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  • 1.
    Agvald, Liv
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Fysisk aktivitetsnivå hos barn i årskurs 3: En accelerometerstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The importance of physical activity is well investigated, but the knowledge regarding the physical activity of younger children is limited. Accelerometers have proved to be a valid method to measure physical activity in children.

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the total level of physical activity (relative to recommended level) in children in grade three at a school in northern Sweden. Furthermore, the study investigated whether there are any differences in physical activity based on gender or participation in organized sports.

    Method: Forty children participated in the study. Their level of physical activity was measured using tri-accelerometry technology during one week. Each participant also completed a short questionnaire regarding their level of physical activity.

    Results: No significant difference was found in the level of physical activity in relation to gender or participation in organized sports. All but one participant reached the recommended level of daily activity.

    Discussion: Based on the study, children in grade three appear to be sufficiently active to achieve the daily level of activity, a positive result in spite of the alarming reports of increased sedentary behavior among children. Intensified studies are needed to see if these results recur in a broader context.

  • 2.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK; The Institute of Sport Exercise & Health (ISEH), University College London Hospitals (UCLH), London, UK.
    Clinical commentary of the evolution of the treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy2015In: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, ISSN 1413-3555, E-ISSN 1809-9246, Vol. 19, no 5, p. 429-432Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion was for many years, and still is in many countries, treated with intratendinous revision surgery. However, by coincidence, painful eccentric calf muscle training was tried, and it showed very good clinical results. This finding was unexpected and led to research into the pain mechanisms involved in this condition. Today we know that there are very few nerves inside, but multiple nerves outside, the ventral side of the chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion. These research findings have resulted in new treatment methods targeting the regions with nerves outside the tendon, methods that allow for a rapid rehabilitation and fast return to sports.

  • 3.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Reply to the letter from Dr. Karsten Knobloch regarding our article "Sclerosing injections to treat midportion Achilles tendinosis: a randomized controlled study evaluating two different concentrations of polidocanol"2009In: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 113-114Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Almgren, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Danielsson, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Påverkan av Muskeltrötthet på Motorisk Kontroll hos Kvinnliga Innebandyspelare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contact injuries are a big part of overall injuries in floorball. Deficits in motor control due to muscle fatigue may be a factor that causes non-contact injuries. We analyzed movement changes with The Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS) with and without muscle fatigue on women floorball players. Method: A pilot study with a cross-sectional structure. FMS test was used to measure changes in movements and to reach fatigue a 5-10 min running ramp protocol on treadmill was used. The borg RPE-scale was used to measure perceived exhaustion. Participants: Seven female floorball players playing in teams at the highest two leagues in Sweden. The participants age was 19.7 (±SD 3,2) years, length 166.4 cm (±SD 7,2) and weight 63.1 kg (±SD 4,5). Results: Through observations of the participants we noted a different movement pattern while obtaining muscle fatigue. The results of FMS total score shows no significant difference (p=0,504) before and after the VO2max running test. The FMS results from exercises that includes the lower extremities (deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge and straight leg raise) does not either confirm a significant difference (p=0,132). Discussion: Our subjective analyze of the movements confirms a different movement strategy with and without muscle fatigue. The non-parametric statistical analyze does not confirm this change in movements as significant. The Functional Movement Screen might not be a good tool to measure changes in movement because the movement change has to be in a specific criteria to get a lower point. Even though we saw a different movement strategy after the ramp running test, the deficit in movements was not in the specific criteria that was necessary to get a lower point. Conclusion: Through the test results and our observations we conclude that movement pattern change after an exercise that causes fatigue, does not completely show how much the movement patterns changes and what the consequences are. More research has to be done in this area to confirm such results.

  • 5.
    Anckarman, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Den framgångsrika personliga tränaren: En kvalitativ studie om klienters upplevelse av vilka egenskaper och faktorer som är viktiga för personliga tränare2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the last years the fitness industry has expanded fast. Today PT is offered at almost every health club. Training with a PT have positive physical effects but it has also shown an influence on behaviour associated with training. A good relation between client and coach is needed for a positive outcome of the training.

    Purpose: The aim of the study was to investigate what the clients that are training or has trained with at personal trainer during the last year consider as important factors and personal qualities related to personal trainers.

    Design and method: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Data collection was done by semi-structured interviews. Data was analysed with qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analyses resulted in 3 themes, 6 categories and 17 sub categories. The themes and categories were: To appear as competent: Appearance and displayed experience ,Give a feeling of a broad knowledge.

    Coaching style: To be present here and now, To personalize Pedagogical strategies: Tools to reach results, To create a secure feeling,

    Conclusion: Background information of the PT should always be available at the health club or on the website. The client should have the opportunity to choose a PT based on their personal requests. This may result in good preconditions for a strong and effective working alliance. Reserach in this area are limited therefor further studies are needed. 

  • 6.
    Anderback, Nanny-Maja
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Öling, Kajsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet under graviditeten reducera graviditetsrelaterade besvär?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women are pregnant for one or more periods of their lives. During this time, studies have shown that women tend to become physically inactive. With a pregnancy, there is also an increased risk of other diseases and disorders such as pregnancy diabetes and obesity. Studies have shown that physical activity can prevent some of these disorders. Traditionally, the general opinion on physical activity during pregnancy has been that it could be dangerous for both the pregnant woman and the fetus. Today, there is a more liberal view of physical activity during pregnancy, but research is still inadequate.Aim: Our purpose with this literature study is to examine the effects of physical activity during pregnancy in pregnancy-related disorders, and look into the current recommendations on physical activity during pregnancy.Results: Our study has seen positive effects of physical activity during pregnancy especially in pregnancy-related disorders such as lumbar pain, pelvic floor dysfunction, fatigue, gestational diabetes and weight gain, as well as some positive trends in preeclampsia, edema and pelvic girdle pain. The research on nausea and rectus diastasis is too inadequate to draw any conclusions about possible effects.Conclusion: More RCT studies on pregnancy-related disorders are needed to reach consensus about what type of physical activity, duration, intensity and frequency during pregnancy that are beneficial for these disorders. From this knowledge we can then work out more specific recommendations.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Annie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Björkén, Rebecca
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet och kost ha en positiv inverkan på fysiska och psykiska subkliniska menstruella besvär?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Many women experience physical and psychological symptoms during their menstrual cycle. Research is scarce about how to ease subclinical menstrual disorders like dysmenorrhea, menorrhagia, premenstrual syndrome, premenstrual dysphoric syndrome, oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea without using medicines. Physical activity and diet is proved to have positive effects on several diseases and we therefore wanted to see if positive effects also could be seen on subclinical menstrual disorders.

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if physical activity and diet could reduce physical and psychological subclinical menstrual disorders and lead to a better wellbeing.

    Method: Searching for subclinical menstrual disorders in relation to physical activity and diet in fertile, active and inactive women without the use of hormonal contraceptives was done using Pubmed.

