the cumulative incidence increased the first 30 days but decreased over days 31 to 365. Thrombolysis, previous ICrH, atrial fibrillation, and male sex were associated with increased risk of ICrH during the first 30 days. Previous ICrH, increasing age, and male sex were associated with increased risk during days 31 to 365. Statins and antithrombotic treatment did not independently predict ICrH occurrence.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The incidence of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke was ≈2% per year at risk, about 15 times higher compared with the reference population. Over the study period, ICrH risk increased within the first 30 days but decreased thereafter. Previous ICrH, thrombolysis, and male sex affected the risk, whereas an increased use of antithrombotic treatments and statins did not.

  • 85366.
    Ögren, Joachim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Serious hemorrhage and secondary prevention after stroke and TIA2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of stroke survivors is growing worldwide, and these patients have an increased risk of new vascular events and death. This risk decreases with secondary treatment medications recommended in guidelines. However, the characteristics of unselected stroke patients differ from patients included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, the efficacy of these treatments based on RCT results may not be directly transferable to the patients treated in clinical practice. A treatment may be associated with a higher risk of serious side-effects or less benefit than expected:1) Antithrombotic treatment increases the risk of a serious hemorrhage, a risk that is not well studied in an unselected population with older age and more comorbidities; 2) Treatment of modifiable risk factors after a stroke can be improved. Many patients do not reach treatment targets, which indicates a need for strategies to improve secondary prevention and increase treatment benefit.It is therefore essential to evaluate recommended treatments through studies in a real-world setting.

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to assessincidence, temporal trends, effect on mortality, and factors associated with an increased risk of a serious hemorrhage after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA); andif a nurse-led, telephone-based intervention including medical titration could improve modifiable risk factors in patients after stroke or TIA.

    Methods: In paper I, all patients registered with an IS in the national stroke register Riksstroke during 1998–2009 were studied. The register was combined with the In-Patient Register and a diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage (ICrH) within 1 year after IS was identified. In paper II, any diagnosis of serious hemorrhage was identified during follow-up up to 2015 in all patients with an IS or TIA diagnosis, 2010–2013, at Östersund hospital. The incidences of ICrH (papers I and II) and all serious hemorrhages (paper II) were calculated. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to assess any temporal trend in paper I and if a serious hemorrhage affected survival in study II. Cox regression analysis was used in both studies I and II to assess any factor associated with hemorrhage.

    In the randomized controlled NAILED stroke trial, all patients with acute stroke or TIA treated at Östersund hospital during 2010–2013 were screened for participation. Patients whose condition permitted a telephone-based follow-up were randomized to either a control group with follow-up according to usual care or to an intervention group with a nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up including titration of medication. Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were assessed at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months. We assessed the effect of the intervention on mean levels of BP and LDL-C and on the proportion of patients reaching treatment targets at 12 months (Study III) and at 36 months (Study IV). Study III also assessed for interactions between group allocation and measurement levels at baseline with BP and LDL-C at the 12-month follow-up. Study IV also explored temporal trends.

    Results: The risk of an ICrH was 1.97% per year at risk, within the first year after IS,  and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Between 1998 and 2009, the risk of an ICrH increased during the first 30 days after an IS but decreased during days 31–365. The risk of a serious hemorrhage was 2.48% per year at risk in paper II. It was more common in elderly. The incidence rate was higher in patients discharged with AP compared with RCTs. A hemorrhage increased the risk of death in patients with good functional status but did not affect the already high mortality in patients with impaired functional status. Male sex and previous ICrH were associated with an increased risk of ICrH during the first year after IS, thrombolytic treatment, atrial fibrillation and warfarin were associated with an increased risk in the acute phase. A previous diagnosis of hypertension was associated with an increased risk of all serious hemorrhages. 

    The NAILED trial intervention group had a significantly lower mean systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and LDL-C at 12 and 36 months. The mean SBP at 36 months was 128.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 125.8–130.5) in the intervention group, 6.1 mmHg (95% CI: 3.6–8.6; p<0.001) lower than the control group. The interaction analysis at 12 months showed that the effect of the intervention was confined to patients whose values were above the respective targets at baseline and therefore had their medication adjusted. At 36 months, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the intervention group reached treatment targets for SBP, DBP, and LDL-C. The mean differences and differences in proportions reaching treatment target for BP increased during the 36 months of follow-up.

