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  • 1.
    Abd Mohammed, Mena
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Dental treatment under general anesthesia for children in the county of Västerbotten2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 2.
    Aberg, Carola Höglund
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Parodontologi.
    Sjödin, Bengt
    Lakio, Laura
    Pussinen, Pirkko J
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Parodontologi.
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Presence of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in young individuals: a 16-year clinical and microbiological follow-up study.2009Inngår i: Journal of clinical periodontology, ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 36, nr 10, 815-22 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIM: To look for clinical signs of periodontal disease in young adults who exhibited radiographic bone loss and detectable numbers of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in their primary dentition. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Periodontal status and radiographic bone loss were examined in each of the subjects 16 years after the baseline observations. Techniques for anaerobic and selective culture, and checkerboard, were used to detect periodontitis-associated bacterial species. The isolated A. actinomycetemcomitans strains were characterized by polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Signs of localized attachment loss were found in three out of the 13 examined subjects. A. actinomycetemcomitans was recovered from six of these subjects and two of these samples were from sites with deepened probing depths and attachment loss. Among the isolated A. actinomycetemcomitans strains, serotypes a-c and e, but not d or f, were found. None of the isolated strains belonged to the highly leucotoxic JP2 clone, and one strain lacked genes for the cytolethal distending toxin. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicates that the presence of A. actinomycetemcomitans and early bone loss in the primary dentition does not necessarily predispose the individual to periodontal attachment loss in the permanent dentition.

  • 3.
    Aciz, Michel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Akhter, Mahfuz
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Anti-Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Treatment in Periodontal Disease – a literature review2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this literature review was to summarize human studies on the effects of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) inhibitors on periodontal status. Today TNF-α inhibitors is an established treatment method with positive effects in Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) a disease similar to periodontitis. TNF-α inhibitors have in animal studies demonstrated positive results in experimental periodontitis.

     Literature search was made in PubMed. Included articles were clinical human studies examining the effects on bleeding on probing (BOP), gingival index (GI) or modified gingival index (MGI), clinical attachment level (CAL) and periodontal probing depth (PPD) in patients with autoimmune diseases and treated with TNF-α inhibitors. Animal studies and studies in languages other than English were excluded. The guidelines of The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care (SBU) were used to evaluate the level of evidence in the included articles and they were graded according to the GRADE system.

    The search rendered 264 articles of which 17 were selected for abstract reading. Eight of these were read in full-text; one randomized clinical trial (RCT) of moderate quality, two cross-sectional studies and five longitudinal studies of low evidence.  Patients treated with anti-TNF-α compared to the untreated reference groups in the two cross-sectional studies demonstrated lower BOP and GI, while diverging results on attachment loss were shown. The longitudinal studies demonstrated diverging effects of anti-TNF-α treatment on all periodontal parameters. The RCT showed that anti-TNF-α as a complement to conventional periodontal treatment had positive effects on CAL, PPD, BOP and GI while anti-TNF-α treatment alone lacked significant effects on these parameters. There are limited publications within the field and the studies show heterogeneity in terms of study design. Anti-TNF-α treatment showed small significant positive effects on the periodontal parameters in some studies but diverging results were noted. Studies of sufficient scientific quality specifically addressing the effect of anti-TNF-α treatment on periodontitis are needed to elucidate the effects of anti-TNF-α treatment in periodontitis.

  • 4.
    Adawi, Nadia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Jewaratnam, Sukanya
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Tooth Extraction and Implant Placement Causes Changes in Both Muscle Fiber Composition and Motor Cortex in Rats. Experimental study2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Tooth loss has been shown to induce neuroplastic changes in the sensorimotor cortical area of the brain that represents jaw muscles. Dental implants placed into extraction sites reversed these changes. Since muscles are highly plastic, we hypothesize that the cortical changes after dental extraction also are reflected in jaw-opening muscles and that these changes are prevented/reversed following dental implant placement.

     

    Fifteen rats were randomly allocated in four groups; extraction 1 (Ext-1, n=4), extraction 2 (Ext-2, n=4), implant group (n=4) and control group (n=3). The anterior digastric (AD) muscle was obtained from the extraction groups after 1 and 2 months, respectively, and from the implant group after 3 weeks. The samples were analyzed with immunohistochemical and morphological techniques. Our results showed; 1) intermediate and low oxidative fast MyHCII fibers predominated AD muscle, 2) oxidative capacity of fibers was higher in the central region, 3) extraction caused a shift towards fibers with lower oxidative capacity in the central region, 4) placement of dental implants increased the oxidative capacity of fibers in both central and peripheral region.

     

    We conclude that in the AD muscle, loss of teeth cause a tendency to shift against fibers with faster contraction properties and lower oxidative capacity, while treatment with implants tends to reverse it. Interestingly, these alterations followed the change pattern of the cortical motor area for the AD muscle i.e. larger proportion of fibers with higher oxidative capacity and fine motor control were associated with increased motor representation sites (MRS) for the AD muscle.