    Results: The study has shown that physical activity and diet could reduce some of the problems associated with subclinical menstrual disorders. Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) could be eased through calm, meditative activities. Positive effects could be seen when eating more often but smaller meals containing complex carbohydrates and by taking additional vitamins and minerals. Yoga has been proved to reduce menstrual pain and there’s also an indication that physical activity could improve the regularity of the menstrual cycle. Adequate energy intake is needed to avoid oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. No clear recommendations were found for the remaining subclinical menstrual disorders.

    Conclusion: The study has shown that physical activity and diet have positive effects on some subclinical menstrual disorders. Symptoms of PMS could be eased by calm, meditative activities. Yoga and physical activity have been shown to reduce dysmenorrhea. Adequate energy intake is essential to avoid oligomenorrhea and amenorrhea. Further research is needed to give general recommendations.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    The feasibility of using a training- and injury log to quantify training load and injury incidence in powerlifting2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Little is known about injuries and risk factors in powerlifting. In other sports, training load is an important factor that influences injury risk. However, no method to quantify training load in powerlifting exist.Objectives:

    The purpose of this study was to assess whether a standardised training and injury log is a feasible method to quantify training load and to prospectively record injuries.Method:The study was conducted in two phases with 7 respectively 8 powerlifters in each phase. In phase 1, the powerlifters logged their injuries and training for four weeks and then answered a feasibility questionnaire. Based on the results from the questionnaire, updates in the training and injury log were made and the powerlifters in phase 2 logged their training and injuries using the updated version and answered the same questionnaire as the powerlifters in phase 1.

    Results:

    It was possible to extract data and make calculations on training load based on the variables used in the training log and it was possible to calculate injury incidence and prevalence. Also, 9/12 powerlifters stated that they could use this standardised method for a period of at least 6 months.

    Conclusion:

    In conclusion, this standardised training and injury log seems to be a method to quantify training load and injuries in powerlifting. Further studies are needed to investigate the relationship between training load and injuries in powerlifting.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Hannes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Gröntvedt, John
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effekten av 8-veckors medicinbollsträning på smashhastighet hos badmintonspelare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Andersson, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Samband mellan överkroppsstyrka och prestation i skidspåret hos svenska längdskidåkande juniorer.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified strength as a key factor for performance in cross-country skiing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between upper body strength and performance in swedish junior cross-country skiers. 33 swedish young men and 23 young women age 17,3 ± 1,0 years volunteered to participate in specific tests during a summer training camp were they completed a test battery consisting of bench press and bench pull. The strength variables obtained were correlated with FIS-points (International Ski Federation´s ranking points for distance and sprint performance) used as the performance indicator. Correlations were performed by Spearman´s rank correlation coefficient for all variables. The results showed that FIS-points for sprint correlated significantly with both bench press and bench pull. No significant correlation was found between FIS-points for distance and bench pull. These results may predict performance for cross-country skiers and indicate a justification for increased proportion of strength training. 

  • 11.
    Andersson, Terese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Menstruationscykelns och p-pillers påverkan på den fysiska prestationsförmågan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on Sport Performance

    During the menstrual cycle, there is a variation of the female steriod hormones estrogen and progestogen. These hormones has mainly reproduktive functions, but do also affect other physiological systems, which may have an influence on athletic performance. The use of oral contraceptives among female athletes matches the use among the general population. There is a concern among female athletes and there coaches weather oral contraceptives can affect the performance. The purpose of this litterature review is to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives on athletic performance. Most studies indicates that neither the aerobic performance or VO₂max changes during the mestrual cycle, but an increase in ventilation during the lutheal phase has been observed. In the lutheal phase, the body temperature is elevated, which can affect the performance negatively during physical activity in hot and humid conditions. Studies evaluating the anaerobic performance shows varied results, which can be explained by few study participants, different study designs and varying definitions of menstrual cycle phase. Some studies that have examined the strength variation have not seen any difference, and others have seen an advantage during the follicular phase, when it also seems to be beneficial to train more strength training to optimize training adaptation. The use of oral contraceptives can affect the body composition of female athletes. Fat mass and BMD can increase, and is seen mainly in athleteswith mestrual dysfunctions. This can be benificial for their health and decrease the risk of injury, but may decrease performace level. The effect of oral contraceptive administration on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength are unclear and the research has come up with varying results. Future studies should investigate oneoral contraceptive pill formulation at a time, andalso compare different formulations, to determineif that affect performance in different ways.

    Key words: menstruation, oral contraceptives, female athlete, performance, hormones

  • 12.
    Ballin, Marcel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Lundberg, Emmy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    The effect of 10 weeks of vigorousintensity interval training on visceral adipose tissue in 70-year-old individuals with central obesity: - a randomized controlled trial2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 13.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?2018In: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, ISSN 0022-4707, Vol. 58, no 9, p. 1185-1189Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-up as it is generally believed to increase mobility and reduce the risk of injury; however, SS has been shown to induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on certain sports, especially of explosive muscular performance. Whether sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on isokinetic muscle performance remains unclear.

    METHODS: The present study conducted two different warm-ups: 2-component warm-up and 3-component warm-up on 15 university students. Both protocols contained low intensity aerobic exercise and sport specific exercise, whereas the 3-component warm-up also contained SS which has been previously proven to induce negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. After the warm-ups, the subjects performed an isokinetic test on a Biodex. To make the sport specific exercise mimic the subsequent test, both included concentric isokinetic knee extension. During the tests, muscle performance of peak torque, mean power, and total work was recorded. Comparison of the measurements on each parameter between the two warm-ups was performed using paired t test.

    RESULTS: The comparisons did not reveal any significant difference in the measurement of any parameter between the two different warm-up protocols, and calculation of Cohen's revealed small effect sizes on all of the three variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: On basis of the present results and that the SS could induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance, we concluded that the negative effects of the SS on the variables were restored by the isokinetic contractions.

  • 14.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Norrlandskliniken Hlth Care Ctr, Umea, Sweden.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi .
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effects of Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and a High-Load Lifting Exercise on Lumbar Multifidus Thickness: A Randomized Controlled Trial2017In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 42, no 15, p. E876-E882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial.Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercises and a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise, on lumbar multifidus (LM) thickness on either side of the spine and whether the effects were affected by pain intensity or change in pain intensity. Summary of Background Data. There is evidence that patients with low back pain (LBP) may have a decreased size of the LM muscles with an asymmetry between sides in the lower back. It has also been shown that LMC training can affect this asymmetry. It is, however, not known whether a high-load exercise has the same effect. Methods. Sixty-five participants diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical LBP were included and randomized into LMC exercises or a HLL exercise, the deadlift. The LM thickness was measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), at baseline and after a 2-month training period. Results. There were no differences between interventions regarding effect on LM muscle thickness. However, the analysis showed a significant effect for asymmetry. The thickness of the LM muscle on the small side increased significantly compared with the large side in both intervention groups, without influence of pain at baseline, or change in pain intensity.Conclusion. At baseline, there was a difference in thickness of the LM muscles between sides. It seems that exercises focusing on spinal alignment may increase the thickness of the LM muscles on the small side, irrespective of exercise load. The increase in LM thickness does not appear to be mediated by either current pain intensity or the magnitude of change in pain intensity.

