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  • 87251.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Culture and Media. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Psychosurgery in Sweden 1944-19642005In: Journal of the History of the Neurosciences, ISSN 0964-704X, E-ISSN 1744-5213, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 353-367Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87252.
    Ögren, Kenneth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sjöström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bengtsson, Nils-Olof
    Lobotomins okända historia: kvinnor, barn och idioter opererades2000In: Läkartidningen, Vol. 97, no 30-31, p. 3395-3398Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 87253.
    Ögren, Madelen
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Ölund, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    ”Mr. Banan sköt magiska bananskal”: Innehåll, textuell struktur och multimodalitet i elevers berättande texter2019Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka lärares undervisning och elevers berättande texter i årskurs 3. Frågeställningarna omfattar undervisning, elevers berättelsers innehåll, textuell struktur samt multimodalitet och kopplingar mellan dessa. Forskningsbakgrund och teori innefattar sociokulturell teori, skrivdiskurser, undervisning och multimodalitet. För att undersöka frågeställningarna genomfördes intervjuer av lärare samt textanalyser av elevers berättelser. Resultatet visar både att det är stora skillnader mellan hur lärarna undervisar men också mellan elevernas berättande texter, även om de flesta innehåller korrekt berättelsestruktur och en röd tråd. Utifrån ett multimodalt perspektiv är det också stora skillnader mellan skolorna, men en likhet är att den vanligaste relationen mellan skrift och bild i elevtexterna är samspelsrelation. Resultatet visar även att det finns kopplingar mellan undervisningen och hur eleverna skriver sina berättelser.

  • 87254. Ögren, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Sundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intervjuer som prognosinstrument för studieframgång2005In: Nordisk Psykologi: teori, forskning, praksis, ISSN 0029-1463, Vol. 57, no 3, p. 271-287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two different admission procedures (high school grades/scholastic tests and high school grades/scholastic tests/interview) to the five-year Master's Program in Professional Psychology at Stockholm University were examined. The analyses were based on data from students who were admitted on a combination of high school grades/scholastic test and interview, and students who were admitted based only on high school grades/scholastic test. In the final semester of the five-year Psychologist Program, the students and their supervisors rated the student's development of psychotherapeutic knowledge and skills, and their relation to the supervisor and the supervision group. A self rating scale was used. The results showed that students who were admitted upon interview and their supervisors, rated significantly higher on all factors. Moreover, students admitted upon interview rated their development of psychotherapeutic skill significantly higher than students admitted traditionally. The corresponding difference between supervisor ratings was not significant. Both student and supervisor ratings indicated that the students admitted by an interview had a better relation to their supervisor and to their supervision group.

  • 87255. Ögren, ML
    et al.
    Jonsson, CO
    Sundin, EC
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Psychology.
    Group supervision in psychotherapy: The relationship between focus, group climate, and perceived attained skill2005In: JOURNAL OF CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY, ISSN 0021-9762, Vol. 61, no 4, p. 373-388Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87256.
    Ögren, Tobias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Forslund, Petter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Screening techniques, sustainability and risk adjusted returns.: - A quantitative study on the Swedish equity funds market2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have primarily compared the performance of sustainable equity funds

    and non-sustainable equity funds. A meta-analysis over 85 different studies in the field

    concludes that there is no statistically significant difference in risk-adjusted returns

    when comparing sustainable funds and non-sustainable funds. This study is thus an

    extension on previous studies where the authors have chosen to test the two most

    common sustainability screening techniques to test if there is a difference within the

    sustainability field of equity funds.

    In this study, we compare the performance of the two primary screening techniques

    used with regards to sustainability within the equity fund industry: the exclusionary

    Negative Screening and the Mixed Method Screening (Negative screen followed by an

    additional positive screen). The tests were conducted on both Swedish equity funds as

    well as Global equity funds, where both groups had to be eligible to be marketed in

    Sweden according to Swedish law. What the study found when comparing the two types

    of screening techniques was that over a five-year period, equity funds using a Mixed

    Method screen had a significantly lower risk adjusted return compared to the Negative

    Screen group. The study also showed differences between Global equity funds and

    Swedish equity funds, where Global equity funds were the category that did not produce

    significantly different risk adjusted returns when screened for sustainability criteria’s.

    The findings put forward in this study indicate that the Modern Portfolio Theory and its

    joining theory of the Efficient Frontier are applicable to the sustainability-screening

    context. The Good Management theory is also tested with regards to a company’s CSR

    work and risk-adjusted returns. The Good Management theory does however not find

    any support in our results. CAPM is also tested in the context of sustainability

    screening, and the results found regarding the CAPM’s ability to explain different

    returns are not as clear-cut as the rest of the results.

    Our overall conclusion from this study is that Negative Screening produces better

    financial results compared to Mixed Method screening with regards to sustainability,

    but more importantly we have come to realize that the transparency within the mutual

    funds market must be enhanced with regards to sustainability in order for future studies

    to deliver a more in-depth analysis of the causes that drives the different returns.

  • 87257. Ögren, Yngve
    et al.
    Sepman, Alexey
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Wiinikka, Henrik
    Comparison of measurement techniques for temperature and soot concentration in premixed, small-scale burner flames2017In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, no 10, p. 11328-11336Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical and intrusive measurement techniques for temperature and soot concentration in hot reacting flows were tested on a small-scale burner in fuel-rich, oxygen-enriched atmospheric flat flames produced to simulate the environment inside an entrained flow reactor. The optical techniques comprised two-color pyrometry (2C-PYR), laser extinction (LE), and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS), and the intrusive methods included fine-wire thermocouple thermometry (TC) and electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) particle analysis. Vertical profiles of temperature and soot concentration were recorded in flames with different equivalence and O2/N2 ratios. The 2C-PYR and LE data were derived assuming mature soot. Gas temperatures up to 2200 K and soot concentrations up to 3 ppmv were measured. Close to the burner surface, the temperatures obtained with the pyrometer were up to 300 K higher than those measured by TDLAS. Further away from the burner, the difference was within 100 K. The TC-derived temperatures were within 100 K from the TDLAS results for most of the flames. At high signal-to-noise ratio and in flame regions with mature soot, the temperatures measured by 2C-PYR and TDLAS were similar. The soot concentrations determined with 2C-PYR were close to those obtained with LE but lower than the ELPI results. It is concluded that the three optical techniques have good potential for process control applications in combustion and gasification processes. 2C-PYR offers simpler installation and 2D imaging, whereas TDLAS and LE provide better accuracy and dynamic range without calibration procedures.

