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  • 1.
    Aardeck, Anna-Katharina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Behling, Corinna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Customer Value's Influence on International Market Entry Strategies in a B2B Context: Business and Market Opportunities in the Data Centre Segment in Northern Europe2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    nternational market entry strategies gained increasing importance due to globalisation. Companies became multinationals. Therefore, new challenges arose due to different market and customer requirements. One topic, which gained importance in B2B context, is customer value. Customer value can be defined as the perceived benefits a company delivers its customers in comparison to the perceived expenses. Nevertheless, no uniform definition exist. In addition to that, if there is a direct connection between B2B customer value and international market entry strategies have not been investigated yet. Therefore, this thesisprojectdeals with the influence of B2B customer value on international market entry strategies. To determine the link, following research question guides this thesis: How does B2B customer value influence international market entry strategies in Northern Europe?The research isnot only focused on Northern Europe but also on the data centre segment. The investigated countries are Norway, Ireland, UK and Finland. These countries are highly interesting for the commission partnerdue to market developments and mega trends. Furthermore, the commission partneris represented by local subsidiaries in the four countries of interest. In order to answer the research question, deep insights are generated via semi-structured interviews. Three customer groups are investigated: Data centre operator as well as owner, constructors including panel builder and system integrators as well as design consultants. The interviews are conducted either face-to-face or if necessary via telephone in the four countries of interest. The interviews include questions about B2B relationships, brand and marketing.If culture influences B2B customer value is investigated indirectly bythe questions on B2B relationship.Market intelligence questions are added in order to create a deeper understanding of the market.Furthermore, these insights also help to interpret the answers of customers. Due to the interviews, a picture of the B2B customer value in Northern Europe is created. Northern European customers value reliable suppliers who can offer quality products as well as solutions. In addition to that, the importance of global brands andmarketing of competences is determined. Due to combining the findings with the cultural dimensions of Hofstede, it is concluded that customer value differs between other countries.Hence, customer value influences international market strategies, as different customer value require distinct international market entry strategies.

  • 2.
    Abate, Marco
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Biei, Massimo
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Role of adopting response strategies to manage the Front-End phase of a project.: An exploratory study of the Italian Innovative SMEs.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the role of the Front-End phase within the context of Innovative Small and Medium-sized Enterprises through the project management lens, focusing on what practitioners can do to manage this phase. Taking a cue from the assumption that the Front-End phase of a project is a very critical and important stage, this study begins with a literature review on innovation and on its role among the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises, and moves to the identification of the main challengesthat an Innovative Italian Small and Medium Enterprise has to face in the Front-End phase. Particularly, the research focuses on the strategies that a project manager can implement to deal with the fuzzy nature of the Front-End phase, originated by uncertainty, equivocality and complexity. The study has an inductive approach and a cross-sectional time-horizon. A case study strategy has been employed, together with semi-structured interviews as data collection technique, involving six Italian Innovative Small and Medium-sized Enterprises identified through the framework of legal requirements provided by the European Union. Although literature poses on the same level all three elements, results show that there is a general consensus about the main role played by uncertainty. Practitioners identify several strategies to employ in order to deal with uncertainty, while the number of strategies identified to reduce equivocality and complexity is limited. Furthermore, this study identifies a correlation between the size of a company and the type of strategies employed to deal with the fuzziness. The more resource a company allocates on a project, the wider is the range of possible strategies project managers can adapt.

  • 3.
    Abdi, Abdirahman
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Huang, Renyuan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Market efficiency for two classes of stocks in China: state owned and private companies2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The fast-growing economy in China attracts the world’s interests, which includes the Chinese stock markets. The market efficiency of Chinese stock markets is widely discussed by researchers in different approaches. The involvement of government in stock markets is a unique case in the financial world.

     

    By this paper, we are answering the question that is the degree of market efficiency of stat-owned companies different from that of private companies in Chinese stock markets. This will bring us knowledge about Chinese stock markets as well as the impact from ownership, market value and management styles on market efficiency.

     

    To clarify the influence from government involvement in stock markets, we select 938 stocks distinguished by ownership structure. This quantitative study is preceded on daily data from 2007 to 2011. We use auto correlation, Chi-square test, and linear regression together with Spearman’s correlation to test our hypothesis. The degree of market efficiency of each ownership group is examined and compared to each other. Market efficiency related to ownership and market capitalization are inspected if they are anomaly factors in Chinese markets.

     

    The empirical results indicate that the degree of market efficiency of state-owned companies is significantly different from the degree of market efficiency of private-owned companies in China. The market capitalization is one of the existing anomaly factors in Chinese stock markets, as well as it is correlated with degree of market efficiency to some extent. For state-owned enterprises, active management on stock market does not provide a better market efficiency compared to passively managed companies.

  • 4.
    Abeywickrama, Madawa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Vasickova, Jana
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Attitude towards mobile advertising and purchase intention of Swedish customers: A quantitative study on the impact of message content and flow experience2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the rapid technological development in information technologies, and mobile phone industry the usage of smart phone became a new trend consequently leading to more than one billion Smartphone users in the world. One of the most significant characteristic of those users is their growing need to be always connected to the Internet. Desire to do not miss important conversation, news, favorite TV series or result of sports events leads them to subsribe for mobile broad band or else use internet-on-the-go. Consequently telecommunication service providers witnessed increasing trend in mobile broad band subscription over the past five years outnumbering access to the Internet via desktop or other fixed broad band alternatives. Telecommunication providers are not the only one who experienced those changes. The crowd of smart phone users is constantly growing, thus on one hand it represents a compelling group of customers to target yet on the other hand due to its novelty it represents an obstacle for marketers and advertisers when executing communication with customers via a new channel, mobile advertising.

    Based on market research firms’ predictions of future trends in marketing, mobile advertising represent a one of the most effective communication channels due to its measurability, individual targeting via personalised messages and geo-location targeting.

    Therefore, in this thesis paper we identified research gap in form of lack of knowledge, that prevents both marketers and advertisers from leveraging the potential of mobile advertising. Designated purpose of this theis is to investigate role of attitudes and flow experience in mobile advertising. Research question to be answered is: What is the impact of advertising message personalisation, permission, and flow experience on attitude towards mobile advertising? And consequently examine what is the effect of attitude towards mobile advertising and flow experience on purchase intention of Swedish customers?

    In order to address such an issue we developed theoretical framework and conducted survey among Umeå inhabitants to find out their preferences and experiences with mobile advertising. Collected information were analysed in regards to the theoretical framework consisting of theory of flow experience and theory of reasoned action.

    However the data analysis did prove flow of experience theory as well as theory of reasoned action not all aspects did stand. Through our work we found out that flow experience and attitude towards mobile advertising were supported for purchase intention. While permission, personalisation, infotainment and incentives were supported for attitudes towards mobile advertising.

  • 5.
    Abou Hachem, Ibrahim
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Bydén, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Folkfinansiering för småföretag: En kvalitativ studie om folkfinansiering och traditionell företagsfinansiering i en svensk kontext2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Folkfinansiering via Internet har på senare tid växt fram som en finansieringskanal förnya projekt och företagsidéer som har svårt att bli finansierade genom de traditionellafinansieringskanalerna. Det har emellertid varit okänt hur småföretagare ser på dennafinansieringskanal och vad de upplever som dess för- och nackdelar. Syftet med dennauppsats är att skapa förståelse för småföretagares uppfattning och inställning till deolika finansieringskanalerna banklån, riskkapital, kapital från affärsänglar ochfolkfinansiering. Studien har ett särskilt fokus på hur folkfinansiering står sig ursmåföretagarens perspektiv.För att skapa oss en förståelse för småföretagares finansieringssituation har vi samlatteorier som berör finansiering av just småföretag. Den teoretiska referensramenbehandlar därför traditionella finansieringsalternativ som banklån, riskkapital ochaffärsänglar men innehåller även vad som är känt om finansieringsformenfolkfinansiering. Vårt arbete är en kvalitativ studie där vi har intervjuat småföretagare iUmeå om hur de ser på de olika finansieringsformerna samt deras tankar kringfolkfinansiering.Resultatet visar att folkfinansiering kan fungera både som ett komplement och substituttill traditionell finansiering. Respondenterna hade generellt sett en positiv inställning tillfolkfinansiering men hade ändå vissa farhågor om att en folkfinansieringskampanjkunde ta onödigt mycket tid i anspråk och inte ge samma avlastning till entreprenörensom de andra finansieringsalternativen gav. Våra resultat visar även att banklån är enväldigt oattraktiv finansieringsform för denna kategori av företagare. Däremot sesaffärsänglar och riskkapitalister som ett bättre alternativ om det får ske påentreprenörens egna villkor. Fördelarna med affärsänglar och riskkapital jämfört medfolkfinansiering upplever respondenterna är att de utöver kapital även får tillgång tillvärdefull kunskap och viss avlastning i sitt företagande. Detta upplevdes intefolkfinansiering kunna bidra med.

  • 6.
    Abrahamsson, David
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Locked in or true love: Branding among banks: A qualitative study of technologies, brand equity, switching barriers, choice criteria and future strategies in the context of retail banking2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to increase the knowledge about technology based services affection of the ability of retail banks to build customer based brand equity among students.

    Design/methodology/approach – A conceptual model has been developed from theories regarding customer based brand equity, switching barriers and choice criteria. Based on this conceptual model, seven in depth interviews including several brand elicitation techniques were conducted.

    Findings – The findings show that students perceive the target banks to be rather similar, especially regarding technologies. In addition, the students are satisfied with their bank, however; the technology based services have difficulties in creating true customer based brand equity. Behind this difficulties are the special character of financial service combined with the student role. Together, these results suggest that the banks need to do something besides the actual services in order to build customer based brand equity and keep the customers for a long term relationship. These strategies must be developed and implemented carefully in order to keep the current image of credibility.

    Research limitations/implications – The paper has not included comprehensive eliciting techniques and this must be taken into account when reflecting about unconscious brand associations. 

    Practical implications – The findings include good insights and advices that bank managers can use to create meaningful differentiations in the future and attract and keep students as customers for a long time. 

    Originality/value - The paper combines customer based brand equity with switching barriers, which give valuable insights to both banks and researchers. Moreover, the time period of the study related to the technological innovation provides the brand equity research in the financial sector with updated knowledge.

  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, David
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Norberg, Nathalie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Från kontanter och människor till kort och bankomater: En studie om hur avskaffandet av manuell kontanthantering påverkar bankernas tjänstekvalité2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige förändras allt mer mot ett kontantlöst samhälle och det kontanta betalningsalternativet har försvunnit på bussar, parkeringsautomater och offentliga toaletter. Anmärkningsvärt är att förändringen även nått banksektorn, en sektor starkt förknippad med kontanter. Kunderna hos dessa banker blir därmed tvungna att använda Self Service Technologies (SST:s) i form av automater för att uträtta sina kontantärenden. Samtidigt som bankkundernas valmöjlighet minskar så går Handelsbanken  mot strömmen och fortsätter erbjuda manuell kontanthantering på sina kontor.