    Conclusion: A serious hemorrhage after an IS or TIA is fairly common. It is more common in elderly and patients with impaired functional status. The incidence is higher in patients discharged with AP compared with RCTs. A serious hemorrhage could affect survival in patients with good functional status. The nurse-led, telephone-based intervention including medical titration used in the NAILED stroke trial improved risk factor levels after stroke and TIA, and more patients reached treatment targets. The effect increased over time. 

  • 85367.
    Ögren, Joachim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Bergström, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Intracranial Hemorrhage After Ischemic Stroke Incidence, Time Trends, and Predictors in a Swedish Nationwide Cohort of 196765 Patients2015In: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, ISSN 1941-7713, E-ISSN 1941-7705, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Epidemiological data on the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH) after ischemic stroke are sparse. The aims of this study were to describe incidence, trends over time, and predictors of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Methods and Results All patients registered in the Swedish stroke register Riksstroke for 1998 to 2009 were included (n=196 765), and data were combined with the National Patient Register to identify ICrH occurrence. A matched reference population was obtained. Incidence rates and cumulative incidences were calculated. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify predictors. Analyses were performed separately for the first 30 days and days 31 to 365 after ischemic stroke. The incidence rate was 1.97% per year at risk for the first year (0.13% in the reference population) and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Over time, the cumulative incidence increased the first 30 days but decreased over days 31 to 365. Thrombolysis, previous ICrH, atrial fibrillation, and male sex were associated with increased risk of ICrH during the first 30 days. Previous ICrH, increasing age, and male sex were associated with increased risk during days 31 to 365. Statins and antithrombotic treatment did not independently predict ICrH occurrence. Conclusions The incidence of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke was approximate to 2% per year at risk, about 15 times higher compared with the reference population. Over the study period, ICrH risk increased within the first 30 days but decreased thereafter. Previous ICrH, thrombolysis, and male sex affected the risk, whereas an increased use of antithrombotic treatments and statins did not.

  • 85368.
    Ögren, Joachim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Söderström, Lars
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Long-term, telephone-based follow-up after stroke and TIA improves risk factors: 36-month results from the randomized controlled NAILED stroke risk factor trial2018In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 18, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Strategies are needed to improve adherence to the blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level recommendations after stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). We investigated whether nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up that included medication titration was more efficient than usual care in improving BP and LDL-C levels 36 months after discharge following stroke or TIA.

    Methods: All patients admitted for stroke or TIA at Ostersund hospital that could participate in the telephone-based follow-up were considered eligible. Participants were randomized to either nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up (intervention) or usual care (control). BP and LDL-C were measured one month after discharge and yearly thereafter. Intervention group patients who did not meet the target values received additional follow-up, including lifestyle counselling and medication titration, to reach their treatment goals (BP < 140/90 mmHg, LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the systolic BP level 36 months after discharge.

    Results: Out of 871 randomized patients, 660 completed the 36-month follow-up. The mean systolic and diastolic BP values in the intervention group were 128.1 mmHg (95% CI 125.8-1305) and 75.3 mmHg (95% CI 73.8-76.9), respectively. This was 6.1 mmHg (95% CI 3.6-8.6, p < 0.001) and 3.4 mmHg (95% CI 1.8-5.1, p < 0.001) lower than in the control group. The mean LDL-C level was 22 mmol/L in the intervention group, which was 03 mmol/L (95% CI 0.2-0.5, p < 0.001) lower than in controls. A larger proportion of the intervention group reached the treatment goal for BP (systolic: 79.4% vs. 55.3%, p < 0.001; diastolic 90.3% vs. 77.9%, p < 0.001) as well as for LDL-C (69.3% vs. 48.9%, p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Compared with usual care, a nurse-led telephone-based intervention that included medication titration after stroke or TIA improved BP and LDL-C levels and increased the proportion of patients that reached the treatment target 36 months after discharge.

  • 85369.
    Ögren, Joachim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Söderström, Lars
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Serious hemorrhages after ischemic stroke or TIA - Incidence, mortality, and predictors2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0195324Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Data are lacking on the risk and impact of a serious hemorrhage on the prognosis after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA). We aimed to estimate the incidence of serious hemorrhage, analyze the impact on mortality, and identify predictors of hemorrhage after discharge from IS or TIA.

