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  • 86101.
    Öbrand, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mathiassen, Lars
    Georgia State University.
    Between a rock and a hard place: facing dilemmas in IT risk management2018In: Journal of Information Technology Theory and Application, ISSN 1552-6496, E-ISSN 1532-4516, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 22-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we extend IT risk management theory using evidence gleaned from IT-enabled process management in a Swedish pulp and paper factory. Our analyses of risk management practices in the factory’s core process revealed surprising insights. As organizational actors managed process related IT risks to ensure that the core production process was running 24/7, they generated strategic IT risks that threatened the sustainability of the process infrastructure. However, they could not manage these strategic risks without jeopardizing the 24/7 operation. Hence, they inadvertently found themselves between a rock and a hard place where they could not mitigate one high priority risk without generating another. Drawing on practice theory, we explain the observed risk management practices, introduce the notion of risk dilemmas, and discuss the practice-based view of risk as a useful approach to advancing IT risk management theory.

  • 86102.
    Öbrand, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Newman, Mike
    Alliance Manchester Business School, The University of Manchester; Turku School of Economics, The University of Turku, Finland.
    Navigating Rumsfeld's quadrants: A performative perspective on IT risk management2018In: Technology in society, ISSN 0160-791X, E-ISSN 1879-3274, Vol. 53, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we contribute to risk management theory by investigating the internal dynamics of IT risks in contemporary organizations. We explore how digitization of previously physical organizational con- texts trigger risk by conceptualizing risk management from a performative perspective and the assumption that risks are sociomaterial by nature. Through an exploratory case study of the risk man- agement practices at a paper and pulp factory, we analyze the different epistemic strategies employed by the practitioners as proactive, reactive and adaptive. We discuss how and why these strategies emerge as a result of the sociomaterial configurations. 

  • 86103.
    Öbrand, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Newman, Mike
    Universtiy of Manchester.
    Recalcitrant technologies and unfolding ontologies: exploring epistemic strategies in IT risk managementManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 86104.
    Ödin, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Internalisering av yttermembranvesiklar från Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans i humana celler2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86105.
    Ödling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Ljudnivån i förskola före och efter införandet av ljudnivåvakten soundear20002005Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86106.
    Ödling, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Seijsing, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Naturpromenaders påverkan på personer med mental ohälsa: En litteraturstudie2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86107.
    Ödling, Camilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Täfvander, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Insourcing after outsourcing, A study of the opportunities and challenges in the insourcing process2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Outsourcing has been a common topic in relation to business strategy for many decades. It is when an organization transfer some activities to an external vendor. In order to achieve a competitive advantage organizations use external vendors to perform the activities more efficiently and effectively. The global competitive environment has increased the use of outsourcing worldwide, concequently the use of outsourcing has changed the boundaries of todays firms. Lately, backsourcing has gained more attention, which is when an organization has outsourced an activity that was previously executed in house, and then bring it back into the organization again. Insourcing on the other hand, has been given less attention. It is when an outsourced activity that has not been executed within the organization previously, is internalized. The reason for choosing this research topic was that we wanted to write about something that could be applied to the “real world” and the decisions that business leaders face in their occupation. Therefore, when we were offered the chance to write our degree project for Alfa Sweden we accepted their proposal.

    We identified two main research gaps in the existing research regarding insourcing, there is no study that covers the insourcing process and the steps inherent in it. Additionally, how the organization’s capabilities are linked to the opportunities and challenges organizations face during insourcing, has not been examined before. Therefore, the purpose of this thesis is to build a model of the insourcing process and the steps included in each phase of the process. Additionally, to explore the opportunities and challenges that can arise when organizations go through the insourcing process. These opportunities and challenges will be connected to the company’s capabilities, meaning its resources and competences.

    In order to fulfill this purpose and gain a deeper understanding of this relatively unexplored field, a qualitative study was conducted. Eight semi-structured interviews were pursued where seven interviewees represented different companies belonging to the same group and one interviewee represented the perspective of an accountant firm.

    From the results of the interviews, we derived four themes, namely design of the sourcing solution, the insourcing process, resources and competences. Through analyzing the results of our study we have been able to create a model for what the insourcing process looks like and the steps included in the planning, implementation and control phase. This model can contribute and guide companies who are planning to insource certain activities in the future. Furthermore, our results revealed several opportunities and challenges and their connection to the company’s resources and competences. In addition to these theoretical contributions and practical implications we also provide practical recommendations for Alfa Sweden. 

  • 86108.
    Ödling Davidsson, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Johagen, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Appelblad, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Svenmarker, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Reversal of Heparin After Cardiac Surgery: Protamine Titration Using a Statistical Model2015In: Journal of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Anesthesia, ISSN 1053-0770, E-ISSN 1532-8422, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 710-714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To establish a statistical model for determination of protamine dose in conjunction with cardiopulmonary bypass. Design: Prospective.

    Setting: University hospital.

    Participants: Ninety consecutive cardiac surgical patients.

    Interventions: None.

    Measurements and Main Results: A series of clinically oriented variables were introduced into a statistical model for projection of the protamine dose after cardiopulmonary bypass. The following significant predictors were identified using multivariable regression analysis: The patient's body surface area, the administered dose of heparin, heparin clearance, and the preoperative platelet count. The statistical model projected the protamine dose within 3 +/- 23 mg of the point-of-care test used as reference.

    Conclusion: Protamine dosing based on statistical modeling represents an alternative to point-of-care tests.

  • 86109.
    Ödling, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Miljökvalitetsmålen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86110.
    Ödling, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Trettonde partskonferensen på Bali, Indonesien 20072008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86111.
    Ödling, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Engström, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Erfarenheter av stigmatisering i hälso- och sjukvården bland personer som drabbats av HIV.: -en litteraturstudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Title: Experiences of stigma in health care among people affected by HIV- A literature review Background: HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) has been associated with stigmatization for a long time because of ignorance and uncertainty still exists regarding the transmission routes and infectivity. Aim: The aim for the study was to highlight experiences of stigma in health care among people affected by HIV. Method: A literature study was conducted with ten qualitative articles from eight different countries. The articles were examined, analyzed and compiled. Results: The result generated two categories and five subcategories. The categories are: To be treated with a lack of care actions and experiences of integrity violation. The sub-categories are: excessive security measures, ignorant attitudes, lack of secrecy, offensive body language and abusive verbal communication.                                                                   Conclusion: Lack of knowledge about HIV can be seen internationally seen as a contributing factor to the patients still experiencing varying stigmatized treatment by health professionals. To counteract the stigma requires research that can generate knowledge on how health professionals can provide better treatment and that this information is disseminated to the medical staff. Keywords: HIV, stigmatization, patient-experience, discrimination.

  • 86112.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Professional caregivers’ experiences of caring for women with breast cancer on a surgical ward2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the thesis was to describe caregivers’ experiences of caring for women with breast cancer on a surgical ward. The study was based on interviews with narrative parts and tape-recorded clinical supervision sessions. The interviews and clinical supervision sessions were transcribed verbatim, and analysed by content analysis.