     

    En undersökning gjord av Svenskt Kvalitetsindex visade att bankernas kundnöjdhet (tjänstekvalité) har försämrats på grund av förändringen. För att mäta tjänstekvalitén hos de olika tjänsterna kan man dela upp dessa i mindre beståndsdelar, dimensioner, vilka är olika för SST:s och traditionella tjänster. Vår promblematisering ledde därmed till följande frågeställning:

     

    Vilka dimensioner i tjänstekvalitén, sett utifrån SST- och traditionella tjänster, ger förklaringar till bankernas försämrade tjänstekvalité?

     

    Huvudsyftet med studien var främst att kartlägga vilka dimensioner som förklarar bankernas försämrade tjänstekvalité. Utifrån detta ville vi även bidra med praktiska råd till bankerna för att förbättra tjänsterna och således förbättra kundernas upplevda tjänstekvalité. Dessutom ville vi studera om det finns skillnader mellan äldre och yngre kunder angående deras åskter kring de två olika kontanthanteringstjänsterna. Vi ville även kartlägga skillnader mellan kundernas ålder, teknologiska mognadsgrad och behov av mänsklig interaktion.

     

    Studien genomfördes genom en enkätundersökning på bankkunder i ålder 18-85 år bosatta i  Umeå kommun. Studien använde sig av ett kvoturval bestående av tre kvoter:  åldersgrupp 18-35, åldersgrupp 36-59 och åldersgrupp 60-85. Insamlat material sammanställdes i en importance-performance analys och användes vid hypotesprövningar.

     

    Vår studie visade att dimensionerna säkerhet och användarvänlighet för SST:s kan förklara bankernas försämrade tjänstekvalité. Främst uppfattar de äldre kunderna att uttagsautomaternas säkerhet är bristfällig. Samtidigt kan detta även förklaras av att kundernas valmöjligheter minskat och att vissa kunder blivit så nöjda med tjänsten manuell kontanthantering att de blir missnöjda i och med förändringen.

     

    Vår förhoppning är att bankerna skall använda de praktiska råden och där igenom förbättra tjänstekvalitén. Vårt teoretiska bidrag är främst att ge en ökad kunskap rörande SST:s dimensioner och skillnader i åldergrupperna.

  • 8.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Beyond Going Global: Essays on business development of International New Ventures past early internationalization2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The notion of International New Ventures, or INVs, emerged in academia in the early-to-mid 1990s and generally refers to entrepreneurial firms that tend to internationalize very early in their life-cycle, and whose expansion into foreign markets occurs much more quickly than predicted by earlier theories of the incremental internationalization process. Previous literature proposes effective networking with market partners and, more recently, internationally viable business model among key distinguishing features of INVs that allow for such early and rapid entry into international markets. Nevertheless, little is yet known regarding how these younger firms develop over time and how they could sustain international growth. With the purpose of filling this gap, this doctoral dissertation scrutinizes business models and business model innovation of INVs beyond their early internationalization, with a particular emphasis on INVs’ external relationships configurations.

     

    The dissertation consists of four self-contained essays that represent a methodological mixture of qualitative and quantitative approaches and incorporate longitudinal case studies, surveys and register-based data encompassing nine years of Swedish INVs’ development. The findings highlight the importance of the business model as an initial market entry tool, and of business model innovation as a potential growth vehicle over time. Findings also display that INVs work with a broader range of external partners compared to other firms for innovative purposes, and that INVs have different business model innovation patterns compared to other types of internationalized firms. Moreover, INVs focus more heavily on value capture innovations in their business models as they mature and seek to obtain a more centralized position in their industry ecosystem by re-configuring the parameters of existing external relationships or developing new ones.

     

    Overall, this dissertation contributes to the international entrepreneurship and business model literature by explicating how maturing INVs need to operate under different business model configurations as compared to emerging INVs, as the original business model might lack scalability after a certain point in time. Furthermore, the dissertation suggests how INVs can pursue a dynamic business model approach and utilize dynamic capabilities to design business models that put the focal firm more in control of the surrounding ecosystem, and reduce constraints that can limit the value capturing potential and thus the growth and development of INVs.

  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The Dynamic Relationships of INVs and its Business Model Implications2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The Dynamic Relationships of INVs and their Business Model ImplicationsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Addressing International New Venture development over time and acknowledging INVs’ high degree of reliance on external relationships coupled with limited business model control, this study explores the interplay of INVs’ reconfiguration of relationship patterns and business model innovation over time. The study builds upon longitudinal case studies of three Swedish INVs beyond early internationalization stage, conducted over a period of four years. The results indicate that maturing INVs strive towards eco-system centrality to increase business model control and to capture more value from their business model portfolio. This study also suggests that coopetitive business model configurations could impair growth of maturing INVs and that engaging with new external partners could yield a more dynamic business model portfolio and expand INV’s international presence

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Business model innovation of International New Ventures: An empirical study in a Swedish contextManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     Business model innovation (BMI) is getting increased academic attention as a tool for gaining new or retaining existing firms’ competitive advantages. This paper investigates value delivery and value capture dimensions of BMI utilized by international new ventures (INVs) and shows how this category of firms differs from other internationalized firms in Sweden. Our findings indicate that INVs tend to innovate value delivery and value capture dimensions in the form of sales channels and logistical methods more frequently than other internationalized firms and re-configure their external relationships more intensively as well. By utilizing longitudinal data, we show that these aspects continue to differentiate INVs and constitute a unique characteristic of INVs over time. Hence, this study enhances the academic debate on business models of INVs as well as on their long-term development past early internationalization efforts. From a managerial perspective, the study highlights where to focus BMI initiatives for sustained international presence and growth. 

  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Continuing corporate growth and inter-organizational collaboration of international new ventures in Sweden2015Inngår i: Innovation and entrepreneurship in the global economy: knowledge, technology and internationalization / [ed] Charlie Karlsson, Urban Gråsjö and Sofie Wixe, Edward Elgar Publishing , 2015, 89-116 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we examine the scope and pattern of innovation cooperation of international new ventures (INVs) of different age, size and formation type. Using longitudinal micro-matched database and Swedish Community Innovation Survey results for the years 1998–2009, we show that INVs are more likely to be involved in international cooperation than other firms, and that INVs are also more likely to have a broader scope of international partnerships in terms of number of partners and geographic location of these partners. We further show how age of a firm that originated as an INV and its formation type – greenfield, spin-off or merger – affect patterns of international cooperation for innovation.

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Jan Tony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Continuing corporate growth andinter-organizational collaboration of international new ventures in Sweden2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Jan Tony
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Vladimir, Vanyushyn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Organizational practices and dynamic capabilities of international new ventures: Evidence from Sweden 2000-20092013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Jan
    et al.
    Stamford International University, Bangkok.
    Vanyushyn, Vladimir
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Organizational Innovativeness of International New Ventures: Evidence from Swedish Firms2017Inngår i: European Journal of International Management, ISSN 1751-6757, E-ISSN 1751-6765Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper scrutinizes how and for what purposeinternational new ventures (INVs), of various formation types and at different developmentstages, innovate organizational structures and routines in comparison to otherinternationally active firms in Sweden. We show that INVs place more emphasison reorganizing their external relationships and primarily aim theirreorganization efforts at furthering their ability to enhance innovativeoutput. Coupled with the fact that INV report higher rate of new-to-marketinnovations than other internationalized firms, we conclude that INVs retaintheir innovative focus over time and, irrespective of their formation type,continuously advance their networking capabilities. We propose that dynamicinnovation-advancing relational capability as a characteristic that is uniqueto the INVs as a group of firms.

  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Dahlström, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Essentiella förändringar av revisionsberättelsen?: En kvantitativ studie som undersöker attityder till de kommande förändringarna i revisionsberättelsen.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under en längre tid har diskussioner förts huruvida en förändring behövs inom revisionsbranschen med ändring av revisorns arbetsuppgifter och den tillhörande revisionsberättelsen. Dessa diskussioner har lett till förändringar i form av förordningar från EU samt att förändringar i ISA standarder från IFAC har utformats gällande bland annat revisionsberättelsen. Dessa kommer främst påverka börsnoterade företag genom den nya ISA standarden 701 gällande ”Key Audit Matters” men även onoterade företag kommer påverkas genom tillägg i övriga ISAs. Förändringarna på internationell nivå har stått som grund för FARs förändringar av svenska lagar och rekommendationer för hur revisionsberättelsen ska utformas samt vilken information den skall förmedla till företagets intressenter. Dessa förändringar är vad vi i denna studie kommer att undersöka.

    Vi undersöker huruvida förändringarna kommer leda till en bättre revisionsberättelse, både enligt revisorer och intressenter till det granskade företaget, närmare bestämt företagsrådgivare anställd på bank och investeringsrådgivare, samt om dessa förändringar antas leda till ett minskat förväntningsgap i revisionsbranschen som helhet. Studien utförs med en kvantitativ metod genom en enkätundersökning som sänds ut till urvalet med frågor om respondenternas åsikter kring förändringarna i revisionsberättelsen som snart träder i kraft samt frågor med syfte att utreda huruvida förändringarna antas minska förväntningsgapet. Totalt erhölls 54 fullständigt besvarade enkäter från revisorer samt 57 fullständigt besvarade enkäter från rådgivare. Dessa svar kopplas sedan med utvalda teorier i form av agentteorin och förväntningsgapet samt med tidigare studier inom området.

    Studiens problemformulering lyder; Anser revisorer samt företags- och investeringsrådgivare att de kommande förändringarna i revisionsberättelsen genererar ett ökat informationsvärde samt minskar förväntningsgapet? Resultatet studien gav visade att både revisorer och rådgivare anser att förändringarna i revisionsberättelsen är positiva och kommer att leda till ett ökat informationsinnehåll i berättelsen. Vi kunde även utläsa att längden på respondenternas arbetslivserfarenhet var den främst förklarande variabeln till attityder mot förändringarna med ett resultat som visade att revisorer med kortare arbetslivserfarenhet och rådgivare med längre arbetslivserfarenhet såg mer positivt på förändringarna. Indikationer erhölls även på att förväntningsgapet antas minskas i framtiden i och med förändringarna i revisionsberättelsen då rådgivares förväntningar på revisorer idag överstiger dess faktiska arbetsuppgiften men att förändringarna revisionsberättelsen genomgår får intressenters förväntningar att närma sig vad revisorns faktiska arbetsuppgift är. 

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Boström, Nicklas
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Revisorns oberoende - fakta eller fiktion?: En kvantitativ studie om skillnader i förekomsten av typ -II fel i aktiebolag lokaliserade i svenska städer.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    På senare år har det varit många skandaler exempelvis Enron och Worldcom vilka skakat den finansiella marknaden. Den gemensamma nämnaren var revisorer vilka ej varit oberoende i sitt agerande mot företagen och intressenterna. Dessa skandaler har lett till en ökad diskussion om revisorsyrket samt vad som påverkar revisorernas oberoende. Då intressenterna är beroende av att informationen är kvalitetssäkrad av revisorerna har dessa felaktigheter slagit hårt mot dem som grupp.