  • 15.
    Bergström, Emma
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Offerman, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Unga kvinnors järnstatus i relation till aerob metabolism under cykelarbete.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Iron is an essential trace mineral whose main function in the body is to produce hemoglobin, a transport molecule for oxygen and carbon dioxide. Iron deficiency is the most common nutritional deficiency in athletes and women are at particular risk of becoming iron deficient.  Objective: Examine the iron status of athletic women and the possible relation to 1) aerobic metabolism, 2) efficacy, and 3) VO2max during cycling workload  Method: Descriptive cross-sectional study. The participants mean age is 22±5,8 year, mean VO2max 43,5 ±4,6 ml/kg/min. Iron status was compared to oxygen consumption, efficacy and VO2max during a ergometer cycle test. Blood samples with analysis of the participants serum ferritin (sFer) with a cut off value of <29 ug/l were considered as low and >30 ug/l were considered as normal iron status. A submaximal and maximal ergometer cycle test was conducted on the participants. Analysis was done in form of regression analysis in JMP 13, in order to try to predict a relationship. Result: No relationship was found between the different parameters that have been compared. SFer of participants (n=48) was an average of 23±11 ug/l. SFer and VO2/l/min at 100 watts (r2=.09, P<0.05), sFer and kcal/min (r2=0.05, sFer and sFer and VO2max (r2=0.05). Conclusion: The main findings is that iron status does not have a significant relationship with aerobic metabolism, although previous research has suggested such. More participants with bigger value of ferritin and a clearer standardization around the training, diet and menstrual cycle of the women compared could have given another result.   

  • 16. Bo, Kari
    et al.
    Artal, Raul
    Barakat, Ruben
    Brown, Wendy J.
    Davies, Gregory A. L.
    Dooley, Michael
    Evenson, Kelly R.
    Haakstad, Lene A. H.
    Kayser, Bengt
    Kinnunen, Tarja I.
    Larsén, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Mottola, Michelle F.
    Nygaard, Ingrid
    van Poppel, Mireille
    Stuge, Britt
    Khan, Karim M.
    Exercise and pregnancy in recreational and elite athletes: 2016/2017 evidence summary from the IOC expert group meeting, Lausanne. Part 5. Recommendations for health professionals and active women2018In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 52, no 17, p. 1080-1085Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Bodin, Jimmy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Eklund, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    En jämförelse av den fysiska kapaciteten mellan kvinnliga och manliga fotbollsspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Football (or soccer) is a physically complex sport that involves everything from kicking, running, throwing, tackling etc. Even if most of the participants are men, more and more women are playing. As many know there are general differences between genders. A common knowledge is that men are stronger and have higher aerobic capacity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in football. 32 experienced football players participated in this study. 17 men (mean age: 22,7 ± 3,5 years, bodyweight: 79,4 ± 7,4kg) and 17 women (mean age: 22,1 ± 3,3 years, bodyweight: 65,2 ± 8,4 kg). The women play in the Swedish first division while men are playing in the Swedish third division. Subjects were tested in endurance (Yo- Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test), jumping ability  (Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arm swing (CMJ (a)) and sprinting ability (10 meter sprint). The result shows none significant differences between the two teams. The most differences were found in the Yo- Yo IE2 test where the men ran 2321 ± 605m in contrast to the women 1965± 505m (p=0,07).  In the sprint testes the men ran 10 meters at 1,77± 0,1s and the women 1,79± 0,1s (p=0,57). At the vertical jump testes the result where in SJ for men 33,2 ± 3,3 and women 31,2 ± 5,2 cm (p=0,11), In CMJ the men performed 35,9 ±5,2 cm and women 33,1±3,6 cm (p=0,10) and in CMJ (a) the men performed 40,0 ±7,3 cm and the women 40,0 ± 3,5 cm (p=0,98). In conclusion the men and women have a similar physical capacity since there were no significant differences found. This could be a result from different training structures or the different physical demands varying from the two divisions.

  • 18.
    Bohlin, Emelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Difference in the muscle cell proteome between clean and doped athletes A study of protein-protein interactions2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 19.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies2015In: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 52, no 2, p. 812-817Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Muscle sample collection can introduce variation in any measured variable due to inter- and intramuscle variation. We investigated the variation in gene expression and fiber type composition after repeated biopsy sampling from the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Six subjects donated 3 tissue samples each. One hour after baseline sampling from 1 vastus lateralis muscle, samples from both vastus lateralis muscles were obtained. Results: The fiber type composition differed between biopsies taken from the same leg. There were no within-subject differences in gene expression between the 3 biopsies. Multivariate analysis supports a model in which gene expression differs significantly between individuals but is not affected by repeated muscle biopsy sampling from the same subject. Conclusion: One vastus lateralis muscle sample per subject is sufficient to establish a reliable baseline for comparing gene expression representing selected pathways over time within the same individual.

  • 20.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Idrottsmedicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Åkerfeldt, T
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal response to resistance exercise and increases in lean body mass after eight weeks of trainingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bramell, Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Differences in the relationship of heart rate and blood lactate values between running on track versus inclined treadmill: Improving laboratory testing to accurately prescribe exercise intensities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the generalisability of the heart rate-blood lactate relationship determined in laboratory testing in comparison to running over ground. This plays a crucial role to prescribe exercise intensity from laboratory results. Ten well trained runners performed a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) pre-test and an incremental submaximal test performed at a two degrees inclined treadmill and a running track. Statistical analysis included student’s t-test of heart rate at interpolated blood lactate levels and comparison of second order polynomial regression lines. VO2max was 60,4 ± 6 ml/kg/min for men and 56,3 ± 4,3 ml/kg/min for women. There was no significant difference in heart rate at interpolated blood lactate of 3 and 4 mmol/L. There was no significant difference between heart rate values at any running velocity. A significant difference between blood lactate values was observed 14km/h (p=0,04). When considering blood lactate values up to 6mmol/L, heart rate-blood lactate relationships were similar. In conclusion, lactate threshold testing on treadmill through incremental test protocols on a two degrees incline gives similar heart rate- blood lactate relationship as running over ground and may be used to prescribe intensity in training performed over ground. 

  • 22.
    Bramell, Axel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Validation and practical evaluation of the Onesenz microdialysis lactate analyser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the reliability of the new Onesenz on-line microdialysis lactate analyser compared to the YSI 2300 Stat Plus. Venous blood lactate concentrations were measured simultaneously with both analysers during an incremental cycle ergometer test. Eight physically active men and women completed the test to voluntary exhaustion. A total of 81 blood samples from both devices were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted through correlation, regression analysis and limits of agreement. Lactate values during graded exercise ranged from 0,5 mM/l to 14,1 mM/l. A significant correlation was observed between the two analysers, r(79)=0,98, p<0,001. Regression analysis determined the equation: [Onesenz] = 0,811*[YSI] + 0,345  and coefficient of determination (R2) was 0,95. The mean difference between the analysers was 0,15 mM/l ± 0,7 mM/l. The agreement between the two analysers deteriorated above 6 mM/l. When studying bLa values above 6 mM/l the mean difference was 1,38 ± 1,3 mM/l. In conclusion, the Onesenz lactate analyser provides reliable bLa measurements up to 6 mM/l compared to the YSI 2300. In the context of sports medicine the more time consuming method of microdialysis limits its appropriateness to longer test protocols, but on the other hand reduces human error. Still, the prototype lacks several features concerning practical usefulness.

