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  • 1.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Boström, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Formative assessment in Swedish mathematics classroom practice2017In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 5-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research shows that substantial learning gains are possible through the use of formative assessment. However, little is known about Swedish mathematics teachers’ use of formative assessment, and thus about the possible value of professional development programmes. This study uses teacher interviews and classroom observations to examine the classroom practice of 38 randomly selected primary and secondary school teachers in a mid-sized Swedish municipality. A framework of formative assessment comprising one big idea and five Key strategies structured the analysis. The study identifies characteristics of current formative assessment practices. The results show that the teachers do use a variety of formative assessment activities, but also that there is much room for development towards a more effective formative classroom practice. 

  • 2.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Reasons for teachers' successful development of a formative assessment practice through professional development: a motivation perspective2018In: Assessment in education: Principles, Policy & Practice, ISSN 0969-594X, E-ISSN 1465-329XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Formative assessment has been shown to have the potential to significantly enhance student achievement, but a strong research base about how to support teachers to implement such a practice is lacking. This is particularly so for a conceptualisation of formative assessment as a unity of integrated formative assessment strategies. The aim of this study is to investigate why the mathematics teachers who participated in a successful professional development programme in formative assessment developed their formative classroom practice to such an extent that it had a significant impact on student achievement. An analysis of data from teacher questionnaires and interviews shows that the teachers’ actions can be explained by expectancy-value theory of achievement motivation. Characteristics of the professional development programme that the teachers experienced as important for their development of a formative classroom practice are identified, and the characteristics’ affordances for the development of the teachers’ expectancy and value beliefs are discussed.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The impact of formative assessment on student achievement: a study of the effects of changes in classroom practice after a comprehensive professional development programme2017In: Learning and instruction, ISSN 0959-4752, E-ISSN 1873-3263, Vol. 49, p. 92-102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A random sample of 22 Year 4 teachers in mathematics from a middle-sized Swedish municipality participated in a teacher professional development programme in formative assessment. The content ofthe programme was formative assessment conceptualised as a unity of different, integrated strategies.The study examines the effects on student achievement of the changes in the teachers’ formative classroom practice that followed the professional development input. Results show that, after controlling for pretest scores, the classes in the intervention group significantly out performed the classes in thecontrol group in a posttest administered one school year after the end of the programme (p = 0.036, d = 0.66). The study contributes to the understanding of under-studied areas of the impact of professional development in formative assessment, and the impact of teacher practice based on formative assessment conceptualised as a unity of different formative assessment strategies.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Catarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Vingsle, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The impact of a teacher professional development program in formative assessment on teachers’ practice2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Angervall, Petra
    et al.
    Inst. i pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Gustafsson, Jan
    Inst. i pedagogik och specialpedagogik, Göteborgs universitet.
    Silfver, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Policy and governance in academic networks2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    De nationella proven som en arena för likvärdighetsfrågor2015In: Specialpedagogisk tidskrift, no 3, p. 4-6Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Den flerspråkiga elevens nationella provdeltagande i matematik: diskursiva förutsättningar2017In: Utbildning och Demokrati, ISSN 1102-6472, E-ISSN 2001-7316, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Multilingual students’ participation in national tests in mathematics – discursive prerequisites. This article explores discursive prerequisites in test-taking for second language learners with other mother tongues than Swedish. Four students were interviewed in 2016 during their final year of compulsory school. The results imply that multilingual students are positioned as disadvantaged within testing. This phenomenon is mainly situated in a competitive discourse with several subordinated discourses that further position the students: A discourse of justice positioned the students as being sorted or left behind, a discourse of handling the assessment positioned the students as caretakers and a discourse of future challenges positioned the students as struggling while learning, being capable to learn or facing positive challenges. The results imply that national testing is a personal and relational experience and gives rise to issues of legitimacy and equality. These issues should be considered in policy-making, the construction and the carrying out of tests as well as in the conclusions which are based on the results on individual, group and organisational levels.

