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  • 1.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK; The Institute of Sport Exercise & Health (ISEH), University College London Hospitals (UCLH), London, UK.
    Clinical commentary of the evolution of the treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy2015Inngår i: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, ISSN 1413-3555, E-ISSN 1809-9246, Vol. 19, nr 5, s. 429-432Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion was for many years, and still is in many countries, treated with intratendinous revision surgery. However, by coincidence, painful eccentric calf muscle training was tried, and it showed very good clinical results. This finding was unexpected and led to research into the pain mechanisms involved in this condition. Today we know that there are very few nerves inside, but multiple nerves outside, the ventral side of the chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion. These research findings have resulted in new treatment methods targeting the regions with nerves outside the tendon, methods that allow for a rapid rehabilitation and fast return to sports.

  • 2.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Reply to the letter from Dr. Karsten Knobloch regarding our article "Sclerosing injections to treat midportion Achilles tendinosis: a randomized controlled study evaluating two different concentrations of polidocanol"2009Inngår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 17, nr 1, s. 113-114Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 3.
    Almgren, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Danielsson, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Påverkan av Muskeltrötthet på Motorisk Kontroll hos Kvinnliga Innebandyspelare2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Non-contact injuries are a big part of overall injuries in floorball. Deficits in motor control due to muscle fatigue may be a factor that causes non-contact injuries. We analyzed movement changes with The Functional Movement ScreenTM (FMS) with and without muscle fatigue on women floorball players. Method: A pilot study with a cross-sectional structure. FMS test was used to measure changes in movements and to reach fatigue a 5-10 min running ramp protocol on treadmill was used. The borg RPE-scale was used to measure perceived exhaustion. Participants: Seven female floorball players playing in teams at the highest two leagues in Sweden. The participants age was 19.7 (±SD 3,2) years, length 166.4 cm (±SD 7,2) and weight 63.1 kg (±SD 4,5). Results: Through observations of the participants we noted a different movement pattern while obtaining muscle fatigue. The results of FMS total score shows no significant difference (p=0,504) before and after the VO2max running test. The FMS results from exercises that includes the lower extremities (deep squat, hurdle step, in-line lunge and straight leg raise) does not either confirm a significant difference (p=0,132). Discussion: Our subjective analyze of the movements confirms a different movement strategy with and without muscle fatigue. The non-parametric statistical analyze does not confirm this change in movements as significant. The Functional Movement Screen might not be a good tool to measure changes in movement because the movement change has to be in a specific criteria to get a lower point. Even though we saw a different movement strategy after the ramp running test, the deficit in movements was not in the specific criteria that was necessary to get a lower point. Conclusion: Through the test results and our observations we conclude that movement pattern change after an exercise that causes fatigue, does not completely show how much the movement patterns changes and what the consequences are. More research has to be done in this area to confirm such results.

  • 4.
    Anckarman, Erika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Den framgångsrika personliga tränaren: En kvalitativ studie om klienters upplevelse av vilka egenskaper och faktorer som är viktiga för personliga tränare2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Fitnessbranschen har under senare tid expanderat snabbt och PT erbjuds idag på de flesta anläggningar. Träning med PT har positiva effekter fysiskt men även på beteenden kopplat till träning. För ett positiv utfall av träningen krävs det en god interaktion mellan klient och coach.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka vad klienter som tränar eller har tränat med en PT det senaste året anser är viktiga egenskaper och faktorer hos en PT.

    Design och metod: Studien har en kvalitativ deskriptiv design. Datainsamling genomfördes med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för databearbetning.

    Resultat: Vid dataanalysen framkom 3 teman, 6 kategorier och 17 subkategorier. De teman och kategorier som framkom var:

    Framstå som kompetent - Utseende och uppvisad erfarenhet, Ge känsla av bred kunskap Coachingstil- Närvaro här och nu, Individanpassning Pedagogiska strategier - Verktyg för att uppnå resultat, Trygghetsskapande

    Konklusion: Bakgrundsinformation om alla PT bör finnas tillgänglig på hemsida eller anläggning i syfte att klienten ska kunna välja sin en PT utifrån deras personliga önskemål. Detta skulle kunna skapa goda grundförutsättningar för en fungerande arbetsallians. Forskning inom detta område är begränsat och det är därför av intresse att fler större studier genomförs. 

  • 5.
    Anderback, Nanny-Maja
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Öling, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Kan fysisk aktivitet under graviditeten reducera graviditetsrelaterade besvär?2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Många kvinnor är gravida i en eller flera perioder under sitt liv. Under denna tid har studier visat att kvinnor tenderar att bli fysiskt inaktiva. Med en graviditet kommer också en ökad risk för andra sjukdomar och besvär, såsom graviditetsdiabetes och övervikt. Vissa av dessa besvär har kunnat förebyggas med hjälp av fysisk aktivitet. Traditionellt har det funnits en uppfattning om att fysisk aktivitet innebär risker både för den gravida kvinnan och för fostret. Idag finns dock en mer liberal syn på fysisk aktivitet under graviditet men forskningen är fortfarande bristfällig.

    Syfte: Vårt syfte med denna litteraturstudie är att studera effekter av fysisk aktivitet under graviditet på graviditetsrelaterade besvär.

    Resultat: Vår studie har visat att det finns positiva effekter av fysisk aktivitet under graviditet framförallt på graviditetsrelaterade besvär som ländryggssmärta, bäckenbottendysfunktion, trötthet, graviditetsdiabetes och övervikt samt vissa positiva tendenser på preeklampsi, ödem och bäckensmärta.

    Konklusion: Positiva effekter har framkommit men inga tydliga rekommendationer finns, därför behövs ytterligare studier. Många studier har metodologiska brister och därför behövs fler RCT studier på de graviditetsrelaterade besvären för att få konsensus om vilken typ av fysisk aktivitet, duration, intensitet samt frekvens under graviditet som är gynnsamt för de besvär vi studerat.

  • 6.
    Andersson, Hannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gröntvedt, John
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effekten av 8-veckors medicinbollsträning på smashhastighet hos badmintonspelare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 7.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Andersson, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Samband mellan överkroppsstyrka och prestation i skidspåret hos svenska längdskidåkande juniorer.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has identified strength as a key factor for performance in cross-country skiing. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationship between upper body strength and performance in swedish junior cross-country skiers. 33 swedish young men and 23 young women age 17,3 ± 1,0 years volunteered to participate in specific tests during a summer training camp were they completed a test battery consisting of bench press and bench pull. The strength variables obtained were correlated with FIS-points (International Ski Federation´s ranking points for distance and sprint performance) used as the performance indicator. Correlations were performed by Spearman´s rank correlation coefficient for all variables. The results showed that FIS-points for sprint correlated significantly with both bench press and bench pull. No significant correlation was found between FIS-points for distance and bench pull. These results may predict performance for cross-country skiers and indicate a justification for increased proportion of strength training. 

  • 8.
    Andersson, Terese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Menstruationscykelns och p-pillers påverkan på den fysiska prestationsförmågan2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Effects of Menstrual Cycle and Oral Contraceptives on Sport Performance

    During the menstrual cycle, there is a variation of the female steriod hormones estrogen and progestogen. These hormones has mainly reproduktive functions, but do also affect other physiological systems, which may have an influence on athletic performance. The use of oral contraceptives among female athletes matches the use among the general population. There is a concern among female athletes and there coaches weather oral contraceptives can affect the performance. The purpose of this litterature review is to determine the effect of the menstrual cycle and the use of oral contraceptives on athletic performance. Most studies indicates that neither the aerobic performance or VO₂max changes during the mestrual cycle, but an increase in ventilation during the lutheal phase has been observed. In the lutheal phase, the body temperature is elevated, which can affect the performance negatively during physical activity in hot and humid conditions. Studies evaluating the anaerobic performance shows varied results, which can be explained by few study participants, different study designs and varying definitions of menstrual cycle phase. Some studies that have examined the strength variation have not seen any difference, and others have seen an advantage during the follicular phase, when it also seems to be beneficial to train more strength training to optimize training adaptation. The use of oral contraceptives can affect the body composition of female athletes. Fat mass and BMD can increase, and is seen mainly in athleteswith mestrual dysfunctions. This can be benificial for their health and decrease the risk of injury, but may decrease performace level. The effect of oral contraceptive administration on aerobic capacity, anaerobic capacity and strength are unclear and the research has come up with varying results. Future studies should investigate oneoral contraceptive pill formulation at a time, andalso compare different formulations, to determineif that affect performance in different ways.

    Key words: menstruation, oral contraceptives, female athlete, performance, hormones

  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Could the negative effects of static stretching in warm-up be restored by sport specific exercise?2017Inngår i: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, ISSN 0022-4707, E-ISSN 1827-1928, ISSN 0022-4707Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Static stretching (SS) is widely used in warm-up as it is generally believed to increase mobility and reduce the risk of injury; however, SS has been shown to induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. Interestingly, recent studies have shown that sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on certain sports, especially of explosive muscular performance. Whether sport specific exercise could restore SS-induced negative effects on isokinetic muscle performance remains unclear.