    Nurses (n=10) described life for women with breast cancer as either having freedom or not having freedom, with both physical and existential suffering. Dying occurred either naturally in patients’ own home or unnaturally in hospital. The nurses felt that it is possible to alleviate suffering during dying through providing adequate pain relief but also, through listening, providing information and changing the caring atmosphere (I).

    Breast cancer as an illness was described from a dark point of view by caregivers (n=37). The descriptions focused on loss of breasts and control, progression of the illness and annihilation. The illness seemed, in the caregivers’ mind, to often end with a painful death. Caregivers who had the opportunity to follow the total care process described a lighter viewpoint (II).

    According to nurses (=31) the most important needs among women, their relatives and nurses themselves were the needs to talk and receive information. There was a discrepancy between what was described as important needs and the descriptions of how these needs were provided for. Nurses, whose own needs for support were sometimes unsatisfactorily met (III), seemed almost to be unaware of the needs among women and their relatives.

    In the clinical supervision sessions caregivers reflected on difficult care situations related to women’s, relatives’, and most often caregivers’ feelings (n=38). The care situations were described as evoking feelings of discomfort, powerlessness and reduced self-esteem. These feelings were described by caregivers as arising in connection with caring for especially women with advanced breast cancer in a changing organisation (IV).

    Caregivers’ descriptions of caring for women with breast cancer show a lot of negative experiences of powerlessness and frustration. They met women and their relatives who suffered in various ways and had considerable need for support. Caregivers often found themselves unable to meet these needs due to organisational obstacles e.g. lack of time and lack of knowledge about other caregivers’ responsibility in the care.

  • 86113.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Danielson, E
    Christensen, SB
    Norberg, A
    Living with breast cancer: care givers’ perceptions in a surgical ward1998In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 187-195Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86114.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Danielson, E
    Jansson, L
    Caregivers’ descriptions of patients with advanced breast cancer in connection with supervision sessions in a surgical ward2001In: Cancer Nursing, ISSN 0162-220X, E-ISSN 1538-9804, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 28-34Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86115.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Norberg, A
    Life, suffering and dying as narrated by nurses in a surgical wardArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 86116.
    Ödling, Gunvor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Norberg, A
    Danielson, E
    Care of women with breast cancer on a surgical ward: nurses’ opinions of needs for support for women, relatives and themselves2002In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 77-86Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86117.
    Ödling, Ramona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of Creative Studies (Teacher Education).
    Pedagogers tankar om bild i förskolan: En studie om bildens syfte och barns bildskapande utveckling i förskolan2012Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att öka förståelsen av bildskapande i förskolan utifrån pedagogers perspektiv. Jag ville ge en inblick i hur pedagoger ser på bildskapandets betydelse i förskolan samt undersöka hur pedagoger i förskolan förhåller sig till bildarbete och barns bildskapande. De tre frågeställningar som ställdes var: Hur beskriver pedagogerna arbetet med bild i förskolan?, Vad vill pedagogerna uppnå med bild i förskolan? och Hur beskriver pedagogerna barns bildskapande utveckling? För att besvara forskningsfrågorna användes en kvalitativ intervjuteknik kallad halvstrukturerad livsvärldsintervju. Totalt sju pedagoger intervjuades. Resultatet visade att pedagogerna beskrev arbete med bild som en kompromiss mellan deras visioner och de hinder ramfaktorer innebar. Fem olika målsättningar med bild lokaliserades varav flest pedagoger uttryckte att bildens målsättning var att utveckla barns bildskapande och att barnen skulle uppnå känslomässiga mål. Pedagogerna hade olika uppfattningar om barns bildskapande utveckling, tre kategorier kunde lokaliseras beroende på vilken orsak pedagogerna framhöll att bildskapande utvecklingen hade sin grund i. Dessa var: inifrån, socialt samt inifrån och socialt. Min studie visar att många faktorer påverkar bildskapande arbete i förskolan. Pedagoger har personliga teorier om barns bildskapande samt olika målsättningar med bildarbete i förskolan och dessa tillsammans med ramfaktorer påverkar hur arbetet med bild ser ut.

  • 86118.
    Ödling, Robin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Data transfer over high latency and high packet loss networks2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to pin down which aspects aect the data transfer speed through the Internet, especially with regard to latency and packet loss. What is required from a technical point of view in order to effciently mitigate the effects of latency and packet loss to network transfer? What are the diffculties when testing network protocols? The approach is to test four different protocols; TCP CUBIC, Westwood+, Tsunami, and UDT, while gathering metrics such as throughput, the size of the congestion window and slow start threshold, and then analysing the results. The analysis of the results show that latency have the most impact on throughput, effecting the network transfer by decreasing the number of times the congestion window is able to grow in RTT dependant algorithms, effectively decreasing the throughput. Packet loss eects network transfer because protocols interpreting the loss as a congestion problem on which the protocol decreases the sending rate. The size of this decrease is shown to impact the throughput, where an aggressive decrease shows a poorer performance with packet loss. The study can aid anyone who seeks to develop a network transport protocol.

  • 86119.
    Ödman, Pella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Fingerfemman: Vilken eventuell nytta har elever och lärare av att problemlösningsprocessen delas upp i tydliga steg?2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmågan att lösa problem har stor betydelse både för att fatta välgrundade beslut i vardagen och för ett livslångt lärande. Viktiga aspekter för framgångsrik problemlösning är förmågan att planera, övervaka och modifiera samt utvärdera sin lösning. Alla elever gör inte detta av sig själva, och forskare menar att särskilt elever i inlärningssvårigheter har nytta av undervisning om lärandestrategier. Studien syftar till att undersöka vilken nytta elever och lärare har av att problemlösningsprocessen delas in i tydliga steg. Därför introduceras i två klasser i årskurs 1 en lösningsrutin kallad fingerfemman med fem moment att följa i arbetet med textuppgifter i matematik. Hur dessa elevers problemlösningsförmåga påverkas då fingerfemman används i processen, samt elevers och lärares upplevelser av att använda fingerfemman, har i studien undersökts genom observationer, intervjuer och analys av insamlade elevlösningar. För att även ta reda på om elever på längre sikt har nytta av att känna till och kunna använda fingerfemman, har intervjuer genomförts med elever och lärare även i årskurs 3 och 5. Resultatet visar att elever i större utsträckning planerar, övervakar och utvärderar sin lösning då de följer fingerfemmans steg. Lärarna upplever att de får mer tid att hjälpa de elever som är i behov av extra stöd i matematik, då fler elever blir mer självständiga i problemlösningsprocessen med hjälp av fingerfemman. Fingerfemman verkar kunna fungera som lärandestrategi och i viss mån bidra till att utveckla elevers självreglerade lärande - åtminstone inom problemlösning.

  • 86120.
    Ödmark, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography.
    Är kultur bättre än sport?: En studie om hur antalet gästnätter påverkas av olika evenemang2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The tourism industry is considered to be the fastest growing industry in Sweden. That people choose to travel depends on a number of factors, such as discovering something new, exercising an interest or traveling for relaxation or recreation. That a destination can offer a variety of activities is considered important when different tourists request different things.