    I Sverige skall revisorer följa de lagar och regler som gäller för aktiebolag i samband med en revision. En av dessa regler är uttalandet om ett företags fortsatta drift, vilket påvisas i samband med revisionsberättelsen. Denna anmärkning skall följa direktiven i ISA 570. I denna studie har vi valt att definiera revisorns oberoende som förmågan att korrekt utfärda en anmärkning om fortsatt drift enligt ISA 570. Det har även utförts tester utifrån en bredare proxyvariabel för revisorns oberoende nämligen anmärkning om ekonomisk svårighet.

    Då intressenterna är en grupp vilket felaktigheter från revisorn slår hård mot har denna studie valt att undersöka revisorernas oberoende ur intressenternas perspektiv. För att kunna mäta revisorernas oberoende genom att studera samma information vilket intressenterna får (årsredovisningarna), utfördes en kvantitativ undersökning av företag vilket avslutat konkursen under de sista fyra månaderna av år 2010. Studien grundades på en deduktiv forskningsansats och använde 943 observationer av företag vilket avslutat konkursen år 2010.

    Studien undersökte revisorernas oberoende med undersökningsvariablerna revisionsarvode, konsultarvode och storleken på staden där revisorn var verksam i. Städerna delades upp i liten, mellanstor och stor stad. Dessa undersöktes genom användandet av binära logistiska regressioner med anmärkning om fortsatt drift, samt anmärkning om ekonomisk svårighet som beroende variabel. I studien inkluderade vi kontrollavariabler vilka visats påverka revisorns oberoende utifrån tidigare studier.

    Då tidigare studier mest undersökt revisionsbolagen på antingen koncernnivå eller kontorsnivå valdes att undersöka revisionsbolagen på en stadsnivå. Att välja ett stadsperspektiv ledde till en djupare insikt om det skiljer i oberoendet mellan olika storlekar på städer.

    Resultatet av denna studie uppvisar ej något signifikant samband mellan städernas storlek och revisorns oberoende. Även revisionsarvodet och konsultarvodet uppvisade ej ett signifikant samband med revisorns förmåga att korrekt utfärda en anmärkning om fortsatt drift eller förmåga att anmärka om ekonomiska svårigheter. Det leder till att revisorns oberoende enligt denna studies resultat ej kan antas påverkas av dessa faktorer.

  • 18.
    Acan, Ali Ramlat
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Network Governance: The Role of Power and Trust in Mandated Collaboration Network2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Mandated collaboration networks are an overly studied topic in the field of public administration and management, with the emphasis on these studies however focused on the failures to accomplish its collaborative aims. The role that mandated collaboration networks play today in enabling societies and governments alike,  to realize insurmountable challenges through their  collaborative efforts is however not being paid as much attention as it should be, yet through it, huge socio and economic benefits are derived. 

    This study recognizes the part mandated collaboration network plays by seeking to further investigate the role, power and trust play in influencing managers towards attaining efficiency. Data was collected from 7 managers from the public sector, with some public managers, tasked with the responsibility of playing oversight role and disbursing funds and other public managers tasked with implementing the services, all working towards achieving a regional goal within Västerbotten region. By conducting semi-structured interviews with them, the aim was to find out the daily encounters they faced in implementing their activities and achieving their goals.

    In order to analyze this study adequately, theories were derived from governance, principal agency, structuration theory, Long & Sitkin integrated trust and control framework  that enabled me to come up with a conceptual framework. The findings of this framework were particularly insightful in regards to how managers in mandated collaboration network can use trust in ensuring that they achieve their desired efficiency goals. The findings show both power and trust in mandated collaboration network play a coordinative and regulative role in ensuring that the goals are realized. Calculative trust alongside formal controls can be used to address challenges that managers encounter in realizing their goals. Relational trust can also be nurtured, however at an interpersonal level or with peers that perform the same activities but not at an institutional level such as the mandated collaboration network. Attaining efficiency in the mandated collaboration network is however also further compounded by contextual matters both internal and external that hamper its attainment. 

  • 19.
    Acosta Bogran, Paola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Džaja, Daria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    How do SMEs engage in Green Public Procurement?: An exploratory study of SMEs' barriers and enablers for Green Public Procurement in Scotland.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 20.
    Adams, Brent Michael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Tran, Thi Bich Van
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Project Manager Competencies in managing International Development Projects: The Project Managers' Perspective2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research studies the competencies of International Development (ID) project managers from their perspectives, taking into consideration the contextual factors and the challenges that they face when managing ID projects.

    The study adopts a constructionist ontological viewpoint and an interpretivist epistemological philosophical assumption. The nature of the research is exploratory with an inductive approach, using qualitative research method. The data was collected through semi-structured interviews with experienced project managers in International Development projects. Template analysis strategy was used to analyse the data.

    The findings show that contextual factors have a significant influence on the challenges that ID project managers face when managing projects. Contextual factors are operating environment, large network of stakeholders and intangible goals of ID projects. Five challenges were identified as the results of the context, namely stakeholder management challenge, beneficiary needs analysis challenge, the challenge of balancing strategic and operational views, capacity building and training challenge and sustainable funding challenge. To overcome these challenges, seven ID project manager competencies were identified management skills, personal qualities, interpersonal skills, stakeholder engagement skills, capacity building skills, and change management skills. These competencies are found to be interrelated and complementary. While the role and responsibilities of ID project managers were also uncovered during the research, the findings on contextual factors, challenges and competencies help to better understand the ID project manager role and responsibilities.

    This study makes the contributions from both theoretical and practical point of view. With regards to theoretical contribution, our findings expanded on ID project manager competencies as well as relating them to the context and challenges in ID projects. The role and responsibilities of ID project manager is another theoretical contribution in this study. From a practical point of view, this thesis’s findings would be useful for various organizations who deliver ID projects, particularly human resources management. In addition, it can act as knowledge sharing with ID project managers and help in designing and enhancing educational programmes in ID project management. Overall, this could result in better delivery and overcoming the challenges of International Development projects.

  • 21.
    Adielsson, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Sjöström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    HR-funktionens strategiska roll: En kvalitativ studie i uppfattningen om HR-funktionens värdeskapande2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    HR är ett ämnesområde som traditionellt fått mycket uppmärksamhet inom akademisk forskning där fokus varit på HR som stödjande funktion i form av personalförsörjning. I början av 1990-talet bildades en ny forskningsinriktning som berör HR som en strategiskt viktigt affärsenhet och i takt med den ökade konkurrensen på den Svenska arbetsmarknaden har HR blivit en mer prioriterad funktion för företag. Vi har valt att utifrån ett företagsekonomiskt perspektiv applicera teorier kring strategisk HR, arbetsgivarvarumärke samt talanghantering på svenska organisationer. Tidigare forskning har främst haft fokus på att enbart undersöka HR-avdelningen. Således har vi i den här studien försökt skapa en förståelse för om det finns en skillnad i uppfattningen av HR-funktionen som värdeskapande genom att intervjua specialister samt generalister. Historiskt finns det en problematik i att HR-funktionen enligt tidigare forskning haft svårt att synliggöra värdeskapande då den ofta ses som en ren stödjande funktion. Genom att undersöka Svenska företag inom flera olika branscher, och som uttalat arbetar strategiskt med HR är syftet med studien att undersöka om det finns en skillnad i uppfattningen av HR-funktionens värdeskapande mellan personer som arbetar med HR som generalister gentemot personer som är specialister. Vidare vill vi genom att undersöka hur organisationers strategiska arbete skiljer sig med fokus på strategisk HRM, talanghantering samt arbetsgivarvarumärke öka kunskapsbildningen inom det vetenskapliga ämnesområdet.

     

    Den övergripande slutsatsen i studien är att den interna kommunikationen mellan specialister och generalister bör förbättras för att synliggöra HR-funktionens värdeskapande roll. Med en tydligare kommunikation kommer även det strategiska arbetet med arbetsgivarvarumärket och talanghantering förbättras. Även utvärdering av strategierna har visat sig vara en central faktor för att öka förståelsen för vilket värdeskapande strategierna ger. Utvärdering blir således ett viktigt verktyg för HR-specialister att skapa större uppskattning av funktionen. 

     

     

     

     

     

  • 22.
    Adolfssson, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Åström, Marie
    Development Finance Institutions’ Effect on The Fund Manager’s Investment Decisions: Balancing Financial Performance Goals and Development Impact Objectives2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Development Finance Institutions (DFIs) have played a crucial role in moving socially responsibility considerations up on the private equity industry’s agenda. DFIs add a development impact criterion to traditional financial performance goals in the investment industry and play a catalytic role by mobilizing other investors. The gap in research regarding DFIs implications and significance in the investment community from a SRI perspective is evident. The development impact objective introduced by the DFIs is examined to understand its effects on fund managers’ decision-making and if it exists a trade-off between this objective and financial performance. An understanding of how DFIs control fund managers to act in accordance to their objective as well as how they determine compensation schemes to incentivize them to pursue high return on investments, is discussed in relation to the agency theory. Furthermore, stakeholder/shareholder consideration is examined in relation to the subject. The aim of this study is to examine how the behavior of fund managers is affected by the involvement of a DFI investor and try to add to the understanding of their significance as institutional investors in developing markets. Previous studies have been more focused on determining the financial performance of socially responsible investments by using very similar quantitative data collection methods. This thesis undertakes an in-depth approach with the purpose to understand the fund manager’s drives as well as how a DFI involvement affects the behavior and decision-making process.

     

    This thesis undertook a qualitative research strategy and semi-structured interviews were used as the tool to understand the fund managers’ personals beliefs and perceptions of how the relationship with DFIs affect them. The selection criteria for the fund managers was that they needed to work in a fund in which a DFIs has invested. We also included DFI investors in order to understand their point of view. The interview was recorded, transcribed and later divided into themes in accordance with the thematic approach, following six steps. Our findings show that Development Finance Institutions plays an important role in emerging markets and affect fund manager behavior to a certain extent. They did not perceive a trade-off between financial performance goals and development impact objectives. We conclude that DFIs increase fund manager focus on ESG/SEE elements in the investment process. DFIs requirements and reporting obligations is used as a tool to ensure that the fund manager act in accordance to DFI objective. The fund managers were neither willing to sacrifice commercial return in favor of development impact. Lastly, the interest among the DFIs and commercial investors is fairly similar, hence reducing the conflict of interest between investors.

  • 23.
    Adrian, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Independent but dependent: An empirical study of the car modification market2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A brand can be a valuable asset for a company in two ways: On the one hand the brand can have an influence on the perceptions and preferences of the consumer and therebypositively influence the performance and success of a product, which can lead to acompetitive advantage. On the other hand, a brand can even be an asset of significantfinancial value. For the actual building of a strong brand, several theoretical modelsexist. Car modification companies offer modifications for and modified versions of cars ofother brands. The thereof resulting connection between the two brands and itsconsequences for the brand of the modification company cannot be depicted with theexisting theoretical brand and brand building models. In addition to that, carmodification companies touch upon the field of luxury cars. This factor has to be takeninto consideration when dealing with the brand building of car modification companies. In addition to the lack of applicability of existing brand building models for the carmodification industry, this special industry has not been covered by research yet ingeneral. In this thesis, a theoretical framework for brand building, the model of customer basedbrand equity as well as the characteristics of luxury branding will be lined out. In orderto examine how the special factors of the car modification industry, namely theconnection between the modification company and the base brand and luxury brandingcan be integrated into this model, six representatives from the car modification industryhave been interviewed. The results and analysis of these interviews show that through the assessment of thecustomer based brand equity of the base brand, the modification company can identifystrong and favorable aspects of the base brand that it can build upon, emphasize and/orexpand with the modification as well as weaknesses and flaws of the base brand that itcan make up for with the modification. Furthermore, the examination shows that byassessing the model of customer based brand equity of the modification brand and arelevant special brand factor, in the case of this thesis luxury branding, for commonfeatures and similarities, this special factor can also be integrated into the theoreticalmodel. Through these findings, the thesis is able to present a revised model of customer basedbrand equity that incorporates both the connection between the modification brand andthe base brand as well as the special factor luxury branding.

