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  • 1. Alberto Diaz-Sanchez, Adrian
    et al.
    Corona-Gonzalez, Belkis
    Meli, Marina L.
    Obregon Alvarez, Dasiel
    Vega Canizares, Ernesto
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Lobo Rivero, Evelyn
    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
    First molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species (Mycoplasma spp.) in water buffalo and dairy cattle herds in Cuba2019In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 12, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are small bacteria which cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species including humans. Information on hemoplasma infections in Cuban bovines remains scarce and no studies applying molecular methods have been performed so far. The aim of the present study was to utilize real-time PCR and sequence analysis to investigate dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba for the presence of bovine hemoplasma species.

    Results: A total of 80 blood samples from 39 buffalo and 41 dairy cattle were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma wenyonii and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos using two species-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays. PCR results revealed overall 53 (66.2%; 95% CI: 55.3-75.7%) positive animals for M. wenyonii and 33 (41.2%; 95% CI: 31.1-52.2%) for Ca. M. haemobos; the latter were all co-infections with M. wenyonii. The sample prevalences were similar in cattle and buffalo. Based on the sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene from two cattle and two buffalo, the presence of M. wenyonii and Ca. M. haemobos was confirmed. Statistical analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle one year of age or older were more frequently infected with M. wenyonii or Ca. M. haemobos than younger animals. PCR-positivity was not associated with anemia; however, the infection stage was unknown (acute infection versus chronic carriers).

    Conclusions: The high occurrence of bovine hemoplasma infections in buffalo and dairy cattle may have a significant impact on Cuban livestock production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species infection in dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba and the Caribbean.

  • 2.
    Andersson, John
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Oudin, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Forsberg, Bertil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Road traffic noise, air pollution, and risk of dementia: results from the Betula project2018In: Environmental Research, ISSN 0013-9351, E-ISSN 1096-0953, Vol. 166, p. 334-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is growing evidence for a negative impact of traffic-related air pollution on risk of dementia. However, the contribution of noise exposure to this association has been rarely examined.

    Objective: We aimed to investigate the individual and combined effect of noise and air pollution on risk of dementia.

    Methods: Data on dementia incidence over a 15 year period was obtained from the Betula project, a longitudinal study on health and ageing. Estimates of annual mean levels of nitrogen oxides (NOx) at the participants’ residential address were obtained using a land-use regression model. Modelled data provided road traffic noise levels (Leq. 24 h) at the participants’ residential address at baseline. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate hazard ratios (HR).

    Results: Of 1721 participants at baseline, 302 developed dementia during the follow up period. Exposure to noise levels (Leq. 24 h) > 55 dB had no significant effect on dementia risk (HR 0.95; CI: 0.57, 1.57). Residing in the two highest quartiles of NOx exposure was associated with an increased risk of dementia. The risk associated with NOx was not modified by adjusting for noise. Moreover, we found no significant interaction effects between NOx and road traffic noise on dementia risk.

    Conclusion: We found no evidence that exposure to road traffic noise, either independently or in combination with traffic air pollution, was associated with risk of dementia in our study area. Our results suggest that pollution should be considered the main component in the association between traffic related exposures and dementia.

  • 3.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Scocco, Sandro
    Arenagruppen, Arenaide, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Refugee immigration and the growth of low-wage work in the EU152019In: Comparative Migration Studies, ISSN 2214-8590, E-ISSN 2214-594X, Vol. 7, no 39, p. 1-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our paper focuses on current trends in refugee migration and job polarization. In so doing, we assess the role of refugee migration in relation to institutional, technological and globalization factors in an effort to trace the factors underlying the growth of low-paying occupations in EU 15 between 1995 and 2017. Our empirical findings suggest that refugee migration has a small but positive and statistically significant impact on the growth of low-wage occupations in the EU 15 as a whole. However, the effect is attributed to Southern Europe and the UK and Irish economies. Despite hosting relatively large numbers of refugee migrants, the effects in the Nordic countries and Continental Europe are negligible, if present, and non-existent in the long run (5 years). When including all migrant workers, we find a limited impact on the growth of low-wage work in general, while the impact of immigrant workers from low-income third party countries becomes positive for the UK and Irish economy, but less for other European macro-regions. This suggests that institutional settings can play an important role in how the economy adjusts to migration. It also suggests that traditional fiscal cost calculations in relation to migration are often overestimated, as they implicitly build on the assumption that refugees and general immigration have great impacts on the growth of low-wage occupations.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Lars Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Lindmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Economic History.
    Välfärden, skatterna, baumoleffekten och högerpopulismens framväxt2018In: Ekonomisk Debatt, ISSN 0345-2646, Vol. 46, no 7, p. 33-44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi ser i dag en förtroendekris för de politiska krafter som under hela efterkrigstiden har fört en kamp kring avvägningen mellan skatter och offentligt finansierad välfärd under förutsättning att den makroekonomiska jämvikten inteäventyras. Utmanare är högerpopulismen som vunnit mark genom utpekandetav invandring som en allmän förklaring till höga skatter och upplevda brister ivälfärden. Men lika lite som invandringen egentligen kan förklara långsiktigtstigande skatter, lika bortglömd tycks Baumoleffekten vara. Bristen på strukturellekonomisk-historisk analys för att förstå utmaningarna för välfärdsfinansieringär uppenbara

  • 5.
    Andersson, Lars-Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Danley, Therese
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Eriksson, Rikard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Henning, Martin
    Handelshögskolan, Göteborgs universitet.
    Workers’ participation in regional economic change following establishment closure2018In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses if and when workers affected by economic destruction in the form of establishment closures move to more productive or newly started establishments in the region, become self-employed, leave the region or become displaced. Results from multinominal probit models show that the majority of these workers face destructive employment outcomes from a Schumpeterian point of view compared to a matched sample of workers not subject to a closure. However, we do find indications of a creative destruction as a small, albeit significant, share become employed in young establishments. Different types of human capital influence the likelihood of triggering positive or negative regional outcomes. While higher education significantly decreases the risk for unemployment, high-income earners more often become engaged in creative outcomes. Firm tenure increases the likelihood of becoming employed in younger establishments. There are significant spatial differences where metropolitan regions excel as loci of creative change, whereas smaller and peripheral regions face far less creative outcomes of economic transformation.

  • 6.
    Awad, Anna
    et al.
    Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lundqvist, Robert
    Research and Innovation Unit, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden..
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Eliasson, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Sunderby Research Unit, Umeå University, Sweden..
    Lower cognitive performance among long-term type 1 diabetes survivors: A case-control study2017In: Journal of diabetes and its complications, ISSN 1056-8727, E-ISSN 1873-460X, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1328-1331Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction. The cognitive decrement is believed to depend on macro- and microvascular complications and long disease duration. Some patients do not develop these complications, but still report cognitive symptoms. We examined if long-standing T1D without complications is associated with lower cognitive performance.