    Methods and findings: All patients admitted to Östersund Hospital for an IS or TIA in 2010–2013 were included (n = 1528, mean age: 75.1 years). Serious hemorrhages were identified until 31st December 2015. Incidence rates were calculated. The impact on mortality (stratified by functional level) was determined with Kaplan-Meier analysis. Non-parametric estimation under the assumption of competing risk was performed to assess the cumulative incidence and predictors of serious hemorrhages. The incidence rates of serious (n = 113) and intracranial hemorrhages (n = 45) after discharge from IS and TIA were 2.48% and 0.96% per year at risk, respectively. Patients with modified Rankin Scale (mRS) scores of 3–5 exhibited 58.9% mortality during follow-up and those with mRS scores of 0–2 exhibited 18.4% mortality. A serious hemorrhage did not affect mortality in patients with impaired functional status, but it increased the risk of death in patients with mRS scores of 0–2. Hypertension was associated with increased risk of serious hemorrhage.

    Conclusions: We found that, after discharge from an IS or TIA, serious hemorrhages were fairly common. Impairments in function were associated with high mortality, but serious hemorrhages only increased the risk of mortality in patients with no or slight disability. Improved hypertension treatment may decrease the risk of serious hemorrhage, but in patients with low functional status, poor survival makes secondary prevention challenging.

  • 85370.
    Ögren, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bergner, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Relationsbyggande under asylprocessen: En allians mellan boendepersonal och ensamkommande barn?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På grund av den rådande flyktingkrisen har antalet ensamkommande barn som kommer till Sverige ökat dramatiskt under de senaste åren. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka hur boendepersonal upplevde relationen till ensamkommande barn utifrån ett alliansperspektiv. Detta undersöktes genom en kvalitativ studie där fyra semi-strukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med boendepersonal från två olika HVB för asylsökande ensamkommande barn. Empirin analyserades sedan genom en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Huvudresultatet för studien visade att boendepersonalen upplevde att relationen till barnen var komplex då ett flertal faktorer inverkade på relationsbyggandet. Allians visade sig vara ett användbart begrepp utifrån vissa aspekter men kunde inte beskriva relationen i sin helhet.

  • 85371.
    Ögren, Kathrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    ARHQ-vux: En kvantitativ förstudie om utformandet av ett screeningverktyg2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This quantitative study examines whether the English screening tool ”Adult Reading History Questionnaire” works in a Swedish context or not. The essay is based on a formation of a new screening tool called ARHQ-vux. The intention was to find out whether a person might be dyslectic or not. ARHQ-vux is based on components such as heredity factors and how the informants experienced school as a child. The screening tool was tested in a sample of 71 adult students at five different adult educational institutions in the north of Sweden. To measure the validity a correlation was made between ARHQ-vux and the already standardized Swedish screening tool DUVAN. This study shows that the tool ARHQ-vux successfully can be used as a reliable screening tool to identify adults who might be at risk of dyslexia.

  • 85372.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media.
    Hyfs och stil i sättet att skriva om lobotomi: Ett nedslag i psykiatrins historia där ironin var vapen2006In: Läkartidningen, no 103, p. 482-4Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85373.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Neurosis and modernity: the age of nervousness in Sweden by Petteri Pietikainen2010In: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, ISSN 0964-704X, E-ISSN 1744-5213, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 272-275Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 85374.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Operera psykisk sjukdom2014In: Västerbotten, ISSN 0346-4938, no 3, p. 54-59Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85375.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Portrayals of lobotomy in American and Swedish media2013In: Literature, neurology and neuroscience: neurological and psychiatric disorders / [ed] Stanley Finger, François Boller and Anne Stiles, Amsterdam: Elsevier , 2013, p. 201-217Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Psychosurgery has a long history dating back to the 1880s when Gottlieb Burckhardt performed focal cerebral cortical excisions on the brains of six patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. His operations were vividly contested by the medical community of the time. In 1936, when Walter J. Freeman and James W. Watts performed their initial prefrontal lobotomies in the United States, they were met with some professional opposition from superintendents, who would not provide them with patients for the operation. However, Freeman and Watts managed to cope well with the opponents. In newspapers and magazines, the curiosity for lobotomy was obvious. Freeman was instrumental in the way he promoted lobotomy, and he evoked the interest of the press and the journalists for this new surgical treatment on mental illness, something that he regarded as a medico-historical breakthrough. In this chapter, the portrayal of lobotomy in American and Swedish newspapers and magazines is explored and analyzed. How did journalists write about lobotomy for the public in the years spanning 1936 to 1959, a period in which the American and Swedish presses appeared inclined to describe the positive effects of lobotomy, while neglecting the negative and fatal consequences of the operation. There are not only similarities but also interesting differences between the Swedish and the American articles depicting lobotomy. The media can be a powerful factor in the construction of “facts,” which can significantly affect decisions made by people about their health issues. 