  • 24.
    Agarwal, Sudha Rani
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Kalmár, Timea
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Sustainability in Project Management: Eight principles in practice2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This research studies the eight principles of sustainability applied in Project Management. To be more precise the research fulfils four objectives which are: firstly, to review and identify key principles of sustainability in project management from existing literature; secondly, to adopt a multiple case study method to assess the applicability of the principles in project management; thirdly, to determine the barriers that impede certain principles to be applied in projects and the resulting trade-offs; and lastly, to refine the concept of sustainability in project management.The study adopts a subjectivist ontological viewpoint and an interpretivist epistemological outlook. The paper deductively studies the research question and adopts a qualitative mono-method research design, with a multiple case study strategy. The project case studies analysed belong to six different industries namely Pharmaceutical, Information Technology (IT), Automotive, Transportation, Furniture and Fast-moving consumer goods (FMCG). All case studies fulfil the criteria of being multinational organisations, operating in the private sector, having sustainability as a strategic pillar and projects executed in developed countries with a similar macroeconomic climate. The data has been collected through the semi-structured interview technique and examined using a thematic analysis. The results show that not all eight principles of sustainability are implemented in project management despite of multiple proactive endeavours of engaging in social and environmentally focused business practices. The two principles that show a limited applicability in project management are values and ethics as well as consuming income and not capital.The theoretical contribution of the research is realised through the first collective analysis of the eight principles of sustainability and their implementation in project management through empirical case studies. An additional contribution is through the selection of case studies from industries that have not been examined before. The practical implication of the research is to offer guidance to organisations on what principles they need to build their sustainability project management practices on and to point out the commonly faced barriers and trade-offs.

  • 25.
    Agnig, Rushen Robin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Valutakursrisker: Bestämningsfaktorer för svenska företags användning av finansiella instrument vid hantering av valutakursrisker.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    När ett företag importerar eller exporterar varor och tjänster i utländsk valuta kan de exponera sig mot valutakursrisker. Värdet på en valuta idag är kanske inte densamma imorgon vilket kan både gynna och missgynna företag verksamma inom handel. Världsekonomin utsattes för chocker och en av de värsta finansiella kriser upplevdes under 2009/2010. Eftereffekterna kan fortfarande ses av länder exempelvis lokaliserade i Euroområdet. Valutakurser påverkas av makrorelaterad information vilket kan orsaka stora volatila fluktuationer av kurser som kan leda till enorm ekonomisk skada eller stor ekonomisk vinst för företag. För att studera detta närmare genomfördes en enkätstudie på 100 stycken företag i Sverige som var noterade på stockholmsbörsen och/eller onoterade. Genom de kvantitativa data som samlades in kördes en regressionsanalys i SPSS utifrån en OLS funktion. Modellen hade användande av finansiella instrument som beroende variabel. De oberoende variablerna var; policy för hantering av valutakursrisker, kompetens om finansiella instrument i företaget, extern hjälp, övriga valutakursriskminimeringsstrategier, företagets förhållande till risk, skuldkrisen i Europa, beräkning av kostnader och intäkter, procentuell andel av intäkter i utländskvaluta samt procentuell andel kostnader i utländskvaluta. Sedan kontrollerades materialet för att uppfylla vitala antaganden i modellen. Resultatet testades sedan genom ett t-test. Regressionsanalysen visade vid 5 procents signifikants nivå positiva samband mellan användandet av finansiella instrument vid valutakursriskhantering och att ha en utformad policy för hantering av utländsk valuta. Vidare kunde det även härledas positiva samband vid användande av finansiella instrument samt företagets förhållande till risk. Riskaverta förtag tenderar att använda instrument för att minimera valutakursrisker. Analysen kunde även med 10 procents signifikants nivå härleda negativa samband mellan användandet av finansiella instrument samt hantering av övriga valutakursriskminimeringsstrategier. Studien visar likheter med tidigare forskning och finansiell teori.

  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lundström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Företagsrekonstruktion ur ett organisationsdesignsperspektiv: Rekonstruktörens beaktande av organisationsdesign2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Konkurrensen mellan företag i Sverige är fortsatt hård, samtidigt som världen blir mer globaliserad och multinationella företag söker nya marknader. Mellan åren 2008 och 2013 försattes i snitt 6260 företag i konkurs per år. Konkurser påverkar företagsägare, leverantörer, anställda, staten och samhället negativt.

     

    För företag nära konkurs finns möjlighet att försöka rädda företaget, genom företagsrekonstruktion. Det överordnade målet med företagsrekonstruktion är att rädda värdefulla affärsrörelser, undvika kapitalförstörelse samt att återställa livskraften i företag. Under perioden 2008-2013 genomförde 1045 företag rekonstruktion men endast 18 % överlevde. Därmed uppfattar författarna ett tydligt problem, att inte fler företag överlever efter företagsrekonstruktion. Författarna har funnit ett samband mellan de åtgärder som syftar till att skapa långsiktig överlevnad och organisationsdesign.  Den tidigare forskningen om företagsrekonstruktion har ett juridiskt perspektiv eller studerat det egna ägandet i företag. Utifrån det uppfattade problemet med få överlevande företag och det teoretiska gap författarna sett mellan företagsrekonstruktion och organisationsdesign, grundades en forskningsfråga: Hur har organisationsdesign beaktats av rekonstruktörer i fall med företag som är fortsatt verksamma efter avslutad företagsrekonstruktion?

     

    Studiens syfte är att skapa en djupare förståelse för företagsrekonstruktion ur ett organisationsdesignsperspektiv, samt undersöka hur rekonstruktörer beaktat organisationsdesign för att uppnå långsiktig överlevnad. En kvalitativ studie utformades från en teoretisk referensram med utgångspunk i Star-modellen skapad av Jay R. Galbraith. Star-modellen är en organisationsdesign modell som är uppdelad i fem olika komponenter; strategi, struktur, process, belöning och kompetens, dessa fördjupades i den teoretiska referensramen med annan litteratur. Studien har undersökt rekonstruktörer i åtta rekonstruktionsfall och hur dessa rekonstruktörer beaktat organisationsdesign. Empirin samlades in genom åtta intervjuer med rekonstruktörer för de enskilda rekonstruktionsfallen, samt genom data från tillhörande rekonstruktionsplan.

     

    Resultat av studien visade ett högt beaktande av organisationsdesign under företagsrekonstruktion, där företag är fortsatt verksam efter avslutad rekonstruktion. Komponenterna strategi, struktur, process och kompetens visades ha starkast koppling mot rekonstruktörens beaktande av organisationsdesign. Studien visade också att belöning inte beaktades i lika hög grad av rekonstruktören.

     

    Författarna rekommenderar att rekonstruktörer bör inneha en särskild insikt och erfarenhet av organisationsdesign, samt ett förtydligande av rekonstruktörens roll. Författarna rekommenderar också att rekonstruktörer bör se organisationsdesign ur ett helhetsperspektiv, samt att rekonstruktören om denne genomför förändring i strategi, också bör beakta effekt på andra komponenter. Organisationens representanter rekommenderas att under rekonstruktion vara öppen för förändring, samt att det är fördelaktigt att det finns en bra dialog mellan rekonstruktör och organisationens representanter. 

  • 27.
    Ahlgren, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Rönnberg, Greta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    När konkurrensen hårdnar: - En kvantitativ studie om ett detaljhandelsföretag i Umeå2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie undersöker hur detaljhandelsföretaget Expo Stormarknad i Umeå AB kan använda olika komponenterför att stärka sin konkurrenskraft på marknaden i Umeå, i takt med att konkurrensen kommer att öka. Att konkurrensen kommer att öka beror på att Ikeainom en snar framtid slår upp sina dörrar i Umeå. För att ett litet företag som Expo ska kunna konkurrera med möbeljätten är det nödvändigt att Expo utvärderar hur de kan agera och vilka verktyg de kan använda sig av för att stå sig i konkurrensen. Den problemformulering som vi utformat och som ligger till grund för studien är:“Hur uppfattar Expos kunder företagets produkter och tjänster, och hur kan Expo utformafem av oss valda komponenter för att stärka sin konkurrenskraft i Umeå?”.Studiens syfte är därmed att med hjälp av enmarknadsundersökning undersöka den uppfattning om och attityder gentemot Expo företagets kunder har, för att ge Expo en nulägesrapport ochför attidentifiera eventuellaförbättringsområden. Marknadsundersökningen genomförde vi med hjälp av enkäter, vilket innebär att vi genomfört en kvantitativ studie. Vi beskriver hur Expos kunder uppfattar företaget, och vi gör därmed en deskriptiv studie, vilket går i linje med vår positivistiska kunskapssyn som utgår från att vetenskap är objektiv.Det angreppssätt vi har är av deduktiv karaktär, där vi med utgångspunkt i existerande teorier undersökt de data vi samlat in. De data vi samlade in bearbetades och sammanställdes i statistikprogrammet SPSS. Underlaget för vår resultatredovisning utgörs av enkätsvar från 114 respondenter, både kvinnor och män i åldrarna 20 till över 60år. I vår teoretiska referensram lyfter vi fram teorier som är relevanta för studiens ändamål och som dels behandlar allmänna teorier gällande konkurrenskraft och dels de fem komponentervår studie undersöker: Utbud, pris, miljö i butik, personal och annonsering. De teorier som utgör vår teoretiska referensram stödjer vår analys och följaktligen våra slutsatser.Resultaten vi fått fram visar att Exposkunder generellt sett är positivt inställda till fyra av de fem komponentersom studerats, där annonseringutgör den komponent som kunderna har svårast att uttala sig om ochhar en mer negativ inställning till. Vi konstaterar också att alla komponenterär av betydelse för kunderna när de handlar på Expo, men attannonsering är av minst betydelse. Vi anser att Expo bör ta alla fem erbjudanden i beaktning för att stärka sin konkurrenskraft. De slutsatser och rekommendationer vigerExpo är att inte förändra sitt utbud, butikens läge ellermiljön i butiken. Vidare råder vi Expo att behålla sina nuvarande priser och att fortsätta med deras goda kundbemötande. Annonseringen rekommenderar vi däremot Expo att öka, och vi lyfter även fram några aspekter för de övriga komponenternasom Expo måste ha i åtanke när konkurrensenblir tuffare.