  • 87258.
    Öhberg, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paul, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The How or the What: The Impact of Narrative Style on Empathy2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narratives in the forms of music or literature have traditionally been highlightedfor their ability to evoke empathy; however, the specific features of the narrativethat serve as the underlying mechanisms responsible for this effect remain unclear.The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a narrative’s style onempathy. An experimental repeated measures research design was used with 41participants (31 female, 10 male; age range 20-63 yrs, M=30.2 yrs) that underwentthree conditions each comprised of a different stimulus (i.e., a song, a piece ofprose and a poem), with the same narrative content but differing in style. The orderof the stimuli was randomized across participants. After each stimulus, empatheticresponses were captured via self reports, measuring valence and arousal of theparticipant, as well as their perceived valence and arousal of the main character ofthe narrative. The song had a strong correlation between participant-rating andcharacter-rating on valence and arousal, thus evoking a stronger (affective)empathetic response than the other two styles of stimuli, having moderatecorrelations. The character-rating barely differed between the style of stimuli, andthe narrative first presented lowered the participants’ valence regardless of style.These findings could possibly be explained by cognitive empathy responding to thenarrative, evoking the same understanding of another person, whereas affectiveempathy seem more prone to respond to stylistic features. Future research andpossible therapeutic implications are discussed.

  • 87259. Öhberg, F
    et al.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Nilsson, K-G
    Edström, U
    Gustavsson, O
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundström, R
    Gait analysis using a portable motion sensor system: measurements in subjects with hip implants as compared with healthy controls2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 87260.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Biomechanical methods and error analysis related to chronic musculoskeletal pain2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Spinal pain is one of humanity’s most frequent complaints with high costs for the individual and society, and is commonly related to spinal disorders. There are many origins behind these disorders e.g., trauma, disc hernia or of other organic origins. However, for many of the disorders, the origin is not known. Thus, more knowledge is needed about how pain affects the neck and neural function in pain affected regions. The purpose of this dissertation was to improve the medical examination of patients suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders or other pain related neck-disorders.

    Methods A new assessment tool for objective movement analysis was developed. In addition, basic aspects of proprioceptive information transmission, which can be of relevance for muscular tension and pain, are investigated by studying the coding of populations of different types of sensory afferents by using a new spike sorting method. Both experiments in animal models and humans were studied to accomplish the goals of this dissertation. Four cats where were studied in acute animal experiments. Mixed ensembles of afferents were recorded from L7-S1 dorsal root filaments when mechanical stimulating the innervated muscle. A real-time spike sorting method was developed to sort units in a multi-unit recording. The quantification of population coding was performed using a method based on principal component analysis. In the human studies, 3D neck movement data were collected from 59 subjects with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and 56 control subjects. Neck movement patterns were identified by processing movement data into parameters describing the rotation of the head for each subject. Classification of neck movement patterns was performed using a neural network using processed collected data as input. Finally, the effect of marker position error on the estimated rotation of the head was evaluated by computer simulations.

    Results Animal experiments showed that mixed ensembles of different types of afferents discriminated better between different muscle stimuli than ensembles of single types of these afferents. All kinds of ensembles showed an increase in discriminative ability with increased ensemble size. It is hypothesized that the main reason for the greater discriminative ability might be the variation in sensitivity tuning among the individual afferents of the mixed ensemble will be larger than that for ensembles of only one type of afferent. In the human studies, the neural networks had a predictivity of 0.89, a sensitivity of 0.90 and a specificity of 0.88 when discriminating between control and WAD subjects. Also, a systematic error along the radial axis of the rigid body added to a single marker had no affect on the estimated rotation of the head.

    Conclusion The developed spike sorting method, using neural networks, was suitable for sorting a multiunit recording into single units when performing neurophysiological experiments. Also, it was shown that neck movement analysis combined with a neural network could build the basis of a decision support system for classifying suspected WAD or other pain related neck-disorders.

  • 87261.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    The effect of anisotropic systematic errors in estimating helical angles2008In: Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering, ISSN 1025-5842, E-ISSN 1476-8259, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 205-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A common question in movement studies is how the results should be interpreted with respect to systematic and random errors. In this study, simulations are made in order to see how a rigid body's orientation in space (i.e. helical angle between two orientations) is affected by (1) a systematic error added to a single marker (2) a combination of this systematic error and Gaussian white noise. The orientation was estimated after adding a systematic error to one marker within the rigid body. This procedure was repeated with Gaussian noise added to each marker.

    In conclusion, results show that the systematic error's effect on estimated orientation depends on number of markers in the rigid body and also on which direction the systematic error is added. The systematic error has no effect if the error is added along the radial axis (i.e. the line connecting centre of mass and the affected marker).

  • 87262.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Bäcklund, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sundström, Nina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Portable Sensors Add Reliable Kinematic Measures to the Assessment of Upper Extremity Function2019In: Sensors, ISSN 1424-8220, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 19, no 5, article id 1241Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ordinal scales with low resolution are used to assess arm function in clinic. These scales may be improved by adding objective kinematic measures. The aim was to analyze within-subject, inter-rater and overall reliability (i.e., including within-subject and inter-rater reliability) and check the system's validity of kinematic measures from inertial sensors for two such protocols on one person. Twenty healthy volunteers repeatedly performed two tasks, finger-to-nose and drinking, during two test sessions with two different raters. Five inertial sensors, on the forearms, upper arms and xiphoid process were used. Comparisons against an optical camera system evaluated the measurement validity. Cycle time, range of motion (ROM) in shoulder and elbow were calculated. Bland-Altman plots and linear mixed models including the generalizability (G) coefficient evaluated the reliability of the measures. Within-subject reliability was good to excellent in both tests (G = 0.80-0.97) and may serve as a baseline when assessing upper extremities in future patient groups. Overall reliability was acceptable to excellent (G = 0.77-0.94) for all parameters except elbow axial rotation in finger-to-nose task and both elbow axial rotation and flexion/extension in drinking task, mainly due to poor inter-rater reliability in these parameters. The low to good reliability for elbow ROM probably relates to high within-subject variability. The sensors provided good to excellent measures of cycle time and shoulder ROM in non-disabled individuals and thus have the potential to improve today's assessment of arm function.

  • 87263.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wiklund, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Sterner, Ylva
    Karlsson, J Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Chronic whiplash associated disorders and neck movement measurements: an instantaneous helical axis approach.2003In: IEEE transactions on information technology in biomedicine, ISSN 1089-7771, E-ISSN 1558-0032, Vol. 7, no 4, p. 274-282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an assessment tool for objective neck movement analysis of subjects suffering from chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Three-dimensional (3-D) motion data is collected by a commercially available motion analysis system. Head rotation, defined in this paper as the rotation angle around the instantaneous helical axis (IHA), is used for extracting a number of variables (e.g., angular velocity and range, symmetry of motion). Statistically significant differences were found between controls and subjects with chronic WAD in a number of variables.