    METHODS: The present study conducted two different warm-ups: 2-component warm-up and 3-component warm-up on 15 university students. Both protocols contained low intensity aerobic exercise and sport specific exercise, whereas the 3-component warm-up also contained SS which has been previously proven to induce negative effects on subsequent muscle performance. After the warm-ups, the subjects performed an isokinetic test on a Biodex. To make the sport specific exercise mimic the subsequent test, both included concentric isokinetic knee extension. During the tests, muscle performance of peak torque, mean power, and total work was recorded. Comparison of the measurements on each parameter between the two warm-ups was performed using paired t test.

    RESULTS: The comparisons did not reveal any significant difference in the measurement of any parameter between the two different warm-up protocols, and calculation of Cohen's revealed small effect sizes on all of the three variables.

    CONCLUSIONS: On basis of the present results and that the SS could induce transient negative effects on subsequent muscle performance, we concluded that the negative effects of the SS on the variables were restored by the isokinetic contractions.

  • 10.
    Berglund, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Norrlandskliniken Hlth Care Ctr, Umea, Sweden.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi .
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of Low-Load Motor Control Exercises and a High-Load Lifting Exercise on Lumbar Multifidus Thickness: A Randomized Controlled Trial2017Inngår i: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 42, nr 15, s. E876-E882Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design. Randomized controlled trial.Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercises and a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise, on lumbar multifidus (LM) thickness on either side of the spine and whether the effects were affected by pain intensity or change in pain intensity. Summary of Background Data. There is evidence that patients with low back pain (LBP) may have a decreased size of the LM muscles with an asymmetry between sides in the lower back. It has also been shown that LMC training can affect this asymmetry. It is, however, not known whether a high-load exercise has the same effect. Methods. Sixty-five participants diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical LBP were included and randomized into LMC exercises or a HLL exercise, the deadlift. The LM thickness was measured using rehabilitative ultrasound imaging (RUSI), at baseline and after a 2-month training period. Results. There were no differences between interventions regarding effect on LM muscle thickness. However, the analysis showed a significant effect for asymmetry. The thickness of the LM muscle on the small side increased significantly compared with the large side in both intervention groups, without influence of pain at baseline, or change in pain intensity.Conclusion. At baseline, there was a difference in thickness of the LM muscles between sides. It seems that exercises focusing on spinal alignment may increase the thickness of the LM muscles on the small side, irrespective of exercise load. The increase in LM thickness does not appear to be mediated by either current pain intensity or the magnitude of change in pain intensity.

  • 11.
    Bodin, Jimmy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Eklund, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    En jämförelse av den fysiska kapaciteten mellan kvinnliga och manliga fotbollsspelare2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Football (or soccer) is a physically complex sport that involves everything from kicking, running, throwing, tackling etc. Even if most of the participants are men, more and more women are playing. As many know there are general differences between genders. A common knowledge is that men are stronger and have higher aerobic capacity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate gender differences in football. 32 experienced football players participated in this study. 17 men (mean age: 22,7 ± 3,5 years, bodyweight: 79,4 ± 7,4kg) and 17 women (mean age: 22,1 ± 3,3 years, bodyweight: 65,2 ± 8,4 kg). The women play in the Swedish first division while men are playing in the Swedish third division. Subjects were tested in endurance (Yo- Yo Intermittent Endurance level 2 test), jumping ability  (Squat jump (SJ), Countermovement jump without (CMJ) and with arm swing (CMJ (a)) and sprinting ability (10 meter sprint). The result shows none significant differences between the two teams. The most differences were found in the Yo- Yo IE2 test where the men ran 2321 ± 605m in contrast to the women 1965± 505m (p=0,07).  In the sprint testes the men ran 10 meters at 1,77± 0,1s and the women 1,79± 0,1s (p=0,57). At the vertical jump testes the result where in SJ for men 33,2 ± 3,3 and women 31,2 ± 5,2 cm (p=0,11), In CMJ the men performed 35,9 ±5,2 cm and women 33,1±3,6 cm (p=0,10) and in CMJ (a) the men performed 40,0 ±7,3 cm and the women 40,0 ± 3,5 cm (p=0,98). In conclusion the men and women have a similar physical capacity since there were no significant differences found. This could be a result from different training structures or the different physical demands varying from the two divisions.

  • 12.
    Bohlin, Emelie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Difference in the muscle cell proteome between clean and doped athletes A study of protein-protein interactions2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 13.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gene expression and fiber type variations in repeated vastus lateralis biopsies2015Inngår i: Muscle and Nerve, ISSN 0148-639X, E-ISSN 1097-4598, Vol. 52, nr 2, s. 812-817Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Muscle sample collection can introduce variation in any measured variable due to inter- and intramuscle variation. We investigated the variation in gene expression and fiber type composition after repeated biopsy sampling from the vastus lateralis muscle. Methods: Six subjects donated 3 tissue samples each. One hour after baseline sampling from 1 vastus lateralis muscle, samples from both vastus lateralis muscles were obtained. Results: The fiber type composition differed between biopsies taken from the same leg. There were no within-subject differences in gene expression between the 3 biopsies. Multivariate analysis supports a model in which gene expression differs significantly between individuals but is not affected by repeated muscle biopsy sampling from the same subject. Conclusion: One vastus lateralis muscle sample per subject is sufficient to establish a reliable baseline for comparing gene expression representing selected pathways over time within the same individual.

  • 14.
    Boman, Niklas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Burén, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Åkerfeldt, T
    Svensson, Michael B.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of protein ingestion on the hormonal response to resistance exercise and increases in lean body mass after eight weeks of trainingManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Bramell, Axel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Differences in the relationship of heart rate and blood lactate values between running on track versus inclined treadmill: Improving laboratory testing to accurately prescribe exercise intensities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the generalisability of the heart rate-blood lactate relationship determined in laboratory testing in comparison to running over ground. This plays a crucial role to prescribe exercise intensity from laboratory results. Ten well trained runners performed a maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) pre-test and an incremental submaximal test performed at a two degrees inclined treadmill and a running track. Statistical analysis included student’s t-test of heart rate at interpolated blood lactate levels and comparison of second order polynomial regression lines. VO2max was 60,4 ± 6 ml/kg/min for men and 56,3 ± 4,3 ml/kg/min for women. There was no significant difference in heart rate at interpolated blood lactate of 3 and 4 mmol/L. There was no significant difference between heart rate values at any running velocity. A significant difference between blood lactate values was observed 14km/h (p=0,04). When considering blood lactate values up to 6mmol/L, heart rate-blood lactate relationships were similar. In conclusion, lactate threshold testing on treadmill through incremental test protocols on a two degrees incline gives similar heart rate- blood lactate relationship as running over ground and may be used to prescribe intensity in training performed over ground. 

  • 16.
    Bramell, Axel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Jakobsson, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Validation and practical evaluation of the Onesenz microdialysis lactate analyser2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the reliability of the new Onesenz on-line microdialysis lactate analyser compared to the YSI 2300 Stat Plus. Venous blood lactate concentrations were measured simultaneously with both analysers during an incremental cycle ergometer test. Eight physically active men and women completed the test to voluntary exhaustion. A total of 81 blood samples from both devices were included in the analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted through correlation, regression analysis and limits of agreement. Lactate values during graded exercise ranged from 0,5 mM/l to 14,1 mM/l. A significant correlation was observed between the two analysers, r(79)=0,98, p<0,001. Regression analysis determined the equation: [Onesenz] = 0,811*[YSI] + 0,345  and coefficient of determination (R2) was 0,95. The mean difference between the analysers was 0,15 mM/l ± 0,7 mM/l. The agreement between the two analysers deteriorated above 6 mM/l. When studying bLa values above 6 mM/l the mean difference was 1,38 ± 1,3 mM/l. In conclusion, the Onesenz lactate analyser provides reliable bLa measurements up to 6 mM/l compared to the YSI 2300. In the context of sports medicine the more time consuming method of microdialysis limits its appropriateness to longer test protocols, but on the other hand reduces human error. Still, the prototype lacks several features concerning practical usefulness.

    Keywords: Blood lactate, Microdialysis, Lactate threshold, Exercise testing, Lactate analyser

  • 17.
    Brännström, André
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Jonsson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Åkerfeldt, Torbjörn
    Stridsberg, Mats
    Svensson, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Vitamin D in relation to bone health and muscle function in young female soccer players2017Inngår i: European Journal of Sport Science, ISSN 1746-1391, E-ISSN 1536-7290, Vol. 17, nr 2, s. 249-256Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present work investigated serum vitamin D (25(OH)D) status in relation to bone and muscle qualities and functions in 19 female soccer players (13–16 years) resident at northern latitude with very low sun exposure (∼32–36 h/month) during winter season (late January to early March). Serum 25(OH)D, parathyroid hormone and bone turnover markers osteocalcin (OC) and beta carboxy-terminal collagen cross-links (β-Ctx), as well as body composition and muscle performance were examined. Hormones were tested using routine laboratory methods. Fat mass, lean mass, and bone mineral density in whole body, as well as femur and lumbar spine were evaluated with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Muscle performance was assessed through isokinetic knee extension and flexion, countermovement jump, and sprint running. 25(OH)D was low (50.5 ± 12.8 nmol l−1), whereas the values of bone turnover markers were markedly high (OC: 59.4 ± 18.6 μg l−1; β-Ctx: 1075 ± 408 ng l−1). All bone and muscle measurements were normal or above normal. 25(OH) D was not significantly correlated with most of the parameters of bone and muscle quality or function, except the knee extension time to peak torque (r = −0.50, p = .03). In conclusion, the level of vitamin D is markedly low in adolescent female soccer players during the winter in Sweden. However, vitamin D levels did not significantly correlate with measures of bone and muscle except a moderate correlation in time to peak torque in the knee extensors. The practical implication of low vitamin D levels in young growing female athletes remains unclear.