    METHODS: A group of patients (n=43) with long-standing T1D (>30years) without micro- or macro vascular complications was compared with a non-diabetic control group (n=86) on six cognitive tests which probed episodic memory, semantic memory, episodic short-term memory, visual attention and psychomotor speed. Each patient was matched with two controls regarding age, gender and education. A linear mixed effect model was used to analyze the data.

    RESULTS: The mean age was 57years and mean duration was 41years. Patients with diabetes had lower diastolic blood pressure but BMI, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure and smoking did not differ between groups. Patients had lower results than non-diabetic controls in episodic short-term memory (p<0.001) and also lower values on a test that mirrors visual attention and psychomotor speed (p=0.019).

    CONCLUSIONS: Long-standing T1D was associated with lower cognitive performance, regardless of other diabetes-related complications.

  • 7.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inledning2016In: Samiska Rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Solna: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 5-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, ElisabethUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).Lantto, PatrikUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Wisselgren, Maria J.Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi2016Collection (editor) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Health and physical wellbeing of the Sámi people2019In: Routledge handbook of indigenous wellbeing / [ed] Christopher Fleming and Matthew Manning, Routledge, 2019, p. 13-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the health and physical wellbeing of the Sámi people living in Norway, Sweden, Finland and on the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Drawing on a review of the literature, we note that cancer and cardiovascular diseases are examples of conditions that, hitherto, have been thoroughly studied in the Sámi population in relation to physical wellbeing. Generally, studies conclude that the health and living conditions of the Sámi people are good and close to the level of the non-Indigenous benchmark population. However, it is also obvious that knowledge of the Sámi health situation differs between countries, partly due to national laws and policies that circumscribe opportunities to conduct relevant research involving Sámi communities. To understand the current wellbeing of the Sámi people, it is crucial to understand the effects of colonization. As such, this chapter provides a historical background to the present situation. Finally, the chapter aims to identify future challenges that may affect the wellbeing of the Sámi people of northern Europe.

  • 10.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sweden in 1930 and the 1930 census2018In: Three centuries of northern population censuses / [ed] Gunnar Thorvaldsen, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, p. 61-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of censuses has always been to collect reliable information on the state's population and provide a basis for governmental decision-making. This study examines the categories used in the 1930 census and links them to the context in which they were generated. We treat the census as a tool of state power, which can be discerned from the definitions of its categories and the way in which statistics are collected and used. The guiding question of the study was "how does the 1930 census differ from previous censuses and how can these differences and changes be explained?" We find that as in earlier censuses, Statistics Sweden used extracts from the parish books on the individual level to collect information for the 1930 census, but also used diverse supplementary sources including tax registers, income tax returns and language surveys. Thus, unlike in most countries, Sweden did not send out census takers or questionnaires to the population. Many of the new or updated variables we see in the 1930 census such as income, wealth, and number of children born, can be related to the political and social debate concerning the poor working class and the establishment of the welfare state. The inclusion of categories such as ethnicity, religion, and foreign nationality can be seen as part of a normative approach wanting to control, monitor and correct deviant elements of the Swedish population. Sweden has several extraordinary longitudinal population databases built on the country’s excellent parish registers dating back to the 18th century. While the Swedish censuses have rarely been used as sources of data for historical analysis, this work demonstrates that the 1930 census has great potential to support new research.

  • 11. Barban, Nicola
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Lundholm, Emma
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Billari, F. C.
    Causal Effects of the Timing of Life-course Events: Age at Retirement and Subsequent Health2017In: Sociological Methods & Research, ISSN 0049-1241, E-ISSN 1552-8294Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n this article, we combine the extensive literature on the analysis of life-course trajectories as sequences with the literature on causal inference and propose a new matching approach to investigate the causal effect of the timing of life-course events on subsequent outcomes. Our matching approach takes into account pre-event confounders that are both time-independent and time-dependent as well as life-course trajectories. After matching, treated and control individuals can be compared using standard statistical tests or regression models. We apply our approach to the study of the consequences of the age at retirement on subsequent health outcomes, using a unique data set from Swedish administrative registers. Once selectivity in the timing of retirement is taken into account, effects on hospitalization are small, while early retirement has negative effects on survival. Our approach also allows for heterogeneous treatment effects. We show that the effects of early retirement differ according to preretirement income, with higher income individuals tending to benefit from early retirement, while the opposite is true for individuals with lower income.

  • 12.
    Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Department of Mathematics, Bandar Abbas Branch, Islamic Azad University, Bandar Abbas, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Prevention of Metabolic Disorders Research Center, Research Institute for Endocrine Sciences, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, IR Iran.
    Stata Modules for Calculating Novel Predictive Performance Indices for Logistic Models2016In: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism, ISSN 1726-9148, Vol. 14, no 1, article id e26707Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Prediction is a fundamental part of prevention of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). The development of prediction algorithms based on the multivariate regression models loomed several decades ago. Parallel with predictive models development, biomarker researches emerged in an impressively great scale. The key question is how best to assess and quantify the improvement in risk prediction offered by new biomarkers or more basically how to assess the performance of a risk prediction model. Discrimination, calibration, and added predictive value have been recently suggested to be used while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models’ with and without novel biomarkers.Objectives: Lack of user-friendly statistical software has restricted implementation of novel model assessment methods while examining novel biomarkers. We intended, thus, to develop a user-friendly software that could be used by researchers with few programming skills.Materials and Methods: We have written a Stata command that is intended to help researchers obtain cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index and (NRI) and relative and absolute Integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI) for logistic-based regression analyses.We applied the commands to a real data on women participating the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information of a family history of premature CVD, waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of the Framingham’s “general CVD risk” algorithm.Results: The command is addpred for logistic regression models.Conclusions: The Stata package provided herein can encourage the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of ever-emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 13. Barkhordari, Mahnaz
    et al.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sardarinia, Mahsa
    Hadaegh, Farzad
    Azizi, Fereidoun
    Bozorgmanesh, Mohammadreza
    Survival Regression Modeling Strategies in CVD Prediction2016In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ENDOCRINOLOGY AND METABOLISM, ISSN 1726-913X, Vol. 14, no 2, article id UNSP e32156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A fundamental part of prevention is prediction. Potential predictors are the sine qua non of prediction models. However, whether incorporating novel predictors to prediction models could be directly translated to added predictive value remains an area of dispute. The difference between the predictive power of a predictive model with (enhanced model) and without (baseline model) a certain predictor is generally regarded as an indicator of the predictive value added by that predictor. Indices such as discrimination and calibration have long been used in this regard. Recently, the use of added predictive value has been suggested while comparing the predictive performances of the predictive models with and without novel biomarkers. Objectives: User-friendly statistical software capable of implementing novel statistical procedures is conspicuously lacking. This shortcoming has restricted implementation of such novel model assessment methods. We aimed to construct Stata commands to help researchers obtain the aforementioned statistical indices. Materials and Methods: We have written Stata commands that are intended to help researchers obtain the following. 1, Nam-D'Agostino X-2 goodness of fit test; 2, Cut point-free and cut point-based net reclassification improvement index (NRI), relative absolute integrated discriminatory improvement index (IDI), and survival-based regression analyses. We applied the commands to real data on women participating in the Tehran lipid and glucose study (TLGS) to examine if information relating to a family history of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD), waist circumference, and fasting plasma glucose can improve predictive performance of Framingham's general CVD risk algorithm. Results: The command is adpredsurv for survival models. Conclusions: Herein we have described the Stata package "adpredsurv" for calculation of the Nam-D'Agostino X2 goodness of fit test as well as cut point-free and cut point-based NRI, relative and absolute IDI, and survival-based regression analyses. We hope this work encourages the use of novel methods in examining predictive capacity of the emerging plethora of novel biomarkers.