  • 87264.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences.
    Johansson, H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Physiology.
    Bergenheim, M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Integrative Medical Biology, Physiology.
    Pedersen, J
    Djupsjöbacka, M
    A neural network appoach to real-time spike discrimination during simultaneous recording from several multi-unit nerve filaments1996In: Journal of Neuroscience Methods, ISSN 0165-0270, E-ISSN 1872-678X, Vol. 64, no 2, p. 181-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-channel, real-time, unsupervised spike discriminator was developed in order to reconstruct single spike trains from several simultaneously recorded multi-unit nerve filaments. The program uses a Self Organising Map (SOM) algorithm for the classification of the spikes. In contrast to previous similar techniques, the described method is made for use on a PC, and the method may thus be implemented at relatively low cost. In order to test the accuracy of the program, a robustness test was performed, where noise with different RMS levels was superimposed on the spikes. Furthermore, the maximal classification rate was determined. The program is easy to use, since the only manual inputs needed are the voltage threshold for spike detection, and the number of units present in each recorded nerve filament.

  • 87265.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Lundström, Ronnie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Grip, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Centre for Biomedical Engineering and Physics (CMTF).
    Comparative analysis of different adaptive filters for tracking lower segments of a human body using inertial motion sensors2013In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 24, no 8, p. 085703-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For all segments and tests, a modified Kalman filter and a quasi-static sensor fusion algorithm were equally accurate (precision and accuracy similar to 2-3 degrees) compared to normalized least mean squares filtering, recursive least-squares filtering and standard Kalman filtering. The aims were to: (1) compare adaptive filtering techniques used for sensor fusion and (2) evaluate the precision and accuracy for a chosen adaptive filter. Motion sensors (based on inertial measurement units) are limited by accumulative integration errors arising from sensor bias. This drift can partly be handled with adaptive filtering techniques. To advance the measurement technique in this area, a new modified Kalman filter is developed. Differences in accuracy were observed during different tests especially drift in the internal/external rotation angle. This drift can be minimized if the sensors include magnetometers.

  • 87266.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Wadell, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Claesson, Kenji
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Edström, Urban
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Home-based system for recording pulmonary function and disease-related symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, COPD: a pilot study2016In: SM Journal of Pulmonary Medicine, ISSN 2574-240X, Vol. 2, no 1, article id 1011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Many patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) suffer from acute exacerbations characterized by an increase in symptoms beyond normal day-to-day variation. The prognosis of patients with frequent exacerbations is poor and effort to curb these worsening episodes has great potential to improve the patient’s quality of life and to reduce associated costs. Telemonitoring has been proposed as a promising strategy in this respect. However, information on what physical signs or symptoms that should be recorded and how recorded data should be interpreted is largely missing in the literature.

    Methods: A new home-based system, based on a tablet computer, which can guide COPD patients to perform spirometry (inspiratory capacity, IC and forced expiratory volume in one and six seconds, FEV1 and FEV6) and record symptoms (COPD assessment test, CAT) was developed. The system was evaluated for 8-12 weeks in four patients with moderate to severe COPD with the aims to; i) assess the feasibility of the system to be used unsupervised by COPD patients and, ii) to evaluate the quality and ability of recorded parameters to reveal early signs of an exacerbation. Pearson bivariate correlation was performed between all outcome measures and descriptive information about inherent subject properties were presented.

    Results: The system was well accepted by all study subjects and the study generated a total of 253 measurements of which 94.5% were considered acceptable for analysis. One of the subjects developed an acute exacerbation towards the end of the study, whereas the other three subjects remained stable. Descriptive analysis of the data suggest that trends in the CAT score may indicate changes in health status and that IC tends to be more responsive to these changes compared to FEV1.

    Conclusion: The system developed in this study is well suited to be used unsupervised by COPD patients. Recorded data, in particular CAT, may be sensitive enough to detect early signs of an acute COPD exacerbation, although more data is needed to fully resolve the nature of such an association.

  • 87267.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Zachrisson, Adam
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Holmner-Rocklöv, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Three-Dimensional Camera System for Measuring Arm Volume in Women with Lymphedema Following Breast Cancer Treatment2014In: Lymphatic Research and Biology, ISSN 1539-6851, E-ISSN 1557-8585, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 267-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lymphedema is a common complication following breast cancer treatment, estimated to affect 20% of breast cancer survivors. The condition is associated with a number of symptoms, such as impaired range of motion and anxiety. A wide range of methods for determining the volume of the lymphedematous arm have been described. Circumference measurement (CM) is commonly used in clinics to appraise arm volume, while water displacement (WD) is often used in studies. The aim of the study was to assess the performance of a new method using 3D-technology in comparison to CM and WD. Methods and Results: The study was performed on 25 subjects with lymphedema secondary to breast cancer treatment. Volumetric data from CM, WD, and the 3D-camera were gathered on all subjects. The measurements were performed by two physiotherapists, each subject being measured by one of the physiotherapist. Estimates of differences between the methods was calculated through analyzing the data collected from the three methods using mixed-design analyses of variance. The results indicated a tendency for the 3D-camera to overestimate the volume in comparison the WD by 45.25 mL, 95% confidence interval (CI) -36.31 - 126.82 (p value 0.270). Conversely, CM showed a tendency to underestimate the volume compared to WD (-24.28 mL, CI -99.78 - 51.22, p value 0.521). Thus, no statistically significant difference was found between the methods. Conclusions: The 3D-camera is a viable method for measuring arm volume, performing on level with the established methods WD and CM.

  • 87268.
    Öhberg, Helena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Bång, Ulla
    Department of Agricultural Research for Northern Sweden, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Biological control of clover rot and red clover by Coniothyrium minitans under natural and controlled climatic conditions2010In: Biocontrol science and technology (Print), ISSN 0958-3157, E-ISSN 1360-0478, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 25-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of Coniothyrium minitans, contained in the commercial product Contans®WG, to control the development of clover rot in red clover, Trifolium pratense, was for the first time investigated in the field. Studies were performed on an established ley with a grass-clover mixture and on a newly sown pure red clover ley, both at a field site naturally infested with Sclerotinia trifoliorum. In the latter experiment the biocontrol agent was applied either prior to sowing or to growing seedlings. In addition, the ability of sclerotia of two S. trifoliorum isolates to cause disease in detached leaves was studied in a controlled environment. The effect of Contans®WG treatments at temperatures between +5 and +15°C and incubation periods of up to 7 weeks were included. Application of the biocontrol agent to the established ley during early summer, significantly reduced the number of groups of apothecia that developed during autumn in the following year in treated plots, compared to untreated plots. Twice as many red clover plants of the cultivar SW Torun survived in the pure red clover stand experiment the year after Contans®WG application as in the untreated plots, irrespective of how the agent was applied. In the laboratory studies, administering biocontrol treatments to sclerotia significantly reduced disease scores in the detached leaves at all temperatures at an exposure time of 7 weeks. Shorter incubation periods did not always negatively affect sclerotial viability.