  • 8.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    It is only a test:  social aspectsof displaying knowledge in mathematics for second language learners 2017In: Proceedings of the Tenth Congress of the EuropeanSociety for Research in Mathematics Education (CERME10, February 1-5, 2017). Dublin, Ireland:DCU Institute of Education and ERME. / [ed] Dooley, T., & Gueudet, G., 2017, p. 1433-1440Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses social dimensions connected to assessment in mathematics for second language learners in Sweden. The data consist of two semi-structured interviews with students in the ninth grade of compulsory school. Foucault’s thinking on discourse and positioning was advocated as a frame for analysis. The units for analysis were students’ statements about caring and the other in connection to the display of knowledge in mathematics. Results show that caring of and for others are important resources in managing assessment and believing in the future.

  • 9.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Möjligheter till stöd och tillgång till lärande i matematik2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 10.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Pressure at stake: Swedish third graders' talk about national tests in mathematics2016In: Nordisk matematikkdidaktikk, ISSN 1104-2176, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 47-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Pressures and positions of need during the Swedish third-grade National Test in Mathematics2015In: Proceedings of the Ninth Congress of the European Society for Research in Mathematics Education / [ed] Konrad Krainer, Naďa Vondrová, Prague: Charles University , 2015, p. 1558-1563Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents and discusses parts of a large-scale [1] ethnographical and longitudinal study that has followed the process of implementing the National Test in Mathematics for third graders (Ntm3) in Sweden during its first three years (2010, 2011, and 2012). Pupil talk from 2011 about pressure and what is at stake was used to construe three positions of need that might characterize pupils during the National Test in Mathematics in their third school year: the position of shame, the position of unfamiliarity, and the position of stress. How these might be handled in educational practices is discussed briefly.

  • 12.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Prövningen av en skola för alla: nationella provet i matematik i det tredje skolåret2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the contribution to research that my doctoral education led to. My starting point was a large scale qualitative research project (here after called the VR-project) which reviewed the implementation of national tests in the third grade on the subject of mathematics. The VR-project investigated how the test affected the pupils with a special focus on pupils in need of special support. An urge to look further into issues concerning the support, the pupil in need and the test was revealed in he initial VR-project. These issues therefore constitutes the problem area of this thesis. The VR-project studied a total of 22 classrooms in two different municipalities' during 2010- 2012. The methodology used for this project was inspired by ethnography and discourse analysis. The raw data consisted of test instructions, video observations of the actual test subjects, interviews from teachers and pupils about the test, the support that was given throughout the testing as well as the observations and interviews of the pupils requiring special assistance. Activated discourses and positions of the participants were demarcated. The results revealed that a traditional testing discourse, a caring discourse and a competitive discourse are activated during the tests. The testing discourse is stable and traditional. Much of what was shown and said in classrooms, routines and rules regarding the test were repeated in all the schools and in all the classrooms. The discourse on support is affected by ambiguity, which is revealed especially when issues of pupils’ equity is put against the tests equality. This is connected to the teachers restricted agency to give support due to the teacher position as a test taker. The positions in need that are available to students are not the same in pupils, teachers and steering documents. The situation is especially troublesome for pupils that do not manage Swedish good enough to take the test and for pupils in need of special support. Some of the conclusions from this thesis is that the national test format: Disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Results indicate that the test:

    Activates a focus on achievementLeads attention away from learning Activates issues of accountability Influences pupils and teachers with stakes involved

    Besides evaluating knowledge, the test disciplines not only the pupil, but also the teacher, the classroom and the school at large. Discussing the national test as an arena for equity might be a way towards attaining equality in education for all pupils.