    Events can be considered a good attraction for destinations. An event is limited in time and space but can be arranged anywhere, anytime. There are different types of events but the question is what type of event that generates the best economic effects for a destination?

    This study deals with different types of events and how these relate to the number of guest nights sold. The purpose of the paper is to investigate how different types of events contribute different value in the form of guest nights in destination Umeå and Jönköping. These two destinations were considered comparable and why are described in the table of descriptive statistics in chapter 3.4. Quantitative method where guest night statistics were compared to event databases from both destinations were used. This to see how different types of events affect the number of guest nights on the destinations as well as whether there are statistically significant differences of event types between. Umeå and Jönköping were chosen as study objects because the destinations are similar and that they have data available. The results chapter presents the results obtained from the study as shown in tables and diagrams and in the discussion and the analysis chapter the theory has been linked to the results in order to answer the purpose and the questions. This chapter also discusses the results and provides suggestions for future studies. The essay is linked together in the last chapter called summary.

  • 86121.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Hormone replacement therapy: benefits and adverse effects2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Numerous studies have shown that estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) is an effective treatment for vasomotor symptoms, insomnia and vaginal dryness. Beneficial effects have also been shown on lipid patterns and on the incidence of osteoporotic fractures. As ERT increases the risk of endometrial adenocarcinoma, combinations with various progestogens have been developed in order to protect the endometrium. However, the addition of progestogens tends to reduce the beneficial effects of estrogens on mood, cognition and lipid metabolism. The added progestogen often causes side effects such as irritability and depression. There is evidence that the effect on wellbeing varies between women and with the type of progestogen used. Women who prefer to avoid withdrawal bleedings can be given continuous combined hormone replacement therapy (HRT). Unfortunately, irregular bleedings are common at the beginning of treatment and reduces compliance. Recently, several studies have reported an increased risk of breast cancer and venous thrombosis, and therefore long-term treatment with HRT for women without climacteric symptoms is no longer recommended. The ongoing debate has, for the time being, resulted in a recommendation that improving quality of life (QoL) by treatment of climacteric symptoms should be the only indication for prescribing HRT.

    Aims and methods: The aims of the study were to investigate bleeding patterns, changes in wellbeing at onset and during long-term treatment, and lipid and lipoprotein profiles with two different types of continuous combined HRT. In addition, women starting, and women switching from mainly sequential HRT were compared. The design was a randomised, double-blind, one year, prospective, multicentre study including 249 healthy postmenopausal women who were given continuous daily oral treatment with either combined 0.625mg conjugated estrogen (CE) and 5mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or combined 2mg 17β - estradiol (E2) and 1mg norethisterone acetate (NETA). Bleedings, if any, were recorded daily throughout the study. The main outcome measures (changes in wellbeing and climacteric symptoms) consisted of daily ratings of 12 items on a validated symptom scale. Serum concentrations of lipids and lipoproteins were measured at baseline and after one year of treatment.

    Results and conclusions: The majority of drop-outs were confined to the first three months, and the main reasons were bleedings and/or decreased wellbeing. Drop-outs were three times more common in the E2/NETA group. During the first month, 67% of the women reported irregular bleedings. The number of bleeding days decreased on both treatments during the first four months. Treatment with CE/MPA resulted in less irregular bleedings and a shorter time to amenorrhoea compared to E2/NETA.

    As expected, "starters" experienced more sweats than "switchers" at the onset of treatment, but both groups improved significantly. Side effects such as breast tenderness, swelling, depression and irritability appeared during the first treatment week in both groups. The side effects of HRT appeared much more quickly than the benefits and were more frequent in women with a history of premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Breast tenderness was more common in the E2/NETA group throughout the whole study period. Apart from that, there were no differences between the two treatment regimens as regards effects on well-being at the end of the study.

    Lipoprotein(a) levels, an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, decreased in both treatment groups. Triglyceride levels increased in women treated with CE/MPA, and levels of total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprotein fell in the E2/NETA group.

    In conclusion, treatment with E2/NETA caused more bleeding problems than treatment with CE/MPA. CE/MPA was better tolerated than E2/NETA at the beginning of the study, but among the women remaining in the study there was no difference in QoL between the two treatment groups. HRT counselling should take into account that a history of PMS increases the likelihood of side effects and that these may precede any beneficial effects. Both treatments produced beneficial effects on lipid and lipoprotein levels, and neither of the regimens was superior in this respect.

  • 86122.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Englund, Doris
    Risberg, Björn
    Jonsson, Björn
    Olsson, Sven-Eric
    Endometrial safety and bleeding pattern during a five-year treatment with long-cycle hormone therapy2005In: Menopause: The Journal of the North American Menopause, ISSN 1072-3714, E-ISSN 1530-0374, Vol. 12, no 6, p. 699-707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To determine compliance, the incidence of untoward effects, and endometrial safety in postmenopausal women treated with 3-month sequential hormone therapy for up to 5 years.

    Design: A prospective, uncontrolled multicenter study of 129 women treated with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogens daily plus 10 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days every third month. Endometrial biopsy samples were taken before the initiation of the study and then yearly during the next 5 years. Bleeding patterns were recorded.

    Results: Upon completion of the first 12 months of treatment, 76 of 126 biopsied women (60%) had secretory endometrium. After 5 years, this finding was reversed in biopsy specimens completed by 59 women, among whom 32 (56%) had insufficient or atrophic endometrium.We did not find any hyperplasia when the biopsy specimen was taken according to the protocol. One endometrial cancer was found by biopsy after 12 months, but the subsequent hysterectomy showed no sign of cancer. Ultrasound determinations of mean endometrial thickness during therapy showed a thin endometrium (mean = 4 mm, range = 1-13 mm). Amenorrhea was reported by 6.2% of 129 women after 12 months of treatment. Among the 59 women who completed the study, 71.2% had regular bleeding patterns every third month, 25.4% reported amenorrhea, and 3.4% had irregular bleeding patterns.

    Conclusions: The addition of 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate for 14 days every third month to treatment with 0.625 mg of conjugated estrogens daily was well tolerated, and was associated with high endometrial safety.

  • 86123.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Haeger, Magnus
    Jonsson, Björn
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Effects of continuous combined conjugated estrogen/medroxyprogesterone acetate and 17beta-estadiol/norethisterone acetate on lipids and lipoproteins2004In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 137-146Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 86124.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Jonsson, B
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Long-term effects of two different continuous combined regimens of hormone replacement therapy on well-being2004In: Gynecological Endocrinology, ISSN 0951-3590, E-ISSN 1473-0766, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 305-317Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our aim was to compare the effect on well-being of two different continuous combined hormone replacement therapies (HRT) in women starting treatment (‘starters’) and women switching from mainly sequential HRT (‘switchers’). The design was a randomized, double-blind, 1-year, prospective study, including 249 postmenopausal women treated with 0.625 mg conjugated estrogen (CE)/ 5 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) or 2 mg estradiol/1 mg norethisterone acetate (NETA) continuously. The main outcome measure was well-being, reported daily on a validated symptom scale during treatment cycles 1, 2, 6 and 13. Both treatment groups, starters and switchers, improved significantly in episodes of sweating during the first 6 months (p50.05). Women treated with estradiol/NETA experienced more breast tenderness compared to women using CE/MPA during the whole study period (p50.001), whereas there were no differences in negative mood symptoms between treatment groups. Starters experienced improved wellbeing during the whole study, whereas switchers experienced a transient improvement during the first 2 months. Overall, negative mood symptoms were more frequently reported by women with a history of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) (p50.05). Progestogen side-effects were more pronounced with estradiol/NETA than with CE/MPA combinations. Individual factors, such as previous PMS and previous HRT use, should be taken into consideration when prescribing HRT.