     

  • 5.
    Addi, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Hedayati-Khams, Arjang
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Poya, Amin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Sjögren, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Odontologisk materialvetenskap.
    Interface gap size of manually and CAD/CAM-manufactured ceramic inlays/onlays in vitro.2002Inngår i: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, Vol. 30, nr 1, 53-58 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives : To determine the fit of ceramic inlays manufactured using a recently introduced CAD/CAM-system (Decim) and of two types of laboratory-made heat-pressed ceramics (IPS Empress and Opc).

    Materials and methods : Extracted human premolars were prepared to receive mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) ceramic inlays, for which 10 Denzir, 10 IPS Empress, and 10 Opc were fabricated. The Denzir restorations were produced by the manufacturer of the CAD/CAM-system, and the IPS Empress and Opc by student dental technicians. Before luting the internal fit on the diestone models and on the premolars was determined using replicas. After luting on the premolars with a resin composite the marginal and internal fit were measured. The values were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Scheffe's test at a significance level of p<0.05.

    Results : Before luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) in the internal gap width between the three systems studied when placed on their matching diestone models. When placed on the premolars a significant difference ( p<0.01) in the internal fit was seen between Empress and Opc before luting, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between Empress and Denzir and between Opc and Denzir. Between the diestone models and the premolars there were significant differences ( p<0.01) in the internal fit, except for IPS Empress. After luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir, whereas the marginal gap width was significantly wider ( p<0.001) for Opc than for IPS Empress and Denzir. The internal fit was significantly ( p<0.001) wider for Opc than for IPS Empress, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir or between Opc and Denzir.

    Conclusion : After luting there were only slight differences in the fit between the restorations fabricated using the three different manufacturing techniques and ceramics. Therefore, long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of the slight differences between the three systems.

  • 6.
    Afaag, Ali
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Sandelin, Benjamin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Polymerization Shrinkage of Dental Composites Registered by a Video-imaging Device. A pilot study2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The use of composite materials for dental fillings has become more common due to demands for more esthetic filling materials and a national ban against using mercury-containing products, among others dental amalgam. However, one of the drawbacks with composites is their polymerization shrinkage. Filler particles are incorporated into composites among other things to minimize the shrinkage. The sizes of the filler particles have in recent years become smaller and most composites have nano-particles incorporated.

    The aims of the study were to investigate if a) the filler load, b) the curing time and c) tested after "best-before date" will affect the polymerization shrinkage of commercial dental composites. The hypotheses are that high filler loads will result in low shrinkage, and that different curing times and tested after "best-before date" will not significantly affect the shrinkage.

    The polymerization shrinkage of ten commercial composites was studied and three different curing times were used. 150 specimens were manually formed and AcuVol was used to register the volumetric shrinkage.

    The mean volumetric polymerization shrinkage values of the composites ranged between 1.8% and 5.0% for the recommended curing times. The composite with the highest filler load (Kalore) had the lowest mean shrinkage, and the composite with the lowest filler load (SDR) had the highest mean shrinkage.

    The video-imaging device could be used to register the polymerization shrinkage of dental composites. The composites polymerization shrinkage was related to the filler loads when the composites were arranged in groups based on their type. No conclusion could be made about the effect of different curing times and "best-before date".

  • 7. Agogo, George O.
    et al.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    van 't Veer, Pieter
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Muller, David C.
    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio
    Bamia, Christina
    Braaten, Tonje
    Knuppel, Sven
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    van Eeuwijk, Fred A.
    Boshuizen, Hendriek C.
    A method for sensitivity analysis to assess the effects of measurement error in multiple exposure variables using external validation data2016Inngår i: BMC Medical Research Methodology, ISSN 1471-2288, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 16, 139Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Measurement error in self-reported dietary intakes is known to bias the association between dietary intake and a health outcome of interest such as risk of a disease. The association can be distorted further by mismeasured confounders, leading to invalid results and conclusions. It is, however, difficult to adjust for the bias in the association when there is no internal validation data. Methods: We proposed a method to adjust for the bias in the diet-disease association (hereafter, association), due to measurement error in dietary intake and a mismeasured confounder, when there is no internal validation data. The method combines prior information on the validity of the self-report instrument with the observed data to adjust for the bias in the association. We compared the proposed method with the method that ignores the confounder effect, and with the method that ignores measurement errors completely. We assessed the sensitivity of the estimates to various magnitudes of measurement error, error correlations and uncertainty in the literature-reported validation data. We applied the methods to fruits and vegetables (FV) intakes, cigarette smoking (confounder) and all-cause mortality data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition study. Results: Using the proposed method resulted in about four times increase in the strength of association between FV intake and mortality. For weakly correlated errors, measurement error in the confounder minimally affected the hazard ratio estimate for FV intake. The effect was more pronounced for strong error correlations. Conclusions: The proposed method permits sensitivity analysis on measurement error structures and accounts for uncertainties in the reported validity coefficients. The method is useful in assessing the direction and quantifying the magnitude of bias in the association due to measurement errors in the confounders.