  • 13.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Quality and equity in the era of national testing: the case of Sweden2017In: World yearbook of education 2017: assessment inequalities / [ed] Julie Allan, Alfredo J. Artiles, Oxon: Routledge, 2017, p. 68-88Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Student Equity vs Test Equality?: support during third graders' national tests in mathematics in Sweden2016In: Cursiv [publisher: Institut for Didaktik, Danmarks Pædagogiske Universitetsskole, Aarhus Universitet, DK], ISSN 1901-8878, E-ISSN 1901-8886, no 18, p. 123-139Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article throws light on the educational practice of teachers providing additional support to students during tests, more specifically during the national tests in mathematics for third graders in Sweden (hereafter called Ntm3) for the years 2010 and 2011. Both the test instructions and teacher talk related to these tests were taken into consideration. The results suggest that issues of equity and teachers’ agency arise when considering support. The dual purpose of the test, to evaluate the student and to evaluate the education, positions the teacher as both a test-giver and a test-taker and influences the discourse on support by ambiguity. I found that in such circumstances, when students´ equity comes into conflict with the test´s equality, the focus during the tests shifts from attention to learning to attention to controlling.

  • 15.
    Bagger, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    The discourse regarding the multilingual student in need of support in test- instructions2017In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities, Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2017, Vol. 11, p. 151-Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Performance, anxiety and the mathematical self image2014In: Special Needs Education in Mathematics: New Trends, Problems and Possibilities / [ed] Anne Berit Fuglestad, Kristiansand: Portal forlag, 2014, p. 86-91Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In present pilot study the relation between mathematical performance, test anxiety and mathematical self image is being examined in two Swedish grade 3 pupils. A difference between the high achieving and the low achieving pupils is possible to discern. A negative or uncertain mathematical self image seems to be connected to test anxiety, but not to performance when we look at these two young pupils. The experience of taking the test is affecting the high and low achiever differently. There are indications that the context and the kind of information given about the tests and the pupil's abilities affect both the level of test anxiety and the pupil’s evolving mathematical self image. Educational implications are being discussed.

  • 17.
    Bagger, Anette
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Roos, Helena
    Linnéuniversitetet.
    How Research Conceptualises the Student in Need of Special Education in Mathematics2015In: Development of Mathematics Teaching: Design, Scale, Effects. Proceeding of MADIF 9. The Ninth Swedish Mathematics Education Research Seminar Umeå February 4-5, 2014 / [ed] O. Helenius, A. Engström, T. Meaney, P. Nilsson, E. Norén, J. Sayers, M. Österholm, Linköping: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2015, p. 27-36Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is the conceptualisation of students in special educationalneeds in mathematics (SEM students) in the research fields of mathematics andspecial education. A difference between fields regarding the perspectives takenon the SEM student is obvious in the reviewed articles. Those in the specialeducational field were individual oriented in their view of the difficulties, whilstreviewed articles from the field of mathematics education more often discusssocio-cultural settings. The content in the selected 28 articles reveals that theoverall conceptualisation of SEM student has to do with the social construct ofthe SEM student, as well as with students’ experiences, affects, andprerequisites; with the specific training methods or interventions applied; withspecial areas in the subject of mathematics; with special groups of students; andwith teachers’ knowledge about all these factors.

  • 18.
    Bartolini Bussi, M G
    et al.
    Universita' di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Modena, Itlay.
    Gade, Sharada
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Janvier, M
    Kahane, J-P
    Matsko, V
    Maschietto, M
    Ouvrier-Buffet, C
    Saul, M
    Mathematics in context: focusing on students2009In: Challenging Mathematics In and Beyond the Classroom – The 16th ICMI Study / [ed] E. J. Barbeau and P. J. Taylor, New York: Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2009, p. 171-203Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents nine case studies in which school students engage in challenging mathematics outside their immediate classroom environment. In each case, students are encouraged to collaborate in investigations that go beyond the standard curriculum and creatively use the ingredients of the particular context. In Italy, students visit a mathematical laboratory to understand and utilize mathematical machines. Morning assembly at an Indian school brings students from many classes together in the solution of mathematical problems. Four of the projects are from France: students analyze the configuration of a heap of sand, pursue astronomical investigations with software, obtain a flavor of research by having secondary school teams investigate interesting problems, and are presented at all levels with open-ended research problems. There are three programs from the United States, the first, an advanced geometry sequence for secondary students completing the regular syllabus early, the second, activities arising from exhibits in an art museum, and the third, using the school lawn to deepen student understanding of geometric constructions. All such activities need to be evaluated for their effectiveness, so that they move from just being initiatives of dynamic individuals to serve as the foundation for systemic improvements in the way in which students learn, understand and use mathematics. In the early part of this chapter, we briefly mention how research into such activities might be approached.

