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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Clinical studies and chemical pathology in normal aging and dementia of Alzheimer type1980Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bejerot, Susanne
    Engel, Jörgen
    Forssberg, Hans
    Heilig, Markus
    Humble, Mats
    Ingvar, Martin
    Levander, Sten
    Oreland, Lars
    Pedersen, Nancy
    Asberg, Marie
    Ohman, Arne
    [Researchers and psychiatrists defending Gillberg's research on ADDH: Karfve's campaign is a form of personal persecution and scientific basis is missing]2003Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 100, nr 8, 636-7 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Eriksson, M
    [Psychiatry must offer a qualified ambulatory care to the elderly]1990Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 87, nr 47, 3962, 3967- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Gustafson, L
    Skoog, I
    Viitanen, M
    Wallin, A
    [A check list for diagnosis and basic investigation of dementia in primary health care]1990Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 87, nr 48, 4098-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Holmberg, B
    [Anxiety depressions among the elderly--symptoms, diagnosis and treatment]1991Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 88, nr 32-33, 2586, 2590-1 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 6.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Linge, E
    [Cognitive psychotherapy in the elderly with anxiety depressive disorders is effective]1992Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 89, nr 5, 291-4 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Linge, E
    [Psychiatric clinics for the elderly need sufficient resources for ambulatory care]1991Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 88, nr 7, 491- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 8. Aeinehband, Shahin
    et al.
    Brenner, Philip
    Stahl, Sara
    Bhat, Maria
    Fidock, Mark D.
    Khademi, Mohsen
    Olsson, Tomas
    Engberg, Goran
    Jokinen, Jussi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Erhardt, Sophie
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Cerebrospinal fluid kynurenines in multiple sclerosis: relation to disease course and neurocognitive symptoms2016Inngår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 51, 47-55 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory and neurodegenerative disease of the central nervous system, with a high rate of neurocognitive symptoms for which the molecular background is still uncertain. There is accumulating evidence for dysregulation of the kynurenine pathway (KP) in different psychiatric and neurodegenerative conditions. We here report the first comprehensive analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) kynurenine metabolites in MS patients of different disease stages and in relation to neurocognitive symptoms. Levels of tryptophan (TRP), kynurenine (KYN), kynurenic acid (KYNA) and quinolinic acid (QUIN) were determined with liquid chromatography mass spectrometry in cell-free CSF. At the group level MS patients (cohort 1; n = 71) did not differ in absolute levels of TRP, KYN, KYNA or QUIN as compared to non-inflammatory neurological disease controls (n = 20). Stratification of patients into different disease courses revealed that both absolute QUIN levels and the QUIN/KYN ratio were increased in relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients in relapse. Interestingly, secondary progressive MS (SPMS) displayed a trend for lower TRP and KYNA, while primary progressive (PPMS) patients displayed increased levels of all metabolites, similar to a group of inflammatory neurological disease controls (n = 13). In the second cohort (n = 48), MS patients with active disease and short disease duration were prospectively evaluated for neuropsychiatric symptoms. In a supervised multivariate analysis using orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS-DA) depressed patients displayed higher KYNA/TRP and KYN/TRP ratios, mainly due to low TRP levels. Still, this model had low predictive value and could not completely separate the clinically depressed patients from the non-depressed MS patients. No correlation was evident for other neurocognitive measures. Taken together these results demonstrate that clinical disease activity and differences in disease courses are reflected by changes in KP metabolites. Increased QUIN levels of RRMS patients in relapse and generally decreased levels of TRP in SPMS may relate to neurotoxicity and failure of remyelination, respectively. In contrast, PPMS patients displayed a more divergent pattern more resembling inflammatory conditions such as systemic lupus erythematosus. The pattern of KP metabolites in RRMS patients could not predict neurocognitive symptoms.

  • 9.
    Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Ceulemans, Shana
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Forero, Diego
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Moens, Lotte N
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Heyrman, Lien
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    De Rijk, Peter
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Sweden .
    Goossens, Dirk
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Institute for Biotechnology and University of Antwerp, Belgium.
    Support for NRG1 as a susceptibility factor for schizophrenia in a northern Swedish isolated population2009Inngår i: Archives of General Psychiatry, ISSN 0003-990X, Vol. 66, nr 8, 828-837 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CONTEXT: Neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a growth factor involved in neurodevelopment, myelination, neurotransmitter receptor expression, and synaptic plasticity, first joined the list of candidate genes for schizophrenia when a 7-marker haplotype at the 5' end of the gene (Hap(ICE)) was shown to be associated with the disorder in the Icelandic population. Since then, more genetic and functional evidence has emerged, which supports a role for NRG1 in the development of schizophrenia. OBJECTIVE: To determine the contribution of NRG1 to susceptibility for schizophrenia in a northern Swedish isolated population. DESIGN: Detailed linkage disequilibrium (LD)-based patient-control association study. This is the first study to type and analyze the 7 Hap(ICE) markers and a set of 32 HapMap tagging single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that represents variants with a minor allele frequency of at least 1% and fully characterizes the LD structure of the 5' part of NRG1. SETTING: Outpatient and inpatient hospitals. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 486 unrelated patients with schizophrenia and 514 unrelated control individuals recruited from a northern Swedish isolated population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Association between markers and disease. RESULTS: Analysis of the Hap(ICE) markers showed the association of a 7-marker and 2-microsatellite haplotype, different from the haplotypes associated in the Icelandic population and overrepresented in northern Swedish control individuals. Subsequently, a more detailed analysis that included all 37 genotyped SNPs was performed by investigating haplotypic association, dependent and independent of LD block structure. We found significant association with 5 SNPs located in the second intron of NRG1 (.007