  • 14. Bas-Hoogendam, Janna Marie
    et al.
    van Steenbergen, Henk
    Pannekoek, J. Nienke
    Fouche, Jean-Paul
    Lochner, Christine
    Hattingh, Coenraad J.
    Cremers, Henk R.
    Furmark, Tomas
    Månsson, Kristoffer N. T.
    Frick, Andreas
    Engman, Jonas
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Carlbring, Per
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Straube, Thomas
    Peterburs, Jutta
    Klumpp, Heide
    Phan, K. Luan
    Roelofs, Karin
    Stein, Dan J.
    van der Wee, Nic. J. A.
    Sample Size Matters: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Multi-Center Mega-Analysis of Gray Matter Volume in Social Anxiety Disorder2017In: Biological Psychiatry, ISSN 0006-3223, E-ISSN 1873-2402, Vol. 81, no 10, p. S7-S7Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Increasing physical activity in officeworkers – the Inphact Treadmill study: a study protocol for a 13-month randomized controlled trial of treadmill workstations2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, article id 632Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sedentary behaviour is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity, especially for type 2 diabetes. Since office work is related to long periods that are largely sedentary, it is of major importance to find ways for office workers to engage in light intensity physical activity (LPA). The Inphact Treadmill study aims to investigate the effects of installing treadmill workstations in offices compared to conventional workstations.

    Methods/Design: A two-arm, 13-month, randomized controlled trial (RCT) will be conducted. Healthy overweight and obese office workers (n = 80) with mainly sedentary tasks will be recruited from office workplaces in Umeå, Sweden. The intervention group will receive a health consultation and a treadmill desk, which they will use for at least one hour per day for 13 months. The control group will receive the same health consultation, but continue to work at their regular workstations. Physical activity and sedentary time during workdays and non-workdays as well as during working and non-working hours on workdays will be measured objectively using accelerometers (Actigraph and activPAL) at baseline and after 2, 6, 10, and 13 months of follow-up. Food intake will be recorded and metabolic and anthropometric variables, body composition, stress, pain, depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and functional magnetic resonance imaging will be measured at 3–5 time points during the study period. Interviews with participants from the intervention group will be performed at the end of the study.

    Discussion: This will be the first long-term RCT on the effects of treadmill workstations on objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time as well as other body functions and structures/morphology during working and non-working hours among office workers. This will provide further insight on the effects of active workstations on our health and could fill in some of the knowledge gaps regarding how we can reduce sedentary time in office environments.

  • 16.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Mattson-Frost, Tove
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Chorell, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Ryberg, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Levine, James
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Installing treadmill workstations in offices does little for cognitive performance and brain structure, despite a baseline association between sitting time and hippocampus volumeManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wahlström, Viktoria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Sustainable Health.
    Stomby, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Otten, Julia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lanthén, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Renklint, Rebecka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine.
    Waling, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition.
    Sörlin, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Resonance, Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Wennberg, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Öhberg, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Levine, James A.
    Department of Endocrinology, The Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, USA; Fondation IPSEN, Paris, France.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Treadmill workstations in office workers who are overweight or obese: a randomised controlled trial2018In: The Lancet Public Health, ISSN 2468-2667, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e523-e535Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Treadmill workstations that enable office workers to walk on a treadmill while working at their computers might increase physical activity in offices, but long-term effects are unknown. We therefore investigated whether treadmill workstations in offices increased daily walking time.

    Methods: We did a randomised controlled trial of healthy office workers who were either overweight or obese. We recruited participants from 13 different companies, which comprised 17 offices, in Umeå, Sweden. We included people who were aged 40-67 years, had sedentary work tasks, and had a body-mass index (BMI) between 25 kg/m2 and 40 kg/m2. After the baseline measurement, we stratified participants by their BMI (25-30 kg/m2 and >30 to 40 kg/m2); subsequently, an external statistician randomly assigned these participants (1:1) to either the intervention group (who received treadmill workstations for optional use) or the control group (who continued to work at their sit-stand desks as usual). Participants in the intervention group received reminders in boosting emails sent out to them at four occasions during the study period. Researchers were masked to group assignment until after analysis of the primary outcome. After the baseline measurement, participants were not masked to group belongings. The primary outcome was total daily walking time at weekdays and weekends, measured at baseline, 2 months, 6 months, 10 months, and 13 months with the accelerometer activPAL (PAL Technologies, Glasgow, UK), which was worn on the thigh of participants for 24 h a day for 7 consecutive days. We used an intention-to-treat approach for our analyses. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01997970, and is closed to new participants.

    Findings: Between Nov 1, 2013, and June 30, 2014, a total of 80 participants were recruited and enrolled (n=40 in both the intervention and control groups). Daily walking time during total time awake at weekdays increased between baseline and 13 months by 18 min (95% CI 9 to 26) in the intervention group and 1 min (-7 to 9) in the control group (difference 22 min [95% CI 7 to 37], pinteraction=0·00045); for weekend walking, the change from baseline to 13 months was 5 min (-8 to 18) in the intervention group and 8 min (-5 to 21) in the control group (difference -1 min [-19 to 17]; pinteraction=0·00045). Neither measure met our predetermined primary outcome of 30 min difference in total walking time between the intervention and control group, so the primary outcome of the trial was not met. One adverse event was reported in a participant who accidently stepped on their Achilles tendon.

    Interpretation: In a sedentary work environment, treadmill workstations result in a statistically significant but smaller-than-expected increase in daily walking time. Future studies need to investigate how increasing physical activity at work might have potentially compensatory effects on non-work activity.