  • 19.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    A verbal factor in the PISA 2003 mathematics items: Tentative analyses2009In: Proceedings of the 33rd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: In Search for Theories in Mathematics Education, Thessaloniki, Greece: PME , 2009, p. 145-152Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study uses a statistical method to identify verbal items among mathematical items from PISA 2003. The verbal items are preliminary analysed and compared to the non-verbal items concerning number of text lines, response types, cognitive level, and competences measured. The results show that the verbal items, to a higher percentage than the non-verbal items, measures the reproduction competency, are straigh­t­forward, and of open constructed-response type. These results and proposed further analyses are discussed.

  • 20.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Non-uniqueness of positive currents describing polynomial convexityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    University mathematics teachers' views on the required reasoning in calculus exams2012In: The Montana Mathematics Enthusiast, ISSN 1551-3440, E-ISSN 1551-3440, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 371-408Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Students often use imitative reasoning, i.e. copy algorithms or recall facts, when solving mathematical tasks. Research show that this type of imitative reasoning might weaken the students' understanding of the underlying mathematical concepts. In a previous study, the author classified tasks from 16 final exams from introductory calculus courses at Swedish universities. The results showed that it was possible to pass 15 of the exams, and solve most of the tasks, using imitative reasoning. This study examines the teachers' views on the reasoning that students are expected to perform during their own and others mathematics exams. The results indicate that the exams demand mostly imitative reasoning since the teachers think that the exams otherwise would be too difficult and lead to too low passing rates.

  • 22.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    The role of the formal written curriculum in standards-based reform2017In: Journal of Curriculum Studies, ISSN 0022-0272, E-ISSN 1366-5839, Vol. 49, no 2, p. 149-168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    More than 15 years after the introduction of a standards-based curriculum reform, the mathematics teachers are positive towards the reform message but have not changed their classroom practice accordingly. To improve the impact of future reforms, it is important to learn from this situation and to better understand the role of the national policy documents. The purpose of this study is therefore to examine how the standards-based reform in mathematics in Sweden was conveyed in the formal written curriculum. The research questions focus on to what extent and how clearly the national policy documents convey the message. The results show that the message is present to a large extent in the policy documents, but that it is vague and formulated with complex wording. The study gives concrete examples and shows in detail in what ways the documents are vague and complex.

  • 23.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: grundskolan våren 20092009Report (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Helenius, Ola
    Örebro universitet.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palm, Torulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Palmberg, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Matematikutbildningens mål och undervisningens ändamålsenlighet: gymnasiet hösten 20092010Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Dyrvold, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relating vocabulary in mathematical tasks to aspects of reading and solving2012In: Evaluation and comparison of mathematical achievement: Dimensions and perspectives. Proceedings of MADIF 8, The Eighth Mathematics Education Research Seminar, Umeå, January 24-25, 2012 / [ed] Christer Bergsten, Eva Jablonka & Manya Raman, Linköping: SMDF , 2012, p. 61-70Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on relationships between vocabulary in mathematical tasks and aspects of reading and solving these tasks. The paper contains a framework that highlights a number of different aspects of word difficulty as well as many issues to consider when planning and implementing empirical studies concerning vocabulary in tasks, where the aspect of common/uncommon words is one important part. The paper also presents an empirical method where corpora are used to investigate issues of vocabulary in mathematical tasks. The results from the empirical study show that there are connections between different types of vocabulary and task difficulty, but that they seem to be mainly an effect of the total number of words in a task.