  • 86125.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Jonsson, Björn
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Well-being at onset of hormone replacement therapy: comparison between two continuous combined regimens2004In: Climacteric, ISSN 1369-7137, E-ISSN 1473-0804, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives To compare the effect on well-being of two continuous combined hormone replacement therapies (HRTs) in women starting treatment (‘starters’) and women switching from mainly sequential HRT (‘switchers’).

    Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, 1-month trial, in which 249 postmenopausal women were treated with either conjugated estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (CE/MPA 0.625 mg/5 mg) or 17β-estradiol plus norethisterone acetate (E2/NETA 2 mg/1 mg) continuously. Twelve items for measuring climacteric symptoms and well-being were reported daily on a validated symptom scale.

    Results Women taking CE/MPA reported lower scores for breast tenderness (p = 0.005), depression (p = 0.019), irritability (p = 0.004) and tension (p = 0.048), compared with women taking E2/NETA. Compared with pretreatment, both groups developed side-effects during the first week: breast tenderness, swelling and depression (p < 0.05). Starters, but also switchers, improved in sweats (p < 0.001 and p = 0.030). Compared with pretreatment ratings, switchers reported higher scores for breast tenderness (p < 0.001), depression (p = 0.050) and negative effects on daily life (p < 0.001), whereas starters reported only physical side-effects (p < 0.05). A history of premenstrual syndrome (PMS) predicted high scores for swelling (p = 0.023), depression (p = 0.024), tension (p = 0.009), irritability (p = 0.027), headache (p < 0.001) and negative effects on daily life (p < 0.001).

    Conclusions CE/MPA 0.625 mg/5 mg is better tolerated than E2/NETA 2 mg/1 mg, and starters react differently from switchers. Side-effects occur more quickly than benefits with HRT, and are more frequent in women with previous PMS.

  • 86126.
    Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Carlström, Kjell
    Jonsson, Björn
    Jonasson, Aino Fianu
    Conjugated estrogen/progestagen versus tibolone hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women: effects on carbohydrate metabolism and serum sex hormone-binding globulin2006In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 89-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the effects of different types of continuous hormone replacement therapy on carbohydrate metabolism.

    Method: Postmenopausal women were treated with conjugated estrogens, 0.625 mg/medroxyprogesterone acetate, 2.5 or 5mg (CEE/MPA) or tibolone 2.5 mg daily for 13 28-day cycles. Serum glucose and insulin were measured before and during a 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) at baseline and after 3, 6 and 13 cycles and areas under the curve (AUC) were calculated. Sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) was measured as an additional marker of nutritional and insulin status.

    Results: Neither CEE/MPA2.5 mg nor tibolone had any effects on carbohydrate metabolism whileAUCinsulin, AUCglucose and also body mass index (BMI) increased after 13 cycles of treatment in the CEE/MPA 5 mg group. SHBG increased significantly during CEE/MPA treatment and decreased significantly during treatment with tibolone. The effects on SHBG were less pronounced in the CEE/MPA 5 mg group. Pretreatment SHBG showed significant negative correlations to BMI and to variables that may reflect a certain degree of insulin resistance, the most pronounced being fasting glucose. Changes in SHBG during treatment with tibolone were negatively correlated to pretreatment SHBG and positively to BMI, AUCinsulin and fasting insulin resistance index, while no such correlations were found in the CEE/MPA groups. There were no correlations between changes in AUCinsulin and AUCglucose on one hand and basal variables or treatment SHBG on the other in the CEE/MPA groups.

    Conclusion: The effects of tibolone and CEE/MPA on carbohydrate metabolism were considered to have clinical significance only for CEE/MPA 5 mg, indicating a less favourable role of the higher progestagen dose. The results further support the important role of metabolic and insulin status in the physiological regulation of SHBG and also indicate that the suppressive effect of tibolone on circulating SHBG is mainly depends on pretreatment SHBG levels. SHBG does not reflect changes in carbohydrate metabolism during CEE/MPA treatment.

  • 86127. Ödmark, Inga-Stina
    et al.
    Jonsson, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bleeding patterns in postmenopausal women using continuous combination hormone replacement therapy with conjugated estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate or with 17β-estradiol and norethindrone acetate2001In: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 184, no 6, p. 1131-1138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: We studied bleeding patterns in postmenopausal women who were using 2 types of continuous combination regimens.

    STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, double-blind, randomized study of 208 postmenopausal women treated with conjugated estrogen, 0.625 mg, and medroxyprogesterone acetate, 5 mg, or with 17beta-estradiol, 2 mg, and norethindrone acetate, 1 mg.

    RESULTS: The mean number of bleeding days decreased during the first 4 months of treatment (P <.002) but not thereafter. The number of bleeding days was fewer (P <.002) and the time until amenorrhea was shorter (P <.02) in patients receiving conjugated estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate than in patients receiving 17beta-estradiol and norethindrone acetate. The odds ratio for progression to amenorrhea with the use of conjugated estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate was 1.58, in comparison with the use of 17beta-estradiol and norethindrone acetate. A thick endometrium at the start of treatment resulted in more bleeding days than were found for a thin endometrium (P <.03). Body mass index, age, and blood pressure had no predictive value for bleeding problems.

    CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with continuous combined conjugated estrogen and medroxyprogesterone acetate resulted in fewer bleeding problems than did treatment with 17beta-estradiol and norethindrone acetate. Endometrial thickness may help to predict the chance of achieving amenorrhea during early hormone replacement therapy.

  • 86128.
    Ödmark, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    "Jag tror att man kan få dom att gå så otroligt mycket längre": Tre lärares syn på individualisering av engelskundervisning på högstadiet2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore how three English teachers in Swedish compulsory school work towards fulfilling the task of meeting every single student's individual needs when it comes to learning. By interviewing these teachers, the study aims to answer the following questions: What does individualised teaching mean to the three interviewed teachers? What kind of challenges do they face when it comes to meeting the needs of all the students and how do they work with individualised teaching? One of the biggest challenges the teachers face when they attempt to individualise teaching is that is takes a lot of time to analyse every single student's individual needs and it is not always obvious what kind of need the teacher has to take into account when trying to individualise the lesson for the learner. Bigger classes result in the fact that teachers are not always able to meet the requirement found in Lgr 11 that teachers must meet every single student's individual needs.

