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  • 1. Acar, Sevil
    et al.
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions: implications and meta-analysis2017Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a rich empirical literature testing whether per capita carbon dioxide emissions tend to converge over time and across countries. This article provides a meta-analysis of the results from this research, and discusses how carbon emissions convergence may be understood in, for instance, the presence of international knowledge spillovers and policy convergence. The results display evidence of either divergence or persistent gaps at the global level, but convergence of per capita carbon dioxide emissions between richer industrialized countries. However, the results appear sensitive to the choice of data sample and choice of convergence concept, e.g. stochastic convergence versus β-convergence. Moreover, peer-reviewed studies have a higher likelihood of reporting convergence in carbon dioxide emissions compared to non-refereed work.

  • 2.
    Adom, Philip Kofi
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Department of Banking and Finance, University of Professional Studies, Accra, Ghana.
    The transition between energy efficient and energy inefficient states in Cameroon2016Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, 248-262 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    I use a two-state (energy efficient/inefficient) Markov-switching dynamic model to study energy efficiency in Cameroon in a novel manner, employing yearly data covering 1971 to 2012. I find that the duration of an energy inefficient state is about twice as long as an energy efficient state, mainly due to fuel subsidies, low income, high corruption, regulatory inefficiencies, poorly developed infrastructure and undeveloped markets. To escape from an energy inefficient state a broad policy overhaul is needed. Trade liberalization and related growth policies together with the removal of fuel subsidies are useful, but insufficient policy measures; the results suggest that they should be combined with structural policies, aiming at institutional structure and investment in infrastructure. (C) 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 3. Amjadi, Golnaz
    et al.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Zhang, Shanshan
    The rebound effect in the Swedish heavy industry2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency improvement (EEI) benefits the climate and matters for energy security. The potential emission and energy savings due to EEI may however not fully materialize due to the rebound effect. In this study, we measure the size of rebound effect for the two energy types fuel and electricity within the four most energy intensive sectors in Sweden – pulp and paper, basic iron and steel, chemical, and mining. We use a detailed firm-level panel data set for the period 2000-2008 and apply Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) for measuring the rebound effect. We find that both fuel and electricity rebound effects do not fully offset the potential for energy and emission savings. Furthermore, we find CO2 intensity and fuel and electricity share as the two main determinants of rebound effect in Swedish heavy industry. Our results seems to imply that it matters both to what extent and where to promote EEI, as the rebound effect varies between sectors as well as between firms within sectors. 

  • 4.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
    Optimal management of groundwater under uncertainty: a unified approach2017Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 67, nr 2, 351-377 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete-time stochastic models of management of groundwater resources have been extensively used for understanding a number of issues in groundwater management. Most models used suffer from two drawbacks: relatively simplistic treatment of the cost of water extraction, and a lack of important structural results (such as monotonicity of extraction in stock and concavity of the value function), even in simple models. Lack of structural properties impede both practical policy simulation and clarity of understanding of the resulting models and the underlying economics. This paper provides a unifying framework for these models in two directions; first, the usual cost function is extended to encompass cases where marginal cost of pumping depends on the stock and second, the analysis dispenses with assumptions of concavity of the objective function and compactness of the state space, using instead lattice-theoretic methods. With these modifications, a comprehensive investigation of which structural properties can be proved in each of the resulting cases is carried out. It is shown that for some of the richer models more structural properties may be proved than for the simpler model used in the literature. This paper also introduces to the resource economics literature an important method of proving convergence to a stationary distribution which does not require monotonicity in stock of resource. This method is of interest in a variety of renewable resource model settings.

  • 5.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Cioffi, Francesco
    University of Rome ‘La Sapienza’, Italy.
    Lall, Upmanu
    Columbia University, New York.
    Rus, Ester
    Thames Water Innovation Centre, Reading, UK.
    Space-time Structure of Extreme Precipitation in Europe over the last CenturyArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Kriström, Bengt
    SLU Umeå.
    A cross-country analysis of residential electricity demand in 11 OECD-countries2015Inngår i: Resources and Energy Economics, ISSN 0928-7655, Vol. 39, 68-88 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We provide consistent, cross-country estimates of price and income elasticity for households in 11 OECD countries. Using survey data from 2011 on annual consumption of electricity and sample-derived average electricity price, we provide country-specific price elasticity estimates and average income elasticity estimates. For most countries in our sample, we find strong price responsiveness, with elasticities varying (in absolute value) between 0.27 for South Korea and 1.4 for Australia, and higher than 0.5 for most countries. Exploiting the presence of many attitudinal indicators in the dataset, we provide evidence that non-price related factors to affect energy demand; in particular, households' self-reported energy savings behaviour reduces demand between 2 and 4%. In contrast, we find very weak income responsiveness, with income elasticities varying from 0.07 to 0.16 and no evidence for heterogeneity across the countries in our sample. Our results regarding price elasticity are in contrast with those of many existing studies which find low-to-moderate price responsiveness, and adds to a few recent studies indicating more policy space for demand reduction than previously thought.