  • 8. Agogo, George O.
    et al.
    van der Voet, Hilko
    van't Veer, Pieter
    Ferrari, Pietro
    Leenders, Max
    Muller, David C.
    Sanchez-Cantalejo, Emilio
    Bamia, Christina
    Braaten, Tonje
    Knueppel, Sven
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    van Eeuwijk, Fred A.
    Boshuizen, Hendriek
    Use of Two-Part Regression Calibration Model to Correct for Measurement Error in Episodically Consumed Foods in a Single-Replicate Study Design: EPIC Case Study2014Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, nr 11, e113160- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In epidemiologic studies, measurement error in dietary variables often attenuates association between dietary intake and disease occurrence. To adjust for the attenuation caused by error in dietary intake, regression calibration is commonly used. To apply regression calibration, unbiased reference measurements are required. Short-term reference measurements for foods that are not consumed daily contain excess zeroes that pose challenges in the calibration model. We adapted twopart regression calibration model, initially developed for multiple replicates of reference measurements per individual to a single-replicate setting. We showed how to handle excess zero reference measurements by two-step modeling approach, how to explore heteroscedasticity in the consumed amount with variance-mean graph, how to explore nonlinearity with the generalized additive modeling (GAM) and the empirical logit approaches, and how to select covariates in the calibration model. The performance of two-part calibration model was compared with the one-part counterpart. We used vegetable intake and mortality data from European Prospective Investigation on Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. In the EPIC, reference measurements were taken with 24-hour recalls. For each of the three vegetable subgroups assessed separately, correcting for error with an appropriately specified two-part calibration model resulted in about three fold increase in the strength of association with all-cause mortality, as measured by the log hazard ratio. Further found is that the standard way of including covariates in the calibration model can lead to over fitting the two-part calibration model. Moreover, the extent of adjusting for error is influenced by the number and forms of covariates in the calibration model. For episodically consumed foods, we advise researchers to pay special attention to response distribution, nonlinearity, and covariate inclusion in specifying the calibration model.

  • 9. Agudo, Antonio
    et al.
    Bonet, Catalina
    Travier, Noemie
    Gonzalez, Carlos A.
    Vineis, Paolo
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Lukanova, Annekatrin
    Schuetze, Madlen
    Boeing, Heiner
    Tjonneland, Anne
    Halkjaer, Jytte
    Overvad, Kim
    Dahm, Christina C.
    Ramon Quiros, J.
    Sanchez, Maria-Jose
    Larranaga, Nerea
    Navarro, Carmen
    Ardanaz, Eva
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J.
    Key, Timothy J.
    Allen, Naomi E.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Palli, Domenico
    Sieri, Sabina
    Tumino, Rosario
    Panico, Salvatore
    Boshuizen, Hendriek
    Buchner, Frederike L.
    Peeters, Petra H. M.
    Borgquist, Signe
    Almquist, Martin
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Gram, Inger T.
    Lund, Eiliv
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Riboli, Elio
    Impact of Cigarette Smoking on Cancer Risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition Study2012Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Oncology, ISSN 0732-183X, E-ISSN 1527-7755, Vol. 30, nr 36, 4550-4557 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose Our aim was to assess the impact of cigarette smoking on the risk of the tumors classified by the International Agency for Research on Cancer as causally associated with smoking, referred to as tobacco-related cancers (TRC). Methods The study population included 441,211 participants (133,018 men and 308,193 women) from the European Prospective Investigation Into Cancer and Nutrition. We investigated 14,563 participants who developed a TRC during an average follow-up of 11 years. The impact of smoking cigarettes on cancer risk was assessed by the population attributable fraction (AF(p)), calculated using the adjusted hazard ratios and 95% CI for current and former smokers, plus either the prevalence of smoking among cancer cases or estimates from surveys in representative samples of the population in each country. Results The proportion of all TRC attributable to cigarette smoking was 34.9% (95% CI, 32.5 to 37.4) using the smoking prevalence among cases and 36.2% (95% CI, 33.7 to 38.6) using the smoking prevalence from the population. The AF(p) were above 80% for cancers of the lung and larynx, between 20% and 50% for most respiratory and digestive cancers and tumors from the lower urinary tract, and below 20% for the remaining TRC. Conclusion Using data on cancer incidence for 2008 and our AF(p) estimates, about 270,000 new cancer diagnoses per year can be considered attributable to cigarette smoking in the eight European countries with available data for both men and women (Italy, Spain, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, Greece, Germany, Sweden, Denmark). 

  • 10. Ahlgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Molin, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Protetik. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi.
    Lundh, Thomas
    Nilner, Krister
    Levels of gold in plasma after dental gold inlay insertion.2007Inngår i: Acta odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 65, nr 6, 331-4 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Several studies have reported increased levels of gold (Au) in the blood of patients with dental gold restorations. This study analyzed gold levels in blood plasma before dental gold inlay insertion, 0-12 months after, and 15 years after. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Plasma samples from 9 patients were taken before and 0-10 months after gold inlay insertion. Fifteen years after gold inlay insertion, further blood samples taken from 8 of these patients were analyzed for gold using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. An oral examination was also carried out before and 15 years after gold inlay insertion. RESULTS: Gold levels in plasma were significantly higher 0-12 months after gold inlay insertion than before treatment (p=0.008). No significant difference in gold plasma levels was found between 0-12 months after and 15 years after insertion (p=0.109), although there was a significant correlation between the number of gold alloy surfaces and the amount of gold in plasma 15 years after insertion (p=0.028). CONCLUSIONS: This study supports a dose-related release of gold into plasma from dental gold restorations, a release that appears to be stable over time.