  • 18.
    Carlsson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    Physiological demands of competitive elite cross-country skiing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Researchers have, for decades, contributed to an increased collective understanding of the physiological demands in cross-country skiing; however, almost all of these studies have used either non-elite subjects and/or performances that emulate cross-country skiing. To establish the physiological demands of cross-country skiing, it is important to relate the investigated physiological variables to the competitive performance of elite skiers. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was, therefore, to investigate the external validity of physiological test variables to determine the physiological demands in competitive elite cross-country skiing.

    Methods The subjects in Study I – IV were elite male (I – III) and female (III – IV) cross-country skiers. In all studies, the relationship between test variables (general and ski-specific) and competitive performances (i.e. the results from competitions or the overall ski-ranking points of the International Ski Federation (FIS) for sprint (FISsprint) and distance (FISdist) races) were analysed. Test variables reflecting the subject’s general strength, upper-body and whole-body oxygen uptake, oxygen uptake and work intensity at the lactate threshold, mean upper-body power, lean mass, and maximal double-poling speed were investigated.

    Results The ability to maintain a high work rate without accumulating lactate is an indicator of distance performance, independent of sex (I, IV). Independent of sex, high oxygen uptake in whole-body and upper-body exercise was important for both sprint (II, IV) and distance (I, IV) performance. The maximal double-poling speed and 60-s double-poling mean power output were indicators of sprint (IV) and distance performance (I), respectively. Lean mass was correlated with distance performance for women (III), whereas correlations were found between lean mass and sprint performance among both male and female skiers (III). Moreover, no correlations between distance performance and test variables were derived from tests of knee-extension peak torque, vertical jumps, or double poling on a ski-ergometer with 20-s and 360-s durations (I), whereas gross efficiency while treadmill roller skiing showed no correlation with either distance or sprint performance in cross-country skiing (IV).

    Conclusion The results in this thesis show that, depending on discipline and sex, maximal and peak oxygen uptake, work intensity at the lactate threshold, lean mass, double-poling mean power output, and double-poling maximal speed are all externally valid physiological test variables for evaluation of performance capability among elite cross-country skiers; however, to optimally indicate performance capability different test-variable expressions should be used; in general, the absolute expression appears to be a better indicator of competitive sprint performance whereas the influence of body mass should be considered when evaluating competitive distance performance capability of elite cross-country skiers.

  • 19.
    Carlsson, Tomas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden..
    The importance of body-mass exponent optimization for evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Performance in cross-country skiing is influenced by the skier’s ability to continuously produce propelling forces and force magnitude in relation to the net external forces. A surrogate indicator of the “power supply” in cross-country skiing would be a physiological variable that reflects an important performance-related capability, whereas the body mass itself is an indicator of the “power demand” experienced by the skier. To adequately evaluate an elite skier’s performance capability, it is essential to establish the optimal ratio between the physiological variable and body mass. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis was to investigate the importance of body-mass exponent optimization for the evaluation of performance capability in cross-country skiing.

    Methods In total, 83 elite cross-country skiers (56 men and 27 women) volunteered to participate in the four studies. The physiological variables of maximal oxygen uptake (V̇O2max) and oxygen uptake corresponding to a blood-lactate concentration of 4 mmol∙l-1 (V̇O2obla) were determined while treadmill roller skiing using the diagonal-stride technique; mean oxygen uptake (V̇O2dp) and upper-body power output () were determined during double-poling tests using a ski-ergometer. Competitive performance data for elite male skiers were collected from two 15-km classical-technique skiing competitions and a 1.25-km sprint prologue; additionally, a 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trial using the double-poling technique was used as an indicator of upper-body performance capability among elite male and female junior skiers. Power-function modelling was used to explain the race and time-trial speeds based on the physiological variables and body mass.

    Results The optimal V̇O2max-to-mass ratios to explain 15-km race speed were V̇O2max divided by body mass raised to the 0.48 and 0.53 power, and these models explained 68% and 69% of the variance in mean skiing speed, respectively; moreover, the 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the body-mass exponents did not include either 0 or 1. For the modelling of race speed in the sprint prologue, body mass failed to contribute to the models based on V̇O2max, V̇O2obla, and V̇O2dp. The upper-body power output-to-body mass ratio that optimally explained time-trial speed was m-0.57 and the model explained 63% of the variance in speed.

    Conclusions The results in this thesis suggest that V̇O2max divided by the square root of body mass should be used as an indicator of performance in 15-km classical-technique races among elite male skiers rather than the absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression. To optimally explain an elite male skier’s performance capability in sprint prologues, power-function models based on oxygen-uptake variables expressed absolutely are recommended. Moreover, to evaluate elite junior skiers’ performance capabilities in 2-km double-poling roller-skiing time trials, it is recommended that divided by the square root of body mass should be used rather than absolute or simple ratio-standard scaled expression of power output.

  • 20.
    Christensen, Jens
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. UCLH, ISEH, London, England; Pure Sports Clin, London, England.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Protease-activated receptors in the Achilles tendon-a potential explanation for the excessive pain signalling in tendinopathy2015Inngår i: Molecular Pain, ISSN 1744-8069, E-ISSN 1744-8069, Vol. 11, artikkel-id 13Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background/Aim: Tendinopathies are pathological conditions of tissue remodelling occurring in the major tendons of the body, accompanied by excessive nociceptive signalling. Tendinopathies have been shown to exhibit an increase in the number of mast cells, which are capable of releasing histamine, tryptase and other substances upon activation, which may play a role in the development of tendinopathies. This study set out to describe the distribution patterns of a family of receptors called protease-activated receptors (PARs) within the Achilles tendon. These four receptors (PAR1, PAR2, PAR3, PAR4) are activated by proteases, including tryptase released from mast cells, and are involved in fibrosis, hyperalgesia and neovascularisation, which are changes seen in tendinopathies. Method: In order to study which structures involved in tendinopathy that these proteases can affect, biopsies from patients suffering of mid-portion Achilles tendinosis and healthy controls were collected and examined using immunohistochemistry. Tendon cells were cultured to study in vitro expression patterns. Results: The findings showed a distribution of PARs inside the tendon tissue proper, and in the paratendinous tissue, with all four being expressed on nerves and vascular structures. Double staining showed co-localisation of PARs with nociceptive fibres expressing substance P. Concerning tenocytes, PAR2, PAR3, and PAR4, were found in both biopsies of tendon tissue and cultured tendon cells. Conclusions: This study describes the expression patterns of PARs in the mid-portion of the Achilles tendon, which can help explain the tissue changes and increased pain signalling seen in tendinopathies. These findings also show that in-vitro studies of the effects of these receptors are plausible and that PARs are a possible therapeutic target in the future treatment strategies of tendinopathy.

  • 21.
    Edit, Strömbäck
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Prevalence of injuries and pain in Swedish powerlifters2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 22.
    Edlund, Anton
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Åman, Jim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    ANIMS Test and Wingate: A Correlation Study2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate if there is a correlation between ANIMS

    test and the Wingate test. We also aim to understand the metabolic demands for an ice hockey

    player better. 21 male ice hockey players, age 18,0 ± 1,8 participated in the study. The study

    consisted of an anaerobic bike test (Wingate test) and a repeated sprint test on ice (ANIMS

    test). Participants conducted the test in a random order. Peak power, power drop,

    VelocityMax were recorded for the Wingate test while time on each sprint and total sprint

    time were recorded for ANIMS test. Lactate samples were taken pre-test, 0-1 minute post test

    and 5 minutes post test. Results revealed that there is a significant correlation between Peak

    power (Wingate test) and Time on the first sprint (ANIMS). There was also a significant

    correlation between VelocityMax (Wingate test) and each of the sprints in ANIMS test. All

    the sprints on ANIMS test correlated with each other. The difference in lactate concentration

    from pre-test – 0-1 minute post and pre-test – 5 minutes post test was statistically significant

    in both ANIMS test and Wingate test. There was no significant correlation between Peak

    power (Wingate test) and Total sprint time (ANIMS). There was no significant correlation

    between Power Drop on Wingate test and the increased sprint time on ANIMS test. ANIMS

    test seems to be an anaerobic test since it correlates with Wingate test which is a valid

    anaerobic test. High concentration of post-exercise blood lactate confirms that teams and/or

    players that want to evaluate their anaerobic capacity and effect can use ANIMS test to do so.

    We therefore conclude that ANIMS test can be used as a on ice anaerobic test.