  • 86129.
    Öfverman, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Progesterone metabolites: learning, tolerance, antagonism & metabolism2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Progesterone metabolites as allopregnanolone, isoallopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxy-corticosterone (THDOC) are increased in the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, throughout pregnancy and during stress. Allopregnanolone and THDOC are neurosteroids with 3α-hydroxy, 5α-configurations and positive modulating effect on the GABAA receptor. They have similar properties and effect, and share the same binding sites on the GABAA receptor. Isoallopregnanolone has a 3β-hydroxy, 5α-configuration and a diverse effect as a proposed antagonist to both allopregnanolone and THDOC. Neurosteroids are thought to exert their effect predominantly at extrasynaptic GABAA receptors, containing for example α4- or α5-subunits. Such receptors are involved in the tonic response. Different subunits have diverse distribution pattern in the brain and are involved in different functions. The α5-subunit, mainly expressed in the hippocampus, is involved in learning, while α4 is more widespread and involved in e.g. anxiety and anaesthesia.

    The aim of the present thesis was to contribute to the knowledge about selected progesterone metabolites and their effects on learning and tolerance development, as well as their metabolism. Also basic characteristics between different α-subunits of the GABAA receptor were evaluated.

    The thesis shows that the effect of bicuculline and pentobarbital is not dependent on the α-subunit isoform of the GABAA receptor expressed in oocytes. Acute tolerance developed after allopregnanolone-induced anaesthesia with a decrease at both mRNA and protein levels of the GABAA receptor α4-subunit in the thalamus VPM nucleus. A negative correlation between the α4 mRNA and the increased dose of allopregnanolone needed to maintain the anaesthesia level was also shown. In addition, allopregnanolone induces a learning impairment in the Morris water maze test, when high concentrations of allopregnanolone are present in the brain. This impairment is not possible to reverse by isoallopregnanolone. In α5β3γ2L-transfected HEK-293 cells THDOC induces a baseline shift of its own and also potentiate the GABA-current. Neither of those THDOC effects can be inhibited by isoallopregnanolone. Instead isoallopregnanolone shows an agonistic effect on the THDOC-potentiation of the GABA-response. The main allopregnanolone metabolites identified, 5α-DHP and isoallopregnanolone, as well as allopregnanolone itself are mainly localized to the brain after an i.v. injection. After an isoallopregnanolone injection there is a more even distribution of the given steroid and the metabolites between plasma and brain. There is an epimerisation between isoallopregnanolone and allopregnanolone and vice versa.

    In conclusion, the present thesis shows that the α4-subunit in the thalamus VPM nucleus is likely to be involved in the acute tolerance development against allopregnanolone and that allopregnanolone-induced learning impairment is likely to be hippocampus dependent. The lack of antagonistic effect of isoallopregnanolone on the THDOC-induced α5β3γ2L-GABAA response, together with epimerisation of isoallopregnanolone to allopregnanolone, could explain why isoallopregnanolone does not work as an antagonist to the allopregnanolone-induced learning impairment in a hippocampus dependent learning task.

  • 86130.
    Öfverman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Hill, Martin
    Institute of Endocrinology, Nároni trída 8, CZ 116 94 Prague, Czech Republic.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Johansson, Inga-Maj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Neurosteroid metabolism: identification of allopregnanolone and isoallopregnanolone metabolites in rat brain and plasmaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolism of progesterone produces steroids that by themselves have other functional properties than the hormone. The most prominent metabolite, allopregnanolone (3α-OH-5α-pregnane-20-one), has a strong GABAA receptor agonistic activity. Isoallopregnanolone (3β-OH-5α-pregnane-20-one) is also formed from progesterone; this allopregnanolone epimer can in certain situations function as an antagonist to effects induced by allopregnanolone.

    This study was designed to further evaluate the metabolism of allopregnanolone and isoallopregnanolone in the rat. This was done by intravenous injections of either steroid and analyses of selected possible metabolites within the brain as well as in plasma, eight minutes after the injection. Analyses were performed with GC-MS.

    It was found that the main metabolites accumulated after the allopregnanolone treatment was the precursor 5α-dihydroprogesterone, followed by isoallopregnanolone. The injected allopregnanolone, as well as the two major metabolites formed, were mainly present in the brain. When isoallopregnanolone was injected, the main metabolites formed were allopregnanolone and 6α-hydroxylated isoallopregnanolone, followed by the precursor 5α-dihydroprogesterone. Interestingly, the metabolites formed after isoallopregnanolone injections were more evenly distributed between the analyzed brain areas and the plasma. After both treatments a high proportion of conjugation (typically around 50%), was in plasma found for both the injected and the produced steroids.

    With the high amounts of metabolites found in the brain, there might be a high converting capacity within the brain for these kinds of steroids. This suggests that interchange between the studied epimers is of physiological nature. One may then speculate that the brain uses the conversion between allopregnanolone and isoallopregnanolone to regulate the GABAergic inhibition. If this is the case, a dysregulation of this metabolism might cause symptoms and/or CNS disorders. 

  • 86131.
    Öfverman, Charlotte
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Strömberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Birzniece, Vita
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Turkmen, Sahruh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Hill, Martin
    Institute of Endocrinology, Nároní trída 8, CZ 116 94, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Lundgren, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Bäckström, Torbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Johansson, Inga-Maj
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    The progesterone metabolite isoallopregnanolone is a subunit-selective antagonist of the GABA-A receptorManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Allopregnanolone is a progesterone metabolite that can negatively affect learning and induce anaesthesia in rats. It also impairs episodic memory in women. Allopregnanolone levels are elevated during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, during pregnancy, and during stress. Allopregnanolone is a strong positive modulator of the GABAA receptor. The subunit composition of the GABAA receptor is of importance for effects of modulators, and GABAA receptors including the α5-subunit are of significance for learning, while receptors with other subunits are involved in e.g. anesthesia. Isoallopregnanolone, a natural 3β-epimer of allopregnanolone, has been shown to antagonize allopregnanolone-induced anesthesia in rats.

    We tried to block the allopregnanolone-induced impairment of learning in rats in the Morris water maze test, using isoallopregnanolone (4–32 mg/kg). We also determined steroid concentrations in blood and brain tissue, and with whole-cell patch clamp we studied the effects of isoallopregnanolone and tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone (a neurosteroid similar to allopregnanolone) on HEK-293 cells expressing the human α5β2γ2L GABAA receptor.

    Isoallopregnanolone did not block the negative effects of allopregnanolone (2 mg/kg) in the Morris water maze test. Our presumed antagonist actually had an agonistic effect on the tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone-mediated potentiation of the GABA effect on the α5β2γ2L GABAA receptor. The baseline shift induced by tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone alone was not reversed by isoallopregnanolone. A bidirectional epimerisation between allopregnanolone and isoallopregnanolone was also identified in the rat.