  • 87269.
    Öhberg, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Alfredson, H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Neovascularisation in Achilles tendons with painful tendinosis but not in normal tendons2001In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, Vol. 9, no 4, p. 233-238Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87270.
    Öhberg, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Sclerosing therapy in chronic Achilles tendon insertional pain: results of a pilot study2003In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, Vol. 11, no 5, p. 339-343Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87271.
    Öhberg, L.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Lorentzon, R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Ultrasound guided sclerosis of neovessels in painful Achilles tendinosis: pilot study of a new treatment2002In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 173-175Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87272.
    Öhberg, L
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Good clinical results but persisting side-to-side differences in calf muscle strength after surgical treatment of chronic Achilles tendinosis: a 5-year follow-up.2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 11, no 4, p. 207-212Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have prospectively studied calf muscle strength (isokinetic concentric and eccentric muscle strength at 90 degrees/s and 225 degrees/s of angular velocity in 24 patients (17 males and 7 females, mean age 43.0 years) surgically treated for chronic Achilles tendinosis (at the 2-6 cm level in the tendon). The mean follow-up time was 5 years (range 31-82 months). Surgery was followed by immobilization in a weight-bearing below the knee plaster cast for 2-6 weeks, followed by a stepwise increasing strength training programme. Strength measurements (peak torque) were done preoperatively, and 1 and 5 (mean) years postoperatively. Preoperatively, concentric plantar flexion peak torque at 90 degrees/s and 225 degrees/s and eccentric plantar flexion torque at 90 degrees/s were significantly lower (12.3%, 19.7% and 8.5% respectively) on the injured side compared to the non-injured side. Postoperatively, at the 5-year follow-up, 22 out of 24 patients (92%) were satisfied with the operation and active at their desired level (running, tennis, badminton, walking). There was no significant increase in concentric and eccentric calf muscle strength postoperatively. Concentric plantar flexion peak torque at 90 degrees/s and 225 degrees/s and eccentric plantar flexion peak torque at 90 degrees/s were still significantly lower (7.2%, 8.6% and 8.8% respectively) on the injured side compared to the non-injured side. In conclusion it seems that the calf muscle strength deficit seen on the injured side preoperatively in this group of patients remains despite 92% of the patients being pain-free and active in sports or at recreational level after the operation. However, the percentage side-to-side difference is relatively low, and might not have any clinical relevance.

  • 87273.
    Öhberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    The chronic painful Achilles tendon: sonographic findings and new methods for treatment2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present thesis was to evaluate sonographic methods for investigation of the chronic painful Achilles tendon.

    In a prospective study on patients with chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinosis, grey-scale ultrasound (US) showed a decreased tendon thickness and a “normalized” structure in the majority of patients successfully treated with eccentric calf-muscle training. By combining US with colour Doppler examination (CDV), a neovascularisation was shown in the region with structural tendon changes in all painful tendons, but not in any of the pain-free normal tendons. In a small pilot study, the sclerosing agent Polidocanol was injected towards the neovessels under US and CDV guidance. The majority of the patients became painfree and had no remaining neovessels, while the patients with remaining pain had remaining neovessels. The combined findings from US, immuno-histochemical analyses of biopsies, and diagnostic injections, showed that the patients were temporarily pain-free after US and CDV guided injections of local anaesthesia towards the region with neovessels, and biopsies from the region with tendon changes and neovascularisation showed nerve structures in close relation to blood vessels. The presence of neovessels was shown also in patients with chronic pain in the Achilles tendon insertion, and it was found that treatment with sclerosing injections cured the pain in the majority of patients. A good result of treatment was associated with no remaining neovessels.

    In a prospective study on patients with chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinosis treated with eccentric training, CDV after treatment showed no remaining neovessels in the majority of the pain-free patients. In the patients with remaining tendon pain there were remaining neovessels. In conclusion, the findings in this thesis indicate that neovessels and accompanying nerves might be the source of chronic Achilles tendon pain. Sclerosing injections towards the neovessels, and eccentric training, seem to have a potential to cure the pain.

  • 87274.
    Öhberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Effects on neovascularisation behind the good results with eccentric training in chronic mid-portion Achilles tendinosis?2004In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 12, no 5, p. 465-470Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87275.
    Öhberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis: normalised tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow up2004In: Br J Sports Med, ISSN 0306-3674, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 8-11; discussion 11Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 87276.
    Öhberg, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Eccentric training in patients with chronic Achilles tendinosis–normalized tendon structure and decreased thickness at follow-up2004In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 8-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To prospectively investigate tendon thickness and tendon structure by ultrasonography in patients treated with eccentric calf muscle training for painful chronic Achilles tendinosis located at the 2 6 cm level in the tendon.

    Methods: The patients were examined with grey scale ultrasonography before and 3.8 years ( mean) after the 12 week eccentric training regimen. At follow up, a questionnaire assessed present activity level and satisfaction with treatment.

    Results: Twenty six tendons in twenty five patients ( 19 men and six women) with a mean age of 50 years were followed for a mean of 3.8 years ( range 1.6 - 7.75). All patients had a long duration of painful symptoms ( mean 17.1 months) from chronic Achilles tendinosis before treatment. At follow up, 22 of 25 patients were satisfied with treatment and active in Achilles tendon loading activities at the desired level. Ultrasonography showed that tendon thickness ( at the widest part) had decreased significantly (p< 0.005) after treatment (7.6 (2.3) v 8.8 ( 3) mm; mean (SD)). In untreated normal tendons, there was no significant difference in thickness after treatment (5.3 (1.3) mm before and 5.9 (0.8) mm after). All tendons with tendinosis had structural abnormalities (hypoechoic areas and irregular structure) before the start of treatment. After treatment, the structure was normal in 19 of the 26 tendons. Six of the seven patients with remaining structural abnormalities experienced pain in the tendon during loading.

    Conclusions: Ultrasonographic follow up of patients with mid-portion painful chronic Achilles tendinosis treated with eccentric calf muscle training showed a localised decrease in tendon thickness and a normalised tendon structure in most patients. Remaining structural tendon abnormalities seemed to be associated with residual pain in the tendon.

  • 87277.
    Öhgren, Ellenore
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Nyberg, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Pedagogers erfarenheter av barn som uppvisar stress i skolan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stress kan bero på flera faktorer, det kan visa sig olika beroende på ålder. Vuxnas förhållningssätt kan påverka barns stress. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka och skapa kunskap om pedagogers erfarenheter av arbetet med barn som uppvisar stress. Vi ville få kunskaper om hur skolor behandlar detta ständigt aktuella ämne. Följande forskningsfrågor besvaras: Vilken erfarenhet har pedagogerna av elever som uppvisar stress i skolan? Hur arbetar pedagoger och skola med barn som uppvisar stress? Via en kvalitativ intervjustudie har kunskaper inhämtats om pedagogers erfarenheter i arbetet med barn som uppvisar stress. Resultatet visar att stress kan vara likt en NPF samt bero på flera bakomliggande faktorer. Pedagogers agerande kan påverka barns stress.