  • 23.
    Eklund, Viktor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of a short training programme on reaction time, agility and speed performance in adolescent football players.: Effekterna av ett kort träningsprogram för reaktionsförmåga, agility och snabbhet på fotbollsspelande tonåringar.2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Prestation i fotboll beror på många olika fysiska faktorer som exempelvis styrka,

    uthållighet och snabbhet. Snabbheten kan delas upp i många olika faktorer

    exempelvis sprinter rakt fram och agility. Det finns även något som kallas reaktiv

    agility vilket betyder att man reagerar på ett visuellt stimuli och därefter reagerar med

    ett beslut. En förmåga som verkar bli mer central i fotbollen. Syftet med denna studie

    var att utvärdera ett kort träningsprograms påverkan på de olika snabbhetsfaktorerna,

    raka sprint, agility och reaktiv agility samt beräkna korrelationer mellan de olika

    variablerna. Metod: Före- och eftertester gjordes på 19 ungdomar från svenska U17

    allsvenskan. Testpersonerna delades därefter upp i en interventionsgrupp(IG)(N=9)

    och en kontrollgrupp(KG)(N=10). Testerna som utfördes var Reactive agility

    test(RAT), Agility 5-0-5 och 10- 20- 30 meter sprint. IG fick efter testerna utföra ett

    träningspass i veckan under fem veckor bestående av två parövningar med fokus på

    reaktionssnabbhet, sprint och agility. Resultat: Inga statistisk signifikanta skillnader

    fanns mellan grupperna efter träningsperioden. Konklusion: Resultaten pekade mot

    att interventionsprogrammet inte hade någon påverkan. Däremot går det att ifrågasätta

    resultatet då eftertesterna utfördes på ett mindre bra sätt.

  • 24.
    Ekstedt, Erik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Styrka och flexibilitet i hamstrings efter ACL rekonstruktion med hamstringsgraft2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It´s crucial to restore hamstring strength after anterior cruciate ligament reconsuction (ACLR) to improve dynamic stability and minimize risk of injuries. High flexibility in hamstrings is a risk for ACL injury and after ACLR muscle stiffness in hamstrings is increased as a defense mechanism which leads to altered flexibility. Women and men have different conditions and results after ACLR. The purpose of this study is to examine research about strength and flexibility in hamstrings after ACLR with hamstring tendon graft between the operated leg and the non-operated leg/control group and examine if there is a difference between the genders.

    Method: Articles published between 2000-2015 was searched in Pubmed, ProQuest, Pedro and SportDiscuss between February and March 2015. Studies in Swedish and English were included which compared the operated leg to the non-opererade leg/control group after ACLR with hamstring tendon graft.

    Result: No studies on hamstring flexibility were found. 63 articles on hamstring strength which of 41 found a strength deficit in hamstring strength after ACLR. No differences between the genders were found.

    Conclusion: Reduced hamstring strength specifically up to 12 months after surgery. Distinct deficit in deep knee flexion angles and tendencies to lack of muscular endurance strength. Contrast between comparison with non-operated leg or a control group.

    Significance: Training of deep knee flexion needs more focus. More research on flexibility and endurance strength in hamstrings is needed.

  • 25.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Difference in odds ratio in potential risk factors among ACL injured competitive alpine skiers: -a retrospective study based on a questionnaire among competitive alpine skiers2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to detect differences in odds ratio in potential risk factors at the time of the injury among ACL injured competitive alpine skiers. 33 elite and sub-elite ACL injured alpine skiers participated in the study and answered at an internet-based questionnaire referring to personal data, training, type of injury, how the injury occurred and conditions during the incidence.

    Of 33 alpine skiers, 11 sustained their injury after 3-4 consecutive days of training. Eighteen alpine skiers injured their ACL after 1-4 runs. The majority of the injuries occurred in the slalom events (SL and GS). Forty-eight percent reported that the weather was clear at the time of the incidence, while 21 practitioners reported that they slept eight or more hours the night before the injury.

    The main finding of the present study was that the majority of the ACL injuries in among alpine ski racers occurred after 3-4 consecutive training days. No differences were detected in odds ratio of the rest of the variables (number of runs, type of discipline, weather, light setting and snow conditions) which seem not to be related to the ACL injury rate of the rest of the variables. 

  • 26.
    Eriksson, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Strandvall, Izabelle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Träningsvolym på snö och dess betydelse för prestationsförmåga -en möjlig faktor för att nå framgång inom alpin skidåkning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate if high volume of sport specific training is correlated with FIS ranking in FIS world cup for alpine skiers. The study is a retrospective cohort study, and thirteen (n= 13) elite alpine skiers, who were in the Swedish national team season 2008/2009, were selected to participate in the study. The participants are both males (n=7) and females (n=6), and compete in the alpine disciplines slalom (SL) and giant slalom (GS).  The performance levels were determined by the 13th FIS points list 2008/2009 and correlated with the athletes training volume on snow. The data with information about training volume were collected from the Swedish national team’s database.

    The main findings in this study were that there is no significant correlation between the volume of sport specific training and performance level in FIS world cup for alpine skiers. Neither in SL (p=0, 1737) nor in GS (p=0, 5053).

    The findings of this study are likely of importance for alpine skiing trainers and the athletes themselves. Since alpine skiing is a complex sport with many factors to consider, it is important to distribute the training for maximum performance capacity. Therefore, due to this fact it is essential for those who work with alpine skiing to know how to plan the training year to achieve maximum performance of the athlete. In conclusion, because of no significant correlation in the results further studies with larger sample sizes are needed. 

  • 27.
    Flatholm, Emil
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Identifying Underlying Factors that Affect the Risk for Sustatining Sport Injuries in Athletic Adolescents: Through Evaluation of Body Control, Muscle Activation in the Lower Extremities, Joint Laxity, and Joint Mobility, a Quantitative Study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sport injuries are a widespread problem in elite sports and is accounting for 30- 40% out of all unintentional injuries in adolescents. In Sweden, 47.000 sport injuries occurred in children and adolescents aged 0-17 years old during a period over three years (2010-2013). Sustaining a sport injury in early age may impact the attitude towards sports and the amount of physical activity exercised. Lately, an increase of high-schools with special emphasis on elite sports is seen, which leads to more adolescents being exposed to the risk for sustaining a sport injury. There are several commonly used tests to evaluate injury risk in athletes. Tests such as body control screening, joint laxity screening, and measurements of muscle quality.

    Aim: The aim of the present prospective study was to a) investigate the correlations between, b) analyse differences between gender, and c) analyse potential differences between teenage athletes that received an injury or not during their first elite sports high-school year with use of pre-semester functional movement screening methods with the intent to address factors that increase the risk for future injuries.

    Method: Two-hundred-eighty-seven (n=287) athletic adolescents, 15-16 years of age from an elite sports school (Dragonskolans elitidrottsgymnasium) in Umeå participated in the study. The subjects underwent testing at the start of the first semester of their first year in high school. The tests were the following: The functional movement screen (FMS), Beighton score, measures of joint mobility, and measures of muscle activation in knee flexors and extensors. The following incidence of sport injuries during the first year at the elite sports school were studied in relation to results from the initial movement tests.

    Results: No significant difference was found between injured and non-injured in the FMS total score, nor between gender. Females scored significantly higher than males in Beighton total score (p<0,05). There was no significant difference to be seen in Beighton total score between injured and non-injured. Females was more likely to receive injuries and were significantly more mobile in hamstrings, quadriceps, iliopsoas, the right calf, weaker in both knee flexors and knee extensors, and reached peak torque in knee extensors slower than males.

    Injured reached peak torque significantly slower than non-injured in the right knee flexors. No correlations could be seen between the FMS, Beighton score, joint mobility, and muscle measurements in the lower extremity. Conclusion: It is of utmost importance that the Functional Movement Screen is researched and developed further, alternatively, that development of a new evaluation tool is carried out when it comes to risk assessment of future sports injuries in adolescent athletes. Joint laxity as addressed by Beighton score with a cut-off at five points is not a depending factor in this population regarding the presence of sport injuries. Athletic adolescents showing slow activation of the knee flexors may be in a greater risk for sustaining an injury. By understanding, addressing, and counteracting risk-factors for sustaining sport injuries we can avoid negative physiological, psychological, social, and socioeconomically consequences. Therefore, further research is needed to address these physiological, psychological, biological, and social factors that may impact the injury risk in athletic adolescents.

      

  • 28.
    Fomin, Gabrielsen, Sanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Utför fotbollsspelare skadeförebyggande träningsprogram och har de tillgång till medicinsk personal?: - En enkätundersökning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Det finns i tidigare studier beskrivna problem så som implementering och följsamhet när det gäller skadeförebyggande träningsprogram (SPP) för fotbollsspelare.

     

    Syfte: Syftet med studien är att kartlägga och undersöka om kvinnliga och manliga fotbollslag i Stockholm utför ett SPP samt om det finns något samband med deras tillgång till medicinsk personal. Syftet är också att undersöka om det finns någon skillnad på tillgången till medicinsk personal och utförande av SPP mellan kvinnliga och manliga fotbollsspelare.

     

    Metod: Enkäten skickades ut till 133 manliga och kvinnliga fotbollsspelare från samma fotbollsklubb. Enkäten innehöll 14 frågor om tillgång till medicinsk personal, information om skadeförebyggande träning samt utförande av SPP.