  • 18.
    Blom-Nilsson, Marcus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    McCarty, Dennis
    OHSU-PSU School of Public Health, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, USA.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of AQ2 Denver Graduate School of Social Work, Denver, USA.
    Sexual Abuse and Future Mental Health Hospitalization ina Swedish National Sample of Men Who Use Opioids2019In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: Experiences of trauma, specifically sexual abuse, have been linked to both mental health and substance use disorders. This study used 14 years of Swedish health registry data to select a sample of adult men who reported frequent opioid use and assessed if those with a self-reported history of sexual abuse had a higher likelihood of hospitalization for a mental health disorder.

    Methods: A Swedish longitudinal (2003–2017) registry study linked Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessments completed with individuals who sought treatment for substance use disorders with data on hospitalizations for mental health disorders, and assessed associations with self-reported histories of sexual abuse among men who reported sustained and frequent use of opioids (n¼1862). Cox regression methods tested associations and controlled for age, and the7 ASI composite scores: family and social relationships, employment, alcohol use, drug use, legal, physical health, and mental health.

    Results: The ASI composite score for mental health (hazard ratio[HR] 16.6, P<0.001) and a history of sexual abuse (HR 1.93,P<0.001) were associated with an elevated risk of future mental health hospitalization.

    Conclusion: Both the ASI composite scores for mental health andself-reported history of sexual abuse reflected complex needs amongmen who used opioids and increased risk for mental health hospitalization.Treatment providers should strive to provide integrated careand address the negative aspects of victimization.

  • 19.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Norberg, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Nyström, Lennarth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Lönnberg, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Boman, Kurt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Weinehall, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Impact of a combined community and primary care prevention strategy on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality: a cohort analysis based on 1 million person-years of follow-up in Västerbotten County, Sweden, during 1990-20062015In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 12, article id e009651Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the impact of the Västerbotten Intervention Programme (VIP) by comparing all eligible individuals (target group impact) according to the intention-to-treat principle and VIP participants with the general Swedish population.

    DESIGN: Dynamic cohort study.

    SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: All individuals aged 40, 50 or 60 years, residing in Västerbotten County, Sweden, between 1990 and 2006 (N=101 918) were followed from their first opportunity to participate in the VIP until age 75, study end point or prior death.

    INTERVENTION: The VIP is a systematic, long-term, county-wide cardiovascular disease (CVD) intervention that is performed within the primary healthcare setting and combines individual and population approaches. The core component is a health dialogue based on a physical examination and a comprehensive questionnaire at the ages of 40, 50 and 60 years.

    PRIMARY OUTCOMES: All-cause and CVD mortality.

    RESULTS: For the target group, there were 5646 deaths observed over 1 054 607 person-years. Compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 90.6% (95% CI 88.2% to 93.0%): for women 87.9% (95% CI 84.1% to 91.7%) and for men 92.2% (95% CI 89.2% to 95.3%). For CVD, the ratio was 95.0% (95% CI 90.7% to 99.4%): for women 90.4% (95% CI 82.6% to 98.7%) and for men 96.8% (95% CI 91.7 to 102.0). For participants, subject to further impact as well as selection, when compared to Sweden at large, the standardised all-cause mortality ratio was 66.3% (95% CI 63.7% to 69.0%), whereas the CVD ratio was 68.9% (95% CI 64.2% to 73.9%). For the target group as well as for the participants, standardised mortality ratios for all-cause mortality were reduced within all educational strata.

    CONCLUSIONS: The study suggests that the VIP model of CVD prevention is able to impact on all-cause and cardiovascular mortality when evaluated according to the intention-to-treat principle.

  • 20.
    Blomstedt, Yulia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Sahlén, Klas Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Nilsson, Ingeborg
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Sundström, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Brändström, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Elderly care in Swedish welfare state: implications of the population ageing2013In: Global aging issues and policies: understanding the importance of comprehending and studying the aging process / [ed] Yushi Li, Springfield: Charles C. Thomas Publisher Ltd., 2013, p. 226-244Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 21.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Center for Magnetic Research (DRCMR), Centre forFunctional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen Univer-sity Hospital Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Non-invasive brain stimulation and neuro-enhancement in aging2018In: Clinical Neurophysiology, ISSN 1388-2457, E-ISSN 1872-8952, Vol. 9, p. 464-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Ames, David
    Kochan, Nicole
    Lee, Teresa
    Thalamuthu, Anbupalam
    Wen, Wei
    Armstrong, Nicola
    Kwok, John
    Schofield, Peter
    Reppermund, Simone
    Wright, Margaret
    Trollor, Julian
    Brodaty, Henry
    Sachdev, Perminder
    Mather, Karen
    Investigating the influence of KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms on cross-sectional and longitudinal measures of memory performance and hippocampal volume in older individuals2015In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 78, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The variability of episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy observed with increasing age may partly be explained by genetic factors. KIBRA (kidney and brain expressed protein) and CLSTN2 (calsyntenin 2) are two candidate genes previously linked to episodic memory performance and volume of the hippocampus, a key memory structure. However, whether polymorphisms in these two genes also influence age-related longitudinal memory decline and hippocampal atrophy is still unknown. Using data from two independent cohorts, the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and the Older Australian Twins Study, we investigated whether the KIBRA and CLSTN2 genetic polymorphisms (rs17070145 and rs6439886) are associated with episodic memory performance and hippocampal volume in older adults (65–90 years at baseline). We were able to examine these polymorphisms in relation to memory and hippocampal volume using cross-sectional data and, more importantly, also using longitudinal data (2 years between testing occasions). Overall we did not find support for an association of KIBRA either alone or in combination with CLSTN2 with memory performance or hippocampal volume, nor did variation in these genes influence longitudinal memory decline or hippocampal atrophy in two cohorts of older adults.

  • 23.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Hagkvist, Filip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Lindner, Philip
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet; Department of Psychology, Stockholm University.
    Motor and mental training in older people: transfer, interference, and associated functional neural responses2016In: Neuropsychologia, ISSN 0028-3932, E-ISSN 1873-3514, Vol. 89, p. 371-377Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Learning new motor skills may become more difficult with advanced age. In the present study, we randomized 56 older individuals, including 30 women (mean age 70.6 years), to 6 weeks of motor training, mental (motor imagery) training, or a combination of motor and mental training of a finger tapping sequence. Performance improvements and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used to investigate performance gains and associated underlying neural processes. Motor-only training and a combination of motor and mental training improved performance in the trained task more than mental-only training. The fMRI data showed that motor training was associated with a representation in the premotor cortex and mental training with a representation in the secondary visual cortex. Combining motor and mental training resulted in both premotor and visual cortex representations. During fMRI scanning, reduced performance was observed in the combined motor and mental training group, possibly indicating interference between the two training methods. We concluded that motor and motor imagery training in older individuals is associated with different functional brain responses. Furthermore, adding mental training to motor training did not result in additional performance gains compared to motor-only training and combining training methods may result in interference between representations, reducing performance.