  • 7.
    B. Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kriström, Bengt
    Determinants of the Price-Premium for Green Energy: Evidence from an OECD Cross-Section2016Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 64, nr 2, 173-204 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Using data from a survey of households in 11 OECD countries, this paper investigates the determinants of preferences for a completely green residential electricity system. Three important questions are addressed: (i) how much are households willing to pay to use only renewable energy? (ii) does willingness-to-pay (WTP) vary significantly across household groups and countries? and (iii) what drives the decision to enter the (hypothetical) market for green energy and, given entry, what drives the level of WTP? The analysis here differs from previous studies on green energy in two ways: first, data and analyses are comparable across countries and second, a comprehensive attempt is made to understand 0 WTP, and to accommodate-using a censored quantile regression (CQR) framework-unobserved heterogeneity. The survey data indicate a low WTP, at 11-12 % of current electric bill. This study also addresses a key question: how important is income for understanding WTP, relative to more "attitudinal" determinants? The effect of income overall appears ambiguous, with Tobit-like models indicating that income is not significant while the CQR indicates that income exerts a significant effect near the center of the distribution of WTP. Across all frameworks used, a key determinant of WTP appears to be environmental attitudes, particularly membership in an environmental organization.

  • 8.
    Berck, Peter
    et al.
    Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of California, Berkley, CA, USA.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Spindell Berck, Cyndi
    Attorney and Public Policy Analyst, Berkeley, CA, USA.
    Green regulations in California and Sweden2011Inngår i: Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research, ISSN 1939-0459, Vol. 3, nr 1, 49-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    California and Sweden are both leaders in green regulations and actions. In both there is a substantial political base for environmental regulation, yet the path to regulation in these two political entities is quite different. California emphasizes command and control regulations while Sweden makes heavy use of taxes. We show that both underlying economic factors and the constraints of the larger systems in which these economies are embedded contribute to their choice of control methods.

  • 9. Boman, Mattias
    et al.
    Mattsson, Leif
    Ericsson, Göran
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish Univ Agr Sci SLU, CERE, S-90183 Umea, Sweden.
    Moose Hunting Values in Sweden Now and Two Decades Ago: The Swedish Hunters Revisited2011Inngår i: Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 0924-6460, E-ISSN 1573-1502, Vol. 50, nr 4, 515-530 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is based on two national contingent valuation studies dealing with the extent and economic values of hunting in Sweden. The first valuation study was conducted in 1987 and the second in 2006. Both the game resource and the hunter community have undergone changes in the two decades covered by the surveys. An important purpose of the latter survey was to repeat relevant parts of the former one, which created a rare opportunity to compare valuations covering a very long time span. Moose hunting value and its determinants were compared between the two studies, showing that significant changes have taken place. Our analysis suggests caution in using results from old contingent valuation studies for e.g. benefits transfer exercises.

  • 10.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Rationality, fairness and the cost of distrust2012Inngår i: The Journal of Socio-Economics, ISSN 1053-5357, Vol. 41, nr 4, 345-349 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Enetjärn Natur AB.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie.2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Gisselman, Fredrik
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 13.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). SLU.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: en konceptuell analys2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Huvudsyftet med föreliggande rapport är att på ett övergripande och konceptuellt plan beskriva innebörden av en samhällsekonomisk nytto- och kostnadsanalys, eller samhällsekonomisk bedömning, och hur en sådan kan och bör genomföras för att analysera samhällsnyttan av fiskefria områden. Vidare syftar rapporten till att exemplifiera vilken typ av empiriska data och metoder som finns tillgängliga för en sådan analys med hjälp av den fritidsfiskeundersökning som årligen görs i regi av Hav och Vattenmyndigheten.

  • 14.
    Bostedt, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Accounting for Cultural Heritage - A Theoretical and Empirical Exploration with Focus on Swedish Reindeer Husbandry.2010Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 69, 651-657 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15. Bostian, Moriah
    et al.
    Färe, Rolf
    Grosskopf, Shawna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Department of Economics, Oregon State University, Corvallis, OR, USA.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Environmental investment and firm performance: a network approach2016Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 57, 243-255 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the role of investment in environmental production practices for both environmental performance and energy efficiency over time. We employ a network DEA approach that links successive production technologies through intertemporal investment decisions with a period by period estimation. This allows us to estimate energy efficiency and environmental performance separately, as well as productivity change and its associated decompositions into efficiency change and technology change. Incorporating a network model also allows us to account for both short-term environmental management practices and long-term environmental investments in each of our productivity measures. We apply this framework to a panel of detailed plant-level production data for Swedish manufacturing firms covering the years 2002-2008.

  • 16.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Berg, Charlotte
    Samakovlis, Eva
    The economy-wide rebound effect from improved energy efficiency in Swedish industries–A general equilibrium analysis2015Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 83, 26-37 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this paper is to analyse the rebound effect from increased efficiency in industrial energy use in Sweden. Energy efficiency improvements can have significant micro- and macroeconomic effects that hamper the positive effect on real energy savings. To assess the size of the overall rebound effect in the Swedish economy, we apply a computable general equilibrium model. The results show that the economy-wide rebound effect depends on a number of factors, e.g. the extent of the energy efficiency improvement, how the labour market is modelled as well as whether the increase in energy efficiency is combined with a cost or not. We find that the rebound effect following a five per cent increase in energy efficiency in the Swedish industry lies in the 40-70 per cent range. When energy efficiency is only improved in energy-intensive production, the rebound effect becomes even higher. These findings are in line with the results in the literature.