     

    Resultat: Totalt 82 fotbollsspelare besvarade enkäten.  Majoriteten av deltagarna uppgav att de har tillgång till medicinsk personal. Fler manliga än kvinnliga fotbollsspelare har tillgång till medicinsk personal (P=0,018). Ingen korrelation visades mellan att ha tillgång till medicinsk personal och att ha fått information om skadeförebyggande träning (P=0,45). 66% av deltagarna angav att de utför ett SPP. Tillgång till medicinsk personal korrelerade med utförande av ett SPP (P=0,04).

     

    Slutsats: Medicinsk personal verkar ha en betydelse när det gäller utförande av ett skadeförebyggande träningsprogram. Vidare forskning krävs inom området för att motivera fotbollslag att ta hjälp av medicinsk personal

  • 29.
    Fong, Gloria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Backman, Ludvig J.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Scott, Alex
    Centre for Hip Health and Mobility, Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute, Vancouver, BC, Canada.
    Danielson, Patrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Oftalmiatrik.
    The Effects of Substance P and Acetylcholine on Human Tenocyte Proliferation Converge Mechanistically via TGF-β12017Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, nr 3, artikkel-id e0174101Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous in vitro studies on human tendon cells (tenocytes) have demonstrated that the exogenous administration of substance P (SP) and acetylcholine (ACh) independently result in tenocyte proliferation, which is a prominent feature of tendinosis. Interestingly, the possible link between SP and ACh has not yet been explored in human tenocytes. Recent studies in other cell types demonstrate that both SP and ACh independently upregulate TGF-β1 expression via their respective receptors, the neurokinin 1 receptor (NK-1R) and muscarinic ACh receptors (mAChRs). Furthermore, TGF-β1 has been shown to downregulate NK-1R expression in human keratocytes. The aim of this study was to examine if TGF-β1 is the intermediary player involved in mediating the proliferative pathway shared by SP and ACh in human tenocytes. The results showed that exogenous administration of SP and ACh both caused significant upregulation of TGF-β1 at the mRNA and protein levels. Exposing cells to TGF-β1 resulted in increased cell viability of tenocytes, which was blocked in the presence of the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor. In addition, the proliferative effects of SP and ACh on tenocytes were reduced by the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor; this supports the hypothesis that the proliferative effects of these signal substances are mediated via the TGF-β axis. Furthermore, exogenous TGF-β1 downregulated NK-1R and mAChRs expression at both the mRNA and protein levels, and these effects were negated by simultaneous exposure to the TGFβRI/II kinase inhibitor, suggesting a negative feedback loop. In conclusion, the results indicate that TGF-β1 is the intermediary player through which the proliferative actions of both SP and ACh converge mechanistically.

  • 30.
    Forsgren, Sture
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Andersson, Gustav
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Handkirurgi.
    Further proof of the existence of a non-neuronal cholinergic system in the human Achilles tendon: Presence of the AChR alpha 7 receptor in tendon cells and cells in the peritendinous tissue2015Inngår i: International Immunopharmacology, ISSN 1567-5769, E-ISSN 1878-1705, Vol. 29, nr 1, s. 195-200Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Human tendon cells have the capacity for acetylcholine (ACh) production. It is not known if the tendon cells also have the potential for ACh breakdown, nor if they show expression of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor AChR alpha 7 (alpha 7nAChR). Therefore, tendon tissue specimens from patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy/tendinosis and from normal midportion Achilles tendons were examined. Reaction for the degradative enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was found in some tenocytes in only a few tendinopathy tendons, and was never found in those of control tendons. Tenocytes displayed more regularly alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity. However, there was a marked heterogeneity in the degree of this reaction within and between the specimens. alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was especially pronounced for tenocytes showing an oval/widened appearance. There was a tendency that the magnitude of alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity was higher in tendinopathy tendons as compared to control tendons. A stronger alpha 7nAChR immunoreactivity than seen for tenocytes was observed for the cells in the peritendinous tissue. It is likely that the alpha 7nAChR may be an important part of an auto-and paracrine loop of non-neuronal ACh that is released from the tendon cells. The effects may be related to proliferative and blood vessel regulatory functions as well as features related to collagen deposition. ACh can furthermore be of importance in leading to anti-inflammatory effects in the peritendinous tissue, a tissue nowadays considered to be of great relevance for the tendinopathy process. Overall, the findings show that tendon tissue, a tissue known to be devoid of cholinergic innervation, is a tissue in which there is a marked non-neuronal cholinergic system.

  • 31.
    Furberg, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Hyyrynen, Tuija
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Smålagsspel och intervallbaserad fysträning och dess påverkan på fysiska kvalitéer hos elitdamfotbollsspelare.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Soccer is the world's most popular sport and therefore has been widely studied. Soccer performance is dependent upon a variety of factors such as technical, tactical, psychological and physiological qualities that are required in order to perform in a high level. Most of the studies so far were aiming in describing and defining successful’s player profile. Based on the requirement profile, new "soccer-specific training programs" have been designed to develop players' fitness and strength through soccer-specific drills instead of or as a complement to traditional running training without the ball. This development has created a new research discourse that shows the physiological and performance-wise benefits of soccer specific training such as small-sided games. This study investigates the physiological effects of a soccer-specific training program in a setting of elite women soccer players. Method: 13 (N = 13) elite women soccer players participated in a research setting, which consisted of 15 weeks of soccer specific physical training. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the impact of soccer specific physical training on player's fitness, jumping ability, strength, and sprint capacity. These features have been measured through physiological tests performed before and after the soccer specific pre-season training. Results: A significant improvement was seen in squat jump as well as in 10-meter and 20-meter sprint results. Meanwhile the results from the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test level 2 showed a tendency towards improvement. Conclusion: The results showed that soccer-specific training improved physical qualities, such as sprint and jump capabilities, of elite women soccer players in this study.

  • 32.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Bjorklund, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Kosek, E.
    Hallgren, Solveig
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Antti, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Fahlstrom, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Professionell utveckling.
    Hellstrom, F.
    Systemic differences in serum metabolome: a cross sectional comparison of women with localised and widespread pain and controls2015Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, artikkel-id 15925Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic musculoskeletal pain exists either as localised to a single region or as widespread to multiple sites in several quadrants of the body. Prospective studies indicate that widespread pain could act as a far end of a continuum of musculoskeletal pain that started with chronic localised pain. The mechanism by which the transition from localised pain to widespread occurs is not clear, although many studies suggest it to be an altered metabolism. In this study, systemic metabolic differences between women with chronic localised neck-shoulder pain (NP), women with chronic widespread pain (CWP) and women who were healthy (CON) were assessed. Blood samples were analysed taking a metabolomics approach using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). The metabolomics analysis showed a clear systematic difference in the metabolic profiles between the subjects with NP and the CON but only a weak systematic difference between the subjects with CWP and the CON. This most likely reflects a difference in the portion of the metabolome influenced by the two pain conditions. In the NP group, the overall metabolic profile suggests that processes related to energy utilisation and lipid metabolism could be central aspects of mechanisms maintaining disorder.

  • 33.
    Hadrevi, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Turkina, Maria V
    Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköpings universitet.
    Carlsson, Anders
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Gerdle, Björn
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Larsson, Britt
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Hellström, Fredrik
    Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Högskolan i Gävle.
    Ghafouri, Bijar
    Division of Community Medicine, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Linköpings universitet.
    Myosin light chain and calcium regulating protein differences in chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain2016Inngår i: Journal of Integrated Omnics, ISSN 2182-0287, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 1-8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteomic screening analysis has detected myosin light chain (MLC) as a protein implied to be involved in chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain. Several analyses of MLC proteins have stated a difference in phosphorylation being the determining factor for protein activation hence altered contrability of the muscle in i.e. senescence. In continuation of a previous publication, this study is an attempt to analyze the different MLC isoforms by mass spectrometry and immune-analyses in myalgic and healthy trapezius muscle. In the present study no differences in phosphorylation level between the corresponding individual proteins were detected using LC-MSMS and immunoblotting; instead we assigned different isoforms of regulatory MLCs. To further elucidate the contrability: calcium (Ca2+) regulatory proteins, sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase 1 (SERCA-1) and calsequestrine (CSQ) were analyzed by western blot. The analysis revealed a significantly increased abundance of SERCA-1 protein in the myalgic muscle and a significantly increased abundance of CSQ in healthy muscle. Myalgic muscle contraction patterns have in previous studies shown to differ from healthy muscle which may be connected to the Ca2+ availability in the muscle. Here we present the proteomic characterization of differences in Ca2+ regulating proteins and particularly regulatory MLCs in trapezius muscle of women with chronic musculoskeletal neck and shoulder pain.