  • 10.
    Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Ceulemans, Shana
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Forero, Diego
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Moens, Lotte N
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Heyrman, Lien
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Goossens, Dirk
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    De Rijk, Peter
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Nilsson, Lars-Göran
    Department of Psychology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, VIB, Antwerp, Belgium.
    Detailed analysis of the serotonin transporter gene (SLC6A4) shows no association with bipolar disorder in the Northern Swedish population2009Inngår i: American journal of medical genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric genetics, ISSN 1552-485X, Vol. 150B, nr 4, 585-592 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Through active reuptake of serotonin into presynaptic neurons, the serotonin transporter (5-HTT) plays an important role in regulating serotonin concentrations in the brain, and it is the site of binding for tricyclic antidepressants and selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). Therefore it has been hypothesized that this transporter is involved in the etiology of bipolar (BP) disorder. Inconsistent association study results for the SLC6A4 gene encoding 5-HTT reported in literature emphasize the need for more systematic and detailed analyses of this candidate gene. We performed an extensive analysis of SLC6A4 on DNA of 254 BPI patients and 364 control individuals from a Northern Swedish isolated population. This analysis consisted of a HapMap LD-based association study including three widely investigated polymorphisms (5-HTTVNTR, 5-HTTLPR, and rs3813034), a copy-number variation (CNV) analysis and a mutation analysis of the complete coding sequence and the 3'-UTR of SLC6A4. No single marker showed statistically significant association with BPI, nor did any of the haplotypes. In the mutation analysis 13 novel variants were detected, including 2 amino acid substitutions M389V and I587L, but these are probably not implicated in risk for BP. No deletions or duplications were detected in the CNV analysis. We conclude that variation in the SLC6A4 gene or its regulatory regions does not contribute to the susceptibility for BP disorder in the Northern Swedish population.

  • 11.
    Alaerts, Maaike
    et al.
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium.
    Venken, Tine
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium.
    Lenaerts, An-Sofie
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium.
    De Zutter, Sonia
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium.
    Norrback, Karl-Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Del-Favero, Jurgen
    Applied Molecular Genomics Group, Department of Molecular Genetics, Flanders Interuniversity Institute for Biotechnology (VIB), University of Antwerp (UA), Belgium.
    Lack of association of an insertion/deletion polymorphism in the G protein-coupled receptor 50 with bipolar disorder in a Northern Swedish population2006Inngår i: Psychiatric Genetics, ISSN 0955-8829, E-ISSN 1473-5873, Vol. 16, nr 6, 235-236 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    GPR50 is a G protein-coupled receptor, located on Xq28 and related to the melatonin receptor family. It is suggested as a functional and positional candidate gene for bipolar disorder (BP). Recently an insertion/deletion polymorphism in GPR50, Delta502-505, was found to be associated with BP in a Scottish association sample (P=0.007). When the analysis was restricted to female subjects, the association increased in significance (P=0.00023). We attempted to replicate this finding in a Northern Swedish association sample, but no significant association was detected (P=0.7, women only: P=0.65).

  • 12. Alafuzoff, I
    et al.
    Almqvist, E
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lake, S
    Wallace, W
    Greenberg, D A
    Winblad, B
    A comparison of multiplex and simplex families with Alzheimer's disease/senile dementia of Alzheimer type within a well defined population.1994Inngår i: Journal of neural transmission. Parkinson's disease and dementia section, ISSN 0936-3076, Vol. 7, nr 1, 61-72 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A study was made on 150 clinically demented patients presenting at autopsy at Umeå University Hospital in Sweden. In 90 of the cases dementia was considered to be primary in nature and of these forty six per cent (41 cases), fulfilled both the clinical and histopathological criteria for the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease/Senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT). The families of these 41 AD/SDAT cases were then studied, and a family history obtained through interviews with multiple family informants and from civil and medical records. Additional diseased family members suffering from progressive dementia (multiplex families) were observed in 12 probands out of 41 (29%). Multiplex families exhibited similar clinical and histopathological characteristics as simplex families containing a single affected individual. The secondary cases in the multiplex families exhibited similar demographic and clinical characteristics as the probands. 39% of the multiplex and 14% of the simplex cases had an early age of onset of the disease, that was under 65 years. The overall prevalence of progressive dementia disorders in the 41 families was 5.9%. The prevalence of a progressive dementia disorder was 11% in the multiplex families (14% for the early onset cases) and 3.5% in the simplex families (2% for the early onset cases). The prevalence of progressive dementia disorder for family members who had passed the mean age of the onset of the disease for their family, was 45% for multiplex and 18% for simplex families. Furthermore the incidence rate for dementia was significantly higher (p < 0.005) in multiplex families (5.5 per 1,000 person years) when compared to simplex families (2.5 per 1,000 person years). No differences could be seen in parental age at birth of the diseased when comparing the two sets of families. However in multiplex families the duration of the disease was significantly (p < 0.025) shorter, in subjects with parental age at birth over 35 years compared to those with a parental age under 35 years. The multiplex families contained significantly (p < 0.025) larger sibships; and showed a significantly lower age of onset for the disease (p < 0.001), and a significantly longer duration of disease (p < 0.05) compared to the simplex families. A significant intra familial correlation of age at disease onset was observed in both sets of the families.