  • 26.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lind, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Educational Measurement. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Är det svårare att dela med fyra än med två när man läser matte C?: En jämförelse av svårighetsgrad mellan olika versioner av matematikuppgifter i Nationella kursprov2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Våren 2004 infördes på försök två olika versioner av de nationella kursproven i matematik på kurserna B, C och D. På varje kurs skilde sig de båda versionerna åt i några av de ingående uppgifterna, medan övriga uppgifter var identiska. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka om, hur och varför dessa förändringar i matematikuppgifterna påverkar uppgifternas svårighetsgrad.

    Resultaten visar att en förändring av de i uppgifterna ingående talen endast i ett fåtal fall påverkat uppgifternas svårighetsgrad i någon större utsträckning. Dessa fåtal fall studeras vart och ett för sig. När två uppgifters sammanhang och formulering skiljer sig åt, även om det matematiska innehållet är i stort sett identiskt, visar ett exempel på att skillnaden i svårighetsgrad kan vara mycket stor.

  • 27.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Linguistic properties of PISA mathematics tasks in different languages2016In: ICT in mathematics education: the future and the realities: Proceedings of MADIF 10: the tenth research seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education Karlstad, January 26–27, 2016 / [ed] Häggström, Johan; Norén, Eva; van Bommel, Jorryt; Sayers, Judy; Helenius, Ola; Liljekvist, Yvonne, Göteborg: Svensk förening för MatematikDidaktisk Forskning - SMDF, 2016, p. 147-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mathematics PISA tasks are primarily supposed to measure mathematical ability and not reading ability, so it is important to avoid unnecessary demands of reading ability in the tasks. Many readability formulas are using both word length and sentence length as indicators of text difficulty. In this study, we examine differences and similarities between English, German, and Swedish mathematics PISA tasks regarding word length and sentence length. We analyze 146 mathematics PISA tasks from 2000–2013, in English, German, and Swedish. For each task we create measures of mean word and sentence length. To analyze if there are any differences between the three language versions of the tasks, we use t-tests to compare the three languages pairwise. We found that in average, the German versions have the longest words, followed by Swedish and then English. Average sentence length was highest for English, followed by German and then Swedish.

  • 28.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Relations between linguistic features and difficulty of PISA tasks in different languages2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged, Hungary: PME , 2016, Vol. 1, p. 125-125Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 29.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Theens, Frithjof
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Department of Mathematics and Science Education, Mid Sweden University, SE-85170, Sundsvall, Sweden.
    The role of linguistic features when reading and solving mathematics tasks in different languages2018In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 51, p. 41-55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to deepen the understanding of the relation between the language used in mathematics tasks and the difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We examine issues of language both through linguistic features of tasks (word length, sentence length, task length, and information density) and through different natural languages used to formulate the tasks (English, German, and Swedish). Analyses of 83 PISA mathematics tasks reveal that tasks in German, when compared with English and Swedish, show stronger connections between the examined linguistic features of tasks and difficulty in reading and solving the tasks. We discuss if and how this result can be explained by general differences between the three languages.

  • 30.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    A theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks2010In: Mathematics and mathematics education: Cultural and social dimensions. Proceedings of MADIF 7 / [ed] C. Bergsten, E. Jablonka & T. Wedege, Linköping, Sweden: Svensk förening för matematikdidaktisk forskning, SMDF , 2010, p. 47-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we suggest a theoretical model of the connection between the process of reading and the process of solving mathematical tasks. The model takes into consideration different types of previous research about the relationship between reading and solving mathematical tasks, including research about traits of mathematical tasks (a linguistic perspective), about the reading process (a psychological perspective), and about behavior and reasoning when solving tasks (a mathematics education perspective). In contrast to other models, our model is not linear but cyclic, and considers behavior such as re-reading the task.