  • 34.
    Hallenstål, Tove
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Sundqvist, Ida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Svensson, Michael
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Yu, Ji-Guo
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Evaluation of a New Automated Pulmonary Gas Analysis System2015Inngår i: International Journal of Exercise Science, ISSN 1939-795X, Vol. 8, nr 3, s. 287-296Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aimed to evaluate the validity and reliability of a new automated pulmonary gas analysis system - Exercise Physiology System (EPS). The Oxycon Pro, a well-established automated pulmonary gas analysis system was used as a reference system. Six well-trained cyclists were recruited and performed two identical submaximal exercises on a cycle ergometer over one week interval. During the exercises, pulmonary gas exchange: ventilation (VE), oxygen consumption (VO2), elimination of carbon dioxide (VCO2), and ratio between carbon dioxide and oxygen (RER) was measured using both systems in randomized order. The exercise was composed of three incremental work-loads (Watt) of low, medium, and high load corresponding to 40%, 60%, and 80% of individual maximal work-load. Each work-load was performed twice so that pulmonary gas exchange was analyzed twice on each work-load using both systems. EPS validity was assessed by comparing the measurements from the two systems. For measurements presenting agreement between the systems, Bland-Altman plot analysis was performed to identify outlier. Reliability was evaluated by comparisons of measurements from repeated tests through each system, and by calculations of intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM). Validity evaluations revealed that the majority of the measurements were in disagreements between the systems and most of them appeared at lower work-loads. The results indicated that at lower work-loads, EPS had lower validity than Oxycon Pro. At higher work-loads, ESP had high and comparable validity with Oxycon Pro. Reliability assessments revealed that agreements between repeated tests appeared in almost all measurements through both systems. Excellent agreements (very high ICC) in measurements between repeated tests were observed in VE, VO2, and VCO2 from both systems, and very small measurement errors (SEM), close to zero were observed in VO2, VCO2, and RER. The results suggested that the two systems had high and comparable reliability in measurement of pulmonary gas exchange.

  • 35.
    Hallkvist, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Associations between total dairy intake and bone properties in 70-year-old men and women2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In old age changes in the body leads to decreased bone mass. Lower bone mass predisposes frailty and fractures. Purpose: To investigate whether a higher intake of dairy products is associated with bone properties measured by peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and if type of dairy consumed has different outcomes on bone properties.

    Methods: In this cross-sectional study, pQCT of the tibia and radius was used to measure the bone mineral density and cross-sectional area in 1040 men and 1000 women, all 70 years old. Participants completed a food frequency questionnaire and wore accelerometers for 7 days to estimate physical activity. Associations were investigated using multiple linear regression adjusted for sex, weight, smoking and physical activity. Differences between types of dairy were investigated by an ANCOVA, weighed similarly.

    Results: Amount of dairy consumed was associated with trabecular area (β=0.046, p<0.02) and cortical area (β=0.046, p<0.002) of the tibia. The group that consumed both milk and fermented dairy had greater cortical area in the tibia (p<0.05) than milk intake only. Conclusion: Higher intakes of dairy is associated with larger trabecular and cortical area in the tibia. A mix of fermented dairy and milk might be preferable to only drinking milk. 

  • 36.
    Hallkvist, Olle
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Hedlund, Kristoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effekterna av praktisk ocklusionsträning periodiserat med ett traditionellt styrketräningsprogram på anaerob prestation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) combined with resistance training has been proven to facilitate muscle strength despite training at low intensity. However, research investigating the effects of long-term pBFR-training and its periodization with strength training (ST) at a higher intensity is lacking, as well as the effects of occlusion training on blood lactate levels (BLL) over time.

    Purpose: To compare the effects of 2 weeks of pBFR training followed by 2 weeks of ST (BFR-ST) with 2 weeks of ST followed by 2 weeks of pBFR training (ST-BFR) on anaerobic performace and BLL.

    Method: 5 adults (age 23 ± 2 years) with a minimum of 1 year of ST experience were recruited and randomized into BFR-ST (n=2) or ST-BFR (n=3). Anaerobic performance was measured using a 30-s Wingate-test and BLL samples were collected <1 and 5 minutes post-Wingate. Data and samples were collected before the intervention and after the 2 protocols.

    Results: No differences were seen between groups in anaerobic output or BLL after 4 weeks of training (p>0,1 for all values). A decrease in time to peak power (tPP) were seen in both groups with an advantage for BFR-ST (-37 ± 8 %) over ST-BFR (-27 ± 22 %). BLL decreased after 2 weeks of pBFR (-14 ± 26 % at <1 min and -7 ± 14 % at 5 min) and increased after 2 weeks of ST (+26 ± 45 % at <1 min and +8 ± 20 % at 5 min).

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that occlusion training in conjunction with resistance training can reduce tPP, that BFR-ST has greater impact on this quality compared to ST-BFR and that pBFR-training seems to lower post-Wingate BLL. Thus pBFR-training combined with ST could be an interesting alternative to a traditional periodized resistance training program.

  • 37. Hedberg, Gudrun E
    et al.
    Wikström-Frisén, Lisbeth
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Janlert, Urban
    Comparison between two programmes for reducing the levels of risk indicators of heart diseases among male professional drivers.1998Inngår i: Occupational and Environmental Medicine, ISSN 1351-0711, E-ISSN 1470-7926, Vol. 55, nr 8Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To compare two programmes for reducing the levels of risk indicators of heart diseases among professional drivers. The programmes were focused on changes of lifestyle. The aim of the programmes was to initiate and motivate a process of change within the driver, which in the long term should lead to permanent and sound health habits. One programme was based on health profile assessment and the other was a health examination.

    METHODS: Altogether, 102 subjects were investigated (51 allocated to an intervention group and 51 to a reference group). The programme in the intervention group (health profile assessment) was based on revelatory communication, adjusted to the driver and contained individual and group activities. The reference group went through a health examination. In both groups blood pressure, serum lipid concentrations, body mass index, and estimated maximal oxygen uptake were measured and the lifestyle habits were surveyed by questionnaires at the start and at follow ups of 6 and 18 months.

    RESULTS: The results showed that in the intervention group the maximal oxygen uptake increased, as did exercise habits and the intention to practice good dietary habits. Variable working hours was the most common obstacle to change a health habit. In the reference group the maximal oxygen uptake increased and the concentration of serum total cholesterol and the number of people who perceived stress and loneliness decreased.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both the health profile assessment and the health examination had an effect on the levels of some risk indicators of heart diseases. Both programmes turned out to be useful because of high participation during the entire period and a generally positive attitude among the subjects.

  • 38.
    Hedlund, Kristoffer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effects of 10 weeks of training demonstrated via workshop on neck and shoulder pain: - a randomised controlled tril2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 39.
    Hedlund, Kristoffer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Hallkvist, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Effekterna av praktisk ocklusionsträning periodiserat med ett traditionellt styrketräningsprogram på anaerob prestation2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Practical blood flow restriction (pBFR) combined with resistance training has been proven to facilitate muscle strength despite training at low intensity. However, research investigating the effects of long-term pBFR-training and its periodization with strength training (ST) at a higher intensity is lacking, as well as the effects of occlusion training on blood lactate levels (BLL) over time.

    Purpose: To compare the effects of 2 weeks of pBFR training followed by 2 weeks of ST (BFR-ST) with 2 weeks of ST followed by 2 weeks of pBFR training (ST-BFR) on anaerobic performace and BLL.

    Method: 5 adults (age 23 ± 2 years) with a minimum of 1 year of ST experience were recruited and randomized into BFR-ST (n=2) or ST-BFR (n=3). Anaerobic performance was measured using a 30-s Wingate-test and BLL samples were collected <1 and 5 minutes post-Wingate. Data and samples were collected before the intervention and after the 2 protocols.

    Results: No differences were seen between groups in anaerobic output or BLL after 4 weeks of training (p>0,1 for all values). A decrease in time to peak power (tPP) were seen in both groups with an advantage for BFR-ST (-37 ± 8 %) over ST-BFR (-27 ± 22 %). BLL decreased after 2 weeks of pBFR (-14 ± 26 % at <1 min and -7 ± 14 % at 5 min) and increased after 2 weeks of ST (+26 ± 45 % at <1 min and +8 ± 20 % at 5 min).

    Conclusion: The results of this study suggests that occlusion training in conjunction with resistance training can reduce tPP, that BFR-ST has greater impact on this quality compared to ST-BFR and that pBFR-training seems to lower post-Wingate BLL. Thus pBFR-training combined with ST could be an interesting alternative to a traditional periodized resistance training program.

  • 40.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Physiological- and Socio-Cultural Conditions for Performance in Women's Ice Hockey2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ice hockey community is founded on masculine norms and values, and the hockey rink is often described as “the home of men’s ice hockey”. Despite a growing popularity, women’s ice hockey has low priority in comparison to the men’s game. On top of that, the women’s game does not allow body checking, which makes it deviant from what some see as “the real game of ice hockey”. The checking prohibition causes physiological requirements to differ from the men’s game, and since women are underrepresented in ice hockey research, not much is known regarding the physiological- and socio-cultural conditions of women’s ice hockey. The overall aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate physiological- and socio-cultural conditions important for performance in women’s ice hockey.

    Methods: This thesis is unique in terms of the interdisciplinary approach between physiology and gender science, and the inclusion of studies based on both qualitative and quantitative research methods. Qualitative thematic interviews with ice hockey coaches from Sweden, Canada, and the United States were used to explore socio-cultural conditions in relation to performance and sport development (Paper I). Relative age effect (RAE) in relation to maturity status was examined through anthropometric measurements and a player questionnaire (Paper II). Physiological field- and laboratory assessments were used to investigate physiological conditions and performance in female competitive ice hockey players from Sweden (Paper III-IV), and players from Canada (Paper IV).