  • 28.
    Ahlkvist, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lagerlöf, Marcus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Auditor-client Communication: A qualitative study on the effects of auditor tenure, feedback, and dissemination of communication2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Communication between auditors and their clients is a big part of the audit engagement. It is therefore contradictory that communication within audit engagements is an underresearched area. More research is needed to understand how it functions and what affects it. By exploring this area, both auditors and their clients will understand each other better which can improve their relationship. The little research which does exist in the area has focused on audit quality, with communication as one element of audit quality. This thesis expands on this by investigating communication between auditors and audited companies, more specifically we look at the effects of three factors: auditor tenure, feedback from the auditor, and dissemination of communication. These factors have been identified by using a deductive approach. This lead to the formulation of the following research question: How do the factors feedback, dissemination of communication, and auditor tenure affect the communication between external auditors and an audited company’s team? There are rules and guidelines available for the auditor on how to communicate with those in charge of governance of the audited company, such as managers. There are however no rules or guidelines regarding how to communicate with the personnel at lower levels. This lead to the purpose of the thesis being expanded to also investigate the differences in opinions between employees and managers. To answer the research question, a qualitative study has been conducted with the help of semi-structured interviews with staff members of audited companies in various industries located in Umeå, Sweden. An exploratory approach has therefore been utilized. The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using discourse analysis where patterns in the language were identified.The findings from the interviews indicate that auditor tenure and feedback from the auditor have significant effects on the communication between auditors and their clients. The particular effects of these factors were identified as well as differences between managers and employees. Dissemination of communication does not seem to have a very large impact on the communication in an auditing engagement, although the internal dissemination was found to be an issue.

  • 29.
    Ahlqvist, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Makslahti, Sanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Varumärkesbyggande inom hotellbranschen: En studie av tre hotell i Norrbotten2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Resandet i Europa prognostiseras att öka med 2,3 procent varje år fram till år 2030. Den svenska turismnäringen tros ha stora möjligheter att ta del av ökningen. De norrbottniska lokaltidningarna har under det senaste året rapporterat om nyetableringar inom hotell- och restaurangbranschen. Eftersom både konkurrensen och gästnätterna ökar i Norrbotten ligger större vikt vid att erbjuda rätt koncept till rätt pris.

    Vi ser att starka ledare som Steve Jobs hos Apple och Dave Horton hos Hilton Hotels & Resorts har visat på starkt engagemang, gediget arbete och målmedvetenhet. De har också vågat ta risker samtidigt som de varit lyhörda gentemot marknaden. Med anledning av ökad konkurrens och fler valmöjligheter blir det desto viktigare med starka varumärken.

    Utifrån denna bakgrund har vi utformat frågeställningen ”Hur förmedlas ett hotells varumärke till medarbetare samt hur arbetar hotellet med policys och riktlinjer för att stärka sitt varumärke?” med syftet att ta reda på vad som finns bakom företagens policys och implementeringen av dessa. Vi ville även se till medarbetarnas utbildning och vilka instruktioner de erhöll för att arbeta efter företagets värderingar och för varumärkets främjande. Vi hade även förhoppningar om att öka vår förståelse för uppbyggandet av varumärken inom hotellbranschen, samt att fördjupa våra kunskaper både teoretiskt och praktiskt.

    Vår teoretiska referensram skapades utifrån Aakers teori kring ett varumärkes beståndsdelar, Robles och Leyvas studie om kund- och varumärkeslojalitet i hotellbranschen, kommunikation av varumärket genom employer branding, McClellands motivationsteori samt Chen et als. studie om frontpersonals agerande på hotell. Utifrån teorierna har vi skapat ett intervjuunderlag med tre centrala teman; varumärke, kundsegment och kundlojalitet samt varumärket och medarbetarnas motivation.

    Vid intervjutillfället besökte vi tre hotell i Norrbotten där vi höll åtta personliga intervjuer med individer från olika befattningar. Detta resulterade i att vi kunde se både ledarens roll och varumärkesbyggandet från flera olika synvinklar.

    Det visade sig att varumärkesbyggandet hade mindre fokus än väntat och att hotellen indirekt arbetade med det genom frontpersonal och kvalitet samt att ett stort fokus ligger på personalen och deras bemötande mot gäst. Lojalitet visade sig vara av större vikt. Den visades både mot samhälle och gäst via kundservice genom tillgänglighet och lyhördhet för gästens behov. Alla hotellen innehar ett miljötänk, men det är inget som de marknadsför utåt. Det är på uppgång att marknadsföra sig som arbetsgivare via sociala medier. Arbetsgivarna lägger vikt på medarbetare med inre motivation och den övervägande motivatorn visade sig vara mötet med människor.

    Slutligen gav vi rekommendationer om en ökad miljömarknadsföring samt användandet av sociala medier. Vi ansåg också att ett mer utformat arbete kring lojalitetspolicys kan gynna organisationerna samt att det är viktigt att hålla liv i gemenskapen på arbetsplatsen.

  • 30.
    Ahlström, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ficeková, Michaela
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The relationship between current financial slack resources and future CSR performance.: A quantitative study of public companies in the Nordic Markets2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Companies are expected to be good corporate citizens and fulfil expectations of both shareholders and stakeholders. Depending on their corporate objectives, companies undertake different CSR activities using their preferred financial resources. The relationship between these two notions is interesting to investigate in the Nordic context since companies in this geographical area are the global leaders in sustainability. We formulate the following research question as:

    What is the relationship between financial slack and the CSR performance in Nordic countries?

    As such, the purpose of this thesis is to investigate the underpinnings of whether companies choose to allocate their financial slack resources towards improving performance of CSR, or so called value creation. Doing so, we investigate the relationship between financial slack resources and CSR score.

    In adopting a regulatory position on the development of society, we conduct our research in accordance with the functionalist research paradigm, namely through commitment to the objectivist ontic and positivist epistemic research philosophies. We answer the research question using the deductive approach. Our research design is framed with an explanatory purpose relying on archival strategy to perform a quantitative study.

    The theoretical underpinnings for analysis comes in the form of legitimacy theory, the institutional differences hypothesis, Resource-based theory, slack resources theory, stakeholder and shareholder theory. We use multiple linear regressions to analyse cross-sectional data for the period between 2005 and 2015 collected from Thomson Reuters DataStream.

    Our result indicates that the relationship between financial slack and CSR performance in the following year is mixed with both positive and negative relationships being present. Our most important finding is a pattern indicating that during the year 2008 the relationship changed from being positive to negative. This implies that the more funds a company has at its discretion, the less likely it is for them to invest it in developing their CSR performance the following year. This could have severe negative implications on shareholders, stakeholders and society.

  • 31.
    Ahmed, Fathimath
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Nedev, Nikolay
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    How does a Currency Board Reflect on the Economic Development in the Long Run?: A Comparative Approach of Central Banking System and  Currency Board Arrangement2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Currency Board Arrangement (CBA) is one of the exchange rate regimes where domestic currency is 100% backed up by a foreign (anchor) currency. When a country adopts a CBA, it acts as the central bank but only with limited authoritative power. Unlike a central bank, CBA does not lend to the government and does not act as a lender of last resort to the commercial banks. Moreover, CBA was created to solve the problem of lack of transparency of the central bank and government’s relationship. The central bank controls the monetary policy and plays an important role in the economic development of countries. One of the main problems associated with the central banks is adverse selection. To avoid adverse selection, to achieve economic stability, and to support the development, some countries choose conservative policies like a CBA. Hence our goal of this research is to understand if CBA results in a better performance compared to the independent central bank system. Therefore the following research question is developed:

    “Do the countries using a CBA benefit from it in terms of long term macroeconomic performance, financial stability and business environment, compared to other transition economies functioning under an independent central bank?”

    Before proceeding with the research question, a research gap in the literature was identified. The gap exists as there are not that many recent studies done on CBA, especially to evaluate the performance of its adopters. To carry out the research study, researchers adopted the positivism as the epistemological consideration and objectivism as the ontological consideration. This research followed a deductive approach with a quantitative strategy and a comparative design. After declaring these methodological choices, a cross-national comparative research was conducted, using six countries with currency board system and with an independent central bank institution. These countries were chosen carefully by comparing the similarities and differences, in terms of history, geography and size. In order to analyse the performances based on twelve macroeconomic indicators, like the Expat Capital’s model.

    Once the data was collected from online databases, a self-designed scoring model was used to analyze the data. These results are presented clearly using tables and graphs. After analyzing the result, the 5 hypothesises that were developed based on the theories were tested. A couple of them were accepted while the rest (H1, H4, and H5) were rejected. To conclude the paper the research question was answered and the results suggest that under currency board inflation, debt and deficit are substantially lower than under a central bank system. To maintain the credibility of the results, truth criteria were discussed and the paper concludes suggesting what further research one could do on this research topic.

  • 32.
    Ahnemark, Nathalie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ranggård, Moa
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lansering av smink med sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal: En kvalitativ studie om hur konsumenter påverkas att sprida marknadsföringsbudskap2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste åren har den globala kosmetikaindustrin genomgått en enorm ekonomisk tillväxt. Sminkföretagen lägger stora summor på marknadsföringsinsatser för att upprätthålla konsumtionsmönstret bland konsumenter. Då människors förtroende för traditionell marknadsföring sinar och alternativa kanaler samt personliga rekommendationer genom Word of Mouth värderas högre, blir detta allt viktigare för företag att beakta i utformningen av marknadsföring. Detta utgör mycket viktiga implikationer för sminkföretag. Då sminkföretag årligen lanserar stora mängder smink och då marknadsföring är avgörande för en ny produkts framgång på marknaden, innebär det att alternativa marknadsföringskanaler måste nyttjas och Word of Mouth måste uppmuntras för att därigenom stimulera köp bland konsumenter och uppnå en marknadsacceptans av nya produkter.

    Historiskt sett har ingen forskning bedrivits som utforskar samband och relationer mellan områdena sminkföretag, sociala medier som marknadsföringskanal samt produktlanseringar. Detta leder oss till vår problemformulering som lyder: ”Hur påverkas konsumenter i Sverige vid en lansering av en ny sminkprodukt att sprida positiv Word of Mouth?” Studien främsta syfte är att agera en brygga mellan samhällsutvecklingen inom de berörda studieområdena och akademisk forskning. Dessutom vill vi skapa en förståelse för konsumenters beteende med avseende på spridning av Word of Mouth på sociala medier för att därigenom formulera praktiska rekommendationer för ledningen i sminkföretag i Sverige.

    I studien har vi valt att anta ett företagsperspektiv och nyttja en kvalitativ insamlingsmetod med en hermeneutisk kunskapssyn och en konstruktionistisk verklighetssyn. De teoretiska utgångspunkterna som utgör grunden i denna studie har delats in i två huvudsakliga sektioner. Den första sektionen består av teorier och forskning kring produktlanseringar och den andra sektionen av teorier och forskning inom fenomen på sociala medier. Vi har med hjälp av tre fokusgrupper motsvarande 13 respondenter insamlat det empiriska materialet. Samtliga respondenter i studien är kvinnliga användare av såväl smink som sociala medier. Valet av dessa respondenter gjordes genom ett icke-sannolikhetsurval med inslag av en så kallad snöbollseffekt.