  • 24.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lundquist, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Nordin, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Free Recall Episodic Memory Performance Predicts Dementia 10 Years Prior to Clinical Diagnosis: Findings from the Betula Longitudinal Study2015In: Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, E-ISSN 1664-5464, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aims: Early dementia diagnosis is a considerable challenge. The present study examined the predictive value of cognitive performance for a future clinical diagnosis of late-onset Alzheimer's disease or vascular dementia in a random population sample. Methods: Cognitive performance was retrospectively compared between three groups of participants from the Betula longitudinal cohort. Group 1 developed dementia 11-22 years after baseline testing (n = 111) and group 2 after 1-10 years (n = 280); group 3 showed no deterioration towards dementia during the study period (n = 2,855). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the predictive value of tests reflecting episodic memory performance, semantic memory performance, visuospatial ability, and prospective memory performance. Results: Age-and education-corrected performance on two free recall episodic memory tests significantly predicted dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis. Free recall performance also predicted dementia 11-22 years prior to diagnosis when controlling for education, but not when age was added to the model. Conclusion: The present results support the suggestion that two free recall-based tests of episodic memory function may be useful for detecting individuals at risk of developing dementia 10 years prior to clinical diagnosis.

  • 25.
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Salami, Alireza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Aging Research Center (ARC), Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wåhlin, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology.
    Physical activity over a decade modifies age-related decline in perfusion, gray matter volume, and functional connectivity of the posterior default mode network: a multimodal approach2016In: NeuroImage, ISSN 1053-8119, E-ISSN 1095-9572, Vol. 131, p. 133-141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One step toward healthy brain aging may be to entertain a physically active lifestyle. Studies investigating physical activity effects on brain integrity have, however, mainly been based on single brain markers, and few used a multimodal imaging approach. In the present study, we used cohort data from the Betula study to examine the relationships between scores reflecting current and accumulated physical activity and brain health. More specifically, we first examined if physical activity scores modulated negative effects of age on seven resting state networks previously identified by Salami, Pudas, and Nyberg (2014). The results revealed that one of the most age-sensitive RSN was positively altered by physical activity, namely, the posterior default-mode network involving the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Second, within this physical activity-sensitive RSN, we further analyzed the association between physical activity and gray matter (GM) volumes, white matter integrity, and cerebral perfusion using linear regression models. Regions within the identified DMN displayed larger GM volumes and stronger perfusion in relation to both current and 10-years accumulated scores of physical activity. No associations of physical activity and white matter integrity were observed. Collectively, our findings demonstrate strengthened PCC–cortical connectivity within the DMN, larger PCC GM volume, and higher PCC perfusion as a function of physical activity. In turn, these findings may provide insights into the mechanisms of how long-term regular exercise can contribute to healthy brain aging.

  • 26.
    Broström, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    A parametric model for old age mortality in mediation analysis2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Alternativa vägar till släkthistorien2016In: Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren; Sveriges släktforskarförbund; CEDAR - Enheten för demografi och åldrandeforskning; Vaartoe - Centrum för samisk forskning, Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 53-63Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Familiar Places: A History of Place Attachment in a South Sami Community2019In: Genealogy, ISSN 2313-5778, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 1-18, article id 54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In contrast to situations in most other countries, Indigenous land rights in Sweden are tied to a specific livelihood—reindeer husbandry. Consequently, Sami culture is intimately connected to it. Currently, Sami who are not involved in reindeer husbandry use genealogy and attachment to place to signal Sami belonging and claim Sami identity. This paper explores the relationship between Sami genealogy and attachment to place before the reindeer grazing laws of the late 19th and early 20th centuries. I show that within local Sami communities the land representing home was part of family history and identity while using historical archive material, narratives, and storytelling. State projects in the late 19th century challenged the links between family and land by confining Sami land title to reindeer husbandry, thereby constructing a notion of Sami as reindeer herders. The idea has restricted families and individuals from developing their culture and livelihoods as Sami. The construct continues to cause conflicts between Sami and between Sami and other members of local communities. Nevertheless, Sami today continue to evoke their connections to kinship and place, regardless of livelihood.

  • 29.
    Bäckström, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Defence Research Agency (FOI), 164 90 Stockholm.
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Commuting and timing of retirement2016In: The annals of regional science, ISSN 0570-1864, E-ISSN 1432-0592, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 125-152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interregional commuting is an important feature of labour supply and regional labour market adjustment. In this study, we examine the effect of long-distance commuting (LDC) on timing of retirement. Previous research indicates negative health effects and substantial disutility of commuting. Potentially, this may affect the labour supply of older workers via early retirement. Longitudinal population register data from Sweden on employed older workers are used for semi-parametric estimation of survival in the labour force. The results for men indicate shorter survival in the labour force/ earlier retirement for LDCs, primarily among men with high education. For women, there is no evidence of LDC being associated with early retirement. For women with high education, there are indications of longer survival in the labour force among the commuters. The seemingly contradictory results for the highly educated may be due to gender differences in commuting distances and socio-economic attributes of commuters.

  • 30.
    Degerman, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nordin Adolfsson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Wennstedt, Sigrid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Landfors, Mattias
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Haider, Zahra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Pudas, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Hultdin, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Maintained memory in aging is associated with young epigenetic age2017In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 55, p. 167-171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epigenetic alterations during aging have been proposed to contribute to decline in physical and cognitive functions, and accelerated epigenetic aging has been associated with disease and all-cause mortality later in life. In this study, we estimated epigenetic age dynamics in groups with different memory trajectories (maintained high performance, average decline, and accelerated decline) over a 15-year period. Epigenetic (DNA-methylation [DNAm]) age was assessed, and delta age (DNAm age - chronological age) was calculated in blood samples at baseline (age: 55-65 years) and 15 years later in 52 age- and gender-matched individuals from the Betula study in Sweden. A lower delta DNAm age was observed for those with maintained memory functions compared with those with average (p = 0.035) or accelerated decline (p = 0.037). Moreover, separate analyses revealed that DNAm age at follow-up, but not chronologic age, was a significant predictor of dementia (p = 0.019). Our findings suggest that young epigenetic age contributes to maintained memory in aging.