  • 17.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    An electricity market in transition: demand flexibility and preference heterogeneity2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a recent report to the Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Broberg et al., 2014) consumer behavior and consumer flexibility concerning energy use were analyzed. Two main conclusions were drawn. First, electricity consumption follows a regular pattern over the day, week, and year, which to a large extent reflects household living patterns and climate variations over the year. Second, the average household needs a substantial economic compensation to voluntarily reschedule its electricity use away from peak demand hours. The required compensations were found to be far higher than the economic incentives households face today when exposed to real-time pricing. In addition, it was found that households are more flexible in the use of electricity for heating than in the use of electrical appliances. Finally, households were found to be more flexible during the morning peak hours than during the evening hours. These findings led to the overall conclusion that both the possibilities and incentives are such that we cannot expect any substantial change in energy use patterns from technical reforms that creates incentives for demand response in line with the current price variation on the wholesale market for electricity.

    In the above-mentioned report we also analyzed people’s attitudes towards information dissemination. We concluded that many households do not wish to have their electricity use scrutinized by experts and other households. We found that people, on average, required a compensation to allow such information sharing. Again, new technologies open for various demand response policies, although it does not necessarily imply substantially higher demand flexibility. New technologies need to be combined with consumer interest to be successful in a market economy.

    The overall objective of the current report is to further scrutinize consumer behavior and flexibility. The first part focuses on Swedish households’ choice of electricity supplier contracts. Specifically, we analyze what types of households choose a fixed price contract. 1 The choice of contract implicitly reveals a consumer’s flexibility since a fixed price contract works as an insurance against price variation. So, by studying what type of households chose a fixed price contract we are able to infer on which type of households are relatively inflexible. This part of the analysis is policy relevant since it touches on the question of what to expect from real-time pricing reforms. A central question is whether a household who uses relatively more electricity is more likely to have a fixed price contract. If this is the case, future access to real-time pricing and a greater price variation may not be a guarantee for a substantial increase in demand response as important consumers (from a policy perspective) are more likely to insure against such circumstances. From this perspective the market for price insurances (fixed price contracts) is a market for inflexibility.

    While the analysis above considers the effectiveness of future energy policies to promote demand response, it is also relevant to study the question of how the peak demand problem may develop over time. This question is explicitly addressed in the current report by studying how consumer behavior varies across income levels. The existing literature suggests that electricity consumption is positively related to income, although the income elasticity 2 is fairly small. However, almost all studies concerning income effects have studied aggregate electricity use on monthly or yearly basis. The present study departs from the existing literature by studying how daily household electricity use patterns vary across income levels. This approach is novel since it allows us to analyze how the peak load problem may develop in the future as a result of higher income levels, which is commonly expected.

    By studying the choice of electricity contracts and by estimating hourly income elasticities, the report approach demand flexibility in an indirect way. In the third analysis of the report we address these issues again, although with a somewhat more direct approach. The choice experiment part in Broberg et al. (2014), which focused on the economic incentives needed in order to change people’s energy consumption in a predefined way, is now deepened. The focus is on how socio-economic factors such as e.g. age, gender, education and income may explain preference heterogeneity among the Swedish population. Energy related factors such as living conditions and heating systems are also considered in the analysis. This analysis will inform us about what types of households are inclined to reschedule their energy use when given relatively small economic incentives, and what household’s that are relatively inflexible and thus require large compensations to change their behavior. We also study preference heterogeneity regarding information dissemination in purpose of anonymous peer comparisons.

    In the final part of the report we deepen our analysis of households’ demand for information about their own and others electricity use. Besides creating incentives for demand response, new technologies included in the smart grid concept also make it possible for policy makers to use tailored information to help consumers to use energy more efficiently. A number of studies highlight inefficiencies in the households’ use of energy (see e.g. Broberg and Kazukauskas, 2014). One highlighted reality is that people seem to pay little attention to energy issues. Of course, if people pay little attention to the price of electricity, the effectiveness of policy measures that work through the pricechannel is limited. In this part of the report we address four basic questions of great relevance for energy efficiency policies worldwide. The questions are (1) What knowledge do people have about the marginal cost of electricity use in terms of everyday electrical appliances? (2) Are the cost perceptions biased and in what direction? (3) Do inattention to energy issues play a significant role in this bias? (4) Do households want information that may help them de-bias their perceptions about energy costs and use?

    The report is structured such that section 2 gives a brief background on the issues analyzed in the report. The following sections correspond to the issues outlined in the introduction. Section 7 works to tie the analyses together and conclude our results

  • 18.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Vesterberg, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    En elmarknad i förändring: är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten ”En elmarknad i förändring – Är kundernas flexibilitet till salu eller ens verklig?” tittar en forskargrupp vid Centrum för Miljö- och Naturresursekonomi (CERE) vid Handelshögskolan, Umeå Universitet på konsumenternas nuvarande och framtida roll på elmarknaden. Rapporten är beställd av Energimarknadsinspektionen.