  • 87278.
    Öhgren, Evelina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Projekt Nalovardo: Underlag till MKB för detaljplan samt ett förslag till resurshushållning i samband med byggandet av fritidshus2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report has two main aims; one purpose is to investigate the environmental implications of an exploitation of 75 holiday houses located in Nalovardo in northern Sweden. The other aim is to present suggestions on how the area and the holiday houses can be built and designed to conserve natural resources. To answer the first aim a base for an environmental impact assessment regarding the local plan for holiday houses in Nalovardo were established. A literature study was then made in order to present suggestions to conserve natural resources when constructing holiday houses in Nalovardo. The landscape image, water and sewer are interests that will be affected due to the exploitation of the area. The exploitations site is not located in an environmental protected area. The holiday houses would generate a greater interest in visiting nature reserves, tourism, ski resort and outdoor activities and this should be seen as something positive. To conserve natural resources in a building depends much on individual behavior and choice of products. What the constructer of the building in Nalovardo project can do is mainly to make demands on the resource measures concerning heat and cold in the houses.

  • 87279.
    Öhgren, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Iassu, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Unga kvinnor inom mansdominerade yrken: En kvalitativ studie om sex stycken kvinnors upplevelser, erfarenheter och känslor i deras nuvarande eller blivande arbete inom ett mansdominerat yrke efter avslutande studier.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats undersöker sex stycken kvinnors upplevelser, erfarenheter och känslor i deras nuvarande eller blivande arbete inom mansdominerade yrken efter avslutande studier. Syftet i denna studie är att få fördjupad kunskap om vilka faktorer som avgjorde valet av yrke, vilka reaktioner det fanns från närstående, vilka upplevelser de har av att ha arbetat inom ett mansdominerat yrke, samt hur deras framtidsplaner inom yrket ser ut. Denna studie är kvalitativ då vi intervjuade sex kvinnor i åldrarna 20–29 år. I intervjuerna framgick det att hälften av informanterna inte ser sig arbeta inom samma yrke om några år, detta kanske på grund utav det nuvarande individualistiska samhället som präglar människan med flertalet valmöjligheter. Med utgångspunkt i denna uppsats så bör framtida forskning undersöka fler och andra mansdominerade yrken än måleri, el, och lantbruk som undersöktes i denna studie. Det skulle vara intressant att få en djupare kunskap om varför de vill byta yrke samt om deras förväntningar de hade om yrket överensstämde med hur verkligheten faktiskt såg ut. För att kunna dra generella slutsatser bör en större studie genomföras med fler informanter för att uppnå högre reliabilitet dock så styrker andra studier resultatet.

  • 87280.
    Öhgren, Sanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Dörröppnare eller grindvakt?: Studie- och yrkesvägledarens betydelse för nyanlända elevers övergång från språkintroduktion till andra studier eller arbete2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Språkintroduktion är det största av gymnasieskolans introduktionsprogram. Programmet riktar sig till elever som nyligen kommit till Sverige där undervisningens tyngdpunkt ligger i det svenska språket. Syftet med Språkintroduktion är att ge elverna behörigheten till att gå vidare i gymnasieskolan eller till annan utbildning. Enligt Skolverket kan nyanlända elever vara i större behov av information angående det svenska skolsystemet och arbetsmarknaden. Skolinspektionen redovisar dock att studie- och yrkesvägledningen uppfyller dock inte många av de nyanlända elevernas behov av vägledning, dels av information men även behovet av stöd och motiverande insatser. Syftet med denna studie är att beskriva och analysera studie och yrkesvägledares arbete med vägledning med nyanlända elever på språkintroduktion, dels av deras egen uppfattning av sin roll i elevernas övergång från språkintroduktion till andra studier eller arbete men även undersöka hur organiseringen av studie och yrkesvägledningen ser ut på de skolor informanterna är verksamma inom. Studien har utgått från en kvalitativ forskningsmetod där jag har använt mig av semistrukturerade intervjuer med studie- och yrkesvägledare verksamma inom språkintroduktion på kommunala gymnasieskolor. Resultatet visar att informanternas arbete med studie- och yrkesvägledning med nyanlända elever som målgrupp sker i kombination av enskilda samtal, samtal och information i grupp samt i samarbete med andra aktörer. Informanterna arbetar med att vidga elevernas perspektiv gällande olika yrkens inkomst och yrkens olika krav på utbildning. Studie- och yrkesvägledarnas roll i arbetet med vägledning med nyanlända elever på språkintroduktion kan ses som både en dörröppnare och en grindvakt. Dörröppnare eftersom studie- och yrkesvägledarna vidgar elevernas perspektiv gällande karriärmöjligheter dels genom information om valalternativ gällande studie och yrkesval men även för att vägleda eleverna till att bli handlingskraftiga individer. Förutsättningarna för informanternas arbete med vägledning är försvårade på grund av gymnasieprogrammens behörighetskrav. Informanterna intygar det faktum att nyanlända elever har svårt att hinna nå gymnasieprogrammens behörighetskrav innan de blir för gamla för att få påbörja ett nationellt gymnasieprogram och därmed måste hänvisa elverna till alternativa studie- och yrkesvägar som som inte motsvarade elevens förväntningar. På så vis kan även studie- och yrkesvägledarnas roll ses som en grindvakt. 

  • 87281. Öhlander, Magnus
    et al.
    Wolanik Boström, Katarzyna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Pettersson, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Kulturella perspektiv på högutbildades mobilitet2016In: Kulturella perspektiv - Svensk etnologisk tidskrift, ISSN 1102-7908, Vol. 25, no 3-4, p. 2-6Article, review/survey (Refereed)
  • 87282.
    Öhlin, Jerry
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lavemark, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Fysisk aktivitet och kognition - Jämförelse mellan åldersgrupper: - Jämförelse mellan åldersgrupper2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fysisk aktivitet har goda effekter på allmän hälsa och nya studier visar detsamma gällande kognitiv funktion. För att öka förståelsen av sambandet mellan fysisk aktivitet och kognitiv funktion vid olika åldrar utfördes en tvärsnittsstudie på en befintli g datamän gd (n=932).

    Studien ämnade pröva hypotesen att fysisk aktivitet skulle påvisa ett positivt samband mellan utfallet av ett antal kognitiva tester och fysisk aktivitetsnivå.

    Resultatet från omfattande kognitiva tester på testdeltagarna sorterades in under 6 kognitiva funktioner: episodiskt minne, semantiskt minne,fluency, visuospatial förmåga, processing speed, exekutiv funktion. Dessa jämfördes  mot deras självsk attade fysiska aktivitetsnivå.