  • 85376.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Psychosurgery in Sweden 1944 - 1958: the practice, the professional and media discourse2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. The pioneering early experiments of prefrontal lobotomy were performed in 1944 by neurosurgeons in Stockholm in collaboration with psychiatrists. There was a rapid implementation of the new surgical approach. In 1946 and 1947 the two state mental hospitals, Umedalen and Sidsjön, introduced prefrontal lobotomy on a large scale. General surgeons now performed operations, a practice which was established all over Sweden. Prefrontal lobotomy was burdened, in certain city hospitals, by an initially high rate of postoperative mortality reaching more than 15 %. Pre-frontal lobotomy was phased out continuously already before 1950 and refined psychosurgical methods were introduced , but prefrontal lobotomy was still continued which lacked specialised neurosurgical units. The aims of the thesis were to contribute to and deepen the knowledge and understanding of the general and specific questions of early psychosurgery in its professional and social context.

    Specific aims: (Explore the practice of prefrontal lobotomy at the Umedalen State Mental hospital and plot the frequency of psychosurgery operations in Sweden.

    • Analyze the patients subjected to prefrontal lobotomy at the Umedalen State Mental Hospital 1947-1958, with respect to symptomatology and diagnosis, indications for the operation, gender distribution postoperative mortality, the practice of consent and other clinical factors.

    • Explore and analyze what was written on psychosurgery, when and how, and to identify differences, similarities and characteristics of the portrayal of psychosurgery in Swedish and American media 1936-1959.

    • Explore and analyze the confluence of the role of the State authority, The Swedish National Board of Health (Medicinalstyrelsen), the professional discourses on lobotomy and the media portrayal, in dealing with problems of implementation and mortality.

    Results. Paper I. At the Umedalen State Mental Hospital, 771 prefrontal lobotomies were performed 1947-1958 with an overall postoperative mortality of 7.4 %. Most of the patients operated on from Umedalen were women (61.2%) and most of the patients were diagnosed with schizophrenia. Of all the lobotomies performed in Sweden (approx. 4,500), 28% had been carried out at the Sidsjön and Umedalen State Mental Hospitals.

    Paper II. A sample of 105 patients, who were studied in detail from psychiatric records. It was found that 79% had been six years in primary school and only 3% had a higher education. In an analysis of the descriptions of behavioural problems stated in the medical records, it was found that the female candidate for prefrontal lobotomy was described as suffering from different problems more often than the male candidate. Disturbing behaviour, fluctuations of mood and violence against others were the most frequently described symptoms most often referred to with respect to the female lobotomy candidate.

    Paper III. In the comparative media study it was found that most of the articles on lobotomy in the Swedish and American media were positive or neutral towards psychosurgery, while very negative articles were least frequent. Neutral articles were more common in Swedish media (43%) while less common in the American media (19%). Articles being very negative towards lobotomy were considerably more often found in the American material (32%) than in the Swedish (14%).

    Paper IV. The implementation of lobotomy was rapid in Sweden and more than 4000 lobotomies were performed between 1944 and 1964. It was considered feasible for prefrontal lobotomies to be performed by general surgeons and, from 1951, it can be verified that most hospitals (12/20) had engaged general surgeons for the lobotomy operation while a minority (8/20) had engaged a neurosurgeon. The Swedish State, through the Swedish National Board of Health was responsible of the allocation and surveillance of mental care. With a system consisting of a Chief Inspector of Mental Care, State mental hospitals were inspected annually. Medical superintendents were given full autonomy to decide on the implementation and practice of lobotomy. No indications were found of any significant interference by the Swedish National Board of Health restricting lobotomy.

    Main conclusion. Medical superintendents were given full autonomy to decide on the clinical practice of lobotomy. Being left in the periphery of neurosurgical facilities, this led to their engaging general surgeons. Patients were operated on in surgical theatres lacking the sophisticated technical equipment of coping securely with haemorrhages, which were common in the early implementation of the operation. The practice of lobotomy in some mental hospitals was extensive and postoperative deaths were numerous but the Swedish National Board of Health took a defensive role and, even with the annual inspections, there was no important interference with the lobotomy question. Swedish media reported mostly positively on lobotomy, underlining the promising prospects of the new method submitted by the early proponents without critical questioning or independent investigations.