  • 19.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kazukauskas, Andrius
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Inefficiencies in Residential Use of Energy: A Critical Overview of Literature and Energy Efficiency Policies in the EU2015Inngår i: International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, ISSN 1932-1465, E-ISSN 1932-1473, Vol. 8, nr 2, 225-279 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A rather large literature argues that firms and households do not always improve energy efficiency by investing in new technology even if it would be cost-effective to do so. In this paper, we review the theoretical and empirical literature on the so-called energy efficiency gap and provide a rationale for policymakers to act to improve energy efficiency. By eliminating market failures, welfare can be improved in a broad sense, including both environmental quality and material welfare. We also discuss social 'nudges' as examples of policy instruments that do not directly target any market failure in energy markets but that still may have a significant impact on energy use. Although we acknowledge the existence of the energy efficiency gap, we argue that the gap in general is overestimated as parts of it can be explained by heterogeneity in preferences and thus explained by rational choices.

  • 20.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: Preferences for demand management on the electricity market2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households energy use. Preferences are analyzed within the framework of choice experiments and people are faced with hypothetical electricity contracts. The respondents reveal their preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 21.
    Broberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Is our everyday comfort for sale?: preferences for demand management on the electricity market2016Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 54, 24-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a European perspective, the electricity markets have been experiencing major changes via deregulation, new technologies and changes in the production mix. Together with the daily and seasonal peak hours on the demand side, the changing markets put pressure on increased flexibility to handle and sustain balance in the grid systems. This paper focuses on the demand side and analyzes preferences related to demand management of Swedish households' energy use. In a web-based choice experiment respondents were faced with three hypothetical electricity contracts. The choices of preferred contracts revealed preferences for attributes related to external control of heating, household electricity and information dissemination (integrity). The results show that people put a substantial value on not being controlled, illustrated by compensations up to thousands of SEK for accepting a contract characterized by external control of energy use in various dimensions. In addition, the results show that household composition, age, gender and income play a role for the perceived discomfort from the external control and information dissemination. 

  • 22.
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Fiskefria områden ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv: En empirisk studie2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 23.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Amin, Karimu
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Convergence in carbon dioxide emissions and the role of growth and institutions: a parametric and non-parametric analysis2017Inngår i: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, E-ISSN 1867-383X, Vol. 19, nr 2, 359-390 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines convergence of per capita carbon dioxide (CO2) emission for a panel of 124 countries taking into account the impact of economic growth and the quality of government institutions. The analysis builds on both parametric and non-parametric panel data techniques, and we examine the β-convergence hypothesis in a neoclassical growth model setting with institutional quality as one of the independent variables influencing both emissions and output growth. The results reveal evidence in support of β-convergence of per capita CO2 emissions for the global sample, and for the sub-samples comprising OECD versus non-OECD countries and high- versus low-income countries, respectively. There is, however, heterogeneity in β-convergence and it tends to vary with the level of the initial per capita CO2 emissions. We also report evidence of a negative direct effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2emissions, especially for the global and high-income samples. However, institutional quality also promotes economic growth, thus generating a positive indirect effect on emissions growth. Overall the empirical results suggest a positive net effect of institutional quality on growth in per capita CO2 emissions in the global sample. Finally, the non-parametric approach reveals some evidence of bias in the parametric approach, in particular in the case of the estimates for the convergence parameter at either end of the distribution.

  • 24.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Boisvert, Richard N.
    Cornell University, USA.
    The Use of Biomass to Produce Electricity2011Inngår i: EuroChoices, ISSN 1478-0917, E-ISSN 1746-692X, Vol. 10, nr 3, 26-30 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of biomass to produce electricity has received much less attention than biofuels in the EU and the US. However, the production of bioelectricity has been increasing, especially in Europe. Bioelectricity has an advantage over some other renewable sources, such as wind or solar, in maintaining the ability of generators to respond more easily to fluctuating electricity demand. However, with current prices for other primary fuels there is limited availability of biomass supplies at prices generators are willing to pay. Bioelectricity production is influenced by policies for promoting the use of renewable energy and other policies, such as those relating to greenhouse gas emissions. Various incentive schemes are in place in the EU and US, such as feed-in tariffs that guarantee favourable purchase prices for renewables, and Renewable Portfolio Standards (RPS) requiring that renewables constitute minimum percentages of electricity generation or Green Certificates which promote the use of renewables. The future development of bioelectricity will be determined by the form and magnitude of policy incentives and by prices for fossil fuels. Feedstock availability will only be assured if there are coordinated efforts at regional and local levels to develop the transportation and other infrastructure needed to create well-functioning biomass markets.

  • 25.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Carlén, Ola
    SLU.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The Costs and Benefits of Intensive Forest Management2012Inngår i: Journal of Benefit-Cost Analysis, ISSN 2152-2812, Vol. 3, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an approach for studying the socio-economic benefits and costs (CBA) of the introduction of intensified management measures in forestry. Besides from valuation of changes in timber production, assessments of different types of externalities are included in the assessment. The model is exemplified with the use of data from a Swedish governmental study undertaken in 2009 which present impacts on the Swedish forest sector if intensified management measures are applied on environmentally low-valued land and abandoned agricultural lands. The CBA shows that intensified management measures typically are private financially profitable. If these measures also become profitable from the society’s point of view depend on the size of the external effects including carbon balance.