  • 13. Alafuzoff, I
    et al.
    Iqbal, K
    Friden, H
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Winblad, B
    Histopathological criteria for progressive dementia disorders: clinical-pathological correlation and classification by multivariate data analysis.1987Inngår i: Acta Neuropathologica, ISSN 0001-6322, E-ISSN 1432-0533, Vol. 74, nr 3, 209-25 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Autopsied brains from 55 patients with dementia between 59-95 years of age (mean age 77.9 +/- 8.1 years) and 19 non-demented individuals between 46-91 years of age (mean age 74.3 +/- 10.5 years) were examined to establish histopathological criteria for normal ageing, primary degenerative [Alzheimer's disease (AD)/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (SDAT)] and vascular (multi-infarct) dementia (MID) disorders. Senile/neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, microscopic infarcts and perivascular serum protein deposits were quantified in the frontal lobe (Brodmann area 10) and in the hippocampus. The demented patients were classified according to the DSM-III criteria into AD/SDAT and MID. Operationally defined histopathological criteria for dementias, based on the degree/amount of the histopathological changes seen in aged non-demented patients, were postulated. The demented patients were clearly separable into three histopathological types, namely AD/SDAT, MID and AD-MID, the dementia type where both the degenerative and the vascular changes are coexistent in greater extent than are seen in the non-demented individuals. Using general clinical, gross neuroanatomical and histopathological data three separate dementia classes, namely AD/SDAT, MID and AD-MID, were visualized in two-dimensional space by multivariate data analysis. This analysis revealed that the pathology in the AD-MID patients was not merely a linear combination of the pathology in AD/SDAT and MID, indicating that AD-MID might represent a dementia type of its own. The clinical diagnosis for AD/SDAT and MID was certain in only half of the AD/SDAT and one third of the MID cases when evaluated histopathologically and by multivariate data analysis. AD/SDAT, MID and AD-MID were histopathologically diagnosed in 49%, 24% and 27%, respectively, of all the dementia cases studied. Opposite correlation between the number of tangles, plaques and the patient age in non-demented and AD/SDAT cases were observed, indicating that the pathogenesis of tangles and plaques in the two groups of patients might be different and that AD/SDAT might not be a form of an exaggerated ageing process.

  • 14.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Araya, Mesfin
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    How are mental disorders seen and where is help sought in a rural Ethiopian community? A key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 100, nr S397, 40-47 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred key informants were interviewed about their awareness, attitudes and practices regarding mental illness using the Key Informant Questionnaire developed by WHO. Case vignettes of seven common neuropsychiatric disorders were presented to the key informants. Informants' awareness about these disorders and help-seeking practices for mental and physical symptoms or conditions were assessed. An additional question on the prototype symptoms of mental disorders was also posed. Among the presented seven conditions, epilepsy was perceived as the most common condition and major depression was regarded as the least common one. Schizophrenia was judged as the most severe problem, and mental retardation was considered the second most severe condition. Talkativeness, aggression and strange behaviour were the most frequently perceived prototype symptoms of mental illness. Traditional treatment methods were preferred more often for treating symptoms of mental disorders and modern medicine was preferred more often for treating physical diseases or symptoms. Findings of this study are similar to other studies conducted in socio-culturally different communities. Working in close connection with traditional healers would give the primary health care worker a better opportunity to gain acceptance from the community and modify certain harmful practices.

  • 15. Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Hanlon, Charlotte
    Community-based mental health care in Africa: mental health workers' views2008Inngår i: World Psychiatry, ISSN 1723-8617, E-ISSN 2051-5545, Vol. 7, nr 1, 54-57 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has for long proposed the development of community-based mental health services worldwide. However, the progress toward community mental health care in most African countries is still hampered by a lack of resources, with specialist psychiatric care essentially based in large, centrally located mental hospitals. It is again time to reconsider the direction of mental health care in Africa. Based on a small inquiry to a number of experienced mental health professionals in sub-Saharan Africa, we discuss what a community concept of mental health care might mean in Africa. There is a general agreement that mental health services should be integrated in primary health care. A critical issue for success of this model is perceived to be provision of appropriate supervision and continuing education for primary care workers. The importance of collaboration between modem medicine and traditional healers is stressed and the paper ends in a plea for WHO to take the initiative and develop mental health services according to the special needs and the sociocultural conditions prevailing in sub-Saharan Africa.

  • 16.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa. Ethiopia.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Awareness and attitudes of a rural Ethiopian community toward suicidal behaviour. A key informant study in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 100, nr S397, 65-69 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    One hundred key informants were interviewed regarding their awareness and attitudes toward suicidal behaviour. Eighty-eight informants were male, 58 were Muslim and 42 were Christian. Informants on average, claimed to know more persons who had completed suicide than those who had attempted suicide. Almost all informants mentioned more than one cause for suicide. Of these, frustration was the most frequently mentioned cause. Most informants believed that suicide attempters are cruel, feared and not trustworthy. Their attitude toward suicide completers was expressed as condemned sinners, do not deserve funeral ceremony, and should be buried separately from others. Christians gave importance to the funeral issue more than did the Muslims. Generally, the attitudes of informants were punitive and disapproving.