    Results: The findings from Paper I suggest that coaches need to maintain a holistic approach to coaching to be able to coordinate and optimize the effects based on available conditions. Socio-cultural conditions, such as structural and financial support, are mentioned as important to support opportunities in women’s ice hockey. Furthermore, the results (Paper I) show that female players in Canada and the United States have superior opportunities compared to female players in Sweden. These advantages are mainly attributed to the support provided by the North American education systems. The findings from Paper II suggest that the relative age effect (RAEs) in women’s hockey are also influenced by socio-cultural conditions. Significant RAE (p<.05) was found for Swedish players born in the third quartile (Q3) and for Canadian player born in the second quartile (Q2). Players born in the fourth quartile (Q4) are significantly (p<.05) underrepresentated in both countries. Players tend to be average or late maturers, but no differences can be found by country or position. The findings from Paper III show that field-based assessments are comparable to laboratory assessments with the purpose of predicting skating performance. The Prediction models accounted for 13.6 % to 42 % (laboratory-based models) and 24.4 to 66.3 % (field-based models) of the variance in skating time. Regardless of assessment method, uni-lateral assessments are superior to bi-lateral assessments. The results support the use of field-based assessments in Paper IV. The findings from Paper IV show various physiological profiles for female Swedish and Canadian players. Swedish players had less body fat (p=.007), more lean mass (p=.005), and greater aerobic fitness measured with the20-meter shuttle run beep test (p=<.001). Canadian players had greater maximal isometric leg strength (p=.026), exhibit a greater running acceleration (p=<.001), performed better in single leg standing long jumps (right leg p=.002, left leg p=.030), and showed better anaerobic endurance (p=.029) on- ice. No significant differences can be found between forwards and defenders.

    Conclusion: The findings of this study show that physiological- and socio-cultural conditions should both be considered in relation to performance in women’s ice hockey. For example, the various physiological profiles are probably an effect of the different socio-cultural conditions in Sweden and Canada. The Canadian profile may be better adapted to performance in ice hockey, but further research is needed to establish a relationship. Since women’s ice hockey often has somewhat limited resources, this knowledge may help optimize the effect of the available resources, and thus improve performance. Improved performance may have a positive long-term effect on the symbolic view of women’s ice hockey. Women can probably further optimize their physical performance in relation to their current conditions. But for permanent changes to occur, power structures in sport must also change. Women themselves have limited opportunities to affect the dominating gender norms and values in ice hockey.

  • 41.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Correlation between Off-ice Strength and Power Variables and Skating Performance in Women’s Ice Hockey2015Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The relationship between off-ice tests and skating performance has not been previously investigated in elite women ice hockey players (WIHP). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between off-ice strength-, and power- variables and different components of skating performance in Elite WIHP. METHODS: Elite WIHP (n=32) age: 18.3±2.1 years, were evaluated via physiological tests of; Vertical power (squat jump (SJ) and countermovement jump (CMJ)); Horizontal power (standing long jump on two legs (SLJ) on one leg (SLJR) and 20m linear sprinting); Strength (isometric leg pull, squat and isokinetic leg extension on 90° and 210° (Iso90, Iso210)). Right leg measurements were selected for the isokinetic leg extension and SLJ(R). Skating performance was assessed on-ice via three agility tests; S-cornering agility skate (SCAS), Transition agility skate (TAS), Cone agility skate (CAS), and anaerobic endurance test; Modified repeat sprint skate (MRSS). Pearson ́s bivariate correlations were used to investigate the associations between physical variables and on-ice variables. Statistical significance was set to p<.05. RESULTS: SLJR, SLJ, Iso90, Iso210, isometric leg-pull and 20m sprint were correlated with TAS, r = .698 (p.001), r = .509 (p.026), r = -.514 (p.050), r = -.529 (p.043), -.479 (p.038) and r = .631 (p.007) respectively. SLJR and Iso90 was correlated with SCAS, r = -.619 (p.005) and r = -.520 (p.047). SLJR, SLJ, CMJ and Iso210 were correlated to MRSS, r = -.588 (p.01), r = -.539 (p.021), r = -.482 (p.037) and r = -.544 (p.04) respectively. CAS was not significantly correlated with any of the physiological tests. CONCLUSIONS: Off-ice power and strength tests were significantly correlated to skating performance in elite WIHP. 

  • 42.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Fysiska tester inom damishockey och dess relevans för prestation2017Inngår i: Idrottsmedicin, ISSN 1103-7652, Vol. 36, nr 1, s. 20-22Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 43.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Running a team is like laying a puzzle: Elite coaches´perspective on women´s ice hockey2013Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Henriksson, Tommy
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Vescovi, Jason D.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Gilenstam, Kajsa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Laboratory- and field-based testing as predictors of skating performance in competetive-level female ice hockey2016Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, s. 81-88Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to examine whether field-based and/or laboratory-based assessments are valid tools for predicting key performance characteristics of skating in competitive-level female hockey players.

    DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

    METHODS: Twenty-three female ice hockey players aged 15-25 years (body mass: 66.1±6.3 kg; height: 169.5±5.5 cm), with 10.6±3.2 years playing experience volunteered to participate in the study. The field-based assessments included 20 m sprint, squat jump, countermovement jump, 30-second repeated jump test, standing long jump, single-leg standing long jump, 20 m shuttle run test, isometric leg pull, one-repetition maximum bench press, and one-repetition maximum squats. The laboratory-based assessments included body composition (dual energy X-ray absorptiometry), maximal aerobic power, and isokinetic strength (Biodex). The on-ice tests included agility cornering s-turn, cone agility skate, transition agility skate, and modified repeat skate sprint. Data were analyzed using stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis. Linear regression analysis was used to establish the relationship between key performance characteristics of skating and the predictor variables.

    RESULTS: Regression models (adj R2) for the on-ice variables ranged from 0.244 to 0.663 for the field-based assessments and from 0.136 to 0.420 for the laboratory-based assessments. Single-leg tests were the strongest predictors for key performance characteristics of skating. Single leg standing long jump alone explained 57.1%, 38.1%, and 29.1% of the variance in skating time during transition agility skate, agility cornering s-turn, and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively. Isokinetic peak torque in the quadriceps at 90° explained 42.0% and 32.2% of the variance in skating time during agility cornering s-turn and modified repeat skate sprint, respectively.

    CONCLUSION: Field-based assessments, particularly single-leg tests, are an adequate substitute to more expensive and time-consuming laboratory assessments if the purpose is to gain knowledge about key performance characteristics of skating.

  • 45.
    Holm, Alexander
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Modig, Lovisa
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    En litteraturöversikt på sambandet mellan träningsvolym och prestation inomtvå uthållighetsidrotter med likartad tävlingstid: 10/15 km Längdskidåkning & 10km Löpning2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Long-distance running and Cross-Country skiing are both endurance sports, where a high

    power and aerobic capacity is crucial for race performance. With a race time just

    below/above 30 minutes, more than 90 % of energy expenditure comes from aerobic

    processes. It is known that a high training volume during many years is necessary to become

    an top level athlete. However, although both 10 000 m running and 10/15 km Cross-Country

    skiing has a similar race time there is differences both in training volume as well as training

    intensity. While there is a strong correlation between a high utilization and anaerobic

    threshold for 10 000m runners, a high VO2max is more correlated with race time among

    Cross-Country skiers. A total volume of 150-200 km/week (12-16h/w) seems to be vital for

    10 000 m runners, while a total volume of 12-18h/week is needed for 10/15 km

    Cross-Country skiers. However, even if a high training volume is necessary, there are no

    significant correlation between a high mileage and race time because many other factors also

    determine how fast you can run and slide in both sports.

  • 46.
    Holmbom, Kajsa
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Wedin, Sofie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Samband mellan fysiologiska tester, kroppskomposition och tävlingsprestation hos kvinnliga längdskidåkare2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Previous research has identified the complexity of cross-country skiing and the importance of finding test parameters that reflect the sport-specific performance. The purpose of the present study was to investigate relationships between body composition and physiological variables and performance in young cross-country skiing women. Ten 22,6 (±2,7) year old trained, Swedish, female cross-country skiers volunteered to participate in a specific test battery. Participants completed a test battery consisting of VO2max, standing long jump (SLH), squat jump (SJ), counter movement jump (CMJ), counter movement jump with arm swing (CMJ-arm), isometric leg strength (ISO-leg), ball throw (kast), isometric arm strength (ISO-drag), Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA-scan) and anthropometric measurements (weight, height, BMI). The physiological test variables obtained were correlated with participants FIS-points (International Ski Federation’s ranking points for distance and sprint performance) used as performance data. Correlations were performed using Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient test. The results show that SJ and FIS-points (distance) were significantly correlated. However, no significant correlations were found between any of the other physiological test variables (VO2max, DXA-scan, CMJ, CMJ-arm, ISO-leg, kast, ISO-drag, SLH) and FIS-points. These findings highlight the importance of sport-specific tests which reflect actual performance in cross-country skiing. Furthermore, as physiological demands will vary depending on the competition, it may also be of importance to reflect on the definition of performance used, as this in turn should reflect the required specific demands.   