    Försöksdelta garna sorterades in i fyra åldersgrupper: 25-50, 55-60, 65-70, 75-90 år, då tidigare forskning visat att kognitionen förändras över tid och även dess samband med fysisk aktivitet. Regressionsanalyser utfördes med kontrollvariabler som, utöver fysisk aktivitet, visat sig påverka kognitiv funktion.

    Resultatet visade ett positivt samband mellan fysisk aktivitetsnivå och semantiskt minne, flu ency, processing speed samt exekutiv funktion , med en generell tendens att de äldre försöksdeltagarna uppvisade starkast  samband.

    Utifrån resultaten i denna studie diskuteras att fysisk aktivitet kan ge positiva effekter både genom att öka kognitiv funktion och stävja åldersrelaterad kognitiv nedsättning, med ökad effekt vid stigande ålder.

  • 87283.
    Öhlin, Josefine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Söderström, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Livet på Facebook: En intervjustudie om män och kvinnors uppfattningar om självpresentationer på Facebook2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle har internet och Facebook blivit allt mer utbrett vilket fångat vårt intresse med avseende på hur individer väljer att framställa sig själva där. Vi har i denna uppsats med hjälp av en deduktiv ansats tolkat och analyserat män och kvinnors självpresentationer på Facebook. I analysarbetet har teorier som behandlar självpresentation används, liksom teorier gällande genus, normer samt identitet. Intervjuer med tre män och tre kvinnor har utförts. Fokus har legat på vad de väljer att visa eller inte visa på sina facebookprofiler samt vad det är som styr dessa val. Analysen av intervjuerna har gjorts utifrån en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. De manliga och de kvinnliga respondenterna gav uttryck för liknande åsikter gällande äkthet, idealisering och normer. Det finns normer som indikerar på att man som facebookanvändare bör publicera bra och intressant material för att uppfattas som en intressant person. Däremot uppfattas man inte som äkta om man publicerar för mycket positivt material. Det är heller inte önskvärt att publicera negativt material. Respondenterna var även överens om att det inte är ett äkta liv som presenteras på Facebook utan att det är polerat.

  • 87284.
    Öhlund, Caroline
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Holmér, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    När familjehemssekreterare talar om umgänge: en diskursanalys2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    När barn av olika anledningar inte kan bo kvar hos sina biologiska föräldrar hamnar de flesta inom samhällets vård under heldygnsinsats. Den vanligaste formen av heldygnsinsats är i dagsläget vård i familjehem. När barn placeras i familjehem får barnet en egen socialsekreterare och familjehemmet får en annan, denne kallas för familjehemssekreterare. Familjehemssekreteraren deltar vid överväganden av familjehemsvården och har ett visst inflytande i umgängesfrågor. Syftet med denna studie är att få en djupare förståelse för vad familjehemssekreterarna anser om umgänge mellan de biologiska föräldrarna och barn placerade i familjehem enligt lag (1990:52) med särskilda bestämmelser om vård av unga (LVU) utifrån principen om barnets bästa. Genom intervjuer baserade på vinjetter med fem familjehemssekreterare och en familjehemsgruppschef verksamma på två olika socialkontor ämnade denna studie att finna diskurser om umgänge. Resultaten visar två diskurser rörande umgänge: diskursen om umgänge som en självklarhet och diskursen om umgänge utifrån barnets behov. Empirin analyserades med stöd av anknytningsteorin och teorin om handlingsutrymme.

  • 87285.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Basement membrane collagens in pancreatic cancer: novel stroma-derived tumor markers and regulators of cancer cell growth2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Among the common malignancies, pancreatic cancer has the shortest long-term survival. The aggressive, rapid, and infiltrative growth pattern of pancreatic cancer, together with the lack of specific symptoms, often leads to late diagnosis. Metastases are frequently found at the time of diagnosis, which prevents curative surgical treatment. Good tumor markers would enable early detection, thus improving the prognosis. Unfortunately, no such markers are available in the clinic.

    The tumor stroma is defined as the non-malignant cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM) of a cancer. Pancreatic cancer is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma, rich in ECM proteins such as collagens, which have been shown to play important roles in tumor progression. Furthermore, pancreatic cancer cells produce large quantities of ECM proteins, especially the basement membrane (BM) protein type IV collagen. All epithelial cells are anchored to a BM, which must be degraded in order for an in situ cancer to become invasive. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are enzymes involved in BM degradation.

    In this thesis, the tumor stroma of pancreatic cancer is studied, focusing on the BM proteins type IV and type XVIII collagen, with the aim to clarify if the stroma could be a source of novel tumor markers for this form of cancer. Additionally, the role of type IV collagen produced by the cancer cells is studied.

    Methods: Expression patterns of type IV and type XVIII collagen, MMPs involved in collagen degradation, and collagen receptors (integrins) were studied by immunoflourescence in both normal and pancreatic cancer tissue, and in pancreatic cancer cell lines. Circulating plasma levels of type IV and type XVIII collagen and conventional tumor markers (TPS, Ca 19-9, CEA and Ca 125) were measured in controls and pancreatic cancer patients at the time of diagnosis and after treatment.

    The role of cancer cell produced type IV collagen was studied in human pancreatic cancer cell lines by functional blocking of integrin receptors (integrin a1, a2 and b1) and integrin-binding sites on type IV collagen, and by siRNA-induced down-regulation of type IV collagen synthesis. Proliferation was analyzed by a luminescence based cell viability assay, migration by time-lapse microscopy, and apoptosis by M30-neoepitope detection.

    Results: MMPs involved in BM degradation were upregulated in pancreatic cancer tissue. The expression of type XVIII collagen shifted from a general BM expression pattern in normal tissue, to mainly being found in the tumor vasculature in pancreatic cancer. Type IV collagen, on the other hand, remained highly expressed in the vicinity of the cancer cells. The a1, a2, and b1 integrin receptors were highly expressed at the cancer cell surface.

    Both down-regulation of type IV collagen synthesis and blocking the integrin/type IV collagen interaction decreased cell proliferation and migration. The proliferative capacity was rescued by the addition of exogenous type IV collagen.

    Furthermore, the circulating levels of both type IV and type XVIII collagen were increased in pancreatic cancer patients at the time of diagnosis compared to controls. After treatment, the levels were normalized for type XVIII collagen, whereas the levels of type IV collagen remained high after surgery. High postoperative levels of type IV collagen were associated with short overall survival. A similar association to short survival was found for preoperative type XVIII collagen levels. No such associations to survival could be detected for the conventional markers.

     

    Conclusion: The results of this thesis show that type IV and type XVIII collagens can serve as tumor markers for pancreatic cancer with advantages compared to conventionally used markers. Additionally, evidence is provided of an autocrine loop, involving type IV collagen and its integrin receptors, with importance for retaining a proliferative and migratory phenotype in pancreatic cancer cells.