  • 17.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lynöe, Niels
    Kohn, Robert
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Attitudes and practices among Ethiopian health care professionals in psychiatry regarding compulsory treatment.2002Inngår i: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, ISSN 0160-2527, E-ISSN 1873-6386, Vol. 25, nr 6, 599-610 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Arnanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Suicide attempts among adults in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 100, nr S397, 70-76 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In a cross-sectional survey, 10,468 adults of a rural and semi-urban community were interviewed to determine lifetime suicide attempts. Among the study population, 58% were female, 74.4% were Muslim and 79.3% had had no formal education. The majority of the population were in the age group 25-59 years. Lifetime suicide attempt was reported by 3.2% (n = 332) of the study population. Of these, 63% (n = 208) were women. The most frequent age of attempt was between 15 and 24 years and the frequency of attempt decreased with increasing age. Hanging and poisoning were the most frequently reported methods of attempting suicide. Marital or family conflict was the most frequently reported cause for attempting suicide and most of those who reported this cause were women (Chi-square = 17.42; P < 0.001). Men were significantly more likely to use hanging to attempt suicide than women (Chi-square = 8.21; P < 0.001). Among Christians 3.9% had a lifetime suicide attempt compared to 2.9% among Muslims (Chi-square = 6.15; P < 0.05). People who currently had mental distress and problem drinking reported lifetime suicide attempt more often than others.

  • 19.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    The epidemiology of problem drinking in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 100, nr S397, 77-83 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of problem drinking, a total of 10,468 persons aged 15 and above, most residing in a rural district, were interviewed using the CAGE questionnaire as an important element of a general mental health survey. Twenty-three per cent of the respondents admitted that they currently drank alcohol. The prevalence of alcohol drinking was 15% for women and 36% for men. Among those who drank, 16% met the criterion for problem drinking as defined by two or more positive responses to the CAGE. The overall prevalence for problem drinking was found to be 3.7%. Stratified analysis for sex showed that Christian religion, male sex, being ethnically non-Gurage, and smoking were strongly associated with problem drinking in both sexes. Marital status, mental distress and income were found to be associated factors with problem drinking only in men.

  • 20.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital. Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat chewing in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 100, nr S397, 84-91 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A house-to-house survey was carried out in a rural Ethiopian community to determine the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of khat use. A total of 10,468 adults were interviewed. Of these, 58% were female, and 74% were Muslim. More than half of the study population (55.7%) reported lifetime khat chewing experience and the prevalence of current use was 50%. Among current chewers, 17.4% reported taking khat on a daily basis; 16.1% of these were male and 3.4% were female. Various reasons were given for chewing khat; 80% of the chewers used it to gain a good level of concentration for prayer. Muslim religion, smoking and high educational level showed strong association with daily khat chewing.

  • 21.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Amanuel Psychiatric Hospital, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, D
    Woldesemiat, G
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    The prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of mental distress in Butajira, Ethiopia.1999Inngår i: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 100, nr S397, 48-55 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted on 10,468 rural and semi-urban adults in an Ethiopian district using the Self Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ) to detect the prevalence of mental distress and its association with socio-demographic risk factors. Fifty-eight per cent of the study population were women, 74% were Muslim, 79% were illiterate. Those experiencing 11 or more symptoms out of the 20 SRQ items were considered as having mental distress. Accordingly, the prevalence of mental distress was 17%, which is comparable with the previous hospital-based studies in Ethiopia and elsewhere. However, it was higher than the previous community-based studies in Ethiopia. Mental distress was more prevalent among women. Part of the explanation was that women in the study population were older and that they were more often widowed or divorced, which were factors associated with mental distress. Illiteracy, which was more common among women and older individuals, was also independently associated with mental distress.

  • 22.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Kebede, Derege
    WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Congo .
    Fekadu, Abebaw
    King's College London, United Kingdom.
    Shibre, Teshome
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Fekadu, Daniel
    Maudsley Hospitall, London, United Kingdom.
    Beyero, Teferra
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Medhin, Girmay
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Negash, Alemayehu
    Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia.
    Kullgren, Gunnar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Clinical course and outcome of schizophrenia in a predominantly treatment-naive cohort in rural Ethiopia2009Inngår i: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 35, nr 3, 646-654 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The established view that schizophrenia may have a favorable outcome in developing countries has been recently challenged; however, systematic studies are scarce. In this report, we describe the clinical outcome of schizophrenia among a predominantly treatment-naive cohort in a rural community setting in Ethiopia. The cohort was identified in a 2-stage sampling design using key informants and measurement-based assessment. Follow-up assessments were conducted monthly for a mean duration of 3.4 years (range 1-6 years). After screening 68 378 adults, ages 15-49 years, 321 cases with schizophrenia (82.7% men and 89.6% treatment naive) were identified. During follow-up, about a third (30.8%) of cases were continuously ill while most of the remaining cohort experienced an episodic course. Only 5.7% of the cases enjoyed a near-continuous complete remission. In the final year of follow-up, over half of the cases (54%) were in psychotic episode, while 17.6% were in partial remission and 27.4% were in complete remission for at least the month preceding the follow-up assessment. Living in a household with 3 or more adults, later age of onset, and taking antipsychotic medication for at least 50% of the follow-up period predicted complete remission. Although outcome in this setting appears better than in developed countries, the very low proportion of participants in complete remission supports the recent observation that the outcome of schizophrenia in developing countries may be heterogeneous rather than uniformly favorable. Improving access to treatment may be the logical next step to improve outcome of schizophrenia in this setting.