  • 11.
    Ahlmén, Rebecca
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    1a,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Inhibits the Expression of Interleukin-1b in Human Gingival Fibroblasts2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The level of osteotropic cytokines is a crucial factor for alveolar bone loss in patients with periodontal disease. These cytokines,are produced by infiltrating immune cells as an inflammatory response. Besides their immunoregulatory function, certain osteotropic cytokines present in periodontitis can stimulate osteoclastogenes and alveolar bone resorption. Also resident cells, including gingival fibroblasts, produce these types of cytokines, a production which is regulated by different local inflammatory mediators. The role of systemic factors, such as hormones, in regulation of cytokine expression in gingival fibroblasts is, however, much less investigated. The aim of the present study was to investigate how vitamin D (1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) affects the production of certain osteotropic cytokines in human gingival fibroblasts (HGF).

     

    The fibroblasts were isolated from patients with clinically healthy gingiva. The evaluation of cytokine expression was made using RT-PCR after incubation of the fibroblasts in the presence or absence of 1a,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3. Assessments of protein expression of cytokines and hormone receptors were performed using Western blot or ELISA.

     

    In TNF-a stimulated HGFs, 1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 caused a time- and concentration dependent decreased expression of IL-1β mRNA with no significant effect on the expression of IL-6 mRNA.  1a,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 inhibited also the increased intracellular levels of pro-IL-1b in TNF-a stimulated cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that HGF expressed vitamin D receptor protein as well as its dimerizing partner retinoid X receptor-a. These data show that vitamin D is a potent regulator of IL-1b in HGF which may help to explain the anti-inflammatory effect by vitamin D in vivo.

  • 12.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    The temporomandibular joint: Tomopraphic and CT assesment of its bone demarcations with reference to adjacent organs1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The wall of the temporal bone separating the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) from surroundings organs, can be very thin and also have development defects. Distortion effects in the radiographic reproduction of these bone walls can result in misinterpretations when exanimating suspected pathologic changes in the region. These areas need to be radiographic identified prior to taking any invasive measures. Incorrect assessment of bone thickness may lead to serious sequelae due to the risk of penetration injury during invasive investigation or treatment of the TMJ or ear. The purpose of this project was to gain more detailed knowledge about the anatomy and topography of the TMJ with special reference to its bone demarcations regarding adjacent organs and to evaluate the tomographic and computed tomographic (CT) depiction of these bone walls. To obtain a basic analysis of the tissue anatomy and tomographic and CT reproduction of the TMJ region, autopsy specimens were studied. After CT and conventional tomography, the specimens were sectioned in a microtom. Three- dimensional orientation systems allowed identification of section depth in the radiograms and in the histologic sections, allowing the radiograms in turn to be correlated with the true anatomy. The angle of inclination relative to the perpendicular to established imaging planes the bone walls studied was examined in three projections in order to identify regions where the bone demarcation showed an unfavorable inclination regarding the possibility of valid radiographic representation. The thickness of the bone wall between the TMJ and the middle cranial fossa, measured in the thinnest part, varied between 0.08 and 3.62 mm, averaging 1.14 mm. The bone wall between the TMJ and the middle ear showed less variation in thickness ranging from 0.00 to 1.80 mm. The thickness of the bone wall separating the TMJ from the external auditory canal varied between  1.50 mm (lateral part) and 1.21 mm (central part), with a range of between 0.21 and 4.10 mm. Development defects of this bone wall were found in 5.2 % of the examined joints. The validity in tomographic depiction of these walls was highly dependent on an optimal orientation of the bone wall in relation to the image plane. The variations in the anatomy and sagittal dimension of the external auditory canal led to variations in tomographic blurring, and suggested the need for examinations after patient repositioning in cases of suspected bone resorbing lesions so that image aberration due to unfavorable inclination of the bone wall relative to the image plane may be excluded. CT of these bone walls was valid (± 10 %) for walls thicker than approximately 1 mm, forming an angle of less than 35® with the perpendicular to the scan plane when the bone wall thickness was determined as the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM). For bone walls thinner than 1 mm, and for those thicker than 1 mm and at an angle exceeding 35®, partial volume averaging effects resulted in a progressively increasing magnification of bone dimensions. Observer estimations of bone thickness from images obtained using conventional bone window settings (c=400, W=2000) showed good agreement for bone walls thicker than 1 mm and with an angle of inclination relative to the perpendicular to the image plane of less than approximately 25®. For bone walls thinner than 1 mm and for thicker than 1 mm with an inclination exceeding approximately 25®, the estimations resulted in a progressively increasing overestimation amounting 200% for gracile bone walls with an inclination of 45® to 50®. Determination of width or absence of the central white zone in images obtained with the described parameters could help to reduce the risk of overestimation of bone thickness. A considerable part of the bone walls separating the TMJ from the middle cranial fossa and the external auditory canal/middle ear, respectively, have dimensions and inclinations to established imaging planes used at TMJ examinations that make the depiction of these walls highly susceptible to image distortion. 