    Vid analysen av det empiriska materialet framkom att konsumenter, trots en stark negativitet mot flera av de alternativa marknadsföringskanaler som nyttjas av sminkföretag, påverkas inför köp. Emellertid har vissa kanaler och marknadsföringsinsatser en större positiv inverkan på såväl konsumenters köpbeteende som benägenhet att sprida Word of Mouth. En av de viktigaste slutsatserna utifrån analysen är det samband som återfunnits mellan konsumenters spridningstendens av marknadsföringsbudskap och förtroende, ärlighet, transparens, humor, genuinitet och igenkänningsfaktorer.

     

     

     

  • 33.
    Ahnskog, Martin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Svensson, Paulina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Hållbarhet och prestation: En kvantitativ studie om sambandet mellan Sveriges ekokommuners gröna nyckeltal och finansiella resultat2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhetsredovisning är ett ämne som har blivit mycket aktuellt under den senaste tiden i såväl den privata sektorn som i den offentliga. Begreppen “hållbar utveckling” och “Corporate Social Responsibility” (CSR), eller hållbart företagande är grunden till hållbarhetsredovisningen och de yttre krav på transparens organisationer har. Den oberoende organisationen Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) har haft stor betydelse för hållbarhetsredovisning då de erbjuder riktlinjer för hur organisationer ska redovisa sin hållbarhetspåverkan. För svenska bolag har hållbarhetsredovisning tidigare skett på frivillig grund men nu har det för vissa företag kommit att bli obligatoriskt. Statligt ägda företag har sedan 2007 varit tvingade att hållbarhetsredovisa enligt GRI:s riktlinjer. Dessa regler omfattar dock inte andra offentliga inrättningar såsom myndigheter, regioner, landsting eller kommuner vilket innebär att de inte har några gemensamma regler eller principer kring redovisning av hållbarhet. Det finns många studier som undersökt på sambandet mellan hållbarhet och ekonomisk prestation hos hos vinstdrivande företag, och majoriteten av dessa har funnit ett svagt positivt samband mellan hållbarhet och finansiella värden men måttenheterna som används har varit inkonsekventa. De studier som finns har fokuserat på vinstdrivande företag och det efterfrågas mer forskning kring sambandet inom den offentliga sektorn. Det finns dock en brist på gemensamma riktlinjer och mått inom den offentliga sektorn, men det finns ett antal intresseorganisationer där kommuner gemensamt arbetar mot hållbarhet. En sådan organisation är Sveriges ekokommuner (SEKOM) som samlar in och publicerar tolv “gröna nyckeltal” och denna undersökning kommer med hjälp av dessa nyckeltal undersöka om det finns ett samband mellan kommunernas finansiella prestation och hållbarhet.

    Studiens huvudsyfte är att undersöka sambandet mellan hållbarhetsrelaterade nyckeltal som Sveriges ekokommuner publicerar och finansiella mått från kommunernas årsredovisningar under åren 2012-2014. De finansiella måtten i undersökningen är årets resultat, avkastning på totala tillgångar samt årets kostnader och av de tolv gröna nyckeltalen kommer vi undersöka sex stycken. Utöver de finansiella måtten kommer vi även att undersöka sambandet mellan de gröna nyckeltalen och befolkningstillväxt, och till sist kommer vi att testa om det finns några skillnader i resultat mellan de kommuner som är medlemmar i SEKOM och de som inte är det. För att undersöka detta formulerades sex hypoteser som sedan testades med hjälp av fem regressionsanalyser och ett t-test. Resultatet visade att det fanns signifikanta variabler i alla utom ett test och vi kunde därmed förkasta fyra av fem hypoteser. De signifikanta resultaten visade främst på positiva resultat gällande sambandet mellan hållbarhet och finansiell prestation.

  • 34.
    Ahokas, Miska
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Kuikka, Kari
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Motivating Entrepreneurs Towards The "New Industrial Revolution": A Multiple Case Study Of Sustainability-Driven Entrepreneurial And Institutional Motivations In Finland2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability and sustainable development are concerned as major topics in the current business and academic context. Although business entities are seen as a cause of the problem, they are similarly seen as a solution helping the world to survive from this enormous challenge. The current academic literature underlines the role of sustainable entrepreneurship as a decisive force, which helps to transform the profit-oriented paradigm into the “new industrial revolution”. In this context the motivating factors and their interactions behind the sustainable entrepreneurship are further unclear, which has lead to the following research questions:

    (1)  What entrepreneurial motivations in Finland affect entrepreneur’s decision to form and exploit sustainability-oriented opportunities?

    (2)  What institutional motivations in Finland affect entrepreneur’s decision to form and exploit sustainability-oriented opportunities?

    (3)  What are the interactions between entrepreneurial and institutional motivations affecting entrepreneur’s decision to form and exploit sustainability-oriented opportunities in Finland?

    The theoretical framework was constructed with a strong emphasis on entrepreneurial processes and opportunity theories. The main deviation from the conventional entrepreneurship towards the sustainable entrepreneurship was drawn through the wider nature of value creation in terms of triple bottom line approach. In addition the main motivational concepts were mirrored through the entrepreneurial motivations literature and the institutional theory, which provided effective theoretical lenses for the purpose of the empirical study. 

    The empirical study was conducted in Finland as a multiple case study with an exploratory research approach. The data was collected from sustainability-driven entrepreneurs and experts who had personal knowledge related to the phenomenon. More practical data collection methods were semi-structured interviews and questionnaires concerning entrepreneurial motivations. These selected methodological choices enabled accumulation of a rich set of data and provided further possibilities for fruitful data analysis. 

    The study indicated that human motivations related to the conventional entrepreneurship research are feasible in enhancing sustainable entrepreneurship. In the similar vein entrepreneurial motivations concerning self-realization, opportunities, personal values and prior experience have motivational effects on the sustainability-driven entrepreneur. Institutional motivations towards sustainable entrepreneurship are influential for the sustainability-oriented opportunity process. The analysis indicated that for example governmental incentives, consumption norms and social networks are motivating factors for sustainability-driven entrepreneurs. Finally the study indicated that both motivational sources have co-evolutive interactions throughout the process, but the intensity of these interactions similarly varied.

  • 35.
    Akbar, Syed Anil
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ngoc La, Duyen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Mortgage Lending Institutions in Scandinavia: A study of risk for the period 2000-20132014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the last 14 years there has been a major flux in the Scandinavian financial institutions and real estate markets. The increase in size and openness, in both the markets and the institutions allowed the sector to expand phenomenally, raising concerns about the potential rise of risks. Concerns regarding the health and state of the Scandinavian real estate and mortgage markets increased with the surge in residential housing prices between 2000 and 2013. However, during this period popular sentiments and media outcry was not met with sufficient academic inquiry into the subject.

    Hence, we conducted this study trying to bridge the gap between popular concern and academic inquiry by addressing the question: How are mortgage lending institutions affected by the risk emanating from residential real estate markets in Scandinavia between 2000 and 2013? In attempting to answer this question we developed a two-tiered approach by addressing two questions: What is the effect of selected factors on the delinquency rate of mortgagors in Scandinavia during the period 2000 to 2013? And does the change in institutional business models and mortgage lending businesses affect their distance to default? These questions give us an insight into the composition of the mortgage market and the effects of the market upon the institutional distress; thereby giving us a comprehensive understanding of the markets and institutions in line with our primary research question.

    We employed a deductive approach in line with our epistemological stance of positivism and ontological belief of objectivism. Thereby, we formulated a quantitative explanatory research employing the panel regression analysis tools in order to address our central question.

    The results of the research re-affirmed our earlier intuition as we discovered that interest rates, unemployment, outstanding mortgages and mortgage growth were significant predictors of the delinquency rates. Meanwhile risk weighted assets, mortgage revenue and mortgage share of total assets were significant predictors of distance to default. These findings highlighted that while individual delinquencies are affected by macro and mortgage business changes, the distress in institutions is characterized by capital adequacy and the flux in their mortgage businesses.

    Hence, the results of our two-tiered analysis confirmed that mortgage lending institutions have been affected by the risks emanating from the residential real estate markets between 2000 and 2013 and this effect has been characterized by changing models and rising influence of the real estate market in institutional portfolios. 

  • 36.
    Akhmetova, Amira
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Batomunkueva, Yulia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Board Composition and Financial Distress: An Empirical evidence from Sweden and Denmark2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Recent failure of such companies as Enron, Worldcom and Parmala showed that there are internal reasons contributing to company’s financial distress. Financial distress is a condition when a company fails to meet its debt obligations. Board of directors is liable for long-term decisions and their ineffective work in monitoring and controlling management can influence companies’ performance. With that in mind, in this degree project, we would like to answer the following research question: “What is the relationship between characteristics of Board and probability of financial distress, measured by Altman’s Z-score models in Sweden and Denmark?”

     

    The epistemological and ontological choices for our study were positivism and objectivism with deductive approach. We have calculated Z-scores of Swedish and Danish companies in order to detect distressed and healthy companies. Further on, the information about board composition in each company was collected; mainly we were interested in board independence, board size, board ownership, COB ownership, CEO duality and employee representatives.

     

    In order to examine if there is a relationship between board composition and financial distress, we have done Multiple and Binary Regression analyses. Based on the results we can state that board independence, board ownership and employee representatives and market capitalization (control variable) have significant relationship with probability of financial distress. Our study is interesting since we have looked at employee representatives, as a board characterectic that is specific for Nordic countries and that was not studied before. In addition, we have found that there is no CEO duality in Sweden and Denmark, since all companies in our sample followed the Companies’ Acts. COB ownership, the additional variable we wanted to test and board size have shown no significant relationship.

  • 37.
    Akkam, Nawras
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Andusa Ambele, Bih Norberter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The First Time Assurance on Sustainability Reports and Risk Premiums2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The economic utility of sustainability has been a recent domain under scrutiny by several academicians. More specifically, researchers have investigated the positive effects of sustainability reporting on firms from different angles. One of these angles is sustainability’s effect on firms’ prestige in the market, which is inevitably connected to market indicators, such as, risks and returns. Consequently, this research paper is positioned as a complement to previous researchers’ work within the field of sustainability reporting and its positive effects on firms. This paper’s foremost aspiration is to fill a knowledge gap in research by finding empirical evidence whether the first time assurance on sustainability reports causes a lower subsequent cost of equity capital. For this matter, the researchers’ methodology was deductive in nature, which relied on investigating established theories that are connected to the two dimensions of the research question; cost of equity capital and assurance on sustainability reports. This investigation formed the researchers’ theoretical schemata upon which they both neglected certain theories in favour of others and formed a verifiable theoretical research hypothesis. In this research, Sweden, a country known for its dedication for sustainability, was chosen as a market from which a sample was collected. The researchers conducted their study in a panel format where the same information about 44 different companies was collected on several years. Due to the fact that the number of listed firms that had been reporting their sustainability reports was quite moderate, a census study was convenient and applicable. The researchers ended up with a sample of 44 firms that constituted 352 observations, which formed the basis for the statistical inference. The empirical study employed several regression models of panels to reach the most representative model that fitted the data in hand. Also, to guarantee higher quality results the fitted model, the Two- way Error Component Fixed-effects Model, was tested for heteroskedasticity, cross- sectional correlation, autocorrelation and non-stationarity. This model revealed a relatively low explanatory power that drove the researchers to interpret their statistical findings with great caution. At a specific level of statistical significance, the regression model revealed a significant correlation between assurance on sustainability reports and a subsequent lower cost of equity capital. This result was refuted at higher levels of significance. Thus, the researchers were able to answer the research question affirmatively, to a certain extent, and to demonstrate that the research’s results verify the underpinnings of neo-institutional and signalling theories. 