  • 26.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Johansson, Maria
    Karlsson, Jens
    Sjöström, Magnus
    Beware of the wolf: Is animal fear affecting willingness to pay for conservation of largecarnivores?2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    From an interdisciplinary approach, this study aims at analysing self-reported animal fear, specifically large carnivore fear, in relation to public willingness to financially contribute to fulfil a governmental policy on large carnivore-induced costs. In a survey of 2 455 Swedes, it was found that people whose animal fear was  directed particularly towards large carnivores, were less likely to be willing to pay (WTP), or were likely to be willing to pay a lower amount of money. In the prediction of WTP, the contribution of the fear variables was equally important as the socio-economic factors. From a management point of view it seems urgent to understand what kinds of measures that may reduce human fear of large carnivores. It is also suggested that further studies should include standardised measures of anxiety and fear in order to be able to closer link the results of large carnivore fear to the psychological literature on human fears.

  • 27.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Karimu, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Elmarknaden och elprisets utveckling före och efter avregleringen: ekonometriska analyser2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 28.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Kriström, Bengt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    En effektiv klimatpolitik2010 (oppl. 1)Bok (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 29.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). wedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Effekter för den elintensiva industrin av att dessa branscher i olika grad omfattas av kvotplikt inom elcertifikatsystemet2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Environmental policy and profitability. Evidence from Swedish industry2010Inngår i: Environmental Economics and Policy Studies, ISSN 1432-847X, Vol. 12, nr 1/2, 59-78 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates the effect of a CO<sub>2</sub> tax on profitability by using firm-level data on output and inputs from Swedish industry between 1990 and 2004. The purpose of this exercise is to investigate the validity of the so-called Porter hypothesis. By utilizing a factor-demand modeling approach, and specifying a profit function that has a technology component dependent upon firm-specific effective tax on CO<sub>2</sub>, we are able to separate out the effect of regulatory pressure on technological progress. The results indicate that there is evidence of a “reversed” Porter effect in most industrial sectors, especially in energy-intensive industries; that is, after controlling for the fuel price effect, technological progress and consequently profits are further negatively affected by the CO<sub>2</sub> tax.

  • 31.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    Marklund, Per-Olov
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för regionalvetenskap (CERUM).
    Carbon intensity in production and the effects of climate policy – evidence from Swedish industry2014Inngår i: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 67, 844-857 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We analyze carbon intensity performance at firm level and the effectiveness of the Swedish CO2 tax. Carbon intensity performance is derived from a production technology and measured as changes in the CO2 emission-output production ratio. As one of the first countries to introduce a CO2 tax in 1991, Sweden serves as an appropriate "test bench" for analyzing the effectiveness of climate policy in general. Firm level data from Swedish manufacturing spanning over the period 1990-2004 is used for the analysis. Results show that EP has improved in all the sectors and there is an evidence of decoupling of output production growth and CO2 emissions. Firms' carbon intensity performance responds both to changes in the CO2 tax and fossil fuel price, but is more sensitive to the tax.

  • 32.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi.
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Patrik, Söderholm
    Luleå technical university.
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: An environmental index approach2015Inngår i: Energy Economics, ISSN 0140-9883, E-ISSN 1873-6181, Vol. 51, 227-235 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a COperformance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990–2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This is likely to reflect the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 33.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundgren, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Söderholm, Patrik
    Convergence of carbon dioxide performance across Swedish industrial sectors: an environmental index approach2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall objective of the paper is to analyze convergence of CO2 emission intensity across manufacturing sectors in Sweden. Our approach differs from previous work on carbon convergence in that it employs a theoretical framework to construct a CO2 performance index, which explicitly takes into account that industrial firms produce good as well as bad outputs. This index is then used as the dependent variable in a growth-type regression equation. We employ a data set covering 14 industrial sectors over the time period 1990-2008. The results suggest the presence of conditional β-convergence in CO2 performance among the industrial sectors in Sweden. Moreover, the speed of convergence varies significantly in the sense that the higher the capital intensity is, the lower is the convergence rate to the different steady states. This reflects the importance of – and in part the costs associated with – capital turnover to achieve a transition towards lower CO2 emission paths.

  • 34.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundmark, Robert
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Söderholm, patrik
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Kampen om skogen: koka, såga, bränna eller bevara?2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Brännlund, Runar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    To tax, or not to tax: preferences for climate policy attributes2012Inngår i: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457, Vol. 12, nr 6, 704-721 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Many countries around the world respond to global warming and its consequences with various policy instruments. In the economic literature, policy instruments have typically been analysed with respect to efficiency, but little effort has been expended to understand public preferences for these instruments. In an internet-based choice experiment to address this shortcoming, Swedes were asked to choose between two alternative hypothetical policy instruments, each of which reduces CO2 emissions by the same amount. The hypothetical policy instruments were characterized by a number of specific attributes. By varying the levels of each of the attributes, respondents indirectly reveal their preferences for these attributes. Half of the respondents are faced with choices labelled ‘tax’ and ‘other’, and the other half are faced with unlabelled choices (hypothetical instruments). The results show that Swedes tend to dislike the term ‘tax’ and show a preference for instruments with a positive effect on environment-friendly technology and climate awareness. A progressive-like cost distribution is preferred to a regressive cost distribution, and the private cost is negatively related to the choice of policy.

  • 36.
    Carlén, Ola
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Rekreationsfiske i Sverige 2013 - Omfattning och värde2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Carlén, Ola
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bostedt, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Brännlund, Runar
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Rekreationsfiske i Sverige 2013 Omfattning och värde.2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Cialani, Catia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. School of Technology and Business Studies, Economics, Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    CO2 emissions, GDP and trade: a panel cointegration approach2017Inngår i: International Journal of Sustainable Development and World Ecology, ISSN 1350-4509, E-ISSN 1745-2627, Vol. 24, nr 3, 193-204 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bidirectional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

  • 39.
    Cialani, Catia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Essays on growth and environment2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of a summary and four self-contained papers.