  • 31.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Monash University, Australia.
    Communicating mathematics or mathematical communication?: An analysis of competence frameworks2012In: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education: Vol. 2: opportunities to learn in mathematics education / [ed] Tai-Yih Tso, 2012, p. 67-74Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we analyse the communication competence included in two different frameworks of mathematical knowledge. The main purpose is to find out if mathematical communication is primarily described as communication of or about mathematics or if it is (also) described as a special type of communication. The results show that aspects of mathematics are mostly included as the content of communication in the frameworks but the use of different forms of representation is highlighted both in the frameworks and also in prior research as a potential cause for characterising mathematical communication differently than "ordinary" communication.

  • 32.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Språkbrukets roll i matematikundervisningen2014In: Nämnaren : tidskrift för matematikundervisning, ISSN 0348-2723, Vol. 2014, no 1, p. 27-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Det språk vi använder oss av i matematikklassrummet kan fokuseras på många olika sätt. Språket är också nödvändigt att förhålla sig till vid utvecklingen av sitt matematiska tänkande. Författarna diskuterar här relationer mellan språk och lärande.

  • 33.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Österholm, MagnusUmeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Granberg, CarinaUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).Sumpter, LovisaStockholms universitet.
    Proceedings of the 42nd Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education2018Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    How teachers verify conjectures: teachers' expectations2005In: Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, ISSN 1386-4416, E-ISSN 1573-1820, Vol. 8, no 2, p. 171-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight teachers were interviewed concerning how students verify conjectures. The study is a sequel to a previous study, “How Students Verify Conjectures” [Bergqvist, T. (2000). How students verify conjectures. Research reports in Mathematics Education 3]. Teachers’ expectations of students’ reasoning and performance are examined, and also how they wish students would work. The results indicate that the teachers tend to underestimate the students’ reasoning levels and that they believe that only a small group of students in each class can use higher level reasoning in mathematics.

  • 35.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Podcasting mathematics2013In: The International Journal for Technology in Mathematics Education, ISSN 1744-2710, E-ISSN 2045-2519, Vol. 20, no 4, p. 147-155Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study podcasts, i.e. short video clips, were analysed to ascertain how mathematical competencies were addressed. We analysed how the mathematical content was presented in the podcasts, and then how these characterizations related to eight students’ interest to learn mathematics. The mathematical presentations was analysed using the Mathematical Competencies Research Framework (Lithner et al., 2010). The results indicate that podcasts that address several mathematical competencies receive overall higher grades by the students in the study.

  • 36.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Problem solving in mathematics education: learning problem solving and learning through problem solving2012Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proceedings from the 13th ProMath conference, September 2 – 4, 2011, in Umeå, Sweden.

  • 37.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Problemlösning i Nämnaren under 2000-talet2014In: NTema 10: Matematik – undervisning i praktiken / [ed] Karin Wallby, Ulrika Dahlberg, Ola Helenius, Johan Häggström och Anders Wallby, Göteborg: Nationellt centrum för matematikutbildning (NCM), 2014, p. 270-275Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Med utgångspunkt i ett stort antal artiklar om problemlösning i de 15 senaste årens Nämnaren diskuteras i artikeln några intressanta problem och problemlösningens roll i skolans matematikundervisning.

  • 38.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    WHAT MATHEMATICAL COMPETENCES CAN BE LEARNED FROM WEB-BASED LEARNING RESOURCES?2013In: Proceedings of the 37th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education, vol 5. / [ed] Anke M. Lindmeier, Aiso Heinze, Kiel: The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education (PME) , 2013, p. 21-21Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Two web-based learning resoruces were analysed using the MCRF research framework. The aim was to identify opportunities to develop mathematical competencies. The findings indicate that opportunities are few, and that what is offered in web-based learning resources is similar to what is offered in Swedish classrooms.