  • 85377.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media.
    Rädda det gamla filmarkivet: Göteborgsposten2004In: GöteborgspostenArticle in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 85378.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    The surgical offensives against mental disorder: psychosurgery in Sweden 1944-19582005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 85379.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Lindblad, I-B
    Lobotomy i Swedish and American media 1936-1959Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 85380.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Implementation of lobotomy in Sweden: the role of the state and the professionsManuscript (Other academic)
  • 85381.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Lobotomy at a state mental hospital: a survey of patients operated during the period 1947 to 19582007In: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry, ISSN 0803-9488, E-ISSN 1502-4725, Vol. 61, no 5, p. 355-362Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This retrospective survey aims at describing patients subjected to prefrontal lobotomies and the general treatment conditions at Umedalen State Mental Hospital during the period 1947–1958. Data collected from psychiatric and surgical medical records was analysed using quantitative and qualitative content analysis. A total of 771 patients subjected to lobotomy during the years 1947–1958 were identified. From these, a sample of 105 patients was selected for the purpose of obtaining detailed data on socio-economic status, diagnosis, symptomatology, other psychiatric treatments applied before the pre-frontal lobotomy operation, time spent in hospital before operation, praxis of consent and mortality. The diagnosis of schizophrenia was found in 84% of the 771 lobotomized patients. The post-operative mortality was 7.4% (57 deaths), with the highest rate in 1949 (17%). The mean age of the patient at the time of operation was 44.8 years for females and 39.5 years for male patients. The average length of pre-operative time in hospital for females was 10.7 years and for males 3.5 years. It remains unclear why this mental hospital conducted the lobotomy operation to such a comparatively great extent. Factors such as overcrowding of wards and its status as a modern mental hospital may have contributed.

  • 85382.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Psychosurgery in Sweden 1944-19642005In: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, ISSN 0964-704X, E-ISSN 1744-5213, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 353-367Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85383.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sjöström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bengtsson, Nils-Olof
    Lobotomins okända historia: kvinnor, barn och idioter opererades2000In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 97, no 30-31, p. 3395-3398Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 85384. Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång2005In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 271-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 85385. Ögren, ML
    et al.
    Jonsson, CO
    Sundin, EC
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: The relationship between focus, group climate, and perceived attained skill2005In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85386.
    Ögren, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Forslund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Screening techniques, sustainability and risk adjusted returns.: - A quantitative study on the Swedish equity funds market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have primarily compared the performance of sustainable equity funds

    and non-sustainable equity funds. A meta-analysis over 85 different studies in the field

    concludes that there is no statistically significant difference in risk-adjusted returns

    when comparing sustainable funds and non-sustainable funds. This study is thus an

    extension on previous studies where the authors have chosen to test the two most

    common sustainability screening techniques to test if there is a difference within the

    sustainability field of equity funds.

    In this study, we compare the performance of the two primary screening techniques

    used with regards to sustainability within the equity fund industry: the exclusionary

    Negative Screening and the Mixed Method Screening (Negative screen followed by an

    additional positive screen). The tests were conducted on both Swedish equity funds as

    well as Global equity funds, where both groups had to be eligible to be marketed in

    Sweden according to Swedish law. What the study found when comparing the two types

    of screening techniques was that over a five-year period, equity funds using a Mixed

    Method screen had a significantly lower risk adjusted return compared to the Negative

    Screen group. The study also showed differences between Global equity funds and

    Swedish equity funds, where Global equity funds were the category that did not produce

    significantly different risk adjusted returns when screened for sustainability criteria’s.

    The findings put forward in this study indicate that the Modern Portfolio Theory and its

    joining theory of the Efficient Frontier are applicable to the sustainability-screening

    context. The Good Management theory is also tested with regards to a company’s CSR

    work and risk-adjusted returns. The Good Management theory does however not find

    any support in our results. CAPM is also tested in the context of sustainability

    screening, and the results found regarding the CAPM’s ability to explain different

    returns are not as clear-cut as the rest of the results.

    Our overall conclusion from this study is that Negative Screening produces better

    financial results compared to Mixed Method screening with regards to sustainability,

    but more importantly we have come to realize that the transparency within the mutual

    funds market must be enhanced with regards to sustainability in order for future studies

    to deliver a more in-depth analysis of the causes that drives the different returns.