    Keywords: Blood lactate, Microdialysis, Lactate threshold, Exercise testing, Lactate analyser

  • 23.
    Brännström, André
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Jonsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Svensson, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Vitamin D in relation to bone health and muscle function in young female soccer players2017In: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 249-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigated serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) status in relation to bone and muscle qualities and functions in 19 female soccer players (13–16 years) resident at northern latitude with very low sun exposure (∼32–36 h/month) during winter season (late January to early March). Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and beta carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (β-Ctx), as well as body composition and muscle performance were examined. Hormones were tested using routine laboratory methods. Fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density in whole body, as well as femur and lumbar spine were evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle performance was assessed through isokinetic knee extension and flexion, countermovement jump, and sprint running. 25(OH)D was low (50.5 ± 12.8 nmol l−1), whereas the values of bone turnover markers were markedly high (OC: 59.4 ± 18.6 μg l−1; β-Ctx: 1075 ± 408 ng l−1). All bone and muscle measurements were normal or above normal. 25(OH) D was not significantly correlated with most of the parameters of bone and muscle quality or function, except the knee extension time to peak torque (r = −0.50, p = .03). In conclusion, the level of vitamin D is markedly low in adolescent female soccer players during the winter in Sweden. However, vitamin D levels did not significantly correlate with measures of bone and muscle except a moderate correlation in time to peak torque in the knee extensors. The practical implication of low vitamin D levels in young growing female athletes remains unclear.

  • 24.
    Bylinder Westerberg, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Magnusson, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Hamstringsruptur – en fotbollsspelares svåraste motståndare: En litteraturstudie framtagen för att hjälpa fotbollstränare att förebygga och behandla hamstringsrupturer2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Soccer is one of the most injured sports. 70-90% of the injuries are located in the lower extremities. The most common injury is hamstring strain and accounts for 37% of lower limb damage. There is a lot of research done today on hamstring strains for male soccer players, but the injury rate for hamstring strains is not diminishing.

    Purpose: This study wants to contribute to increased awareness and knowledge of the origin, rehabilitation and prevention of hamstring strains for coaches in male football teams.

    Method: The study has complied already existing literature on the chosen areas to answer the purpose of the study. The chosen method on the study is a literature study.

    Result: (1) Origin: High Speed Sprint & extension. (2) Rehabilitation: Individual conservative treatment. (3) Preventive measures: Eccentric exercises eg: Nordic hamstrings training, Askling Glider.

    Conclusion: More knowledge is needed in the field, for both athletes and coaches, and the knowledge must be presented in a useful way.

  • 25.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

    Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

    Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

    Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

  • 26.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Wedholm, Lars
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden; Dala Sports Academy, Falun, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Mattias
    Regional Sports Federation of Dalarna, Falun, Sweden.
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Physiological demands of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing2016In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 2138-2144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate the relationship between elite females' competitive performance capability in sprint and distance cross-country skiing and the variables of gross efficiency (GE), work rate at the onset of blood-lactate accumulation (OBLA4mmol), maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max), maximal speed (Vmax), and peak upper-body oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak). Ten elite female cross-country skiers (age 24.5 ± 2.8 years) completed treadmill roller-skiing tests to determine GE, OBLA4mmol, and V[Combining Dot Above]O2max using the diagonal-stride technique as well as Vmax and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak using the double-poling technique. International Ski Federations ranking points for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races were used as competitive performance data. There were correlations between the FISsprint and the V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (p = 0.0040), Vmax (p = 0.012), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p < 0.001) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.049). The FISdist were correlated with OBLA4mmol (p = 0.048), V[Combining Dot Above]O2max expressed absolutely (L·min) (p = 0.015) and as a simple ratio-standard (p = 0.046), and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak expressed absolutely (p = 0.036) and as a simple ratio-standard (ml·min·kg) (p = 0.040). The results demonstrate that the physiological abilities reflected by V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and V[Combining Dot Above]O2peak are indicators of competitive sprint and distance performance in elite female cross-country skiing. In addition, the ability to generate a high Vmax indicates the performance in sprint races, whereas the skier's OBLA4mmol reflects the performance capability in distance races. Based on the results, when evaluating the performance capacity of elite female cross-country skiers, it is recommended to use physiological variables that reflect competitive performance.

  • 27.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

    Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

    Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

    Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

  • 28.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University.
    Hammarström, Daniel
    Rønnestad, Bent R
    Malm, Christer B.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Tonkonogi, Michail
    Optimal Formula V̇O 2max -to-mass ratio for performance among elite male cross-country skiers2015In: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 6, p. 353-360Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was 1) to validate the 0.5 body-mass exponent for maximal. oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] as the optimal predictor of performance in a 15 km classical-technique skiing competition among elite male cross-country skiers and 2) to evaluate the influence of distance covered on the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] among elite male skiers. Twenty-four elite male skiers (age: 21.4±3.3 years [mean ± standard deviation]) completed an incremental treadmill roller-skiing test to determine their [Formula: see text]. Performance data were collected from a 15 km classical-technique cross-country skiing competition performed on a 5 km course. Power-function modeling (ie, an allometric scaling approach) was used to establish the optimal body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] to predict the skiing performance. The optimal power-function models were found to be [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], which explained 69% and 81% of the variance in skiing speed, respectively. All the variables contributed to the models. Based on the validation results, it may be recommended that [Formula: see text] divided by the square root of body mass (mL · min(-1) · kg(-0.5)) should be used when elite male skiers' performance capability in 15 km classical-technique races is evaluated. Moreover, the body-mass exponent for [Formula: see text] was demonstrated to be influenced by the distance covered, indicating that heavier skiers have a more pronounced positive pacing profile (ie, race speed gradually decreasing throughout the race) compared to that of lighter skiers.

  • 29.
    Christensen, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. UCLH, ISEH, London, England; Pure Sports Clin, London, England.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Protease-activated receptors in the Achilles tendon-a potential explanation for the excessive pain signalling in tendinopathy2015In: Molecular Pain, ISSN 1744-8069, E-ISSN 1744-8069, Vol. 11, article id 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Tendinopathies are pathological conditions of tissue remodelling occurring in the major tendons of the body, accompanied by excessive nociceptive signalling. Tendinopathies have been shown to exhibit an increase in the number of mast cells, which are capable of releasing histamine, tryptase and other substances upon activation, which may play a role in the development of tendinopathies. This study set out to describe the distribution patterns of a family of receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs) within the Achilles tendon. These four receptors (PAR1, PAR2, PAR3, PAR4) are activated by proteases, including tryptase released from mast cells, and are involved in fibrosis, hyperalgesia and neovascularisation, which are changes seen in tendinopathies. Method: In order to study which structures involved in tendinopathy that these proteases can affect, biopsies from patients suffering of mid-portion Achilles tendinosis and healthy controls were collected and examined using immunohistochemistry. Tendon cells were cultured to study in vitro expression patterns. Results: The findings showed a distribution of PARs inside the tendon tissue proper, and in the paratendinous tissue, with all four being expressed on nerves and vascular structures. Double staining showed co-localisation of PARs with nociceptive fibres expressing substance P. Concerning tenocytes, PAR2, PAR3, and PAR4, were found in both biopsies of tendon tissue and cultured tendon cells. Conclusions: This study describes the expression patterns of PARs in the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon, which can help explain the tissue changes and increased pain signalling seen in tendinopathies. These findings also show that in-vitro studies of the effects of these receptors are plausible and that PARs are a possible therapeutic target in the future treatment strategies of tendinopathy.