  • 13.
    Ahlqvist, Jan B
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Nilsson, Tore A
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Hedman, Leif R
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Desser, Terry S
    Dev, Parvati
    Johansson, Magnus
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Youngblood, Patricia L
    Cheng, Robert P
    Gold, Garry E
    A randomized controlled trial on 2 simulation-based training methods in radiology: effects on radiologic technology student skill in assessing image quality.2013Inngår i: Simulation in Healthcare: The Journal of the Society for Simulation in Healthcare, ISSN 1559-2332, Vol. 8, nr 6, 382-387 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION: A simulator for virtual radiographic examinations was developed. In the virtual environment, the user can perform and analyze radiographic examinations of patient models without the use of ionizing radiation. We investigated if this simulation technique could improve education of radiology technology students. We compared student performance in the assessment of radiographic image quality after training with a conventional manikin or with the virtual radiography simulator.

    METHODS: A randomized controlled experimental study involving 31 first-year radiology technology students was performed. It was organized in 4 phases as follows: (I) randomization to control or experimental group based on the results of an anatomy examination; (II) proficiency testing before training; (III) intervention (control group, exposure and analysis of radiographic images of the cervical spine of a manikin; experimental group, exposure and analysis of the cervical spine images in the virtual radiography simulator); and (IV) proficiency testing after training.

    RESULTS: The experimental group showed significantly higher scores after training compared with those before training (P < 0.01). A linear mixed-effect analysis revealed a significant difference between the control and experimental groups regarding proficiency change (P = 0.01).

    CONCLUSIONS: Virtual radiographic simulation is an effective tool for learning image quality assessment. Simulation can therefore be a valuable adjunct to traditional educational methods and reduce exposure to x-rays and tutoring time.

  • 14.
    Ahlqvist, Jan, Birger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Borg, Kennet
    Gunne, Johan
    Nilson, Hans
    Olsson, Morgan
    Åstrand, Per
    Osseointegrated implants in edentulous jaws: a 2-year longitudinal study.1990Inngår i: International Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Implants, ISSN 0882-2786, E-ISSN 1942-4434, Vol. 5, nr 2, 155-163 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Osseointegrated implants in 50 edentulous jaws were studied during a 2-year observation period. The implant survival rate was 89% in the maxillae and 97% in the mandibles. The marginal bone loss averaged 1.7 mm in the maxillae and 1.1 mm in the mandibles. Most of this bone loss occurred during the first year. The bone loss was greater in jaws with a preoperatively minor resorption of the alveolar ridge than in those with moderate or advanced resorption. The bone loss was also greater at the medially positioned implants than at those more posterior.

  • 15.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Bryndahl, Frerik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Eckerdal, Olof
    Isberg, Annika
    Sources of radiographic distortion in conventional and computed tomography of the temporal bone.1998Inngår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, Vol. 27, nr 6, 351-7 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To identify those bony regions of the glenoid fossa where, due to the inclination, there is an increased risk of radiographic distortion in conventional and computed tomography (CT).

    METHODS: The inclination of the roof and posterior wall of the glenoid fossa was determined relative to established imaging planes. Measurements were performed on 50 corrected coronal MR and 50 axial CT images and 200 sagittal cryosections of 50 temporomandibular joints (TMJs). The location of regions with unfavourable bone wall inclination was identified using the condyle as a reference.

    RESULTS: The inclination of parts of the fossa roof exceeded the limit for reliable depiction in corrected sagittal and coronal planes in 40% and 8% of the joints respectively. The inclination of parts of the posterior wall of the fossa exceeded the limit for reliable depiction in corrected sagittal and in true sagittal planes in 100% and 84% of the joints respectively. In 84% of the joints the inclination exceeded the limit for reliable depiction in the axial plane. For both bone walls the regions with unfavourable inclination were in the medial part of the joint.

    CONCLUSIONS: The angulation of parts of the roof and posterior wall of the glenoid fossa in relation to established imaging planes makes them highly susceptible to distortion. The oblique coronal projection is well suited for depiction of the roof of the fossa and preferable to a sagittal projection. An oblique axial projection is required for the posterior wall.

  • 16.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Isberg, A M
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Bone demarcation of the temporomandibular joint. Validity of clinical assessment of bone thickness by means of CT.1998Inngår i: Acta Radiologica, ISSN 0284-1851, E-ISSN 1600-0455, Vol. 39, nr 6, 649-55 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    PURPOSE: To study the CT depiction of bone demarcations in the temporomandibular joint, using conventional window level and window width; and to evaluate observer performance in estimating bone thickness in these images.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven joint specimens were imaged by CT and then cryosectioned. The measurements of bone wall thickness in the images were compared to the true bone thickness at each cutting level. In addition, 4 experienced radiologists estimated the thickness of the bone walls in the images.

    RESULTS: The relative difference between the CT reproduction and the true bone thickness was small for bone walls thicker than 2 mm. This difference increased with the decrease in bone thickness and the increase in the inclination of the bone wall from the perpendicular to the image plane. Bone walls thinner than 1 mm were reproduced as considerably thicker than their true thickness. This resulted in a clinical overestimation of bone thickness.