  • 23.
    Alem, Atalay
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Pain, Clare
    Araya, Mesfin
    Hodges, Brian D
    Co-creating a psychiatric resident program with Ethiopians, for Ethiopians, in Ethiopia: the Toronto Addis Ababa Psychiatry Project (TAAPP)2010Inngår i: Academic Psychiatry, ISSN 1042-9670, Vol. 34, nr 6, 424-432 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An important issue that underscores such a partnership is the risk of simply exporting Western, America-centric psychiatric training versus creating culturally appropriate models of education.

  • 24.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Psykoser hos äldre2009Inngår i: Incitament, ISSN 1103-503x, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Schizofreni2011Inngår i: Kognitiv medicin / [ed] Lars-Olof Wahlund, Christer Nilsson, Anders Wallin, Stockholm: Norstedts Förlag, 2011, 1Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Äldrepsykiatri2012Inngår i: Psykisk hälsa, ISSN 0033-3212, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 27.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Äldrepsykiatri - eftersatt trots att behoven finns.2008Inngår i: Primärvårdens nyheter, ISSN 1400-2906, nr 6/7Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 28.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Äldrepsykiatri: en bristvara2012Inngår i: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29.
    Allard, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Äldrepsykiatri: en nödvändighet i framtidens sjukvård2013Inngår i: Äldre i centrum, ISSN 1401-5110, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Alafuzoff, I
    Carlsson, A
    Eriksson, K
    Ericson, E
    Gottfries, C G
    Marcusson, J O
    Loss of dopamine uptake sites labeled with [3H]GBR-12935 in Alzheimer's disease.1990Inngår i: European Neurology, ISSN 0014-3022, E-ISSN 1421-9913, Vol. 30, nr 4, 181-5 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of the dopamine uptake inhibitor [3H]GBR-12935 to postmortem putamen from a control group and patients with Alzheimer's disease/senile dementia of Alzheimer type (AD/SDAT) or vascular dementia (VD) was studied. The binding density (Bmax) in AD/SDAT was significantly reduced to 50% of control. A reduction of Bmax in VD was also noted, but it did not reach statistical significance. No differences in apparent binding affinity (Kd) between controls and dementia groups were obtained. The concentrations of dopamine (DA), dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) and homovanillic acid were also determined. The concentrations of DA and DOPAC were reduced by 30-40% in AD/SDAT and VD, but the reductions did not reach statistical significance. The concentration of 3-MT was reduced by 40% in AD/SDAT and by 30% in VD. The [3H]GBR-12935-binding densities correlated significantly with corresponding concentrations of DA in control brains. It is suggested that the loss of [3H]GBR-12935-binding sites in human putamen in AD/SDAT reflects a degeneration of dopamine neurites.

  • 31.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Danielsson, M
    Papworth, K
    Marcusson, J O
    [3H]GBR-12935 binding to human cerebral cortex is not to dopamine uptake sites.1994Inngår i: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 62, nr 1, 338-41 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of the dopamine uptake inhibitor [3H]GBR-12935 to 16 regions of the human brain was investigated in competition experiments with increasing concentrations of GBR-12909, mazindol, and dopamine. The methodology used included a relatively high tissue concentration (8 mg/ml) and addition of 5 mM KCl in the assay buffer. GBR-12909 inhibited 80-90% of the binding in most regions, whereas dopamine only inhibited the binding in the striatum. Mazindol inhibited only part of the cortical binding at concentrations of > 1 microM, whereas the inhibition in the caudate and the putamen also contained a high-affinity component representing the dopamine uptake site. It is concluded that the [3H]GBR-12935 binding sensitive to GBR-12909 cannot be regarded as specific binding to the dopamine uptake site because the displaceable binding most likely is not related to the dopamine uptake site.

  • 32.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Englund, E
    Marcusson, J
    Reduced number of caudate nucleus dopamine uptake sites in vascular dementia.1999Inngår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 10, nr 2, 77-80 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The dopamine (DA) uptake sites in the caudate nucleus were studied in patients with vascular dementia (VAD) and in a control group using the presynaptic DA uptake site marker [3H][2beta-carbomethoxy-3beta-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane] as radioligand. There was a significant decrease in the number of DA uptake sites in the VAD group, while the binding affinity was unchanged. The present results indicate that in the patients investigated, the cerebrovascular disease process involves dopaminergic neuron terminals in the caudate nucleus. Our findings are discussed in relation to the reductions in number of DA uptake sites that have previously been revealed in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases.

  • 33.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Englund, Elisabet
    Marcusson, Jan
    Caudate nucleus dopamine d(2) receptors in vascular dementia.2002Inngår i: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824, Vol. 14, nr 1, 22-5 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Caudate nucleus dopamine (DA) D(2) receptors were studied in patients with vascular dementia (VaD) and in a control group using [(3)H]raclopride as a radioligand. There was no significant difference in the number of DA D(2) receptors in the VaD group as compared with controls. The binding affinity was significantly lower in the VaD group. When the VaD group was subdivided into subjects with or without neuroleptic treatment, there were no differences in the numbers of receptors as compared with controls, and the significant differences in binding affinity remained for both VaD subgroups. The present results are discussed with reference to the previous finding of a reduced density of caudate nucleus DA uptake sites in the same VaD group and to results from studies on DA D(2) receptors in Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease.