  • 30.
    Edit, Strömbäck
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Prevalence of injuries and pain in Swedish powerlifters2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Edlund, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Male ice hockey players treated with arthroscopy for femoroacetabular impingement: An online survey regarding pain and postoperatve outcome2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Femoroacetabular impingement is a common injury amongst male ice hockey players. Male ice hockey players (n=35, mean age 26,8±4,1) completed an online survey regardingsymptoms, rehabilitation, return to play, pain and timing. The aim of the present study was to analyze the symptoms, rehabilitation, return to play and timing for these variables in male ice hockey players previously treated with arthroscopy for FAI. Fourtythree % of the participants had to retire due to FAI-related symptoms. The present study showed that examples of common FAI-symptoms were located in the groin area, hip flexors and lower back, and that several players were misdiagnosed before getting a FAI-diagnose. The age at onset of FAI- symptoms (mean ± SD) was 19.2±4.8. The time between arthroscopy and ice contact, and the time between arthroscopy and first game was not the deciding factor for the return to play rate. FAI causes pain for many male ice hockey players, even after postoperative rehabilitation and not all players were able to return to play after FAI-arthroscopy.When taking the whole postoperative rehabilitation into consideration, to experience pain during a greater time than not does not seem favourable for outcome regarding pain. The present study is another piece of growing evidence that FAI is a major problem amongst male ice hockey players.

  • 32.
    Edlund, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Åman, Jim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    ANIMS Test and Wingate: A Correlation Study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if there is a correlation between ANIMS

    test and the Wingate test. We also aim to understand the metabolic demands for an ice hockey

    player better. 21 male ice hockey players, age 18,0 ± 1,8 participated in the study. The study

    consisted of an anaerobic bike test (Wingate test) and a repeated sprint test on ice (ANIMS

    test). Participants conducted the test in a random order. Peak power, power drop,

    VelocityMax were recorded for the Wingate test while time on each sprint and total sprint

    time were recorded for ANIMS test. Lactate samples were taken pre-test, 0-1 minute post test

    and 5 minutes post test. Results revealed that there is a significant correlation between Peak

    power (Wingate test) and Time on the first sprint (ANIMS). There was also a significant

    correlation between VelocityMax (Wingate test) and each of the sprints in ANIMS test. All

    the sprints on ANIMS test correlated with each other. The difference in lactate concentration

    from pre-test – 0-1 minute post and pre-test – 5 minutes post test was statistically significant

    in both ANIMS test and Wingate test. There was no significant correlation between Peak

    power (Wingate test) and Total sprint time (ANIMS). There was no significant correlation

    between Power Drop on Wingate test and the increased sprint time on ANIMS test. ANIMS

    test seems to be an anaerobic test since it correlates with Wingate test which is a valid

    anaerobic test. High concentration of post-exercise blood lactate confirms that teams and/or

    players that want to evaluate their anaerobic capacity and effect can use ANIMS test to do so.

    We therefore conclude that ANIMS test can be used as a on ice anaerobic test.

  • 33.
    Ekholm, Edwin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Niman, Rudolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Kan fälttester indikera fysisk prestation under match?: En korrelationsstudie utförd på manliga elitfotbollsspelare i Sverige2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is an inadequate amount of studies which have examined Change Of Direction Speed test (CODS) and Repeated Sprint Ability test (RSA) possibility to indicate match-related physical performance, measured with GPS-system. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between two field test, 20 meter Repeated Sprint Ability (RSA20), Modified-Change of Direction Speed test (M-CODS) and match related physical performance: average distance (MD), acceleration (ACC), deceleration (DEC), high intensity running (HL),  very high intensity running (VHL), sprints and peak velocity (MH) during games recorded with GPS system (S5, 100Hz, MinimaxX, CatapultsSports, Australia). During the pre-season, ten Swedish male elite soccer players (25.5±2.1 y/o, 78.8±3.6 kg,181.34±.9 cm), completed the two field tests. The results of the two test were later compared and related to in-game physical match performance. This study found moderate significant relationships between best time on RSA20 (RSA20best) and acceleration added with deceleration (ACC+DEC) (r=-0.643) and sprints (r=-0.638). The conclusion of this study was that these analyzed field tests should not be used with the intention to indicate physical match related physical performance, due to the major influence of internal and external factors during gameplay.

  • 34.
    Eklund, Viktor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Effects of a short training programme on reaction time, agility and speed performance in adolescent football players.: Effekterna av ett kort träningsprogram för reaktionsförmåga, agility och snabbhet på fotbollsspelande tonåringar.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Performance in soccer can be defined in various different factors, like strength,

    endurance and quickness. Quickness can be divined in different sub factors for

    example straight sprints and agility. There is also something called reactive agility,

    which means that you react to a visual stimulus and therefore react and take a

    decision. The purpose: of this study was to investigate the effects of a short training

    programme that focus on the different quickness factors, straight sprints, agility and

    reactive agility. Method: Pre- and post-tests were made on 19 adolescents from the

    Swedish U17 Allsvenskan. The subjects were later divided into an intervention group

    (IG) and a control group (CG). The performed tests were: reactive agility test (RAT),

    agility 5-0-5 and 10- 20- 30 m sprint. After the tests the IG performed a five week

    long training programme containing two different duo exercises with focus on

    reaction ability, agility and sprint. Result: No statistical significant difference was

    detected between the groups after the training period in any of the tested variables.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that the intervention programme had no effect. It

    can, however, be challenged due to methodological issues that occurred during

    testing.

  • 35.
    Ekstedt, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Styrka och flexibilitet i hamstrings efter ACL rekonstruktion med hamstringsgraft2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It´s crucial to restore hamstring strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconsuction (ACLR) to improve dynamic stability and minimize risk of injuries. High flexibility in hamstrings is a risk for ACL injury and after ACLR muscle stiffness in hamstrings is increased as a defense mechanism which leads to altered flexibility. Women and men have different conditions and results after ACLR. The purpose of this study is to examine research about strength and flexibility in hamstrings after ACLR with hamstring tendon graft between the operated leg and the non-operated leg/control group and examine if there is a difference between the genders.

    Method: Articles published between 2000-2015 was searched in Pubmed, ProQuest, Pedro and SportDiscuss between February and March 2015. Studies in Swedish and English were included which compared the operated leg to the non-opererade leg/control group after ACLR with hamstring tendon graft.

    Result: No studies on hamstring flexibility were found. 63 articles on hamstring strength which of 41 found a strength deficit in hamstring strength after ACLR. No differences between the genders were found.