    Key words: Ski ranking, Test battery, Cross-country skiing, FIS-points, Physiological tests

  • 47.
    Hult, Andreas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Towards a detailed understanding of the red blood cell storage lesion: and its consequences for in vivo survival following transfusion2015Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Red blood cells (RBCs) are vital for oxygen delivery to tissues and constitute the vast majority of all cells in blood. After leaving the red bone marrow as mature cells, RBCs have a lifespan of approximately 120 days before they are removed from the circulation by macrophages, mainly in the spleen and liver. RBC transfusion is a common therapy in modern healthcare. Major surgery, numerous cancer treatments and other, often lifesaving, interventions would be unthinkable without available blood supply. For this reason, hospitals store donated RBCs in blood banks.

    The metabolic and structural changes that occur during prolonged storage of RBCs (the storage lesion) have been studied in detail in vitro and include oxidative stress, a reduction in glycolysis, increased membrane rigidity and shedding of microparticles from the RBC membrane. Stored RBCs share several features of senescent RBCs, but also with RBCs undergoing an apoptotic-like process called eryptosis. A consequence of the storage lesion is the fact that as much as 25% of stored RBCs could be rapidly removed from the circulation within 24 hours after transfusion. The mechanisms behind this rapid macrophage-mediated recognition and removal of stored RBCs, and its immunological consequences, remain largely unknown. Therefore, the aims of this thesis were to investigate if cryopreserved human RBCs induced an inflammatory response following autologous transfusion into healthy volunteers, and to further understand the mechanisms behind macrophage recognition of stored RBCs in vitro and in vivo.

    Autologous transfusion of two units of cryopreserved RBCs into healthy human recipients was found to be associated with an increased extravascular RBC elimination already at 2 hours after transfusion. However, there were no signs of an increased production of any of the investigated pro-inflammatory cytokines, indicating that an increase in the destruction of RBCs per se did not induce an inflammatory response.

    Eryptosis is a form of induced RBC death associated with an increased cytoplasmic Ca2+ uptake. We found that a subset of human RBCs increased their Ca2+ permeability during prolonged storage at +4°C. Using a murine model, to further understand how RBCs with an increased Ca2+ permeability were eliminated by phagocytic cells in the spleen, it was found that such RBCs were taken up by marginal zone macrophages and dendritic cells (DCs) in a manner distinct from that of naturally senescent RBCs. The DC population particularly efficient in this process expressed CD207 and are known for their ability to promote immunological tolerance. Eryptotic cell uptake was not regulated by the phagocytosis-inhibitory protein CD47 on the RBCs.

    To investigate how RBCs damaged during liquid storage are recognized and taken up by macrophages, a model to store and transfuse murine RBCs was developed. This storage model generated murine RBCs with several characteristics similar to that of stored human RBCs (i.e. loss of ATP, formation of RBC microparticles and rapid clearance of up to 35% of the RBCs during the first 24 h after transfusion). In vitro phagocytosis of human as well as murine stored RBCs was serum dependent and could be inhibited by blocking class A scavenger receptors using fucoidan or dextran sulphate.

    In conclusion, the findings of this thesis contribute to further understanding how changes inflicted to RBCs during storage direct the fate of these cells in their interaction with cells of the immune system after transfusion. The observation of an increased Ca2+ permeability of stored RBCs, and the possible recognition of such cells by tolerance-promoting DCs, in combination with the findings that class A scavenger receptors and serum factors may mediate recognition of stored RBCs, may result in novel new directions of research within the field of transfusion medicine.

  • 48.
    Hult, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Toss, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Malm, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Oldenborg, Per-Arne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB).
    Phagocytosis of liquid-stored red blood cells in vitro requires serum and macrophage scavenger receptorsManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Red blood cells (RBCs) undergo structural and metabolic changes with prolonged storage, which ultimately may decrease their survival after transfusion. Although the storage-induced damage to RBCs has been rather well described biochemically, little is known about the mechanisms underlying the recognition and rapid clearance of the damaged cells by macrophages.STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We here used a murine model for cold (+4°C) RBC storage and transfusion. Phagocytosis of human or murine RBCs, liquid stored for 6-8 weeks or 10-14 days respectively, was investigated in murine peritoneal macrophages.RESULTS: The effects of storage on murine RBCs resembled that described for stored human RBCs with regard to decreased adenosine triphosphate (ATP) levels, accumulation of microparticles during storage, and RBC recovery kinetics after transfusion. Under serum-free conditions, phagocytosis of stored human or murine RBCs was reduced by 70-75%, as compared with that in the presence of heat-inactivated fetal calf serum (FCS). Human serum promoted phagocytosis of stored human RBCs similar to that seen with FCS. By blocking macrophage class A scavenger receptors with fucoidan or dextran sulphate, phagocytosis of human or murine RBCs was reduced by more than 90%. Phagocytosis of stored human RBCs was also sensitive to inhibition by the phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase-inhibitor LY294002, the ERK1/2-inhibitor PD98059, or the p38 MAPK-inhibitor SB203580.CONCLUSIONS: RBCs damaged during liquid storage may be recognized by macrophage class A scavenger receptors and serum-dependent mechanisms. This species-independent recognition mechanism may help to further understand the rapid clearance of stored RBCs shortly after transfusion.

  • 49.
    Hyyrynen, Tuija
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Kan kroppskomposition prediktera risken för idrottsskada hos idrottsgymnasieelever?2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Idrottsgymnasieperioden är en mycket avgörande period för unga elitidrottare som strävar efter framgångar på nationell eller internationell elitnivå. Perioden är känd för sin utmanande karaktär på grund av svårigheten att kombinera idrott med andra aktiviteter och roller i livet. Ökad livsstress tillsammans med ökad träningsvolym ställer stora krav för återhämtning både fysiologiskt och psykologiskt, och ökar risken för utbrändhet och skador. Bra träningsplanering anpassad utifrån idrottarens förutsättningar och skadeförebyggande insatser är av ytterst vikt för att förebygga allvarliga idrottsskador. Tidigare forskning har visat att träningsbelastning, träningsintensitet, samt historia av en tidigare skada, kan prediktera risken för idrottsskador hos elitidrottare.

    Den aktuella studien har undersökt om det går att prediktera idrottsskador utifrån kroppskompositionen hos idrottsgymnasieelever vid Dragonskolans elitidrottsgymnasium i Umeå. Metod: Nittiofem (n= 95) idrottsgymnasieelever utförde DXA kroppskompositionsmätning vid starten av termin 1 och rapporterade skador de drabbades av under första gymnasieåret. Syftet med studien var specifikt att utvärdera om Lean Mass Index (LMI), Fat Mass Index (FMI) och fettprocent var signifikant olika mellan elitidrottsgymnasieelever som drabbades av idrottsskador och de som inte drabbades av idrottsskador.

    Resultat: De statistiska analyserna resulterade i inga signifikanta skillnader mellan skadade och icke skadade gällande LMI, FMI respektive fettprocent. Konklusion: Resultaten indikerar att LMI, FMI respektive fettprocent inte kan användas som prediktorer för idrottsskador hos dessa elitidrottsgymnasieelever. 

  • 50.
    Hyyrynen, Tuija
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Jenny, Furberg
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Smålagsspel och intervallbaserad fysträning och dess påverkan på fysiska kvalitéer hos elitdamfotbollsspelare.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Fotboll är världens populäraste sport och har på så sätt kunnat studeras noga. Fotbollsprestation är beroende av en mängd olika faktorer som tekniska, taktiska, psykologiska och fysiologiska egenskaper som krävs för att prestera på hög nivå. Nyckelfaktorer, som skiljer framgångsrika och mindre framgångsrika spelare, är av kontinuerligt intresse inom forskning vilket har lett till en utveckling av fotbollens kravprofil. Utifrån kravprofilen har nya ”fotbollsspecifika träningsupplägg” utformats, avsedda att utveckla spelarnas kondition och styrka genom fotbollsspecifika övningar i stället för, eller som ett komplement till, traditionell löpträning utan boll. Detta har öppnat upp för ny forskning som bland annat visar på de fysiologiska samt prestationsmässiga fördelar av fotbollsspecifik träning i form av småplansspel. Denna studie vill undersöka fysiologiska effekter av ett fotbollsspecifikt träningsupplägg på elitdamfotbollspelare. Metod: 13 (N=13) elitdamfotbollsspelare deltog i en intervention på 15 veckor under försäsongsträningen som bestod av fotbollspecifik fysträning. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera hur fotbollsspecifik fysträning påverkar damfotbollsspelares uthållighet, hoppförmåga, styrka och sprintkapacitet. Detta utvärderas genom att elitdamfotbollsspelare utför uthållighet-, hopp-, styrka- och sprinttester före och efter den fotbollsspecifika försäsongsträningen. Resultat: En signifikant förbättring ses i squat jump och sprint på 10 meter och 20 meter, medan Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test nivå 2 visar på en tendens till förbättring. Konklusion: Resultatet visade att smålagsspels- och intervallbaserad fysträning förbättrade fysiska kvalitéer, såsom sprint och hopp, hos elitdamfotbollsspelare i denna studie.

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