  • 38. Akpinar, Murat
    et al.
    Vincze, Zsuzsanna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The dynamics of coopetition: A stakeholder view of the German automotive industry2016Inngår i: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 57, 53-63 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In response to calls for better understanding the dynamics of coopetition, this study aims to develop a framework that explains why the levels of competition and cooperation change over time. The framework adopts the two-continua approach to coopetition and the theoretical concepts of power and stake from the stakeholder literature. Integrating concepts from the coopetition and stakeholder literatures is a promising attempt, which is justified by the fact that stakeholders are in coopetition with the firm. According to our framework the power difference affects the level of competition, and vice versa, whereas common stakes affect the level of cooperation, and vice versa. This was subject to a test with insights from the in-depth analysis of the changing coopetition between the Volkswagen Group and Porsche AG during the period 2001–2012. Our findings explain why an environmental threat on one of the firms shifted the power difference and changed the coopetition first from cooperation-dominant to balanced-strong and then ended it through a full acquisition.

  • 39.
    Alam, Md Didarul
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Factors that Influence the decision when buying second-hand products.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Buying and selling of used goods is something that has been done for centuries. Throughout the last 20 years, rapid growth of second-hand products consumption has got the attention of researchers and raised the question why customers buy second-hand products. The growth of the Internet has developed different applications, and this combined with the introduction of new electronic devices, provides users with buying and selling facilities of goods over the Internet and mobile devices. The uses of social networks and smart-phones have also revolutionized the second-hand product market among all economic classes. The consumption of second-hand products is increasing daily. Therefore it is important to pay attention to the factors that affect the purchase of second-hand products since it is not a simple form of mercantilism. It's a lifestyle, a way to acquire goods that we need and get rid of those that we do not see as useful anymore.

    The purpose of this study is to create new knowledge in the area of second-hand products consumption and customer buying behavior by identifying factors that influence the customer in buying second-hand products.

    In order to fulfill the research purpose, a quantitative research approach and cross sectional research design were adopted. Questionnaires were designed using Google survey tool and through this method 169 questionnaires were collected from respondents. After which, SPSS was used to perform the required tests of descriptive statistics, reliability analysis, bivariate correlation, single item measurement and multiple regression analysis.

    It was observed that price was the most important factor influencing customers when purchasing second-hand products; risk is the second most influencing factor and brand is the third and location come last as most influencing factor. 

    The results show that the factors such as brand, price and purchase intention of second-hand products have no association and influence on each other during the purchase decision. In contrast, risk and location factors have a weak association with each other but both factors lack association with brand, price and intention.

    This study contributes to the existing literature on second-hand products consumption and customer buying behavior as well as touching upon theories of brand, price, risk, and seller location.

  • 40.
    Alami, Tarik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Montier, Cécile
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The use of corporate entrepreneurship by Gefeba Elektro GmbH: The case study of a German medium-sized company in the highly competitive process automation sector2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Corporate entrepreneurship has gained renewed interested in research since global markets are evolving and industries become more and more competitive. Information is transferred across the globe rapidly so that products and processes can be copied quickly. In order to be competitive, companies need to enhance creativity, their technological knowledge and market know-how. This high competitiveness leads to a dilemma where innovation is a key to survive whilst the size and administration may signify barriers to replicate entrepreneurial behavior through the entire business.

     

    Considering the relevance of corporate entrepreneurship in the rapidly changing market of the 21st century, our purpose was to develop a deeper understanding of how corporate entrepreneurship can be used by companies. We then looked deeper into the subject of organizational transformation and decided to do a case study. The aim of the research was to make a theoretical contribution by examining the subject in the context of a medium-sized enterprise in a specific environment where corporate entrepreneurship is vital. Therefore, we chose a medium-sized German company that operates in the increasingly complex and competitive process automation industry. The Gefeba Elektro GmbH was found to be an interesting case for a case study for several reasons. The company was situated in a highly competitive market, in the heart of the industrial ‘Rurhgebiet’, with numerous competitors. However, and despite the lack of resources faced by this SME, Gefeba is an important actor in the automation industry.

     

    Although researchers have examined various factors that promote corporate entrepreneurship, the literature has focused on defining factors in isolation without linking them to architectural factors, especially when it comes to SMEs. These factors are defined in our study as leadership, culture, structure and strategy. Acting within the extremes of small businesses and large corporations, we focus our study on a single medium-sized company that enables us to reach different levels of the organization and grasp a holistic understanding of this specific organization in relation to its use of CE. In accordance to this, the main research question is: How does Gefeba Elektro GmbH use corporate entrepreneurship in the automation sector industry?

     

    The study was conducted using a qualitative research method. One of the major findings is that the Gefeba Elektro GmbH is using a balance between the organizational antecedents of common values and flexibility to build a mechanism that aligns the organizational architecture towards the development of corporate entrepreneurship. Another aspect is the fact that every architectural factor is used for the development of CE, even if some architectural factors such as leadership and culture seem to have more importance in this development. Thereby, the findings about organizational antecedents and architectural factors are relevant for the managerial implications in others SMEs facing the same context as Gefeba Elektro GmbH, which are willing to implement corporate entrepreneurship without knowing exactly how to do it. Indeed, the lack of resources of an SME could however allow developing organizational transformation through a sensitive equilibrium between the common values and beliefs for the control and the flexibility for the innovation. Moreover, another point highlighted in our findings is the crucial role of the individual in the implementation and development of corporate entrepreneurship.

  • 41.
    Alami, Tarik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Tahmasebi Aria, Taymaz
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Sustainable and smart destination management: Opportunities for the DMO to act as an intelligent agent among destination stakeholders2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing mobility facilitated by reduced cost of connecting across distances has made cities become the most attractive and most frequently visited tourist destinations. For many urban destinations, especially in developing countries this increasing inflow of tourists contributes significantly to the local economy. As tourist preferences and expectations change, a sustainable and competitive destination management approach has received increasing importance in order to properly adapt to the changing market conditions. With the increasing importance of including sustainability in developing competitive destinations, Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) have noticed the potential to use smart technologies to enhance tourism experiences and develop the destination for increasing the quality of life for tourists and citizens. However, this requires the DMO to find ways how to deliver a wide range of information, facilitate interaction with stakeholders and gather visitor and management information. DMOs have to fulfil the evolving expectations and needs of an increasing number of tourists and at the same time make sure the destination is developed and managed in such a manner that it does not deteriorate the urban environment and contribute to the benefit of its private-, and public stakeholders as well as its residents.

    This thesis aims to answer the following research question: How can the DMO use stakeholder perceptions on sustainable and smart urban tourism goals in response to the increasingly competitive tourism market? The purpose of this thesis is to map the perceptions of destination stakeholders and the DMO on sustainable and smart urban tourism goals. This aims to support the DMO to manage stakeholders in a more effective way towards balancing economic-, social- and environmental goals of sustainability in the destination.

    This qualitative research was carried out in the context of destination stakeholders to the DMO in Marrakech through semi-structured interviews. Seven different respondents participated that represented the different stakeholder groups relevant in developing sustainable and smart urban tourism goals which are 2 of the private sector-, public sector and the host community respectively as well as the DMO.

    The study revealed that there is generally a common understanding among stakeholders in Marrakech regarding the importance of sustainable and smart urban tourism goals. However a common strategic vision and coordinated destination management approach is lacking as well as clarity about an integrated planning approach to realize sustainable and smart tourism goals. Moreover, having established a participatory approach for information exchange has distinguished the city from other top-down approaches that have made many destinations lose their uniqueness. Stakeholders have already benefited from this approach and developed sustainable and smart projects, but an overall vision requires stronger vision from the DMO. The study findings show that this participatory approach provides a basis for the DMO to potentially act as an intelligent agent that acts as a facilitator for information exchange among stakeholders with smart technologies.

  • 42.
    Aldén, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Johansson, Alfred
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The female consumers’ perceptions and expectations of clothing companies’ social media presence: A qualitative study on what perceptions and expectations female students have on clothing companies, on the social media channels Instagram and Facebook2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    In today’s society, clothing companies and their consumers have an increased presence on social media where they interact with each other in different ways. This relatively new kind of interaction can have many advantages for both clothing companies and consumers. It makes it possible for the clothing companies to meet their consumers on the consumers’ home ground, and for the consumers to interact with the clothing companies. How the presence of clothing companies on social media is perceived among the consumers and whether or not this is in line with what the consumers’ expect from companies’ presence on social media, is still not completely developed.

    To help the clothing companies to increase their knowledge about their consumers’ needs and what they expect of the clothing companies while being present on social media, the intention is to answer the following research question: “What are the female consumers’ perceptions and expectations of the Facebook & Instagram usage by clothing companies?”

    The purpose with this degree project is to increase the understanding of how consumers perceive and expect clothing companies to act toward them on the social media channels Facebook and Instagram, in order to satisfy their needs. We aim to specifically explain how clothing companies’ are perceived on the social media channels Facebook and Instagram, based on consumers’ experiences of clothing companies’ activities. Furthermore, we aim to provide insight into what consumers expect from a presence of clothing companies on Facebook and Instagram. With this, we want to help the clothing companies to create a better relationship between them and their consumers on Facebook and Instagram.

    In this explorative study, a qualitative sampling method has been used. The data collection consists of 8 semi structured in-depth interviews of female students at Umeå university. The biggest reasons for why the female consumers perceive that clothing companies have an online presence is to: Act as a source of information, communicate and socialize with their consumers and to create value by being more available. They furthermore expect clothing companies on Facebook to provide their consumers with: To make it more comfortable/easy to shop online, act as a source of information and to communicate and socialize with consumers. On Instagram the female consumers perceived that clothing companies’ want to have a presence to: Be a part of the consumer’s everyday life, reach the consumer in a relaxed way, communicate and socialize with consumers. On Instagram, the consumers expect clothing companies’ presence for: To reach the consumer in a relaxed way, make it more comfortable/easy to shop online, create value by being more available. These activities taken into consideration will increase the understanding for clothing companies’ online presence and lead to a better relationship between the clothing companies and their female consumers.

    The study contributes with new theoretical knowledge about the consumer’s perspective on clothing companies on social media. Our findings show that previous recommendations regarding how companies should try to act on social media is too general, and needs to be applied based on consumer preferences, needs and the specific social media channel. The empirical contribution are the reasons that the consumers expect clothing companies to have for being present on Facebook and Instagram. 