    Paper [I] Following the 1987 report by The World Commission on Environment and Development, the genuine saving has come to play a key role in the context of sustainable development, and the World Bank regularly publishes numbers for genuine saving on a national basis. However, these numbers are typically calculated as if the tax system is non-distortionary. This paper presents an analogue to genuine saving in a second best economy, where the government raises revenue by means of distortionary taxation. We show how the social cost of public debt, which depends on the marginal excess burden, ought to be reflected in the genuine saving. We also illustrate by presenting calculations for Greece, Japan, Portugal, U.K., U.S. and OECD average, showing that the numbers published by the World Bank are likely to be biased and may even give incorrect information as to whether the economy is locally sustainable.

    Paper [II] This paper examines the relationships among per capita CO2 emissions, per capita GDP and international trade based on panel data spanning the period 1960-2008 for 150 countries. A distinction is also made between OECD and Non-OECD countries to capture the differences of this relationship between developed and developing economies. We apply panel unit root and cointegration tests, and estimate a panel error correction model. The results from the error correction model suggest that there are long-term relationships between the variables for the whole sample and for Non-OECD countries. Finally, Granger causality tests show that there is bi-directional short-term causality between per capita GDP and international trade for the whole sample and between per capita GDP and CO2 emissions for OECD countries.

    Paper [III] Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their growth rates differ, whether their growth rates tend to converge, and what key factors contribute to explain economic growth. This paper deals with the average income growth, net migration, and changes in unemployment rates at the municipal level in Sweden. The aim is to explore in depth the effects of possible underlying determinants with a particular focus on local policy variables. The analysis is based on a three-equation model. Our results show, among other things, that increases in the local public expenditure and income taxe rate have negative effects on subsequent income income growth. In addition, the results show conditional convergence, i.e. that the average income among the municipal residents tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

    Paper [IV] This paper explores the relationship between income growth and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model, where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper part of the income distribution) are examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality in the upper part of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality in the lower part of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the income growth. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in municipalities with a low level of average income.

  • 40.
    Cialani, Catia
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Growth and inequality: a study of Swedish municipalitiesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the relationship between the growth rate of the average income and income inequality using data at the municipal level in Sweden for the period 1992-2007. We estimate a fixed effects panel data growth model where the within-municipality income inequality is one of the explanatory variables. Different inequality measures (Gini coefficient, top income shares, and measures of inequality in the lower and upper ends of the income distribution) are also examined. We find a positive and significant relationship between income growth and income inequality, measured as the Gini coefficient and top income shares, respectively. In addition, while inequality at the upper end of the income distribution is positively associated with the income growth rate, inequality at the lower end of the income distribution seems to be negatively related to the growth rate. Our findings also suggest that increased income inequality enhances growth more in municipalities with a high level of average income than in those with a low level of average income.

  • 41.
    Cialani, Catia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Lundberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Growth, migration and unemployment across Swedish municipalitiesManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Fundamental questions in economics are why some regions are richer than others, why their economic growth rates vary, whether their growth tends to converge and the key factors that contribute to the variations. These questions have not yet been fully addressed, but changes in the local tax base are clearly influenced by the average income growth rate, net migration rate, and changes in unemployment rates. Thus, the main aim of this paper is to explore in depth the interactive effects of these factors (and local policy variables) in Swedish municipalities, by estimating a proposed three-equation system. Our main finding is that increases in local public expenditures and income taxes have negative effects on subsequent local income growth. In addition, our results support the conditional convergence hypothesis, i.e. that average income tends to grow more rapidly in relatively poor local jurisdictions than in initially “richer” jurisdictions, conditional on the other explanatory variables.

  • 42. Cioffi, Francesco
    et al.
    Lall, Upmanu
    Rus, Ester
    Krishnamurthy, Chandra Kiran B.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi.
    Space-time structure of extreme precipitation in Europe over the last century2015Inngår i: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 35, nr 8, 1749-1760 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the space-time structure of extreme precipitation in Europe over the last century, using daily rainfall data from the European Climate Assessment & Dataset (ECA&D) archive. The database includes 267 stations with records longer than 100 years. In the winter season (October to March), for each station, two classes of daily rainfall amount values are selected that, respectively, exceed the 90th and 95th percentile of daily rainfall amount over all the 100 years. For each class, and at each location, an annual time series of the frequency of exceedance and of the total precipitation, defined respectively as the number of days the rainfall threshold (90th and 95th percentiles) is exceeded and total precipitation on days when the percentile is exceeded, are developed. Space-time structure of the frequency and total precipitation time series at the different locations are then pursued using multivariate time and frequency domain methods. The identified key trends and organized spectral modes are linked to well-known climate indices, as North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO). The spectra of the leading principal component of frequency of exceedance and of total precipitation have a peak with a 5-year period that is significant at the 5% level. These are also significantly correlated with ENSO series with this period. The spectrum of total rainfall is significant at the 10% level with a period of similar to 8 years. This appears to be significantly correlated to the NAO index at this period. Thus, a decomposition of both secular trends and quasi-periodic behaviour in extreme daily rainfall is provided.