  • 34.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Eriksson, K
    Ross, S B
    Marcusson, J O
    [3H]GBR-12935 binding to dopamine uptake sites in rat striatum.1990Inngår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 23, nr 4, 177-81 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of the selective dopamine uptake inhibitor [3H]GBR-12935 to rat striatum was studied. Competition by mazindol and dopamine against [3H]GBR-12935 binding revealed monophasic binding curves. The addition of 100 microM dopamine to the mazindol competition inhibited only 80% of the binding, indicating more than one [3H]GBR-12935 binding site in rat striatum. When a binding fraction that could be discriminated by 1 microM mazindol or 1 mM dopamine was defined as specific binding, a single site binding model was obtained. The [3H]GBR-12935 binding was of protein nature, since it was abolished after protease treatment. Drug inhibition studies with the addition of low concentrations of mazindol and dopamine resulted in alterations in apparent Kd values only, suggesting competitive inhibition by these compounds against [3H]GBR-12935 binding. It is concluded that the [3H]GBR-12935 binding to rat striatum discriminated by 1 microM mazindol reflects binding to the substrate recognition site for the dopamine uptake.

  • 35.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Eriksson, K
    Ross, S B
    Marcusson, J O
    Unaltered [3H]GBR-12935 binding after chronic treatment with dopamine active drugs.1990Inngår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 102, nr 3, 291-4 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Rats were injected intraperitoneally with haloperidol 0.5 mg/kg, raclopride 1 mg/kg, bromocriptine 2.5 mg/kg, d-amphetamine 2.5 mg/kg, or cocaine 10 mg/kg twice daily for 21 days. The animals were sacrificed 72 h after last injection. Control rats were injected with saline, following the same schedule. The radioligand [3H]GBR-12935 was used as a presynaptic marker for dopamine neurites. There were no significant differences in [3H]GBR-12935 binding to striatum between drug-treated rats and controls.

  • 36.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Gram, Lars
    Timdahl, Kristina
    Behnke, Kirsten
    Hanson, Martin
    Søgaard, Jesper
    Efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine in geriatric outpatients with major depression: a double-blind, randomised 6-month comparative trial with citalopram.2004Inngår i: International Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, ISSN 0885-6230, E-ISSN 1099-1166, Vol. 19, nr 12, 1123-30 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The objectives of the study were to compare efficacy and tolerability of venlafaxine ER 75-150 mg/day with that of citalopram 10-20 mg/day in elderly patients with major depression according to DSM-IV criteria. METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, parallel group 6-month study. Efficacy was assessed by MADRS, CGI Global Improvement, CGI Severity of Illness and GDS-20 scores and safety by physical examinations, vital signs, adverse events and UKU side effect rating. Plasma levels of venlafaxine, its major metabolite O-desmethylvenlafaxine and citalopram were followed. RESULTS: One hundred and fifty-one male and female patients (64-89 years) were enrolled and 118 patients completed the study. Comparable improvements in MADRS, CGI Severity of Illness, CGI Global Improvement and GDS-20 were observed during venlafaxine and citalopram treatment. The MADRS remission rate was 19% for venlafaxine and 23% for citalopram. Side effects were common during both treatments but differed in tremor being more common during citalopram and nausea/vomiting during venlafaxine treatment. There were no clinically significant changes in blood pressure or body weight. CONCLUSION: The observed benefits of venlafaxine treatment in elderly patients with major depression were similar to those observed in younger adults as were reported adverse events and side effects. Treatment with venlafaxine ER was well tolerated and induced beneficial effects of similar magnitude as those of citalopram.

  • 37.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Gustafson, Lars
    Karlsson, Ingvar
    Björkstén, Karin Sparring
    Geriatric psychiatry in Sweden must be developed--not dismantled: New investigation shows depressing results2009Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 106, nr 1-2, 36-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Marcusson, J O
    Age-correlated loss of dopamine uptake sites labeled with [3H]GBR-12935 in human putamen.1989Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 10, nr 6, 661-4 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of age (19-100 years) upon dopamine uptake sites labeled with [3H]GBR-12935 in human postmortem putamen from 20 individuals were studied. There was a 70% decrease in binding density (Bmax) over the adult age range. No significant changes in binding affinity (Kd) were detected, the mean Kd being 1.0 +/- 0.2 nM (mean +/- S.E.M.). Nor were there any changes in binding related to the postmortem delay. Based on the findings that [3H]GBR-12935 labels the uptake site for dopamine, it is suggested that the age-related loss of [3H]GBR-12935 binding in human putamen reflects a degeneration of dopamine neurites.

  • 39.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Marcusson, J O
    Ross, S B
    [3H]GBR-12935 binding to cytochrome P450 in the human brain.1994Inngår i: Journal of Neurochemistry, ISSN 0022-3042, E-ISSN 1471-4159, Vol. 62, nr 1, 342-8 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The presence of multiple [3H]GBR-12935 binding sites in the human brain has been revealed in several recent studies. One site represents the dopamine uptake site. In rat brain it was demonstrated that [3H]GBR-12935 also binds to nondopaminergic "piperazine acceptor sites." One of these sites has been identified as cytochrome P450IID1 in canine brain. [3H]GBR-12935 binding to the piperazine acceptor sites in the human brain was investigated in the present study. A pharmacological definition of the piperazine acceptor sites is presented: the [3H]GBR-12935 binding fraction that could be discriminated by 10 microM GBR-12909 in the presence of 0.3 microM mazindol. This binding fraction was saturable, with binding affinity in the range of 3-8 nM. It was also demonstrated that the piperazine acceptor or cytochrome P450-sensitive drugs cis-flupentixol and proadifen (SKF 525 A) compete for the same binding sites, suggesting the cytochrome P450 nature of the binding. The findings presented support the proposal that at least part of this fraction represents cytochrome P450IID6, the human form of P450IID1. The distribution of [3H]GBR-12935 binding to the suggested P450IID6-site in 12 brain regions was examined, without significant differences in binding densities between the regions. The significance of the present findings on the cytochrome P450 system in brain is discussed.