  • 31.
    Drugge, Anna-Lill
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Challenging the mainstream through parrhesiastic theory and practice2016In: Ethics in indigenous research: past experiences - future research / [ed] Anna-Lill Drugge, Umeå: Vaartoe - Centre for Sami Research , 2016, 1, p. 105-116Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Hälsoreformer, livsmedelskontroll och hälsoutveckling i svenska städer 1850-19302015In: Mot ett modernt livsmedelssystem: Livsmedelshygien och livsmedelskontroll i Sverige och Norden 1850-1930 / [ed] Per Eriksson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2015, 1, p. 65-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Arvidsson, Alf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sweden: demography and ethnology in the north2016In: Encyclopedia of the Barents region: vol. 2, N-Y / [ed] Mats-Olov Olsson, Fredrick Backman, Alexey Golubev, Björn Norlin, Lars Ohlsson, Oslo: Pax Forlag, 2016, p. 351-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Is high social class always beneficial for survival?: Northern Sweden 1801–2013Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on two regions in northern Sweden 1801–2013, we challenge common notions of the assumed advantage in survival of belonging to a high social class. The issue is analysed according to gender and age group (adults and elderly) and in relation to the developmentof economic inequality. The results show that high social class is not always favourable for survival. Men in the elite category had higher mortality compared to others during a large part of the studied period; a male mortality class reversal appears at a surprisingly late date, while the social gradient among women conforms to the expected pattern. Wesuggest that health-related behaviour is decisive not only in later but earlier phases of the mortality transition as well. The results implicate that the association between social class and health is more complex than is assumed in many of the dominant theories in demography and epidemiology.

  • 35.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Life course and long-term perspectives of social inequality in mortality among elderly and adults in Northern Sweden 1801–20132017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the development of social inequality in Swedish mortality over the life course in the elderly and adult population during the mortality transition. The study focuses on two main questions, the first relate to the long-term change in social differences in mortality. The second question is whether socio-economic position have less impact on the elderly population compared to population in working age and if the age pattern of social inequalities has changed from the 19th century to the present. Furthermore, in this study we consider possible gender-specific patterns in this process. The development of mortality in different social classes is analysed according to both total mortality and major cause-of-death categories. For the later periods, we also compare the results from the class-based analysis with other measures of social position, in this case income and education. Focus is on mortality in the Skellefteå and Umeå regions in northern Sweden 1851-2013. The study is based on the historical population data from the Demographic Data Base, Umeå University and modern population register data from Statistics Sweden.

  • 36.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Nilsson, Hans
    Urban mortality in Sweden during the 19th century2000In: Population Dynamics during Industrialization / [ed] Anders Brändström and Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2000, p. 39-81Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37. Ekström, Ingrid
    et al.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Larsson, Maria
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Subjective olfactory loss in older adults concurs with long-term odor identification decline2019In: Chemical Senses, ISSN 0379-864X, E-ISSN 1464-3553, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 105-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Olfactory impairments may provide early indications of future health outcomes in older adults. Thus, an important question concerns whether these impairments can be self-assessed. Previous findings of cross-sectional studies indicate low correlations between self-reported olfactory function and objective olfactory performance. On the other hand, subjective olfactory impairments predict future dementia and mortality in longitudinal settings. No previous study has assessed the relationship between subjectively and objectively measured decline in olfaction over time. Based on data for 903 older adults derived from the Betula Study, a Swedish population-based prospective study, we tested whether rate-of-change in odor identification could be predicted from subjective olfactory decline over a time span of 10 years during which subjective and objective odor functions were assessed on 2 or 3 test occasions. Indeed, we found that participants who experienced subjective olfactory decline over the study period also had significantly steeper rates of decline in odor identification, even after adjusting for demographic, cognitive, and genetic factors that previously have been associated with performance in odor identification. This association was, however, not present in a subsample with baseline cognitive impairment. We interpret these results as evidence that when asked about whether they have an olfactory impairment or not, older persons are assessing intraindividual olfactory changes, rather than interindividual differences. Our results indicate that subjective olfactory loss reflects objective olfactory decline in cognitively intact older adults. This association might be harnessed to predict health outcomes and highlights the need to develop effective olfactory self-assessments.

  • 38.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Swedish Agency for Growth Policy Analysis.
    Haapanen, Mika
    Jyväskylä University.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. School of Business and Economics, University of Jyväskylä.
    Regional Concentration and Migration of Human Capital in Finland and Sweden2019In: Aluetalouksia Tutkimassa: kehitys, työmarkkinat ja muuttoliike : Hannu Tervon juhlakirja / [ed] Signe Jauhianien, Jyväskylä: Jyväskylän Yliopiston Kauppakorkeakoulu , 2019, p. 105-120Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Eliasson, Kent
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Tillväxtanalys.
    Westerlund, Olle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Economics. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Regional agglomeration of skills and earnings: from convergence to divergence?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we analyse the geographical distribution of skills and the human capital content of migration flows between Swedish local labour markets. The study is based on detailed longitudinal population register data. During the last three decades, we find a distinct pattern of skill divergence across regions. The uneven distribution of human capital is reinforced by the mobility of the highly educated population. The pattern of skill divergence coincides with declining or even reversed income convergence across Swedish regions. The skilled regions become both more skilled and richer, while the less skilled regions lag behind. This development has potentially important implications for both regional and national economic policy.

  • 40.
    Eriksson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Tollefsen, Aina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography.
    Lundgren, Anna Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    From blueberry cakes to labor strikes: Negotiating “legitimate labor” and “ethical food” in supply chains2019In: Geoforum, ISSN 0016-7185, E-ISSN 1872-9398, no 105, p. 43-53Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish wild-berry industry has become increasingly dependent on migrant workers. As the world market's demand for health and food ingredients increased, Swedish forest berries are exported to China to become nutraceutical products, while most berries consumed in Sweden now are imported cultivated berries. These changing geographies of production and consumption have resulted in a system of supply chains, that reproduce and manage difference between groups of workers and thus, make it difficult to safeguard labor rights. Moreover, this new“global standard” has great impacts on the cultural and political meanings of food. The aim of this paper is to study new emerging practices within the industry and to shed light on the production of representations of certain types of workers and work, and how this relate to supply chain capitalism. From the starting point of narratives collected within the different nodes of the supply chain, the paper focuses on the production, distribution and consumption of berry products as means to address how meanings of work and berries are negotiated. A specific focus is put on the narrated events during and after a strike where migrant workers tried to fight for better wages and living conditions. The workers not only lost the battle, but they were also expelled from Sweden without being paid. The work of the pickers and their agency is disconnected from discourses of labor and from Swedish laws and regulations, and the injustice is further justified and obscured through the lens of memories and nostalgia among Swedish consumers of berries.