  • 87286.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory and Lustgarten Foundation Pancreatic Cancer Research Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NY 11724.
    Distinct populations of inflammatory fibroblasts and myofibroblasts in pancreatic cancer2017In: Journal of Experimental Medicine, ISSN 0022-1007, E-ISSN 1540-9538, Vol. 214, no 3, p. 579-596Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) differentiate into cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) that produce desmoplastic stroma, thereby modulating disease progression and therapeutic response in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). However, it is unknown whether CAFs uniformly carry out these tasks or if subtypes of CAFs with distinct phenotypes in PDA exist. We identified a CAF subpopulation with elevated expression of a-smooth muscle actin (alpha SMA) located immediately adjacent to neoplastic cells in mouse and human PDA tissue. We recapitulated this finding in co-cultures of murine PSCs and PDA organoids, and demonstrated that organoid-activated CAFs produced desmoplastic stroma. The co-cultures showed cooperative interactions and revealed another distinct subpopulation of CAFs, located more distantly from neoplastic cells, which lacked elevated aSMA expression and instead secreted IL6 and additional inflammatory mediators. These findings were corroborated in mouse and human PDA tissue, providing direct evidence for CAF heterogeneity in PDA tumor biology with implications for disease etiology and therapeutic development.

  • 87287.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Ardnor, Bjarne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Öman, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Expression pattern and circulating levels of endostatin in patients with pancreas cancer2008In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215, Vol. 122, no 12, p. 2805-2810Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Endostatin is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis that is cleaved from the basement membrane protein type XVIII collagen. Expression of endostatin has recently been shown by Western blot analysis of tissue lysates in normal pancreas and pancreas cancer tissue. We show here that the expression pattern of type XVIII collagen/endostatin is shifted from a general basement membrane staining and is mainly located in the vasculature during tumor progression. This shift in type XVIII collagen/endostatin expression pattern coincides with an up-regulation of MMPs involved in endostatin processing in the tumor microenvironment, such as MMP-3, MMP-9 and MMP-13. The circulating levels of endostatin was analyzed in patients with pancreas cancer and compared to that of healthy controls, as well as after surgical treatment or in a group of nonoperable patients after intraperitoneal fluorouracil (5-FU) chemotherapy. The results show that patients with pancreas cancer have increased circulating levels of endostatin and that these levels are normalized after surgery or intraperitoneal chemotherapy. These findings indicate that endostatin could be used as a biomarker for pancreas cancer progression.

  • 87288. Öhlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Elyada, Ela
    Tuveson, David
    Fibroblast heterogeneity in the cancer wound2014In: Journal of Experimental Medicine, ISSN 0022-1007, E-ISSN 1540-9538, Vol. 211, no 8, p. 1503-1523Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fibroblasts regulate the structure and function of healthy tissues, participate transiently in tissue repair after acute inflammation, and assume an aberrant stimulatory role during chronic inflammatory states including cancer. Such cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) modulate the tumor microenvironment and influence the behavior of neoplastic cells in either a tumor-promoting or tumor-inhibiting manner. These pleiotropic functions highlight the inherent plasticity of fibroblasts and may provide new avenues to understand and therapeutically intervene in malignancies. We discuss the emerging themes of CAF biology in the context of tumorigenesis and therapy.

  • 87289.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Franklin, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundin, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Type IV collagen enhances pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and migration through an autocrine loopManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87290.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Franklin, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundberg, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundin, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Type IV collagen stimulates pancreatic cancer cell proliferation, migration, and inhibits apoptosis through an autocrine loop2013In: BMC Cancer, ISSN 1471-2407, E-ISSN 1471-2407, Vol. 13, article id 154Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pancreatic cancer shows a highly aggressive and infiltrative growth pattern and is characterized by an abundant tumor stroma known to interact with the cancer cells, and to influence tumor growth and drug resistance. Cancer cells actively take part in the production of extracellular matrix proteins, which then become deposited into the tumor stroma. Type IV collagen, an important component of the basement membrane, is highly expressed by pancreatic cancer cells both in vivo and in vitro. In this study, the cellular effects of type IV collagen produced by the cancer cells were characterized.

    Methods: The expression of type IV collagen and its integrin receptors were examined in vivo in human pancreatic cancer tissue. The cellular effects of type IV collagen were studied in pancreatic cancer cell lines by reducing type IV collagen expression through RNA interference and by functional receptor blocking of integrins and their binding-sites on the type IV collagen molecule.

    Results: We show that type IV collagen is expressed close to the cancer cells in vivo, forming basement membrane like structures on the cancer cell surface that colocalize with the integrin receptors. Furthermore, the interaction between type IV collagen produced by the cancer cell, and integrins on the surface of the cancer cells, are important for continuous cancer cell growth, maintenance of a migratory phenotype, and for avoiding apoptosis.

    Conclusion: We show that type IV collagen provides essential cell survival signals to the pancreatic cancer cells through an autocrine loop.

  • 87291.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundin, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Ardnor, Bjarne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Öman, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Type IV collagen is a tumour stroma-derived biomarker for pancreas cancer2009In: British Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0007-0920, E-ISSN 1532-1827, Vol. 101, no 1, p. 91-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Pancreas cancer is a dreaded disease with high mortality, despite progress in surgical and oncological treatments in recent years. The field is hampered by a lack of good prognostic and predictive tumour biomarkers to be used during follow-up of patients.

    METHODS: The circulating level of type IV collagen was measured by ELISA in pancreas cancer patients and controls. The expression pattern of type IV collagen in normal pancreas, pancreas cancer tissue and in pancreas cancer cell lines was studied by immunofluorescence and Western blot techniques.

    RESULTS: Patients with pancreas cancer have significantly increased circulating levels of type IV collagen. In pancreas cancer tissue high levels of type IV collagen expression was found in close proximity to cancer cells in the tumour stroma. Furthermore, pancreas cancer cells were found to produce and secrete type IV collagen in vitro, which in part can explain the high type IV collagen expression observed in pancreas cancer tissue, and the increased circulating levels in pancreas cancer patients. Of clinical importance, our results show that the circulating level of type IV collagen after surgery is strongly related to prognosis in patients treated for pancreas cancer by pancreatico-duodenectomy with curative intent. Persisting high levels of circulating type IV collagen after surgery indicates a quick relapse in disease and poor survival.

    CONCLUSION: Our results most importantly show that stroma related substances can be evaluated as potential cancer biomarkers, and thereby underline the importance of the tumour microenvironment also in this context.