  • 43.
    Alenius, Anna-Ida
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Lundberg, Elin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Längden på revisionsuppdraget och revisionskvaliteten: Finns det något samband?2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines whether there is an association between the length of the client-auditor relationship and audit quality, using absolute unexpected accruals estimated by industry as a measure of audit quality based on a modified Jones model. The study is motivated by the proposal on mandatory audit firm rotation for publicly traded companies from the European Commission, which is based on the notion that longer auditor firm tenure creates a familiarity threat which reduces the audit quality. Both the relation between audit quality and auditor partner tenure and audit firm tenure is examined in this study, using multivariate regression controlling for auditor type (Big 4 versus non-Big 4), signing auditors (one versus two auditors), firm size, profitability, leverage and age. There is a significant negative relationship between audit quality and audit partner tenure when only companies employing Big 4 is tested, which indicate that auditors constrain managements extreme accounting measures with longer tenure. The results provide no significant evidence of an increase in the absolute unexpected accruals with audit firm tenure, when only Big 4 companies are tested. The results also overall suggest that the audit quality is lower for shorter tenure relative to longer tenure, which is consistent with previous studies. The results of this study therefore implies that under the current regime with no obligation of firm rotation, longer audit tenure is on average associated with auditors in greater extent constraining managements extreme accounting choices. The results therefore do not support the call for mandatory rotation. However, the majority of the regression results were not statistically significant, which limits the possibility to apply these results to a population outside the scope of this study. 

  • 44.
    Alenius, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Hallgren, Edward
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    P/E-effekten: En utvärdering av en portföljvalsstrategi på Stockholmsbörsen mellan 2004 och 20122013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    One could argue that the most discussed topic in finance is whether or not it is possible to “beat the market”. Even though many people claim to do this, there is little evidence to support the idea that one can consistently beat the market over a long period of time. There are indeed several examples of investors who have managed to outperform the market consistently for a long time, but the efforts of these individuals or institutions could by many be considered to be pure luck.

    One of the many strategies that have been evaluated by several researchers and is said to generate a risk adjusted return greater than that of the market, is one based on the P/E-effect. This strategy is based on the financial ratio P/E – price divided by earnings – and used by constructing portfolios consisting of stocks with low P/E ratios. Several studies have confirmed the existence of the P/E-effect on various stock markets around the world and over different time periods. On the Swedish market, however, few studies have generated the same results. Most of these studies can be considered to be insufficient with regards to sample sizes and methods, spawning a need for more extensive studies.

    We have examined the P/E strategy on the Swedish Stock Exchange (SSE) between 2004 and 2012. The sample included 358 companies (excluding financial companies) with available necessary data. The stocks were divided into five portfolios based on their yearly P/E ratios (low to high), upon which the monthly returns of the individual stocks were calculated using a logarithmic formula. The returns were also risk adjusted using the Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM), followed by a regression analysis to see if possible abnormal returns could be considered to be statistically significant for the examined time period.

    The results of our study indicate that the P/E effect is not present on the Swedish Stock Exchange during the examined time period, and we therefore conclude that it was not possible to utilize a strategy based on the P/E effect between 2004 and 2012 in order to achieve an abnormal return. The results can be used to argue that the Swedish stock market is more efficient than for example the U.S. stock market where the P/E effect has been found to exist.

  • 45.
    Alexeyeva, Irina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Essays on Audit Fees and the Joint Provision of Audit and Non-Audit Services2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines the factors affecting audit and non-audit fees and the effects of the joint provision of audit and non-audit services on auditing.

    The first essay focuses on environmental factors. Using data for Swedish listed companies over a six year span, including pre-crisis, crisis and post-crisis periods, the essay investigates whether changing economic conditions affect the level of fees paid for audit and non-audit services. The finding suggests that auditors increase their risk premium for auditing during a financial crisis andtend to charge higher audit fees as a response to lower risk levels in the post-crisis period. On the other hand, a significant reduction in non-audit fees suggests that companies are less willing to invest in consulting services during thecrisis and post-crisis periods.

    The second essay also studies the effects of environmental factors on audit pricing. Using data for financial institutions in 24 European countries, the study examines whether the level of effort spent on the evaluation of fair values is higher for more uncertain fair values.The result suggests that an increasing level of complexity and risk requires greater audit effort. Furthermore, the results showthat the strength of a country’s institutional setting is positively associated with the effort spent on the evaluation of high uncertainty fair value estimates. The finding implies that auditors spend more effort in stronger regulated countries, possibly due to higher potential litigation costs.

    The third essay focuses on the factors related to an individual audit partner. Based on the data of publicly listed Swedish companies, it investigates whether partner special competencies are reflected in the prices charged for auditing. The findings show that partner industry expertise and client-specific expertise are associated with higher audit fees. A further finding isthat female partners are considerably under-represented among specialists. However,the under-representation of females among higher qualified partners does not seem to negatively affect their possibilities to earn higher fees.

    The fourth essay investigates how the joint provision of audit and non-audit services affects perceived knowledge spillover and audit efficiency. The essay makesuse of survey data from a large sample of Swedish auditors and finds that the levels of communication and trust are positively associated with knowledge spillover. The result further suggests that the information gained from the provision of non-audit services can reduce auditors’ effort (time) spent on different audit procedures, thereby increasing audit efficiency.

  • 46.
    Alexeyeva, Irina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Individual Auditor Competencies and the Pricing of Audit ServicesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines whether partner special competencies, such as industry expertise, public company expertise and client-specific expertise, are associated with a fee premium. It further investigates whether the association between partner competencies and audit fees is dependent on gender. Using a sample of 225 public Swedish companies audited from 2006-2015 (1461 firm-years) by 182 partners affiliated to Big 4 audit firms, partner industry expertise and client-specific expertise are found to be associated with higher audit fees. A further finding is that partners with special competencies are dominantly men. However, male public company specialists receive significantly lower audit fees than their female counterparts. This finding suggests that female auditors who are public company experts may have exceptional track records, which can strengthen their powers when negotiating audit price. Taken together, the results indicate that partner special competence is valued by clients.

  • 47.
    Alexeyeva, Irina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Mejia-Likosova, Margarita
    The Impact of Fair Value Measurement on Audit Fees: Evidence from Financial Institutions in 24 European Countries2016Inngår i: International Journal of Auditing, ISSN 1090-6738, E-ISSN 1099-1123, Vol. 20, nr 3, 255-266 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the relationship between fair value measurement and audit fees. Using a sample of 177 banks from 24 European countries over the period 2008–13, we find that high uncertainty fair value assets are positively related to audit fees. The result is consistent with the suggestion that more complex estimates require greater audit effort. To provide more insight into the impact of fair value measurement on audit fees, we examine this relation under institutional settings with different strength of regulations. The results suggest that the strength of a country's institutional setting is positively related to effort spent on evaluation of higher uncertainty fair value inputs. The finding is consistent with the prediction that auditors expend more effort in more strongly regulated settings due to higher potential litigation costs. Finally, we find that the total proportion of fair-valued assets does not affect audit fees. The result can be attributed to the composition of the total proportion of fair-valued assets which is dominated by low uncertainty (Level 1) inputs.

  • 48.
    Alexeyeva, Irina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Svanström, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Knowledge Spillover and Audit Efficiency: Evidence from the Joint Provision of Audit and Non-Audit ServicesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to provide a deeper insight into the effects of the joint provision of audit and non-audit services. The study investigates how the provision of non-audit services affects knowledge spillover and audit efficiency. In particular, we focus on the role of communication with and trust in colleagues providing non-audit services in knowledge transfer. Using survey data from a large sample of auditors, we show that the levels of communication and trust are positively associated with perceived knowledge spillover. Furthermore, these factors are essential for audit efficiency, suggesting that the information gained from the provision of non-audit services can reduce auditors’ effort (time) spent on different audit procedures. Further, we distinguish between different types of audit efficiency related to parts of the audit process and highlight the essential factors for each particular type. 

  • 49.
    Alexeyeva, Irina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Svanström, Tobias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    The impact of the global financial crisis on audit and non-audit fees: evidence from Sweden2015Inngår i: Managerial Auditing Journal, ISSN 0268-6902, E-ISSN 1758-7735, Vol. 30, nr 4-5, 302-323 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The paper aims to investigate audit and non-audit fees during the global financial crisis (GFC) in an environment that is relatively sparsely regulated with regard to the provision of non-audit services.

    Design/methodology/approach: Audit and non-audit fees were studied during pre-GFC (2006-2007), GFC (2008-2009) and post-GFC (2010-2011) periods.

    Findings: During the GFC, Swedish companies benefited from an increase in sales and total assets, although return on assets decreased. In this setting, the auditors charged higher audit fees compared with the pre-GFC period, despite the absence of increased audit reporting lags. A significant increase in audit fees continued during the post-crisis periods with auditors paying more attention to companies’ leverage and whether they report losses. At the same time, the companies spent less on non-audit services.

    Research limitations/implications: This study is limited to companies from Sweden, which was less affected by the GFC.

    Practical implications: GFC auditors are able to charge higher audit fees to public companies including those that are well-performing during financial crises, and they are also able to increase the audit fees in the post-crisis period. This implies that auditors put in extra audit effort to compensate for higher risk, or that they are good at negotiating prices with their clients. However, non-audit fees decreased during the same period, implying that the demand for these services drops under financial instability.

    Originality/value: The study highlights auditors’ behavior in the liberal economic environment and it studies both audit fees and non-audit fees before GFC, during GFC and after the GFC. The GFC appears to have provided audit firms the opportunity to extract higher audit fees. Our findings are of interest to managers, auditors and regulators.

  • 50.
    Algers, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Engberg, Alexandra
    Informationsstrukturer: En kvalitativ studie om hinder som kan uppkomma ien offentlig organisations interna informationsflöde2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien undersöker hinder i den interna informationsstrukturen i offentliga decentraliserade organisationer, och hur dessa kan överbryggas genom strukturförändringar. Syftet med studien var att föreslå förändringar inom informationsstrukturen som kan begränsa riskerna för en felaktig resursstyrning för ledningen och därmed minska eventuella onödiga kostnader för landstinget, samt förbättra arbetsmiljön för systemanvändarna. Uppsatsen utförs på uppdrag från Norrlands Universitetssjukhus.

    Vi menar att genom en god informationsstruktur som ger en djupare överblick över organisationens information, kan ledningen utföra mer effektiva beslut kring resurser. Påverkande faktorer är informationens struktur, organisationens styrning och organisationens kultur. Detta påverkar även hur förändringsarbetet i organisationen ser ut.

    Data samlades in genom kvalitativa, semistrukturerade intervjuer med sex personer med ledningsperspektiv samt sex personer som har huvudansvaret att boka lokaler. Ledningsgruppen besvarade frågor kring organisationens styrning och struktur, kultur och förändringsarbete. De bokningsansvarigas frågor behandlade hur informationen var strukturerad i bokningssystemen. Genom dessa intervjuer skapades en bild av den interna informationsstrukturen kring en resurs och dess påverkan på ledningen och personalen. Resursen är systemen kring lokalbokningarna.

    Resultatet av studien visar att ledningen saknar en överblick över systemen och att de bokningsansvariga upplevde en låg användarvänlighet i systemen som påverkade arbetsmiljön negativt. En varierande kunskapsnivå över systemens rutiner och struktur återfanns hos båda grupper.

    Studien identifierar hinder i informationsstrukturen kring NUS lokalbokningssystem och visar hur detta påverkar personalen. En väl genomarbetad informationsstruktur gör att organisationen gynnas då ledningen kan ta mer välinformerade beslut kring sina resurser, och arbetsmiljön förbättras för personalen. Därför är det av stor vikt för alla typer av organisationer att arbeta med sin informationsstruktur.

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