    Conclusion: Reduced hamstring strength specifically up to 12 months after surgery. Distinct deficit in deep knee flexion angles and tendencies to lack of muscular endurance strength. Contrast between comparison with non-operated leg or a control group.

    Significance: Training of deep knee flexion needs more focus. More research on flexibility and endurance strength in hamstrings is needed.

  • 36.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Difference in odds ratio in potential risk factors among ACL injured competitive alpine skiers: -a retrospective study based on a questionnaire among competitive alpine skiers2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to detect differences in odds ratio in potential risk factors at the time of the injury among ACL injured competitive alpine skiers. 33 elite and sub-elite ACL injured alpine skiers participated in the study and answered at an internet-based questionnaire referring to personal data, training, type of injury, how the injury occurred and conditions during the incidence.

    Of 33 alpine skiers, 11 sustained their injury after 3-4 consecutive days of training. Eighteen alpine skiers injured their ACL after 1-4 runs. The majority of the injuries occurred in the slalom events (SL and GS). Forty-eight percent reported that the weather was clear at the time of the incidence, while 21 practitioners reported that they slept eight or more hours the night before the injury.

    The main finding of the present study was that the majority of the ACL injuries in among alpine ski racers occurred after 3-4 consecutive training days. No differences were detected in odds ratio of the rest of the variables (number of runs, type of discipline, weather, light setting and snow conditions) which seem not to be related to the ACL injury rate of the rest of the variables. 

  • 37.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Strandvall, Izabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Träningsvolym på snö och dess betydelse för prestationsförmåga -en möjlig faktor för att nå framgång inom alpin skidåkning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if high volume of sport specific training is correlated with FIS ranking in FIS world cup for alpine skiers. The study is a retrospective cohort study, and thirteen (n= 13) elite alpine skiers, who were in the Swedish national team season 2008/2009, were selected to participate in the study. The participants are both males (n=7) and females (n=6), and compete in the alpine disciplines slalom (SL) and giant slalom (GS).  The performance levels were determined by the 13th FIS points list 2008/2009 and correlated with the athletes training volume on snow. The data with information about training volume were collected from the Swedish national team’s database.

    The main findings in this study were that there is no significant correlation between the volume of sport specific training and performance level in FIS world cup for alpine skiers. Neither in SL (p=0, 1737) nor in GS (p=0, 5053).

    The findings of this study are likely of importance for alpine skiing trainers and the athletes themselves. Since alpine skiing is a complex sport with many factors to consider, it is important to distribute the training for maximum performance capacity. Therefore, due to this fact it is essential for those who work with alpine skiing to know how to plan the training year to achieve maximum performance of the athlete. In conclusion, because of no significant correlation in the results further studies with larger sample sizes are needed. 

  • 38.
    Flatholm, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Identifying Underlying Factors that Affect the Risk for Sustatining Sport Injuries in Athletic Adolescents: Through Evaluation of Body Control, Muscle Activation in the Lower Extremities, Joint Laxity, and Joint Mobility, a Quantitative Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sport injuries are a widespread problem in elite sports and is accounting for 30- 40% out of all unintentional injuries in adolescents. In Sweden, 47.000 sport injuries occurred in children and adolescents aged 0-17 years old during a period over three years (2010-2013). Sustaining a sport injury in early age may impact the attitude towards sports and the amount of physical activity exercised. Lately, an increase of high-schools with special emphasis on elite sports is seen, which leads to more adolescents being exposed to the risk for sustaining a sport injury. There are several commonly used tests to evaluate injury risk in athletes. Tests such as body control screening, joint laxity screening, and measurements of muscle quality.

    Aim: The aim of the present prospective study was to a) investigate the correlations between, b) analyse differences between gender, and c) analyse potential differences between teenage athletes that received an injury or not during their first elite sports high-school year with use of pre-semester functional movement screening methods with the intent to address factors that increase the risk for future injuries.

    Method: Two-hundred-eighty-seven (n=287) athletic adolescents, 15-16 years of age from an elite sports school (Dragonskolans elitidrottsgymnasium) in Umeå participated in the study. The subjects underwent testing at the start of the first semester of their first year in high school. The tests were the following: The functional movement screen (FMS), Beighton score, measures of joint mobility, and measures of muscle activation in knee flexors and extensors. The following incidence of sport injuries during the first year at the elite sports school were studied in relation to results from the initial movement tests.

    Results: No significant difference was found between injured and non-injured in the FMS total score, nor between gender. Females scored significantly higher than males in Beighton total score (p<0,05). There was no significant difference to be seen in Beighton total score between injured and non-injured. Females was more likely to receive injuries and were significantly more mobile in hamstrings, quadriceps, iliopsoas, the right calf, weaker in both knee flexors and knee extensors, and reached peak torque in knee extensors slower than males.

    Injured reached peak torque significantly slower than non-injured in the right knee flexors. No correlations could be seen between the FMS, Beighton score, joint mobility, and muscle measurements in the lower extremity. Conclusion: It is of utmost importance that the Functional Movement Screen is researched and developed further, alternatively, that development of a new evaluation tool is carried out when it comes to risk assessment of future sports injuries in adolescent athletes. Joint laxity as addressed by Beighton score with a cut-off at five points is not a depending factor in this population regarding the presence of sport injuries. Athletic adolescents showing slow activation of the knee flexors may be in a greater risk for sustaining an injury. By understanding, addressing, and counteracting risk-factors for sustaining sport injuries we can avoid negative physiological, psychological, social, and socioeconomically consequences. Therefore, further research is needed to address these physiological, psychological, biological, and social factors that may impact the injury risk in athletic adolescents.

      

  • 39.
    Fomin, Gabrielsen, Sanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Utför fotbollsspelare skadeförebyggande träningsprogram och har de tillgång till medicinsk personal?: - En enkätundersökning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There are described problems with implementation and compliance in previous studies when it comes to Injury Prevention Programs (IPP) for soccer players.

     

    Aim: The aim of this study was to examine if female and male soccer teams in Stockholm are performing an IPP in relation to their access to medical staff. The aim was also to examine if there are any difference between male and female soccer players in their access to medical staff and performing of an IPP.

     

    Method: The survey was delivered to 133 male and female soccer players from the same soccer club. The survey involved 14 questions about medical staff, information about injury prevention training and performance of an IPP.

     

    Results: Totally 82 soccer players answered the survey. The majority of the participants indicated that they have access to medical staff. More male than female soccer players indicated access to medical staff (P=0,018). No correlation was found between access to medical staff and have gotten information about injury prevention training (P=0,45). 66% of the participants indicated that they were performing an IPP. The access to medical staff correlated to the performing of an IPP (P=0,04).

     

    Conclusion: Medical staff seems to have an impact when it comes to performing of an IPP. Further research is needed to motivate soccer teams to take advantage of medical staff with their injury prevention training.