  • 87292.
    Öhlund, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lundin, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Öman, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Naredi, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Basement membrane fragments as pancreatic tumour markers: a comparison to conventional markersManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87293.
    Öhlund, Doris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    ”Det väcker så mycket tankar, när du ställer dina frågor”: Föräldraintervjuer om deras upplevelser av barnpsykiatrisk behandling för deras barn med diagnos ADHD. 2008Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Mitt syfte har varit att ta del av föräldrars erfarenheter av den barnpsykiatriska behandlingen för deras barn med ADHD-diagnos. Jag ville också få en bild av hur samspelet fungerar mellan barn och föräldrar.

    Metoden jag använt har varit kvalitativa intervjuer med föräldrar till fyra barn.

    En utgångspunkt i mina frågeställningar har varit om vi inom barnpsykiatrin i bemötandet av dessa familjer har haft en helhetssyn och ett relationsperspektiv som sedan också präglat behandlingen.

    Sammanfattningsvis framkommer att föräldrarna fått behandling som dom är nöjda med men alla familjerna frågar samtidigt efter en helhetssyn i bemötandet och komplementära behandlingsalternativ.

    Djupintervjuerna belyser en stark efterfrågan på psykologisk behandling på både individual/familj och föräldranivå.

    Tre av fyra föräldrapar uttrycker behov av att utvecklingspsykologiskt kunna förstå sitt barn, vad är symtom och vad är normalt.

    Samspelet mellan barn och föräldrar är ett område som berör känslomässigt. Ett område som föräldrarna beskriver har inneburit osäkerhet i föräldraskapet och vanmakt inför att kunna få en fungerande relation till barnet.

     

     

     

     

  • 87294.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecological and evolutionary effects of predation in environmental gradients2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding species interactions and how they affect densities and distributions of organisms is a central theme in ecological research. Studying such interactions in an ecosystem context is challenging as they often depend on species-specific characteristics and rates that not only change during the ontogeny of an organism, but also are affected by the surrounding environment. This thesis focuses on two separate questions and study systems that highlight different aspects of how effects of predation can depend on environmental conditions. In the first part of the thesis, we studied how temperature affects attack rate and handling time, two ecological rates with profound importance for predator-prey dynamics. Using a metaanalysis, we first show that the currently dominating model for temperature dependence in predator-prey interactions, i.e. the Arrhenius equation, has weak support in available empirical literature. This suggests that we need new rules for how and when we can generalize on the temperature-dependence of intake rates. We then use a simple model and a series of experiments to demonstrate that differences in the relative physiological capacity between predator and prey can impose strong non-linear effects on temperature-response curves of attack rate. In the second part of the thesis, we study the role of predation along a benthic-pelagic habitat gradient in promoting divergence and resource polymorphism among prey. We show that presence of a large piscivorous predator, the northern pike (Esox lucius), induces dwarfs, giants or divergence into both ecotypes in populations of European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus) depending on lake characteristics. Using dated introductions of whitefish as controlled natural experiments, we show that pike presence induces rapid life history divergence between pelagic and littoral habitat use strategies, and that this divergence can translate into partial reproductive isolation in a matter of decades. Our results demonstrate the potential for thresholds in a crucial ecological rate, setting the stage for tipping points with potentially far reaching implications for effects of warming on predator prey dynamics and ecosystem stability. Moreover, they illustrate the potentially drastic consequences of such tipping points by demonstrating the importance of a single predator species as a driving force behind the creation and maintenance of biodiversity in a natural system.  

  • 87295.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bodin, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, D-24302 Plön, Germany.
    Öhlund, Sven-Ola
    Peedu, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Predation drives rapid and repeated sympatric divergence in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87296.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Norman, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temperature dependence of predation depends on the relative performance of predators and prey2015In: Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8452, E-ISSN 1471-2954, Vol. 282, no 1799, article id 20142254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The temperature dependence of predation rates is a key issue for understanding and predicting the responses of ecosystems to climate change. Using a simple mechanistic model, we demonstrate that differences in the relative performances of predator and prey can cause strong threshold effects in the temperature dependence of attack rates. Empirical data on the attack rate of northern pike (Esox lucius) feeding on brown trout (Salmo trutta) confirm this result. Attack rates fell sharply below a threshold temperature of +11 degrees C, which corresponded to a shift in relative performance of pike and brown trout with respect to maximum attack and escape swimming speeds. The average attack speed of pike was an order of magnitude lower than the escape speed of brown trout at 5 degrees C, but approximately equal at temperatures above 11 degrees C. Thresholds in the temperature dependence of ecological rates can create tipping points in the responses of ecosystems to increasing temperatures. Thus, identifying thresholds is crucial when predicting future effects of climate warming.

  • 87297.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hedström, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Norman, Sven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Temperature-dependence of predation depends on relative performance of predators and preyManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87298.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Nordwall, F.
    Degerman, E.
    Eriksson, T.
    Life history and large-scale habitat use of brown trout (salmo trutta) and brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) - implications for species replacement patterns2008In: Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, Vol. 65, p. 633-644Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Simple models of temperature-mediated interference competition have generally failed to explain salmonid species replacement patterns along altitudinal gradients, a fact that emphasizes the need to link individual features and their relation to habitat characteristics to population-level dynamics. We compared life history parameters in stream resident populations of brook trout (/Salvelinus fontinalis/) and brown trout (/Salmo trutta/) in eight boreal streams. By use of electro-fishing data from 1000 sites, we analyzed and related differences in life history traits to habitat- and interaction-related patterns of growth and densities of brook and brown trout, respectively. Brown trout were competitively dominant throughout the size span of sampled sympatric sites and lowered growth rates in sympatry were mainly caused by environmental factors, revealing a link between brook trout invasions and habitat-related limitations on brown trout performance. Still, the frequency of allopatric brook trout sites increased in the smallest watersheds, indicating that localities with a high degree of brook trout dominance rarely sustain brown trout over time. Brook trout populations had higher turn-over rates and proportions of mature females than brown trout populations. Our results suggest growth potential and its effect on population fecundity as a critical factor limiting competitive ability and distribution of brown trout in Swedish brook trout dominated headwaters.

  • 87299.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Peedu, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fallgren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Magnusson, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Öhlund, Sven-Ola
    Bartels, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bodin, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The chronology of incipient speciation in whitefishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 87300.
    Öhlund, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Modelling of a solar project network for time improvement2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written for the Finnish company Wärtsilä and looks into the project processes of an EPC solar project and an EPC Engine power plant project to find similarities, by looking into both qualitative and quantitative aspects. This is done so that Wärtsilä may use the information gained from the engine power plant projects to further their solar projects by cutting down the total project time. These comparisons are done by collecting data from interviews and from constructing a project network for both projects, which is then remade into a linear program, solved, and then evaluated by sensitivity analysis and looking into the critical paths and slack times of both networks. This data is then used to present a recommendation to Wärtsilä on which activities should be prioritised when trying to improve the project time. These recommendations include looking into container usage, the installation process of posts and photovoltaic panels, as well as allocation of manpower for civil work.

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