    The lack of antagonistic effect at the α5β2γ2L GABAA receptor together with the epimerisation of isoallopregnanolone to allopregnanolone would probably explain the lack of effect of our proposed antagonist on the allopregnanolone-induced impairment of learning 

  • 86132.
    Öfverström, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Ulander-Nilson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Traditionella systemutvecklingsmetoder - Ett minne blott? En studie av metodsyn och metodanvändning i internetrelaterade företag2000Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86133.
    Ögren, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Edlund, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Affärssystemsanvändning i små och medelstora företag: En utvärderingsmodell2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86134.
    Ögren, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kristiansson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Goodwillstorlek - ett incitament för opportunistiskt beteende?: En kvantitativ studie om förhållandet mellan goodwills storlek och företagens antaganden vid nedskrivningsprövningar2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86135.
    Ögren, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Is above- and belowground phenology of Eriophorum vaginatum in sync in a peatland underlain by permafrost?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The phenology of plants in northern ecosystems is currently changing. Roots have a key role in these ecosystems, though the phenology of roots is still poorly understood. The aim of this report was to investigate if above- and belowground phenology of the circumpolar sedge Eriophorum vaginatum was synchronized in a subarctic peatland underlain by permafrost, and to investigate which abiotic factors are limiting root growth. Additionally, the length of the belowground growing season was examined. The study was performed with a non-destructive in situ method (minirhizotrons and NDVI measurements) in the northernmost part of Sweden. Both above- and belowground phenology was measured biweekly during the whole growing season in 2016. The depth of the active layer, air temperature, soil temperature and soil moisture were measured to investigate the determinants of root growth. Root growth and aboveground activity was asynchronous, as peak in root growth occurred on average 21 days before maximum NDVI was reached. Soil temperature and thaw depth seem to be important factors regulating root growth in this peatland. The result highlight that solely studying the aboveground parts of plants can give a misleading interpretation about the phenology of the entire plant and thus during which time periods important ecosystem processes take place. Hence, to more accurate forecast ecosystem responses to global warming, both aboveground and belowground phenology should be considered.

  • 86136.
    Ögren, Amanda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Restaurering för störda områden i kalfjällsmiljö: Utvärdering av pilotförsök för återvegetering av området kring den nedlagda underjordsgruvan i Stekenjokk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to evaluate restoration methods used in a revegetation project for the heavily disturbed area around the abandoned underground mine Stekenjokk, located in an alpine area in Västerbotten County, Sweden. The studies were initiated in 2013 by Enetjärn Natur AB on behalf of Boliden Mineral AB and several methods were adopted in the purpose of investigating the feasibility of different restoration methods. Seeding, plantation of adult plants and transplantation of vegetation turfs were performed in combination with addition of organic matter. In addition, ‘safe sites’ were created either by addition of cobbles to the surface, creation of holes in the ground or by putting out coconut mats. All plant material, e.g. seeds, plantation of adult plants and transplantation of vegetation turfs, resulted in new establishment of plants in the area. Spontaneous establishment of plants was also observed in several of the examined plots. Several of the methods used are probably suitable for restoration of the old industrial area in Stekenjokk. However, the success varied among different methods and there was a tendency for higher survival of plants in experimental plots to which soil had been added. A combination of addition of plant material (seeds or adult plants), addition of organic matter and creation of ‘safe sites’ seemed most effective in accelerating revegetation in the heavily degraded area in Stekenjokk. However, sample sizes were small and more studies should be conducted to confirm the generality of this conclusion.

  • 86137.
    Ögren, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Wredle, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ny teknik i hemmet: Mellersta norrland under fyra decennier2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During the first half of the 20th century, women’s work in the household altered. New technology was introduced as a help to make housework easier.This study contains a research on how new technology transformed housework. We have based this study on interviews where eight people born between 1924 and 1941 have participated. The questions deal with their experiences on how household work changed due to new technology. The general aim of this research is to study the impact new technology had on housework. Another focus point has been the purchases and who it was that decided what to buy or not. We have also analysed if the housewife experienced that she received more spare time after new technology had been introduced and if so, how she used the left over time. The qualification for enabling new technology, and by new technology we mean electrical devices, was of course that electricity had been installed and all of our informants experienced electricity during their childhood. The analysis discusses the informants’ experiences and is furthermore compared to previous research.The majority of our informants agreed that new technology decreased the amount of time spent doing housework and therefore they also believed that their spare time increased, however, the remaining informants said that they have little remembrance of having any spare time. They believe that the amount of house work was never-ending. The woman in the household decided on what to buy according to most of our informants, some said that the man decided and in one case the husband and wife had a mutual agreement on what to purchase.The results of how the informants received information about new technology are discussed in comparison to the conception of “consumption junction” mentioned by Ruth Schwarz Cowan about the choice the consumer make when deciding whether or not to purchase new technology. The concept “social constructions of technology” composed by Bijker and Pinch discuss that technology is formed by human pursuance and that the social context control how technology is being used. 

  • 86138.
    Ögren, Anne-Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Vägen till flytande läsning: En klassrumsstudie om hur man arbetar på mellanstadiet med elever med avkodningssvårigheter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate how students with decoding difficulties are taught, and what support they receive, in order to find out how it affects their reading flow. The aim was also to examine how these students view the support they get and finally their attitudes towards reading and how they see their own reading ability in comparison with that of the other students in the class. A method triangulation of interviews, questionnaires and classroom observations were used in order to answer the research questions. The teaching was adapted by reading factual texts aloud together in the class, and two to three times a week the students read literacy texts quietly. Approximately twice a week students with decoding difficulties received reading instruction. Over a year three out of four focus students increased their reading flow more than the average increase in the class. The majority of students in the class are well aware of the importance of reading. Three out of four focus students believe that reading is more difficult for them than for others.

  • 86139.
    Ögren, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics.
    Determinants behind Household Saving Behavior: -Empirical analysis on 15 OECD countries2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates the factors behind what determine household saving behaviour. Observing the persistence differences of household saving ratio in OECD countries, serves as the base for the empirical study. Taking stance from economic theory and previous papers to formulate the method and likely explanatory variables suitable for this study, a model is specified based on the theoretical and empirical discussions.

    The result of the empirical analysis estimation finds that the explanatory variables accomplish to explain some of the household saving behaviour. Confirming and expanding on the discussion on the theoretical and empirical discussions. Factors such as uncertainty and fiscal policy are found to have a significant effect on household saving, while failing to prove other established determinants, like demographic factors. Among other included factors considered.

  • 86140.
    Ögren, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Generation of thumbnails2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den moderna människan interagerar med ett stort antal system dagligen. Detta tillsammans med dagens överflöd av applikationer ställer högre krav än någonsin på prestanda och användbarhet. Om ett program läser sig eller på annat sätt upplevs långsamt, finns det ofta ett flertal andra program som kan utföra samma uppgift. I detta arbete utförs en utvärdering av olika konverteringsstrategier i form av olika programvaror och bibliotek. Här görs det en utvärdering av hur optimering, felhantering och andra viktiga faktorer hanteras i dessa olika konverteringsstrategier och vilken inverkan det har på ett system i sin helhet. Det vi har kommit fram till i denna studie är att dåligt optimerade program kan använda stora delar av ett systems resurser och en begränsad felhantering kan leda till situationer som är svåra att återhämta sig från. Vid jämförelsen av olika konverteringsprogram är det observerat att vissa program använder betydligt mer systemresurser än andra program. Denna begränsade felhantering används som standard i de tillämpningar som ar utvärderade, men det går dock att observera att det finns utökad funktionalitet för att hantera fel i många av de konverteringsstrategier som har utvärderats.