  • 40.
    Fong, Gloria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Scott, Alex
    Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Ophthalmology.
    The Effects of Substance P and Acetylcholine on Human Tenocyte Proliferation Converge Mechanistically via TGF-β12017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 3, article id e0174101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous in vitro studies on human tendon cells (tenocytes) have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) independently result in tenocyte proliferation, which is a prominent feature of tendinosis. Interestingly, the possible link between SP and ACh has not yet been explored in human tenocytes. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate that both SP and ACh independently upregulate TGF-β1 expression via their respective receptors, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). Furthermore, TGF-β1 has been shown to downregulate NK-1R expression in human keratocytes. The aim of this study was to examine if TGF-β1 is the intermediary player involved in mediating the proliferative pathway shared by SP and ACh in human tenocytes. The results showed that exogenous administration of SP and ACh both caused significant upregulation of TGF-β1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Exposing cells to TGF-β1 resulted in increased cell viability of tenocytes, which was blocked in the presence of the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor. In addition, the proliferative effects of SP and ACh on tenocytes were reduced by the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor; this supports the hypothesis that the proliferative effects of these signal substances are mediated via the TGF-β axis. Furthermore, exogenous TGF-β1 downregulated NK-1R and mAChRs expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and these effects were negated by simultaneous exposure to the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor, suggesting a negative feedback loop. In conclusion, the results indicate that TGF-β1 is the intermediary player through which the proliferative actions of both SP and ACh converge mechanistically.

  • 41.
    Forsgren, Sture
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Hand Surgery.
    Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon: Presence of the AChR alpha 7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue2015In: International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, E-ISSN 1878-1705, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 195-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human tendon cells have the capacity for acetylcholine (ACh) production. It is not known if the tendon cells also have the potential for ACh breakdown, nor if they show expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 (alpha 7nAChR). Therefore, tendon tissue specimens from patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis and from normal midportion Achilles tendons were examined. Reaction for the degradative enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was found in some tenocytes in only a few tendinopathy tendons, and was never found in those of control tendons. Tenocytes displayed more regularly alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity. However, there was a marked heterogeneity in the degree of this reaction within and between the specimens. alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was especially pronounced for tenocytes showing an oval/widened appearance. There was a tendency that the magnitude of alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was higher in tendinopathy tendons as compared to control tendons. A stronger alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity than seen for tenocytes was observed for the cells in the peritendinous tissue. It is likely that the alpha 7nAChR may be an important part of an auto-and paracrine loop of non-neuronal ACh that is released from the tendon cells. The effects may be related to proliferative and blood vessel regulatory functions as well as features related to collagen deposition. ACh can furthermore be of importance in leading to anti-inflammatory effects in the peritendinous tissue, a tissue nowadays considered to be of great relevance for the tendinopathy process. Overall, the findings show that tendon tissue, a tissue known to be devoid of cholinergic innervation, is a tissue in which there is a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system.

  • 42.
    Furberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Hyyrynen, Tuija
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Smålagsspel och intervallbaserad fysträning och dess påverkan på fysiska kvalitéer hos elitdamfotbollsspelare.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Soccer is the world's most popular sport and therefore has been widely studied. Soccer performance is dependent upon a variety of factors such as technical, tactical, psychological and physiological qualities that are required in order to perform in a high level. Most of the studies so far were aiming in describing and defining successful’s player profile. Based on the requirement profile, new "soccer-specific training programs" have been designed to develop players' fitness and strength through soccer-specific drills instead of or as a complement to traditional running training without the ball. This development has created a new research discourse that shows the physiological and performance-wise benefits of soccer specific training such as small-sided games. This study investigates the physiological effects of a soccer-specific training program in a setting of elite women soccer players. Method: 13 (N = 13) elite women soccer players participated in a research setting, which consisted of 15 weeks of soccer specific physical training. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of soccer specific physical training on player's fitness, jumping ability, strength, and sprint capacity. These features have been measured through physiological tests performed before and after the soccer specific pre-season training. Results: A significant improvement was seen in squat jump as well as in 10-meter and 20-meter sprint results. Meanwhile the results from the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 showed a tendency towards improvement. Conclusion: The results showed that soccer-specific training improved physical qualities, such as sprint and jump capabilities, of elite women soccer players in this study.

  • 43.
    Gaida, James Edmund
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. University of Canberra, Canberra, ACT, Australia ; University of Canberra Research Institute for Sport and Exercise (UCRISE), Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation. Institute of Sport Exercise and Health, University College Hospital London, London, UK.
    Scott, A.
    Mousavizadeh, R.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Apolipoprotein A1 distribution pattern in the human Achilles tendon2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 5, p. 1506-1513Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metabolic factors such as cholesterol appear to play an important role in the development of Achilles tendinopathy. There is, however, no morphologic proof explaining the link between high cholesterol and tendinopathy. As apolipoprotein A1 (Apo-A1) is essential for reverse cholesterol transport, it may be related to cholesterol overload in tendon. Nothing is known about Apo-A1 expression in tendon tissue. We examined the distribution of Apo-A1 protein in biopsies from normal and tendinopathy-affected human Achilles tendons, and APOA1 mRNA production from cultured human hamstring tenocytes. Specific immunoreactions for Apo-A1 were detected. The tenocytes showed specific Apo-A1 immunoreactions. These reactions were usually distinct in the tendinopathy specimens. While the tendinopathy specimens often showed granular/small deposit reactions, the slender tenocytes of control specimens did not show this pattern. The magnitude of Apo-A1 immunoreactivity was especially marked in the tendinopathy specimens, as there is a high number of tenocytes. Reactions were also seen in the walls of blood vessels located within the tendon tissue proper of both the normal and tendinopathy tendons and within the peritendinous/fatty tissue of the tendinopathy tendons. The reactions were predominantly in the form of deposit reactions within the smooth muscle layer of the vessel walls. Cultured hamstring tenocytes produced APOA1 mRNA. We demonstrated the presence of Apo-A1 in human tendon tissue. This suggests there may be a link between Achilles tendinopathy and cholesterol metabolism. We hypothesize that Apo-A1 may be important for tenocyte and blood vessel function within tendons.

  • 44.
    Geholm, Jakob
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Coach-atlet relationens kvalité och faktorer för överträning hos svenska CrossFit-utövare: Påverkar svenska CrossFit-utövares upplevda relation med deras coach graden av faktorer som kan relateras till överträning?2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to expand the understanding of the role of coaches in the degree of factors that can be related to overtraining among Swedish CrossFit-athletes. The participants consisted of 42 CrossFit-athletes (n=42), these consisted of 30 women (72 %), 11 (26 %) men and one who did not want to define gender (2 %). All participants were from Sweden. The participants were 33 (± 8.8) years old and trained CrossFit regularly an average of 5.9 hours / week (± 3.4). A questionnaire consisting of The Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire, Motives for Physical Activity Measurement-Revised, The Behavioral Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire Revised Version, The Multi-component Training Distress Scale, The Perceived Stress Scale- 4 Item, and a Feedback Questionnaire was sent to 120 active CrossFit-athletes. The significance level of the studie was alpha=0.05. The results showed a significant positive correlation (p<.05, r = .347) between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and the vigour of CrossFit-athletes, significant positive correlation (p<.05, r = .349) between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and positive feedback as well as a significant negative correlation between the motive "Health" for physical activity and sleep difficulties (p<.05, r =-.323). A sure conclusion cannot be deduced from the latter result, but the quality of the coach-athlete relationship seems to be related to one certain specific factor related to overtraining among Swedish CrossFit-athletes, more specifically their vigour. The studie’s results also show that the type of communication that the CrossFit-athlete experiences their coach is using, could be related to the coach-athlete relationship quality. Future research should explore the subject to expand the understanding of the relationship between coaches and CrossFit-athletes.