  • 41.
    Eriksson Sörman, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Josefsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marsh, John Everett
    Hansson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ljungberg, Jessica K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Longitudinal effects of bilingualism on dual-tasking2017In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 12, article id e0189299Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An ongoing debate surrounds whether bilinguals outperform monolinguals in tests of executive processing. The aim of this study was to investigate if there are long-term (10 year) bilingual advantages in executive processing, as indexed by dual-task performance, in a sample that were 40-65 years at baseline. The bilingual (n = 24) and monolingual (n = 24) participants were matched on age, sex, education, fluid intelligence, and study sample. Participants performed free-recall for a 12-item list in three dual-task settings wherein they sorted cards either during encoding, retrieval, or during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list. Free recall without card sorting was used as a reference to compute dual-task costs. The results showed that bilinguals significantly outperformed monolinguals when they performed card-sorting during both encoding and retrieval of the word-list, the condition that presumably placed the highest demands on executive functioning. However, dual-task costs increased over time for bilinguals relative to monolinguals, a finding that is possibly influenced by retirement age and limited use of second language in the bilingual group.

  • 42.
    Eskilsson, Therese
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Slunga Järvholm, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Malmberg Gavelin, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stigsdotter Neely, Anna
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance (DRCMR), Centre for Functional and Diagnostic Imaging and Research, Copenhagen University Hospital Hvidovre.
    Aerobic training for improved memory in patients with stress-related exhaustion: a randomized controlled trial2017In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 322Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patients with stress-related exhaustion suffer from cognitive impairments, which often remain after psychological treatment or work place interventions. It is important to find effective treatments that can address this problem. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the effects on cognitive performance and psychological variables of a 12-week aerobic training program performed at a moderate-vigorous intensity for patients with exhaustion disorder who participated in a multimodal rehabilitation program.

    METHODS: In this open-label, parallel, randomized and controlled trial, 88 patients diagnosed with exhaustion disorder participated in a 24-week multimodal rehabilitation program. After 12 weeks in the program the patients were randomized to either a 12-week aerobic training intervention or to a control group with no additional training. Primary outcome measure was cognitive function, and secondary outcome measures were psychological health variables and aerobic capacity.

    RESULTS: In total, 51% patients in the aerobic training group and 78% patients in the control group completed the intervention period. The aerobic training group significantly improved in maximal oxygen uptake and episodic memory performance. No additional improvement in burnout, depression or anxiety was observed in the aerobic group compared with controls.

    CONCLUSION: Aerobic training at a moderate-vigorous intensity within a multimodal rehabilitation program for patients with exhaustion disorder facilitated episodic memory. A future challenge would be the clinical implementation of aerobic training and methods to increase feasibility in this patient group.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03073772 . Retrospectively registered 21 February 2017.

  • 43.
    Flodin, Pär
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Jonasson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Riklund, Katrine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI).
    Nyberg, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Diagnostic Radiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Boraxbekk, Carl-Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Functional Brain Imaging (UFBI). Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark.
    Does Aerobic Exercise Influence Intrinsic Brain Activity? An Aerobic Exercise Intervention among Healthy Old Adults2017In: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience, ISSN 1663-4365, E-ISSN 1663-4365, Vol. 9, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous studies have indicated that aerobic exercise could reduce age related decline in cognition and brain functioning. Here we investigated the effects of aerobic exercise on intrinsic brain activity. Sixty sedentary healthy males and females (64–78 years) were randomized into either an aerobic exercise group or an active control group. Both groups recieved supervised training, 3 days a week for 6 months. Multimodal brain imaging data was acquired before and after the intervention, including 10 min of resting state brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) and arterial spin labeling (ASL). Additionally, a comprehensive battery of cognitive tasks assessing, e.g., executive function and episodic memory was administered. Both the aerobic and the control group improved in aerobic capacity (VO2-peak) over 6 months, but a significant group by time interaction confirmed that the aerobic group improved more. Contrary to our hypothesis, we did not observe any significant group by time interactions with regard to any measure of intrinsic activity. To further probe putative relationships between fitness and brain activity, we performed post hoc analyses disregarding group belongings. At baseline, VO2-peak was negativly related to BOLD-signal fluctuations (BOLDSTD) in mid temporal areas. Over 6 months, improvements in aerobic capacity were associated with decreased connectivity between left hippocampus and contralateral precentral gyrus, and positively to connectivity between right mid-temporal areas and frontal and parietal regions. Independent component analysis identified a VO2-related increase in coupling between the default mode network and left orbitofrontal cortex, as well as a decreased connectivity between the sensorimotor network and thalamus. Extensive exploratory data analyses of global efficiency, connectome wide multivariate pattern analysis (connectome-MVPA), as well as ASL, did not reveal any relationships between aerobic fitness and intrinsic brain activity. Moreover, fitness-predicted changes in functional connectivity did not relate to changes in cognition, which is likely due to absent cross- sectional or longitudinal relationships between VO2-peak and cognition. We conclude that the aerobic exercise intervention had limited influence on patterns of intrinsic brain activity, although post hoc analyses indicated that individual changes in aerobic capacity preferentially influenced mid-temporal brain areas.

  • 44.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sheridan, Scott C
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 4242, USA.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Association between Weather Types based on the Spatial Synoptic Classification and All-Cause Mortality in Sweden, 1991⁻20142019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much is known about the adverse health impact of high and low temperatures. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is a useful tool for assessing weather effects on health because it considers the combined effect of meteorological factors rather than temperature only. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oppressive weather types and daily total mortality in Sweden. Time-series Poisson regression with distributed lags was used to assess the relationship between oppressive weather (Dry Polar, Dry Tropical, Moist Polar, and Moist Tropical) and daily deaths over 14 days in the extended summer (May to September), and 28 days during the extended winter (November to March), from 1991 to 2014. Days not classified as oppressive weather served as the reference category. We computed relative risks with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for trends and seasonality. Results of the southern (Skåne and Stockholm) and northern (Jämtland and Västerbotten) locations were pooled using meta-analysis for regional-level estimates. Analyses were performed using the dlnm and mvmeta packages in R. During summer, in the South, the Moist Tropical and Dry Tropical weather types increased the mortality at lag 0 through lag 3 and lag 6, respectively. Moist Polar weather was associated with mortality at longer lags. In the North, Dry Tropical weather increased the mortality at shorter lags. During winter, in the South, Dry Polar and Moist Polar weather increased mortality from lag 6 to lag 10 and from lag 19 to lag 26, respectively. No effect of oppressive weather was found in the North. The effect of oppressive weather types in Sweden varies across seasons and regions. In the North, a small study sample reduces precision of estimates, while in the South, the effect of oppressive weather types is more evident in both seasons.