  • 43. Coria, Jessica
    et al.
    Jaraite, Jurate
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Carbon pricing: transaction costs of emissions trading vs. carbon taxes2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we empirically compare the transaction costs from monitoring, reporting and verification (MRV) of two environmental regulations directed to cost-efficiently reduce greenhouse gas emissions: a carbon dioxide (CO2) tax and a tradable emissions system. We do this in the case of Sweden, where a set of firms are covered by both types of regulations, i.e., the Swedish CO2 tax and the European Union’s Emissions Trading System (EU ETS). This provides us with an excellent case study as it allows us to disentangle the costs of each regulation from other firm-specific variables that might affect the overall cost of MRV procedures. Our results indicate that the MRV costs of CO2 taxation do not depend on firms’ emissions, while they do in the case of the EU ETS. For firms of equivalent emissions’ size, the MRV costs are lower for CO2 taxation than for the EU ETS, which confirms the general view that regulating emissions upstream by means of a CO2 tax yields lower transaction costs vis-á-vis downstream regulation by means of emission trading.

  • 44. Daniel, Aemiro Melkamu
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Sandorf, Erlend Dancke
    Accounting for elimination-by-aspects strategies and demand management in electricity contract choice2017Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    We report on a discrete choice experiment aimed at eliciting Swedish households’ willingness-to-accept a compensation for restrictions on household electricity and heating use during peak hours. When analyzing data from discrete choice experiments, we typically assume that people make rational utility maximizing decisions, i.e., that they consider all of the attribute information and compare all alternatives. However, mounting evidence shows that people use a wide range of simplifying strategies that are inconsistent with utility maximization. We use a flexible model capturing a two-stage decision process. In the first stage, respondents are allowed to eliminate from their choice set alternatives that contain an unacceptable level, i.e., restrictions on the use of heating and electricity. In the second stage, respondents choose in a compensatory manner between the remaining alternatives. Our results show that about half of our respondents choose according to an elimination-by-aspects strategy, and that, on average, they are unwilling to accept any restrictions on heating in the evening or electricity use, irrespective of time-of-day. Furthermore, we find that considering elimination-by-aspects behavior leads to a downward shift in elicited willingness-to-accept. We discuss implications for policy. 

  • 45.
    de Bruin, Kelly Chloe
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Weikard, Hans-Peter
    Dellink, Rob
    The Role of Proactive Adaptation in International Climate Change Mitigation Agreements2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 46.
    de Bruin, Kelly
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Dellink, Rob
    Wageningen University, The Netherlands.
    How harmful are restrictions on adaptating to climate change?2011Inngår i: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, Vol. 21, nr 1, 35-45 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dominant assumption in economic models of climate policy remains that adaptation will be implemented in an optimal manner. There are, however, several reasons why optimal levels of adaptation may not be attainable. This paper investigates the effects of suboptimal levels of adaptation caused by different types of adaptation restrictions, on the composition and level of climate change costs and on welfare. We find that especially restrictions to the effectiveness of adaptation at more extreme levels of climate change can be very harmful. Furthermore we show that the potential of mitigation to offset suboptimal adaptation varies from being essential in case adaptation becomes ineffective at higher temperature increases, to being largely ineffective in case of short-term inaction. However, in all cases the short-term recommendation is to increase mitigation levels slightly above what is normally recommended, and to keep mitigation policies flexible enough to be able to respond when adaptation restrictions become more prominent. It is clear that by reducing adaptation restrictions, in combination with adjusting the optimal level of mitigation may keep the costs of adaptation restrictions limited, and thus generally it is very harmful to ignore existing restrictions on adaptation when devising (efficient) climate policies.

  • 47. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Johansson, Maria
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Waldo, Åsa
    Kommunerna och vindkraften2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den svenska vindkraften står inför en massiv utbyggnad de närmaste tio åren, vilket har manifesterats i både nationella och internationella beslut och målsättningar. I praktiken sker emellertid utbyggnaden i det lokala (kommunala) sammanhanget, vilket innebär en rad utmaningar och ställningstaganden både för dem som projekterar vindkraften, för dem som beslutar om den och för dem som ska bli grannar med den.

    I den här studien ligger fokus på det lokala sammanhanget – de fysiska resurserna och de sociala förutsättningarna. Ett grundantagande är att kommunala skillnader i fysiska resurser och sociala förutsättningar har betydelse för kommunens inställning till vindkraft. Sveriges 290 kommuner analyseras med utgångspunkt i hur mycket installerad effekt vindkraft som finns i respektive kommun. Analysen visar att vindkraftsutbyggnaden i Sverige framför allt har präglats av stora variationer – där vissa kommuner har mycket befintlig vindkraft medan andra kommuner helt saknar vindkraft. När det gäller den framtida vindkraftsutbyggnaden, de projekt som planeras idag, baseras analysen framför allt på statistik på länsnivå, vilket begränsar möjligheterna att relatera utbyggnaden till olika kommuner. Det kan ändå konstateras att tendensen att vindkraften etableras på vissa platser, i vissa kommuner och län, men inte andra, ser ut att fortsätta.