  • 45.
    Giannopoulos, Antonios
    et al.
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Copenhagen.
    Yeung, Ching-Yan Chloé
    Department of Orthopedic Surgery, University of Copenhagen.
    Theos, Apostolos
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Quantification of Cell Generated Forces: A Tool to Assess Functionality2017In: Journal of Orthopedic Research and Therapy, ISSN 2575-8241, no 8, article id JORT-168Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Geithner, Christina
    Body Composition of Women’s Ice Hockey Players: Comparison of Estimates Using Skinfolds and iDXA2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to compare percent fat (% Fat) estimates from anthropometric equations using skinfolds (SKF) in women’s ice hockey players to estimates obtained from Lunar iDXA. Data were collected on 19 elite female Swedish hockey players (mean age ± SD = 18.4 ± 2.4 y). Four skinfolds (SKF) (triceps, abdominal, suprailiac, and thigh) were measured within two hours of iDXA assessments. The % Fat estimates from iDXA and four anthropometric equations were compared using paired t-tests, and a one-way ANOVA was used to compare % Fat estimates from the anthropometric equations. Bland Altman analyses were used to assess agreement between % Fat estimates from SKF and iDXA. The significance level was set a priori at p<0.05. The % Fat estimates from anthropometric equations were significantly lower than those from iDXA (mean ± SD: 26.85 ± 4.93%,p=0.000). Bland Altman analyses indicated mean differences of -7.96 to -10.13 percentage points between anthropometric equations and iDXA. Estimates of % Fat from anthropometric equations (range: 16.72% to 18.89%) were within the range reported in earlier studies using the Sum of 7 SKF. Thus, SKF offer a reasonable alternative to iDXA for this population, but result in underestimates of % Fat relative to iDXA. Strength and conditioning coaches should use the same body composition assessment method consistently, and interpret the results with caution, as they are estimates and not true values.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-12-11 09:00
  • 47.
    Gustavsson, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Kulla, Pamela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Skillnader i styrkeutveckling i 1RM efter fyra veckors tung styrketräning kontra hypertrofiträning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Resistance training has gone from being considered unsuitable for athletes to be a major component in many athletes training programs, but is also the second most practiced exercise form. Resistance training contributes to a number of physiological changes, but it is primarily the neural adaptations that accounts for the initial strength development. The purpose of this study was to compare the strength development of two groups training for two different programs, one for hypertrophy (n=13) and strength (n=13), after four weeks of exercise. The study found that both programs increased strength significantly, but there was no difference between the groups. Both training programs are therefore suitable for achieving a significant strength development, but it requires a larger number of participants and more time to decide which program is preferable in the first few weeks of a new training period.

  • 48.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Bjorklund, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Kosek, E.
    Hallgren, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fahlstrom, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Professionell Development.
    Hellstrom, F.
    Systemic differences in serum metabolome: a cross sectional comparison of women with localised and widespread pain and controls2015In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, article id 15925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain exists either as localised to a single region or as widespread to multiple sites in several quadrants of the body. Prospective studies indicate that widespread pain could act as a far end of a continuum of musculoskeletal pain that started with chronic localised pain. The mechanism by which the transition from localised pain to widespread occurs is not clear, although many studies suggest it to be an altered metabolism. In this study, systemic metabolic differences between women with chronic localised neck-shoulder pain (NP), women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and women who were healthy (CON) were assessed. Blood samples were analysed taking a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolomics analysis showed a clear systematic difference in the metabolic profiles between the subjects with NP and the CON but only a weak systematic difference between the subjects with CWP and the CON. This most likely reflects a difference in the portion of the metabolome influenced by the two pain conditions. In the NP group, the overall metabolic profile suggests that processes related to energy utilisation and lipid metabolism could be central aspects of mechanisms maintaining disorder.

  • 49.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Turkina, Maria V
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköpings universitet.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Larsson, Britt
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Myosin light chain and calcium regulating protein differences in chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain2016In: Journal of Integrated Omnics, ISSN 2182-0287, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteomic screening analysis has detected myosin light chain (MLC) as a protein implied to be involved in chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain. Several analyses of MLC proteins have stated a difference in phosphorylation being the determining factor for protein activation hence altered contrability of the muscle in i.e. senescence. In continuation of a previous publication, this study is an attempt to analyze the different MLC isoforms by mass spectrometry and immune-analyses in myalgic and healthy trapezius muscle. In the present study no differences in phosphorylation level between the corresponding individual proteins were detected using LC-MSMS and immunoblotting; instead we assigned different isoforms of regulatory MLCs. To further elucidate the contrability: calcium (Ca2+) regulatory proteins, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA-1) and calsequestrine (CSQ) were analyzed by western blot. The analysis revealed a significantly increased abundance of SERCA-1 protein in the myalgic muscle and a significantly increased abundance of CSQ in healthy muscle. Myalgic muscle contraction patterns have in previous studies shown to differ from healthy muscle which may be connected to the Ca2+ availability in the muscle. Here we present the proteomic characterization of differences in Ca2+ regulating proteins and particularly regulatory MLCs in trapezius muscle of women with chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain.

  • 50.
    Hallenstål, Tove
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Sundqvist, Ida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Svensson, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine.
    Evaluation of a New Automated Pulmonary Gas Analysis System2015In: International Journal of Exercise Science, ISSN 1939-795X, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 287-296Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a new automated pulmonary gas analysis system - Exercise Physiology System (EPS). The Oxycon Pro, a well-established automated pulmonary gas analysis system was used as a reference system. Six well-trained cyclists were recruited and performed two identical submaximal exercises on a cycle ergometer over one week interval. During the exercises, pulmonary gas exchange: ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), elimination of carbon dioxide (VCO2), and ratio between carbon dioxide and oxygen (RER) was measured using both systems in randomized order. The exercise was composed of three incremental work-loads (Watt) of low, medium, and high load corresponding to 40%, 60%, and 80% of individual maximal work-load. Each work-load was performed twice so that pulmonary gas exchange was analyzed twice on each work-load using both systems. EPS validity was assessed by comparing the measurements from the two systems. For measurements presenting agreement between the systems, Bland-Altman plot analysis was performed to identify outlier. Reliability was evaluated by comparisons of measurements from repeated tests through each system, and by calculations of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Validity evaluations revealed that the majority of the measurements were in disagreements between the systems and most of them appeared at lower work-loads. The results indicated that at lower work-loads, EPS had lower validity than Oxycon Pro. At higher work-loads, ESP had high and comparable validity with Oxycon Pro. Reliability assessments revealed that agreements between repeated tests appeared in almost all measurements through both systems. Excellent agreements (very high ICC) in measurements between repeated tests were observed in VE, VO2, and VCO2 from both systems, and very small measurement errors (SEM), close to zero were observed in VO2, VCO2, and RER. The results suggested that the two systems had high and comparable reliability in measurement of pulmonary gas exchange.

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