  • 85387. Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    Sepman, Alexey
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Comparison of measurement techniques for temperature and soot concentration in premixed, small-scale burner flames2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 11328-11336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical and intrusive measurement techniques for temperature and soot concentration in hot reacting flows were tested on a small-scale burner in fuel-rich, oxygen-enriched atmospheric flat flames produced to simulate the environment inside an entrained flow reactor. The optical techniques comprised two-color pyrometry (2C-PYR), laser extinction (LE), and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), and the intrusive methods included fine-wire thermocouple thermometry (TC) and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) particle analysis. Vertical profiles of temperature and soot concentration were recorded in flames with different equivalence and O2/N2 ratios. The 2C-PYR and LE data were derived assuming mature soot. Gas temperatures up to 2200 K and soot concentrations up to 3 ppmv were measured. Close to the burner surface, the temperatures obtained with the pyrometer were up to 300 K higher than those measured by TDLAS. Further away from the burner, the difference was within 100 K. The TC-derived temperatures were within 100 K from the TDLAS results for most of the flames. At high signal-to-noise ratio and in flame regions with mature soot, the temperatures measured by 2C-PYR and TDLAS were similar. The soot concentrations determined with 2C-PYR were close to those obtained with LE but lower than the ELPI results. It is concluded that the three optical techniques have good potential for process control applications in combustion and gasification processes. 2C-PYR offers simpler installation and 2D imaging, whereas TDLAS and LE provide better accuracy and dynamic range without calibration procedures.

  • 85388.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 85389. Öhberg, F
    et al.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nilsson, K-G
    Edström, U
    Gustavsson, O
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundström, R
    Gait analysis using a portable motion sensor system: measurements in subjects with hip implants as compared with healthy controls2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 85390.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Biomechanical methods and error analysis related to chronic musculoskeletal pain2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spinal pain is one of humanity’s most frequent complaints with high costs for the individual and society, and is commonly related to spinal disorders. There are many origins behind these disorders e.g., trauma, disc hernia or of other organic origins. However, for many of the disorders, the origin is not known. Thus, more knowledge is needed about how pain affects the neck and neural function in pain affected regions. The purpose of this dissertation was to improve the medical examination of patients suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders or other pain related neck-disorders.

    Methods A new assessment tool for objective movement analysis was developed. In addition, basic aspects of proprioceptive information transmission, which can be of relevance for muscular tension and pain, are investigated by studying the coding of populations of different types of sensory afferents by using a new spike sorting method. Both experiments in animal models and humans were studied to accomplish the goals of this dissertation. Four cats where were studied in acute animal experiments. Mixed ensembles of afferents were recorded from L7-S1 dorsal root filaments when mechanical stimulating the innervated muscle. A real-time spike sorting method was developed to sort units in a multi-unit recording. The quantification of population coding was performed using a method based on principal component analysis. In the human studies, 3D neck movement data were collected from 59 subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and 56 control subjects. Neck movement patterns were identified by processing movement data into parameters describing the rotation of the head for each subject. Classification of neck movement patterns was performed using a neural network using processed collected data as input. Finally, the effect of marker position error on the estimated rotation of the head was evaluated by computer simulations.

    Results Animal experiments showed that mixed ensembles of different types of afferents discriminated better between different muscle stimuli than ensembles of single types of these afferents. All kinds of ensembles showed an increase in discriminative ability with increased ensemble size. It is hypothesized that the main reason for the greater discriminative ability might be the variation in sensitivity tuning among the individual afferents of the mixed ensemble will be larger than that for ensembles of only one type of afferent. In the human studies, the neural networks had a predictivity of 0.89, a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.88 when discriminating between control and WAD subjects. Also, a systematic error along the radial axis of the rigid body added to a single marker had no affect on the estimated rotation of the head.

    Conclusion The developed spike sorting method, using neural networks, was suitable for sorting a multiunit recording into single units when performing neurophysiological experiments. Also, it was shown that neck movement analysis combined with a neural network could build the basis of a decision support system for classifying suspected WAD or other pain related neck-disorders.

  • 85391.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    The effect of anisotropic systematic errors in estimating helical angles.2008In: Comput Methods Biomech Biomed Engin, ISSN 1025-5842, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 205-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common question in movement studies is how the results should be interpreted with respect to systematic and random errors. In this study, simulations are made in order to see how a rigid body's orientation in space (i.e. helical angle between two orientations) is affected by (1) a systematic error added to a single marker (2) a combination of this systematic error and Gaussian white noise. The orientation was estimated after adding a systematic error to one marker within the rigid body. This procedure was repeated with Gaussian noise added to each marker.