    CONCLUSION: Both the CT representation and the interpretation of bone demarcation in the temporomandibular joint may constitute a problem. Partial volume averaging effects can result in an overestimation of bone dimensions amounting to 200% for thin bones. The central white zone in images of thin bone walls obtained with the parameters described here could serve as an indicator that could help to reduce the risk of overestimating bone thickness.

  • 17.
    Ahlqvist, Jan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Isberg, Annika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Validity of computed tomography in imaging thin walls of the temporal bone1999Inngår i: Dento-Maxillo-Facial Radiology, ISSN 0250-832X, Vol. 28, nr 1, 13-19 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the validity of computed tomography (CT) for reproduction of the bone margins of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ).

    METHODS: Seven TMJ specimens were examined with a CT and then cryosectioned. The bone separating the TMJ from the middle cranial fossa, middle ear and external auditory canal was measured as the full width at half maximum (FWHM). Measurements were compared with the true thickness of the bone wall.

    RESULTS: There was good agreement when the bone walls were thicker than 1 mm: accuracy was influenced only by the angle of the bone wall to the scanning plane. Conversely, bone walls thinner than 1 mm were reproduced with a magnification that increased with decreasing bone thickness. The difference increased further as the inclination of the bone wall became greater.

    CONCLUSION: Measurements performed at FWHM are reliable within +/- 10% for bone walls more than approximately 1 mm thick which form an angle of less than 35 degrees to the perpendicular of the scanning plane. For bone walls thinner than 1 mm and for those thicker than 1 mm with an inclination exceeding approximately 35 degrees, partial volume effects result in a progressively increasing magnification of bone thickness.

  • 18. Ahlstrand, Tuuli
    et al.
    Tuominen, Heidi
    Beklen, Arzu
    Torittu, Annamari
    Oscarsson, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Sormunen, Raija
    Pöllänen, Marja T.
    Permi, Perttu
    Ihalin, Riikka
    A novel intrinsically disordered outer membrane lipoprotein of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds various cytokines and plays a role in biofilm response to interleukin-1β and interleukin-82017Inngår i: Virulence, ISSN 2150-5594, E-ISSN 2150-5608, Vol. 8, nr 2, 115-134 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) do not have a well-defined and stable 3-dimensional fold. Some IDPs can function as either transient or permanent binders of other proteins and may interact with an array of ligands by adopting different conformations. A novel outer membrane lipoprotein, bacterial interleukin receptor I (BilRI) of the opportunistic oral pathogen Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans binds a key gatekeeper proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-1β. Because the amino acid sequence of the novel lipoprotein resembles that of fibrinogen binder A of Haemophilus ducreyi, BilRI could have the potential to bind other proteins, such as host matrix proteins. However, from the tested host matrix proteins, BilRI interacted with neither collagen nor fibrinogen. Instead, the recombinant non-lipidated BilRI, which was intrinsically disordered, bound various pro/anti-inflammatory cytokines, such as IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-10. Moreover, BilRI played a role in the in vitro sensing of IL-1β and IL-8 because low concentrations of cytokines did not decrease the amount of extracellular DNA in the matrix of bilRI− mutant biofilm as they did in the matrix of wild-type biofilm when the biofilms were exposed to recombinant cytokines for 22 hours. BilRI played a role in the internalization of IL-1β in the gingival model system but did not affect either IL-8 or IL-6 uptake. However, bilRI deletion did not entirely prevent IL-1β internalization, and the binding of cytokines to BilRI was relatively weak. Thus, BilRI might sequester cytokines on the surface of A. actinomycetemcomitans to facilitate the internalization process in low local cytokine concentrations.

  • 19. Ahmad, S
    et al.
    Poveda, A
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Barroso, I
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Renström, Frida
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Department of Clinical Sciences, Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Unit, Lund University Diabetes Center, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden; Department of Nutrition, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, USA.
    Established BMI-associated genetic variants and their prospective associations with BMI and other cardiometabolic traits: the GLACIER Study2016Inngår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, nr 9, 1346-1352 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Recent cross-sectional genome-wide scans have reported associations of 97 independent loci with body mass index (BMI). In 3541 middle-aged adult participants from the GLACIER Study, we tested whether these loci are associated with 10-year changes in BMI and other cardiometabolic traits (fasting and 2-h glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures).

    METHODS: A BMI-specific genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated effect alleles at each locus. Trait-specific cardiometabolic GRSs comprised only the loci that show nominal association (P⩽0.10) with the respective trait in the original cross-sectional study. In longitudinal genetic association analyses, the second visit trait measure (assessed ~10 years after baseline) was used as the dependent variable and the models were adjusted for the baseline measure of the outcome trait, age, age(2), fasting time (for glucose and lipid traits), sex, follow-up time and population substructure.

    RESULTS: The BMI-specific GRS was associated with increased BMI at follow-up (β=0.014 kg m(-2) per allele per 10-year follow-up, s.e.=0.006, P=0.019) as were three loci (PARK2 rs13191362, P=0.005; C6orf106 rs205262, P=0.043; and C9orf93 rs4740619, P=0.01). Although not withstanding Bonferroni correction, a handful of single-nucleotide polymorphisms was nominally associated with changes in blood pressure, glucose and lipid levels.

    CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, established BMI-associated loci convey modest but statistically significant time-dependent associations with long-term changes in BMI, suggesting a role for effect modification by factors that change with time in this population.

  • 20. Ahmad, S.
    et al.
    Zhao, W.
    Renström, F.
    Rasheed, A.
    Zaidi, M.
    Samuel, M.
    Shah, N.
    Mallick, N. H.
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Zaman, K. S.
    Ishaq, M.
    Rasheed, S. Z.
    Memon, F-ur-R
    Hanif, B.
    Lakhani, M. S.
    Ahmed, F.
    Kazmi, S. U.
    Deloukas, P.
    Frossard, P.
    Franks, P. W.
    Saleheen, D.
    A novel interaction between theFLJ33534locus and smokingin obesity: a genome-wide study of 14 131 Pakistani adults2016Inngår i: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, nr 1, 186-190 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Obesity is a complex disease caused by the interplay of genetic and lifestyle factors, but identification of gene-lifestyle interactions in obesity has remained challenging. Few large-scale studies have reported use of genome-wide approaches to investigate gene-lifestyle interactions in obesity. METHODS: In the Pakistan Risk of Myocardial Infraction Study, a cross-sectional study based in Pakistan, we calculated body mass index (BMI) variance estimates (square of the residual of inverse-normal transformed BMI z-score) in 14 131 participants and conducted genome-wide heterogeneity of variance analyses (GWHVA) for this outcome. All analyses were adjusted for age, age(2), sex and genetic ancestry. RESULTS: The GWHVA analyses identified an intronic variant, rs140133294, in the FLJ33544 gene in association with BMI variance (P-value = 3.1 x 10(-8)). In explicit tests of gene x lifestyle interaction, smoking was found to significantly modify the effect of rs140133294 on BMI (Pinteraction = 0.0005), whereby the minor allele (T) was associated with lower BMI in current smokers, while positively associated with BMI in never smokers. Analyses of ENCODE data at the FLJ33534 locus revealed features indicative of open chromatin and high confidence DNA-binding motifs for several transcription factors, providing suggestive biological support for a mechanism of interaction. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we have identified a novel interaction between smoking and variation at the FLJ33534 locus in relation to BMI in people from Pakistan.

  • 21. Ahmad, Shafqat
    et al.
    Rukh, Gull
    Varga, Tibor V
    Ali, Ashfaq
    Kurbasic, Azra
    Shungin, Dmitry
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Lund University.
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Koivula, Robert W
    Chu, Audrey Y
    Rose, Lynda M
    Ganna, Andrea
    Qi, Qibin
    Stancakova, Alena
    Sandholt, Camilla H
    Elks, Cathy E
    Curhan, Gary
    Jensen, Majken K
    Tamimi, Rulla M
    Allin, Kristine H
    Jorgensen, Torben
    Brage, Soren
    Langenberg, Claudia
    Aadahl, Mette
    Grarup, Niels
    Linneberg, Allan
    Pare, Guillaume
    Magnusson, Patrik KE
    Pedersen, Nancy L
    Boehnke, Michael
    Hamsten, Anders
    Mohlke, Karen L
    Pasquale, Louis T
    Pedersen, Oluf
    Scott, Robert A
    Ridker, Paul M
    Ingelsson, Erik
    Laakso, Markku
    Hansen, Torben
    Qi, Lu
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Chasman, Daniel I
    Hallmans, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Enheten för biobanksforskning.
    Hu, Frank B
    Renström, Frida
    Orho-Melander, Marju
    Franks, Paul W.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin. Lund University and Harvard University.
    Gene x physical activity interactions in obesity: combined analysis of 111,421 individuals of European ancestry2013Inngår i: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 9, nr 7, e1003607- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self-administered questionnaires. Multiplicative interactions between the GRS and physical activity on BMI were tested in linear and logistic regression models in each cohort, with adjustment for age, age(2), sex, study center (for multicenter studies), and the marginal terms for physical activity and the GRS. These results were combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS x physical activity interaction effect estimate (P-interaction = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39,810, P-interaction = 0.014 vs. n = 71,611, P-interaction = 0.275 for Europeans). In secondary analyses, both the FTO rs1121980 (P-interaction = 0.003) and the SEC16B rs10913469 (P-interaction = 0.025) variants showed evidence of SNP x physical activity interactions. This meta-analysis of 111,421 individuals provides further support for an interaction between physical activity and a GRS in obesity disposition, although these findings hinge on the inclusion of cohorts from North America, indicating that these results are either population-specific or non-causal.