  • 45.
    Forouzan, Setareh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Section of Medicine. Social Determinants of Health Research Centre, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Rafiey, Hassan
    Social Welfare Management Research Center, University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Iran.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Dejman, Masoumeh
    Department of Mental Health, Bloomberg School of Public Health, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, USA.
    San Sebastian, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Measuring the mental health care system responsiveness: results of an outpatient survey in Tehran2016In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 3, article id 285Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As explained by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 2000, the concept of health system responsiveness is one of the core goals of health systems. Since 2000, further efforts have been made to measure health system responsiveness and the factors affecting responsiveness, yet few studies have applied responsiveness concepts to the evaluation of mental health systems. The present study aims to measure responsiveness and its related domains in the mental health-care system of Tehran. Utilizing the same method used by the WHO for its responsiveness survey, responsiveness for outpatient mental health care was evaluated using a validated Farsi questionnaire. A sample of 500 public mental health service users in Tehran participated and subsequently completed the questionnaire. On average, 47% of participants reported experiencing poor responsiveness. Among responsiveness domains, confidentiality and dignity were the best performing factors while autonomy, access to care, and quality of basic amenities were the worst performing. Respondents who reported their social status as low were more likely to experience poor responsiveness overall. Attention and access to care were responsiveness dimensions that performed poorly but were considered to be highly important by study participants. In summary, the study suggests that measuring responsiveness could provide guidance for further development of mental health-care systems to become more patient orientated and provide patients with more respect.

  • 46.
    Fors, Filip
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Olofsson, JennyUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens globaliserade värld spelar jämförelser mellan länder en allt mer framträdande roll. Inom den komparativa samhällsforskningen försöker forskare förklara och förstå likheter och skillnader mellan olika länder utifrånen mängd skilda teman och områden och den här boken ger ett smakprov på hur sådana skillnader och likheter kan beskrivas och förstås. Hur kommer det sig till exempel att människor är mer främlingsfientliga i vissa länder än i andra? Varför skiljer sig åsikter om jämställdhet inom familjen så mycket mellan länder? Stämmer det att människor blir allt mindre religiösa i takt med att länder moderniseras? Ökar eller minskar välbefinnandet över tid i Europas länder? Hur utvecklas livsvillkor och hälsa för den äldre befolkningen i Europa? Med hjälp av tre av världens främsta komparativa surveyundersökningar –European Social Survey (ESS), International Social Survey Programme (ISSP), samt The Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) –försöker författarna till boken besvara dessa frågor.

  • 47.
    Genbäck, Minna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Causal inference accounting for unobserved confounding after outcome regression and doubly robust estimation1975In: Biometrics, ISSN 0006-341X, E-ISSN 1541-0420, Vol. 2, p. 506-515, article id 506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Causal inference with observational data can be performed under an assumption of no unobserved confounders (unconfoundedness assumption). There is, however, seldom clear subject-matter or empirical evidence for such an assumption. We therefore develop uncertainty intervals for average causal effects based on outcome regression estimators and doubly robust estimators, which provide inference taking into account both sampling variability and uncertainty due to unobserved confounders. In contrast with sampling variation, uncertainty due to unobserved confounding does not decrease with increasing sample size. The intervals introduced are obtained by modeling the treatment assignment mechanism and its correlation with the outcome given the observed confounders, allowing us to derive the bias of the estimators due to unobserved confounders. We are thus also able to contrast the size of the bias due to violation of the unconfoundedness assumption, with bias due to misspecification of the models used to explain potential outcomes. This is illustrated through numerical experiments where bias due to moderate unobserved confounding dominates misspecification bias for typical situations in terms of sample size and modeling assumptions. We also study the empirical coverage of the uncertainty intervals introduced and apply the results to a study of the effect of regular food intake on health. An R-package implementing the inference proposed is available.

  • 48.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lauritz, Lars Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Richter, Jörg
    University of Hull, Hull, UK.
    Personality and mental health changes throughout the course of university police training in Sweden2018In: Nordic Journal of Studies in Policing, ISSN 1104-2176, E-ISSN 2242-458XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police trainees have to be prepared for future job demands and challenges. Personality plays an important role in stress management. The first assessment of a longitudinal investigation was conducted among 103 Swedish police trainees to study their personality changes and mental health responses in first two weeks after intake. Fifty-two of these trainees, who participated in the second assessment, were included in the analysis. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to measure personality, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to measure mental health. A multiple regression analysis was performed with personality scores from the first assessment as independent variables and SCL-90-R scores as dependent variables. Over two years, minor changes were found in the police trainees’ personality characteristics, which seemingly fit the demands of policing and are potentially valuable in the trainees’ future careers. Personality characteristics are predictors of mental health at the end of university training.

  • 49.
    Ghazinour, Mehdi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lauritz, Lars-Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Police Education Unit at Umeå University.
    Richter, Jörg
    Personality and mental health changes throughout the course of university police training in Sweden2019In: Nordisk Politiforskning, E-ISSN 1894-8693, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 7-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Police trainees have to be prepared for future job demands and challenges. Personality plays an important role in stress management. The first assessment of a longitudinal investigation was conducted among 103 Swedish police trainees to study their personality changes and mental health responses in first two weeks after intake. Fifty-two of these trainees, who participated in the second assessment, were included in the analysis. The Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI) was used to measure personality, and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) was used to measure mental health. A multiple regression analysis was performed with personality scores from the first assessment as independent variables and SCL-90-R scores as dependent variables. Over two years, minor changes were found in the police trainees’ personality characteristics, which seemingly fit the demands of policing and are potentially valuable in the trainees’ future careers. Personality characteristics are predictors of mental health at the end of university training.

  • 50. Gildner, Theresa E.
    et al.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wu, Fan
    Guo, Yanfei
    Snodgrass, J. Josh
    Kowal, Paul
    Ideal Cardiovascular Health and Cognitive Test Performance: Testing a Modified Index of Life's Simple 7 Among Older Chinese Adults2018In: Frontiers In Public Health, ISSN 2296-2565, Vol. 6, article id 352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests that cognitive decline in older adults is influenced by cardiovascular health (CVH), with metabolic and vascular mechanisms hypothesized to underlie the etiology of cognitive impairment. Research in high-income nations suggests that improved CVH is linked with decreased cognitive impairment risk, but it is unclear if this pattern is evident in low-income countries. Nationally-representative data collected in China were drawn from the World Health Organization's Study on global AGing and adult health Wave 1 (2007-2010; n = 11,295). Seven CVH factors were classified as "ideal" or "not ideal": smoking and drinking frequency, body mass index, physical activity level, blood pressure, diet, and self-reported anxiety. Additionally, scores from five cognitive performance tests (immediate and delayed verbal recall, forward and backward digit span, verbal fluency) were used to create a composite cognitive function variable. Linear regression analyses tested whether ideal CVH measures were associated with higher composite cognitive performance, controlling for sociodemographic factors. As hypothesized, ideal CVH was generally associated with higher cognitive performance. Low anxiety levels and reliable access to sufficient food (including produce) were particularly associated with higher cognitive function. These results suggest early detection and controlling modifiable CVH risks may protect aging individuals in China from cognitive decline.

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