    In conclusion, results show that the systematic error's effect on estimated orientation depends on number of markers in the rigid body and also on which direction the systematic error is added. The systematic error has no effect if the error is added along the radial axis (i.e. the line connecting centre of mass and the affected marker).

  • 85392.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Bäcklund, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Portable Sensors Add Reliable Kinematic Measures to the Assessment of Upper Extremity Function2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 5, article id 1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ordinal scales with low resolution are used to assess arm function in clinic. These scales may be improved by adding objective kinematic measures. The aim was to analyze within-subject, inter-rater and overall reliability (i.e., including within-subject and inter-rater reliability) and check the system's validity of kinematic measures from inertial sensors for two such protocols on one person. Twenty healthy volunteers repeatedly performed two tasks, finger-to-nose and drinking, during two test sessions with two different raters. Five inertial sensors, on the forearms, upper arms and xiphoid process were used. Comparisons against an optical camera system evaluated the measurement validity. Cycle time, range of motion (ROM) in shoulder and elbow were calculated. Bland-Altman plots and linear mixed models including the generalizability (G) coefficient evaluated the reliability of the measures. Within-subject reliability was good to excellent in both tests (G = 0.80-0.97) and may serve as a baseline when assessing upper extremities in future patient groups. Overall reliability was acceptable to excellent (G = 0.77-0.94) for all parameters except elbow axial rotation in finger-to-nose task and both elbow axial rotation and flexion/extension in drinking task, mainly due to poor inter-rater reliability in these parameters. The low to good reliability for elbow ROM probably relates to high within-subject variability. The sensors provided good to excellent measures of cycle time and shoulder ROM in non-disabled individuals and thus have the potential to improve today's assessment of arm function.

  • 85393.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sterner, Ylva
    Karlsson, J Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Chronic whiplash associated disorders and neck movement measurements: an instantaneous helical axis approach.2003In: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 274-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an assessment tool for objective neck movement analysis of subjects suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Three-dimensional (3-D) motion data is collected by a commercially available motion analysis system. Head rotation, defined in this paper as the rotation angle around the instantaneous helical axis (IHA), is used for extracting a number of variables (e.g., angular velocity and range, symmetry of motion). Statistically significant differences were found between controls and subjects with chronic WAD in a number of variables.

  • 85394.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences.
    Johansson, H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Physiology.
    Bergenheim, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Physiology.
    Pedersen, J
    Djupsjöbacka, M
    A neural network appoach to real-time spike discrimination during simultaneous recording from several multi-unit nerve filaments1996In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-channel, real-time, unsupervised spike discriminator was developed in order to reconstruct single spike trains from several simultaneously recorded multi-unit nerve filaments. The program uses a Self Organising Map (SOM) algorithm for the classification of the spikes. In contrast to previous similar techniques, the described method is made for use on a PC, and the method may thus be implemented at relatively low cost. In order to test the accuracy of the program, a robustness test was performed, where noise with different RMS levels was superimposed on the spikes. Furthermore, the maximal classification rate was determined. The program is easy to use, since the only manual inputs needed are the voltage threshold for spike detection, and the number of units present in each recorded nerve filament.

  • 85395.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Comparative analysis of different adaptive filters for tracking lower segments of a human body using inertial motion sensors2013In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 085703-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For all segments and tests, a modified Kalman filter and a quasi-static sensor fusion algorithm were equally accurate (precision and accuracy similar to 2-3 degrees) compared to normalized least mean squares filtering, recursive least-squares filtering and standard Kalman filtering. The aims were to: (1) compare adaptive filtering techniques used for sensor fusion and (2) evaluate the precision and accuracy for a chosen adaptive filter. Motion sensors (based on inertial measurement units) are limited by accumulative integration errors arising from sensor bias. This drift can partly be handled with adaptive filtering techniques. To advance the measurement technique in this area, a new modified Kalman filter is developed. Differences in accuracy were observed during different tests especially drift in the internal/external rotation angle. This drift can be minimized if the sensors include magnetometers.

  • 85396.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Claesson, Kenji
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Edström, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Home-based system for recording pulmonary function and disease-related symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD: a pilot study2016In: SM Journal of Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 2574-240X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) suffer from acute exacerbations characterized by an increase in symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variation. The prognosis of patients with frequent exacerbations is poor and effort to curb these worsening episodes has great potential to improve the patient’s quality of life and to reduce associated costs. Telemonitoring has been proposed as a promising strategy in this respect. However, information on what physical signs or symptoms that should be recorded and how recorded data should be interpreted is largely missing in the literature.