  • 39.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Why are students using web-based learning resources in mathematics outside the classroom?2013In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Science, Mathematics and Technology Education. Muscat, Oman 4-7 November, 2012 / [ed] Darrell Fisher and Rekha Koul, Perth: Science and Mathematics Education Centre, Curtin University, Australia. , 2013, p. 40-44Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this pilot study is to gain insights into the situation of students using web-based learning resources (WBLR) outside the formal learning environment in the classroom. More specifically to understand why students use the resources, and what they do when they access the resources. Eleven students that to some extent had used WBLR were interviewed, five in school year eight and six in school year twelve. The results indicate that the extent of the use of the resources were very limited and that the two main activities the students engage in are very similar to those they are used to from the classroom; i) practicing rote learning and ii) listening to solutions of tasks by a teacher. The students in upper secondary school used arguments tightly connected to grades, tests and results, aspects that will be of importance for the students in the future, while the younger students used arguments concerning mathematics in society and knowledge as important for their everyday life. The impression from the interviews was also that the younger students to a larger extent were open to new resources and more willing to search for new sites and try out what they found. 

  • 40.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Mathematical competences in Swedish steering documents2009In: In search for theories in mathematics education: proceedings of the 33rd conference of the International group for the psychology of mathematics education / [ed] Marianna Tzekaki, Maria Kaldrimidou, Haralambos Sakonidis, Thessaloniki, Greece: PME , 2009, p. 1:336-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is an ongoing project where we only have very preliminary results, and the main aim of this paper is not to present results, but to discuss the methodological issues when using content analysis on the course syllabus for the Swedish compulsory school. Content analysis (Krippendorff, 2004) is in most cases in the literature used on large materials, for example all news articles from a specific year that concern a certain political issue. We will discuss what happens when we try to use the method on a comparatively small document of a very different kind.

  • 41.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Bergqvist, Ewa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    What is “strong presence” of a message in a steering document?2012In: Proceedings of Norma 11, The Sixth Nordic Conference on Mathematics Education in Reykjavík, May 11-14, 2011 / [ed] G. H. Gunnarsdóttir, F. Hreinsdóttir, G. Pálsdóttir, M. Hannula, M. Hannula-Sormunen, E. Jablonka, U. T. Jankvist, A. Ryve, P. Valero & K. Wæge, Reykjavík, Iceland: University of Iceland Press, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to discuss what a “strong presence” of a message in a syllabuscould be. The discussion takes a starting point in what we call the reformmessage; that what mathematics is can not only be described in terms of content andprocedures, but must also be defined in terms of competencies, e.g. problem solving,reasoning and communication. The analyzed document is the Swedish syllabus forthe first course at upper secondary school. Different ways, both quantitative andqualitative, of determining what a strong presence of a message could be are presentedand discussed.

  • 42.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Boesen, Jesper
    Nyroos, Mikaela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Vad vet vi om hur matematiklärare arbetar för att utveckla elevers matematikkunskaper?2010Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Hudson, Brian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lindwall, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Podcasting in School2008Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Podcasting is a new phenomenon in Swedish schools. This pa- per describes a project where the main goal is to analyze if the students’ interest in mathematics is affected if the mathematics is made accessible via podcasts and iPods. Teachers at eleven schools were encouraged to produce podcasts as a part of their mathematics teaching in school year eight. The results indicate an increased interest in mathematics and the learning of mathematics among the students. We also found that the tech- nical difficulties for the teachers were underestimated in the project, and that teachers had difficulties in finding time for the production of podcasts.

     

  • 44.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Hudson, Brian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Interactive Media and Learning (IML). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Mathematics, Technology and Science Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lindwall, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Podcasting in school2009In: Sixth Research Seminar of the Swedish Society for Research in Mathematics Education (MADIF 6), In press, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Podcasting is a new phenomenon in Swedish schools. This paper describes a project where the main goal is to analyze if the students’ interest in mathematics is affected if the mathematics is made accessible via podcasts and ipods. Teachers at eleven schools were encouraged to produce podcasts as a part of their mathematics teaching in school-year eight. The results indicate an increased interest in mathematics and the learning of mathematics among the students. We also found that the technical difficulties for the teachers were underestimated in the project, and that teachers had difficulties in finding time for the production of podcasts.