  • 86141. Ögren, Erling
    et al.
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature. II. Photosynthetic electron transport1984In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 187-192Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in Lemna gibba L. was induced by exposing intact plants to a high photosynthetic photon flux density of 1 750 μmol m−2 s−1 at a low temperature of 3°C. Subsequently isolated chloroplasts showed pronounced reductions in the capacity of whole chain electron transport, measured as Hill activity, and in the efficiency of electron transport to the primary electron acceptor Q of photosystem II, measured as variable chlorophyll fluorescence at 20°C. These changes proceeded with similar kinetics (probably of the first-order reaction), suggesting that the site of photoinhibition is in the electron transfer to Q. A partial uncoupling of the whole chain electron transport also occured. The capacity of electron transport mediated by photosystem I was unaffected. The extent of photoinhibition of photosynthetic electron transport, as produced by a 2 h exposure of L. gibba to three different combinations of photon flux density and temperature was studied. It was shown that intrinsically similar states of photoinhibition, on the evidence of their time courses of recovery, were induced by either a high photon flux density and 25°C or by a moderate photon flux density and 3°C.

  • 86142. Ögren, Erling
    et al.
    Öquist, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Photoinhibition of photosynthesis in lemna-gibba as induced by the interaction between light and temperature .3. Chlorophyll fluorescence at 77-K1984In: Physiologia Plantarum: An International Journal for Plant Biology, ISSN 0031-9317, E-ISSN 1399-3054, Vol. 62, no 2, p. 193-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Photoinhibition in Lemna gibba L. was studied by interpreting chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics at 77 K on the basis of the bipartite model of Butler and co-workers (Butler 1978). Application of this analysis to chloroplasts (isolated from plants before and after exposure to a photosynthetic photon flux density of 1 750 μmol m−2 s−1 at 3°C for 2 h) revealed that photoinhibition had the following effect on primary events in photosynthesis. Firstly, the fluorescence of PS II increased (44%) in the state of open traps (Fo) and decreased (32%) in the state of closed traps (Fm). It is suggested, that the Fo-decrease reflects increased quenching by radiationless decay, both effects occurring at PS II reaction centers. Secondly, the rate constant for transfer of excitation energy from PS II to PS I (kT(μ→J)) increased by 34%. However, in the state of closed traps, the flux of excitation energy via this transfer process decreased, most likely because of increased quenching by radiationless decay at PS II reaction centers. Thirdly, the probability for fluorescence from PS I decreased (19%). This indicates increased quenching by radiationless decay.

  • 86143.
    Ögren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Högskoleprovet våren och hösten 2013: provdeltagargruppens sammansättning och resultat2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Högskoleprovet har sedan 1977 fungerat som urvalsinstrument för antagning till universitets- och högskolestudier. Provet genomförs en gång på hösten och en gång på våren och det är tillåtet att göra provet hur många gånger man önskar. Vid mer än ett provresultat är det alltid det bästa resultatet som gäller vid urval till en studieplats. Provresultaten är giltiga i fem år och efter varje provtillfälle överförs råpoängen (antal rätt besvarade uppgifter) till en normerad poäng, på en skala från 0.0 till 2.0, där 2.0 är det högsta resultatet. Denna normering görs för att säkerställa att det är lika lätt eller svårt att erhålla en viss normerad poäng oavsett prov och provgrupp. Avsikten med föreliggande rapport är att beskriva provdeltagargruppernavåren och hösten 2013 med avseende på sammansättning och resultat. Resultaten presenteras för provdeltagare med olika kön, ålder och utbildning. Vidare beskrivs hur normeringen av provresultaten genomförs och utfallet av normeringen. Slutligen presenteras några resultat avseende effekterna av att genomföra provet flera gånger. Resultaten i rapporten grundas på databearbetningar gjorda av Luis Cobian, systemansvarig för högskoleprovet.

  • 86144.
    Ögren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Departement of Educational Measurement.
    Högskoleprovet våren och hösten 2014: provdeltagargruppens sammansättning och resultat2014Report (Other academic)
  • 86145.
    Ögren, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Education.
    Två tre fyra eller fem: Effekter av förändringar av antalet uppgifter och antalet svarsförslag i ett av högskoleprovets delprov2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
  • 86146.
    Ögren, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Take me to Paisley: En autoetnografisk studie av en kreativ process2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 86147.
    Ögren, J.
    et al.
    Hosp Ostersund, Dept Internal Med, Sect Cerebrovasc Dis, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bergström, L.
    Hosp Ostersund, Dept Internal Med, Neurol Sect, Ostersund, Sweden.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Intracranial hemorrhage after ischemic stroke Incidence, time-trends and predictors in a Swedish nationwide cohort of 196765 patients2014In: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, E-ISSN 1747-4949, Vol. 9, p. 165-165Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    Epidemiological data on the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH) after ischemic stroke are sparse. The aims of this study were to describe incidence, trends over time, and predictors of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke.

    METHODS AND RESULTS:

    All patients registered in the Swedish stroke register Riksstroke for 1998 to 2009 were included (n=196 765), and data were combined with the National Patient Register to identify ICrH occurrence. A matched reference population was obtained. Incidence rates and cumulative incidences were calculated. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify predictors. Analyses were performed separately for the first 30 days and days 31 to 365 after ischemic stroke. The incidence rate was 1.97% per year at risk for the first year (0.13% in the reference population) and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Over time, the cumulative incidence increased the first 30 days but decreased over days 31 to 365. Thrombolysis, previous ICrH, atrial fibrillation, and male sex were associated with increased risk of ICrH during the first 30 days. Previous ICrH, increasing age, and male sex were associated with increased risk during days 31 to 365. Statins and antithrombotic treatment did not independently predict ICrH occurrence.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    The incidence of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke was ≈2% per year at risk, about 15 times higher compared with the reference population. Over the study period, ICrH risk increased within the first 30 days but decreased thereafter. Previous ICrH, thrombolysis, and male sex affected the risk, whereas an increased use of antithrombotic treatments and statins did not.

  • 86148.
    Ögren, Joachim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Serious hemorrhage and secondary prevention after stroke and TIA2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The number of stroke survivors is growing worldwide, and these patients have an increased risk of new vascular events and death. This risk decreases with secondary treatment medications recommended in guidelines. However, the characteristics of unselected stroke patients differ from patients included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Thus, the efficacy of these treatments based on RCT results may not be directly transferable to the patients treated in clinical practice. A treatment may be associated with a higher risk of serious side-effects or less benefit than expected:1) Antithrombotic treatment increases the risk of a serious hemorrhage, a risk that is not well studied in an unselected population with older age and more comorbidities; 2) Treatment of modifiable risk factors after a stroke can be improved. Many patients do not reach treatment targets, which indicates a need for strategies to improve secondary prevention and increase treatment benefit.It is therefore essential to evaluate recommended treatments through studies in a real-world setting.

    Aims: The aims of this thesis were to assessincidence, temporal trends, effect on mortality, and factors associated with an increased risk of a serious hemorrhage after ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA); andif a nurse-led, telephone-based intervention including medical titration could improve modifiable risk factors in patients after stroke or TIA.