  • 40.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Marcusson, J O
    Ross, S B
    [3H]WIN 35,428 binding in the human brain.1996Inngår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 706, nr 2, 347-50 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of [3H]WIN 35,428 was studied in post-mortem human brain, including extrastriatal regions. In the putamen, dopamine almost completely inhibited the [3H]WIN 35,428 binding. Paroxetine inhibited the binding with similar affinity as cocaine, in the range 200-300 nM. In the frontal cortex, [3H]WIN 35,428 labelled cocaine- and alaproclate sensitive binding sites, of which a major fraction was of protein nature. The elucidation of the cocaine sensitive sites in the frontal cortex should be the subject of further research.

  • 41.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Norlén, M
    Caudate nucleus dopamine D(2) receptors in depressed suicide victims.2001Inngår i: Neuropsychobiology, ISSN 0302-282X, E-ISSN 1423-0224, Vol. 44, nr 2, 70-3 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several lines of evidence indicate the involvement of the dopamine system in depressive states. In this post-mortem study, the binding of [(3)H]raclopride to dopamine D(2) receptors in the caudate nucleus was investigated in 13 depressed suicide victims and 19 controls. There were no differences in B(max) or K(d) between the two groups. A subgroup consisting of individuals with major depression, however, had significantly higher K(d) values than controls. Previous findings regarding changes in dopamine metabolism in depression and antidepressant effects of dopamine agonists seem, according to the present study, not to be reflected by alterations in density or affinity of dopamine D(2) receptors in depressed suicide victims.

  • 42.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Norlén, M
    Unchanged density of caudate nucleus dopamine uptake sites in depressed suicide victims.1997Inngår i: Journal of neural transmission, ISSN 0300-9564, E-ISSN 1435-1463, Vol. 104, nr 11-12, 1353-60 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In depressive states, theories concerning serotonin and norepinephrine have been dominating, but there are several lines of evidence indicating the involvement of the dopamine system as well, especially in suicidal depression. In this post-mortem study, the binding of the ligand [3H]WIN 35,428 to dopamine uptake sites in the caudate nucleus was investigated in 13 depressed suicide victims and 19 controls. There were no differences in Bmax or Kd between the suicide group and controls. Subdividing the suicide group into subgroups regarding the presence of major depression, antidepressant medication and suicide method, respectively, did not yield any differences. Previous findings regarding reduced CSF HVA in suicidal depression and indications of striatal dopaminergic biochemical and receptor changes in depression seem, according to the present study, not to be reflected by alterations in density or affinity of dopamine uptake sites in depressed suicide victims.

  • 43.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Ohman, A S
    Gustafson, L
    Karlsson, I
    Lundmark, J
    [Inventory of geriatric psychiatry in Sweden. In short supply where demand does not determine resource allocation].2000Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 97, nr 24, 2976-80 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    In 1999 The Swedish Society for Old Age Psychiatry conducted an investigation in all Swedish counties in order to survey existing organizations and resources for medical services intended for elderly people with psychiatric complaints. In some counties there were no out-patient units specifically aimed at elderly people with psychiatric diseases, while more than half had no out-patient units for the large group of elderly with psychiatric ailments other than dementia. The total number of beds was far less than international recommendations. Less than 5 per cent of the total number of Swedish psychiatrists and geriatricians hold positions exclusively for geriatric psychiatry. Access to geriatric psychiatry resources appears to be unevenly distributed, and may be found mainly in or near university cities.

  • 44.
    Allard, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Rinne, J
    Marcusson, J O
    Dopamine uptake sites in Parkinson's disease and in dementia of the Alzheimer type.1994Inngår i: Brain Research, ISSN 0006-8993, E-ISSN 1872-6240, Vol. 637, nr 1-2, 262-6 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The binding of [3H]GBR-12935 to dopamine (DA) uptake sites was studied in post-mortem putamen from a control group and from patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) or dementia of the Alzheimer type (DAT). The specific binding (Bmax) was almost completely abolished in the PD group and reduced by 65% in the DAT group. There were no significant differences in apparent binding affinity (Kd) between the DAT group and controls. The decreases in [3H]GBR-12935 binding to DA uptake sites in this study indicate a marked degeneration of DA neurites in the putamen in PD and also in DAT.

  • 45.
    Andersen, Tonny
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Johansson, Britt-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Lindberg, M
    Stenwall, R
    [New documentation routines in psychiatry in Västerbotten: unified structure for better quality of care].1999Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 96, nr 17, 2102-6 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    During recent decades psychiatric health care has become increasingly complex due to substantial clinical improvements and to the growing need of integrating psychiatric services with other health and welfare services in the community. The traditional psychiatric record format is incompatible both with these requirements and with the practical advantages and difficulties of modern computer technology. In a collaborative effort involving most professional categories at three psychiatric units in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden, a new structured format for medical records was developed. The basic feature is a structured summary of background factors, social situation, drug habits, and general health, which is reviewed and updated as necessary. The psychiatric condition is described in some detail, including onset and course, symptomatology, personality factors, diagnosis, treatment results, suicidality, etc. Day to day treatment is outlined in in- and out-patient treatment plans, which are evaluated and revised at regular intervals. The new record format, which is used by all categories of health care professionals, is intended to promote goal-directed treatment and professional collaboration, and is easily adapted to computer technology.