  • 45.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Liljekvist, Yvonne
    Karlstads universitet.
    van Bommel, Jorryt
    Karlstads universitet.
    Österholm, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Evaluation of a large scale professional development program: Vol 22017In: Proceedings of the 41st Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Kaur, B., Ho, W.K., Toh, T.L., & Choy, B.H., Singapore: The International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education , 2017, Vol. 2, p. 153-160Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on a par of an evaluation of the professional development program (PDP) Boost for Mathematics in Sweden. Around 200 mathematics lessons were observed, and the teachers were interviewed after each lesson. The findings indicate that the PDP has had a significant impact on the teachers’ knowledge about the mathematical competencies as they are presented in the national curriculum documents, and that the teaching practice had improved and now gives the students better possibilities to develop the competencies. The results also show that these improvements are still present one year after the program had ended. 

  • 46.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Interactive Media and Learning (IML).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Mathematical reasoning in teachers' presentations2012In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 31p. 252-269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of the opportunities presented to students that allow them to learn different types of mathematical reasoning during teachers’ ordinary task solving presentations. The characteristics of algorithmic and creative reasoning that are seen in the presentations are analyzed. We find that most task solutions are based on available algorithms, often without arguments that justify the reasoning, which may lead to rote learning. The students are given some opportunities to see aspects of creative reasoning, such as reflection and arguments that are anchored in the mathematical properties of the task components, but in relatively modest ways.

  • 47.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Why is learning via creative reasoning effective?2016In: Proceedings of the 40th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Csíkos, C., Rausch, A., & Szitányi, J., Szeged: PME , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Teacher Education, Department of Interactive Media and Learning. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Sumpter, Lovisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Upper secondary students’ task reasoning2008In: International Journal of Mathematical Education in Science and Technology, ISSN 0020-739X, Vol. 39, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Upper secondary students’ task solving reasoning was analysed, with a focus on grounds for different strategy choices and implementations. The results indicate that mathematically well-founded considerations were rare. The dominating reasoning types were algorithmic reasoning, where students tried to remember a suitable algorithm, sometimes in a random way, and guided reasoning, where progress was possible only when essentially all important strategy choices were made by the interviewer.

  • 49.
    Bergqvist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Remillard, Janine
    University of Pennsylvania, USA.
    Van Steenbrugge, Hendrik
    Mälardalens Högskola.
    Balancing educative and directive guidance in teacher guides in three teaching cultures2015In: Proceedings of the 39th Conference of the International Group for the Psychology of Mathematics Education / [ed] Beswick, K., Muir, T., & Wells, J., Hobart, Australia: PME , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 149-149Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Teacher guides in mathematics from three cultural regions (Sweden, Flanders and the US) were analyzed concerning directive and educative guidance. Directive guidance is when the teacher guide clearly states what the teacher or the students are supposed to do. Educative guidance is when the teacher guide supports the teacher with information about student thinking, mathematical issues and similar. The results show that teacher guides from Flanders are more directive and the US together with one of two Swedish teacher guides are quite balanced. The second Swedish teacher guide stands out in being more educative than directive. This coincides with our understanding of the teaching traditions in the three regions.

  • 50.
    Bino, Vagi
    et al.
    University of Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
    Edmonds-Wathen, Cris
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Charles Darwin University, Australia.
    Technology-enhancement for Papua New Guinean professional learning2014In: Curriculum in focus: Research guided practice: Proceedings of the 36th annual conference of the Mathematics Education Research Group of Australasia / [ed] Anderson, J; Cavanagh, M; Prescott, A, Sydney: MERGA , 2014, p. 734-737Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Technology facilitated the implementation of teacher professional learning based on a design of principles to improve the teaching of Cultural Mathematics in elementary schools in Papua New Guinea. An offline ‘website’, a set of interlinked resource materials was used in workshops to enhance the professional learning. Appropriate and relevant content was needed together with consideration of the teachers’ backgrounds.

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