    Methods: In paper I, all patients registered with an IS in the national stroke register Riksstroke during 1998–2009 were studied. The register was combined with the In-Patient Register and a diagnosis of intracranial haemorrhage (ICrH) within 1 year after IS was identified. In paper II, any diagnosis of serious hemorrhage was identified during follow-up up to 2015 in all patients with an IS or TIA diagnosis, 2010–2013, at Östersund hospital. The incidences of ICrH (papers I and II) and all serious hemorrhages (paper II) were calculated. Kaplan–Meier analysis was used to assess any temporal trend in paper I and if a serious hemorrhage affected survival in study II. Cox regression analysis was used in both studies I and II to assess any factor associated with hemorrhage.

    In the randomized controlled NAILED stroke trial, all patients with acute stroke or TIA treated at Östersund hospital during 2010–2013 were screened for participation. Patients whose condition permitted a telephone-based follow-up were randomized to either a control group with follow-up according to usual care or to an intervention group with a nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up including titration of medication. Blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were assessed at 1, 12, 24, and 36 months. We assessed the effect of the intervention on mean levels of BP and LDL-C and on the proportion of patients reaching treatment targets at 12 months (Study III) and at 36 months (Study IV). Study III also assessed for interactions between group allocation and measurement levels at baseline with BP and LDL-C at the 12-month follow-up. Study IV also explored temporal trends.

    Results: The risk of an ICrH was 1.97% per year at risk, within the first year after IS,  and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Between 1998 and 2009, the risk of an ICrH increased during the first 30 days after an IS but decreased during days 31–365. The risk of a serious hemorrhage was 2.48% per year at risk in paper II. It was more common in elderly. The incidence rate was higher in patients discharged with AP compared with RCTs. A hemorrhage increased the risk of death in patients with good functional status but did not affect the already high mortality in patients with impaired functional status. Male sex and previous ICrH were associated with an increased risk of ICrH during the first year after IS, thrombolytic treatment, atrial fibrillation and warfarin were associated with an increased risk in the acute phase. A previous diagnosis of hypertension was associated with an increased risk of all serious hemorrhages. 

    The NAILED trial intervention group had a significantly lower mean systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), and LDL-C at 12 and 36 months. The mean SBP at 36 months was 128.1 mmHg (95% confidence interval (CI): 125.8–130.5) in the intervention group, 6.1 mmHg (95% CI: 3.6–8.6; p<0.001) lower than the control group. The interaction analysis at 12 months showed that the effect of the intervention was confined to patients whose values were above the respective targets at baseline and therefore had their medication adjusted. At 36 months, a significantly higher proportion of patients in the intervention group reached treatment targets for SBP, DBP, and LDL-C. The mean differences and differences in proportions reaching treatment target for BP increased during the 36 months of follow-up.

    Conclusion: A serious hemorrhage after an IS or TIA is fairly common. It is more common in elderly and patients with impaired functional status. The incidence is higher in patients discharged with AP compared with RCTs. A serious hemorrhage could affect survival in patients with good functional status. The nurse-led, telephone-based intervention including medical titration used in the NAILED stroke trial improved risk factor levels after stroke and TIA, and more patients reached treatment targets. The effect increased over time. 

  • 86149.
    Ögren, Joachim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Bergström, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Intracranial Hemorrhage After Ischemic Stroke Incidence, Time Trends, and Predictors in a Swedish Nationwide Cohort of 196765 Patients2015In: Circulation. Cardiovascular Quality and Outcomes, ISSN 1941-7713, E-ISSN 1941-7705, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 413-420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Epidemiological data on the risk of intracranial hemorrhage (ICrH) after ischemic stroke are sparse. The aims of this study were to describe incidence, trends over time, and predictors of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke. Methods and Results All patients registered in the Swedish stroke register Riksstroke for 1998 to 2009 were included (n=196 765), and data were combined with the National Patient Register to identify ICrH occurrence. A matched reference population was obtained. Incidence rates and cumulative incidences were calculated. Multivariable regression analyses were used to identify predictors. Analyses were performed separately for the first 30 days and days 31 to 365 after ischemic stroke. The incidence rate was 1.97% per year at risk for the first year (0.13% in the reference population) and 0.85% excluding the first 30 days. Over time, the cumulative incidence increased the first 30 days but decreased over days 31 to 365. Thrombolysis, previous ICrH, atrial fibrillation, and male sex were associated with increased risk of ICrH during the first 30 days. Previous ICrH, increasing age, and male sex were associated with increased risk during days 31 to 365. Statins and antithrombotic treatment did not independently predict ICrH occurrence. Conclusions The incidence of ICrH within 1 year after ischemic stroke was approximate to 2% per year at risk, about 15 times higher compared with the reference population. Over the study period, ICrH risk increased within the first 30 days but decreased thereafter. Previous ICrH, thrombolysis, and male sex affected the risk, whereas an increased use of antithrombotic treatments and statins did not.

  • 86150.
    Ögren, Joachim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Irewall, Anna-Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Söderström, Lars
    Mooe, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Long-term, telephone-based follow-up after stroke and TIA improves risk factors: 36-month results from the randomized controlled NAILED stroke risk factor trial2018In: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 18, article id 153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Strategies are needed to improve adherence to the blood pressure (BP) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) level recommendations after stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA). We investigated whether nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up that included medication titration was more efficient than usual care in improving BP and LDL-C levels 36 months after discharge following stroke or TIA.

    Methods: All patients admitted for stroke or TIA at Ostersund hospital that could participate in the telephone-based follow-up were considered eligible. Participants were randomized to either nurse-led, telephone-based follow-up (intervention) or usual care (control). BP and LDL-C were measured one month after discharge and yearly thereafter. Intervention group patients who did not meet the target values received additional follow-up, including lifestyle counselling and medication titration, to reach their treatment goals (BP < 140/90 mmHg, LDL-C < 2.5 mmol/L). The primary outcome was the systolic BP level 36 months after discharge.

    Results: Out of 871 randomized patients, 660 completed the 36-month follow-up. The mean systolic and diastolic BP values in the intervention group were 128.1 mmHg (95% CI 125.8-1305) and 75.3 mmHg (95% CI 73.8-76.9), respectively. This was 6.1 mmHg (95% CI 3.6-8.6, p < 0.001) and 3.4 mmHg (95% CI 1.8-5.1, p < 0.001) lower than in the control group. The mean LDL-C level was 22 mmol/L in the intervention group, which was 03 mmol/L (95% CI 0.2-0.5, p < 0.001) lower than in controls. A larger proportion of the intervention group reached the treatment goal for BP (systolic: 79.4% vs. 55.3%, p < 0.001; diastolic 90.3% vs. 77.9%, p < 0.001) as well as for LDL-C (69.3% vs. 48.9%, p < 0.001).

    Conclusions: Compared with usual care, a nurse-led telephone-based intervention that included medication titration after stroke or TIA improved BP and LDL-C levels and increased the proportion of patients that reached the treatment target 36 months after discharge.

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