  • 46. Andersson, A
    et al.
    Adolfsson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Eriksson, K
    Marcusson, J
    Platelet [3H]paroxetine binding to 5-HT uptake sites in Alzheimer's disease.1991Inngår i: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 12, nr 5, 531-4 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Platelet serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) uptake sites were studied in a control group (n = 30) and an Alzheimer group (n = 40) using [3H]paroxetine as radioligand. The maximum number of binding sites (Bmax) for control (1250 +/- 60 fmol/mg protein) was not different from the Alzheimer group (1280 +/- 40 fmol/mg protein). There were no differences in apparent binding affinity (Kd): 0.046 (0.024-0.062) nM for control and 0.040 (0.027-0.061) nM for Alzheimer. Thus even though several previous studies have demonstrated marked atrophy of 5-HT containing neurites and 5-HT uptake sites in Alzheimer's disease, these findings are not found in the periphery on platelets. The platelet 5-HT uptake site cannot be used as a peripheral marker of Alzheimer's disease.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Bondestam, Karin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Åström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Point prevalence of psychiatric disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy: a population-based study.2003Inngår i: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0002-9378, E-ISSN 1097-6868, Vol. 189, nr 1, 148-154 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: This study was undertaken to determine the point prevalence of psychiatric disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy in a population-based sample of pregnant women. STUDY DESIGN: Participants were 1795 consecutive pregnant women attending routine ultrasound screening at two obstetric clinics in Northern Sweden during 1 year. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) was used for evaluating. RESULTS: Overall, 1734 (96.6%) of the women filled in the PRIME-MD patient questionnaire. Psychiatric disorders were present in 14.1% of the women. Major depression was prevalent in 3.3% of patients and minor depression in 6.9% of patients. Anxiety disorders were encountered in 6.6% of patients. Women with psychiatric disorders displayed significantly more somatic symptoms and more pronounced fear of childbirth. Among diagnosed patients, only 5.5% had some form of treatment. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders in this unselected population of pregnant women was high and the majority of the women were found to be undiagnosed and untreated.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Åström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Depression and anxiety during pregnancy and six months postpartum: a follow-up study2006Inngår i: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6349, E-ISSN 1600-0412, Vol. 85, nr 8, 937-944 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To investigate the relationship between antenatal and postpartum depression and anxiety and to explore associated maternal characteristics. METHODS: From a population-based sample of 1,555 women attending two obstetric clinics in Sweden, all women with an antenatal psychiatric diagnosis (n = 220) and a random selection of healthy women (n = 500) were contacted for a second assessment three to six months postpartum. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used for evaluation on both occasions. RESULTS: Fewer cases of depressive and/or anxiety disorders were prevalent postpartum compared with the second trimester screening. Depression and/or anxiety were prevalent in 16.5% of postpartal women versus 29.2% of pregnant women. There was a significant shift from a majority of subthreshold diagnoses during pregnancy to full Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (Fourth Edition) diagnoses during the postpartum period. A history of previous psychiatric disorder, living single, and obesity were significantly associated with a new-onset postpartum psychiatric disorder. The absence of a previous psychiatric disorder was significantly associated with a postpartum recovery of depression or anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Depression and anxiety appear to be less common postpartum than during pregnancy.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sunderby Hospital, Luleå, Sweden.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Åström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Implications of antenatal depression and anxiety for obstetric outcome2004Inngår i: Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 0029-7844, E-ISSN 1873-233X, Vol. 104, nr 3, 467-476 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the obstetric outcome and health care consumption during pregnancy, delivery, and the early postpartum period in an unselected population-based sample of pregnant women diagnosed with antenatal depressive and/or anxiety disorders, compared with healthy subjects. METHODS: Participants were 1,495 women attending 2 obstetric clinics in Northern Sweden. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders was used to evaluate depressive and anxiety disorders in the second trimester of pregnancy. To assess demographic characteristics, obstetric outcome, and complications, the medical records of the included women were reviewed. RESULTS: Significant associations were found between depression and/or anxiety and increased nausea and vomiting, prolonged sick leave during pregnancy and increased number of visits to the obstetrician, specifically, visits related to fear of childbirth and those related to contractions. Planned cesarean delivery and epidural analgesia during labor were also significantly more common in women with antenatal depression and/or anxiety. CONCLUSION: There is an association between antenatal depressive and/or anxiety disorders and increased health care use (including cesarean deliveries) during pregnancy and delivery.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Liselott
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Wulff, Marianne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Åström, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Psykiatri.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Obstetrik och gynekologi.
    Neonatal outcome following maternal antenatal depression and anxiety: a population-based study.2004Inngår i: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 159, nr 9, 872-881 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine neonatal outcomes among women who had depressive and anxiety disorders during the second trimester of pregnancy in a population-based sample. Participants were 1,465 women and their neonates born at two obstetric clinics in Sweden. The inclusion period for the women was October 2, 2000-October 1, 2001. The Primary Care Evaluation of Mental Disorders (PRIME-MD) classification system was used to evaluate mental disorders in the second trimester of pregnancy. For assessment of demographic characteristics, birth statistics, and birth-related complications, the medical records of the included women and their offspring were reviewed after delivery. The study results revealed no differences in neonatal outcome between women with antenatal depressive disorders and/or anxiety disorders and healthy subjects. The authors conclude that neonatal outcome did not deteriorate despite the women's impaired mental health during pregnancy.

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