    Methods: A new home-based system, based on a tablet computer, which can guide COPD patients to perform spirometry (inspiratory capacity, IC and forced expiratory volume in one and six seconds, FEV1 and FEV6) and record symptoms (COPD assessment test, CAT) was developed. The system was evaluated for 8-12 weeks in four patients with moderate to severe COPD with the aims to; i) assess the feasibility of the system to be used unsupervised by COPD patients and, ii) to evaluate the quality and ability of recorded parameters to reveal early signs of an exacerbation. Pearson bivariate correlation was performed between all outcome measures and descriptive information about inherent subject properties were presented.

    Results: The system was well accepted by all study subjects and the study generated a total of 253 measurements of which 94.5% were considered acceptable for analysis. One of the subjects developed an acute exacerbation towards the end of the study, whereas the other three subjects remained stable. Descriptive analysis of the data suggest that trends in the CAT score may indicate changes in health status and that IC tends to be more responsive to these changes compared to FEV1.

    Conclusion: The system developed in this study is well suited to be used unsupervised by COPD patients. Recorded data, in particular CAT, may be sensitive enough to detect early signs of an acute COPD exacerbation, although more data is needed to fully resolve the nature of such an association.

  • 85397.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner-Rocklöv, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Three-Dimensional Camera System for Measuring Arm Volume in Women with Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Treatment2014In: Lymphatic Research and Biology, ISSN 1539-6851, E-ISSN 1557-8585, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lymphedema is a common complication following breast cancer treatment, estimated to affect 20% of breast cancer survivors. The condition is associated with a number of symptoms, such as impaired range of motion and anxiety. A wide range of methods for determining the volume of the lymphedematous arm have been described. Circumference measurement (CM) is commonly used in clinics to appraise arm volume, while water displacement (WD) is often used in studies. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of a new method using 3D-technology in comparison to CM and WD. Methods and Results: The study was performed on 25 subjects with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Volumetric data from CM, WD, and the 3D-camera were gathered on all subjects. The measurements were performed by two physiotherapists, each subject being measured by one of the physiotherapist. Estimates of differences between the methods was calculated through analyzing the data collected from the three methods using mixed-design analyses of variance. The results indicated a tendency for the 3D-camera to overestimate the volume in comparison the WD by 45.25 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) -36.31 - 126.82 (p value 0.270). Conversely, CM showed a tendency to underestimate the volume compared to WD (-24.28 mL, CI -99.78 - 51.22, p value 0.521). Thus, no statistically significant difference was found between the methods. Conclusions: The 3D-camera is a viable method for measuring arm volume, performing on level with the established methods WD and CM.

  • 85398.
    Öhberg, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bång, Ulla
    Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Biological control of clover rot and red clover by Coniothyrium minitans under natural and controlled climatic conditions2010In: Biocontrol science and technology (Print), ISSN 0958-3157, E-ISSN 1360-0478, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Coniothyrium minitans, contained in the commercial product Contans®WG, to control the development of clover rot in red clover, Trifolium pratense, was for the first time investigated in the field. Studies were performed on an established ley with a grass-clover mixture and on a newly sown pure red clover ley, both at a field site naturally infested with Sclerotinia trifoliorum. In the latter experiment the biocontrol agent was applied either prior to sowing or to growing seedlings. In addition, the ability of sclerotia of two S. trifoliorum isolates to cause disease in detached leaves was studied in a controlled environment. The effect of Contans®WG treatments at temperatures between +5 and +15°C and incubation periods of up to 7 weeks were included. Application of the biocontrol agent to the established ley during early summer, significantly reduced the number of groups of apothecia that developed during autumn in the following year in treated plots, compared to untreated plots. Twice as many red clover plants of the cultivar SW Torun survived in the pure red clover stand experiment the year after Contans®WG application as in the untreated plots, irrespective of how the agent was applied. In the laboratory studies, administering biocontrol treatments to sclerotia significantly reduced disease scores in the detached leaves at all temperatures at an exposure time of 7 weeks. Shorter incubation periods did not always negatively affect sclerotial viability.

  • 85399.
    Öhberg, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Alfredson, H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Neovascularisation in Achilles tendons with painful tendinosis but not in normal tendons2001In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 85400.
    Öhberg, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Sclerosing therapy in chronic Achilles tendon insertional pain: results of a pilot study2003In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 339-343Article in journal (Refereed)
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