    Denna ojämna utveckling av vindkraften gör det intressant att undersöka vilka lokala förutsättningar som är relaterade till utbyggnad. I en ekonometrisk analys relateras installerad effekt (kW) vindkraft till kommunernas fysiska resurser och sociala förutsättningar. Valet av faktorer som ingår i analysen är baserat på ett resonemang kring att en kommuns potential för vindkraft avgörs dels av fysiska resurser såsom markyta och vind och dels av sociala förutsättningar såsom kommunens utvecklingstrend som boende-, besöks- och företagsmiljö. Resultaten visar att det är mer sannolikt att det finns vindkraft i kommuner med en positiv befolkningsutveckling, låg befolkningstäthet och mycket fritidsturism. Betydelsen av ett kustnära läge, en stor markyta och ett lokalt miljöengagemang kan däremot inte statistiskt säkerställas. Utbyggnaden tycks vidare vara oberoende av kommunens vindresurser (baserat på hur stor andel riksintresse för vindbruk som finns i kommunen) och företagsklimatet i kommunen. Vindkraften är således utbyggd främst i kommuner som är attraktiva boende- och besöksarenor, men oberoende av om kommunen är en attraktiv affärsarena eller inte. 5

    Flera av resultaten pekar i en oväntad riktning, vilket gör dem svårtolkade. De processer som leder fram till en stark eller svag utbyggnad lokalt är komplexa och drivs sannolikt av förhållanden som inte kan analyseras inom ramen för en tvärsnittsstudie.

    Denna studie ska ses som ett första försök att identifiera och testa betydelsen av olika lokala faktorer för vindkraftsutbyggnaden. Kombinationen av perspektiv och metoder från nationalekonomi, miljöpsykologi och sociologi har gett en bredd till analysen och pekar på möjligheter att fördjupa analysen med bättre och mer fullständig statistik. Exempelvis skulle statistik för den planerade vindkraftsutbyggnaden på kommunnivå ge en helt annan bild och förståelse för vilka lokala förutsättningar som har betydelse för utbyggnaden. Vidare skulle en mer omfattande longitudinell studie kunna visa vilka processer som samvarierar med en viss utvecklingstendens. Slutligen skulle en fördjupad analys genom intervjuer med centrala aktörer i det lokala sammanhanget kunna öka förståelsen för vilka resonemang som i praktiken föranleder beslut för eller emot vindkraft

  • 48.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Priorities and preferences in the implementation of the European Water Framework Directive - A case study of the river Alsterån2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper elicits local and semi-local citizens’ preferences for water quality attributes explicitly related to the water framework directive. A river basin in southeast of Sweden is used as a case study. The sample consists of 502 respondents living in the municipalities through which the river passes, or neighboring municipalities. By the use of a choice experiment tailored to the specific case study area, the paper analyzes public attitudes and willingness to pay for selected attributes related to water quality management. The attributes and their corresponding levels are based on real criteria for ecological water status, used in the implementation of the WFD in the river basin. Although participants live in or close to the catchment area, the results reveal a general lack of knowledge and interest in matters related to the environmental quality of the river. All attributes included in the choice experiment proved to have a statistically significant impact on the choice probabilities. There was however no significant evidence that the preferences differ between respondents with regard to self reported previous experience or knowledge about the water body, nor with regard to differences in recreational habits in the area. The results can potentially be used as inputs in practical policy making with its inevitable trade offs and priorities. 

  • 49. Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    The economics of the European Water Framework Directive - A retrospective remark focusing on Sweden2016Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The Water Framework Directive (WFD) explicitly acknowledges the role of economics in the process of reaching the environmental quality objectives. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the implementation of the WFD in Sweden based on standard economic theory regarding instruments for cost efficient- and effective solutions to environmental problems. A lesson is that although incentive based instruments are beneficial from a cost-efficiency perspective, the complexities associated with environmental water management may somewhat challenge their implementation. Flexibility is a key issue for cost-effectiveness and, since Swedish water management mainly consists of command-and control instruments, the cost effectiveness is likely to be limited. Furthermore, the paper also points at how policy instruments relate to the economic burden aspect and the PPP – both highlighted in the Directive. 

  • 50.
    Ek, Kristina
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Economics Unit, Luleå, Sweden.
    Persson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Nationalekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för miljö- och naturresursekonomi (CERE).
    Wind farms - where and how to place them?: A choice experiment approach to measure consumer preferences for characteristics of wind farm establishments in Sweden2014Inngår i: Ecological Economics, ISSN 0921-8009, E-ISSN 1873-6106, Vol. 105, 193-203 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores preferences among the general public in Sweden for attributes related to the establishment of wind power farms. The method applied is a choice experiment where people are asked to choose between two hypothetical wind farms characterized by different attributes. Five attributes are included in the experiment: (i) type of landscape, (ii) type of ownership, (iii) the degree of local participation in the planning process, (iv) the choice to transfer revenue to the society in a pre-specified way, and (v) a monetary cost in terms of an additional electricity certificate fee. The data are analyzed with multinomial logit, random parameter logit, and latent class models. The results indicate that consumers in Sweden are more likely to accept the higher renewable electricity certificate fee if: (a) wind power farms in areas used for recreational purposes are substantially avoided, (b) the establishment is anchored by whole or partial ownership in the local community and, (c) the locals are involved in the planning and implementation process. Our policy simulation exercise shows that respondents are willing to pay a higher electricity fee corresponding to about 0.6 Euro cents per kWh to avoid wind farms located in the mountainous area and private ownership.

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