  • 22.
    Ahmed, Hammad
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Batinic, Mario
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Prevalence and Risk Factors of Neck Pain Among Dentists and Dental Hygienists2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    During the past years it has been reported that musculoskeletal disorders (MSD) have increased in working life. The body region with the highest prevalence of reported pain is the neck region. Several studies show that MSD in the neck region varies between 20–68% among dentists and dental hygienists. The dental personnel work with a limited field of vision and space, which often results in an unnatural work posture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of neck pain in dentists and dental hygienists working in the county of Västra Götaland, Sweden and to explore possible work-related and individual risk factors. The study was based on a questionnaire, which was sent out to all dentists and dental hygienists (n = 473) who worked at Folktandvården (response rate 60%). The overall prevalence of neck pain (neck pain every day the past month) was 23%. Female dentists and dental hygienists had an increased risk of neck pain compared to male dentists (OR 2.68, 95% CI 1.22 - 6.75). Dental personnel that experienced severe stress tended to have an increased risk of neck pain compared to those who perceived low stress (OR 2.08, 95% CI 0.94 - 4.53). We conclude that neck pain is a common problem among dental personnel in the county of Västra Götaland. Female dentists and female dental hygienists are at greater risk concerning the prevalence of neck pain.

  • 23.
    Ala, Sofia
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Asplund, André
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Oral Hygiene at Nursing Homes for Older People as Disclosed in Interviews with Nursing Staff2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    As the elderly population increases and many elderly keep their natural teeth, a consequence of this is an increased need for oral care to maintain a good oral health. In 2012 about 86,800 people older than 65 years lived in nursing homes in Sweden according to the National Board of Health and Welfare, cared for by nursing aides and nursing assistants. The aim of this study was to explore nursing staffs’ experiences of oral hygiene in two different nursing homes in rural parts of northern Sweden. We chose to use a qualitative approach with fourteen individual semi-structured interviews with the nursing staff. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyze the interviews. Our results showed that the nursing staff are well aware of the importance and need of oral care and having the best ambitions to do a good job. Although this attitude exists we found that the reality was a struggle to handle. This was mainly attributed to an effect of lack of resources and problems related to residents’ cooperation. The nursing staff were willing to do their best in every situation when helping the older persons with their oral hygiene. It is also of great importance to the nursing staff to respect the older person's autonomy and not to harm them. Sometimes these two concepts are not possible to combine which leads to the nursing staff having a moral struggle trying to do their best while still respecting the older person’s autonomy.

     

  • 24.
    Al-Ameri, Mona
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Normark, Theresia
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Rhythmical Jaw Opening-Closing Patterns in Healthy Individuals2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Pain affects movements, hampers normal function and may induce dysfunction in jaw system. The aim of this study was to examine if the pattern and stability of a rhythmical jaw opening- closing task changed during a five minute session, in healthy individuals. The analyses included nine men and nine women (mean age 26.7 years; SD 5.3). The participants were instructed to perform rhythmical jaw opening-closing movements with a pace of one per second and amplitude of approximately 20 mm during a five minutes period. The jaw movements were recorded with a 3D optoelectronic recording system. The parameters’ analyses were jaw opening-closing amplitudes and cycle times, to analyze if these parameters differed between men and women and to evaluate if the task evoked tiredness or pain in the jaws. The ten first jaw opening-closing amplitudes and cycle times at each sequence were analysed and compared within individuals and between the groups. Non-parametrical statistics were used. A P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. The results showed for both men and women a significant decrease in amplitude and cycle time between the first and the other sequences. The results showed for both men and women that the rhythmical jaw opening-closing task induces self-reported tiredness in the jaws. In conclusion, individuals seem to adhere to pace by reducing amplitude and cycle time during continuous jaw opening-closing tasks. When used as exercise for rehabilitation of the jaw function both patients and dentists should be aware of this behavior.

  • 25.
    Albertsson, Katarina Wikén
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    van Dijken, Jan W V
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Awareness of toothbrushing and dentifrice habits in regularly dental care receiving adults2010Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 34, nr 2, 71-78 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate toothbrushing and dentifrice habits in a Swedish adult population with relatively high caries frequency, which received regularly dental care and to evaluate the awareness of their toothbrush technique. Sixty adult participants with high caries frequency, 29 woman and 31 men, answered a self-reporting questionnaire with 42 questions concerning their oral care, brushing technique and -habits.The responses were related to their clinical behaviour observed during a customary toothbrushing session. Fifty-three participants fulfilled both the questionnaire and the clinical observation. Half of these used toothpaste containing 1450-1500 ppm fluoride but only one of all participants was aware of the fluoride concentration used. The majority used a manual toothbrush and 95% brushed their teeth twice a day using 0.9 g toothpaste. A wide range of brushing methods and habits was observed. Sixty percent did not brush systematically. Spitting of toothpaste-saliva during brushing was performed by 60% and after brushing by 15%.The observed brushing times were significantly higher than the self reported. The observed brushing times were <1 min: 3.4%, 1-2 min: 36.7% and >2 min: 47.0%. There was a significant correlation between observed brushing time and caries activity. Rinsing with water after brushing was performed once (32%) or twice (44%) during the observations. Only 9% rinsed with toothpaste slurry after brushing. It can be concluded that the awareness of the individual toothbrushing, post-brushing behaviour and the use of fluoride toothpaste was non-optimal in the adult participants. Oral health promotion by optimalized use of fluoride toothpaste and improved post-brushing behaviour should be recommended.

  • 26. Al-Delaimy, W K
    et al.
    Slimani, N
    Ferrari, P
    Key, T
    Spencer, E
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Kariologi.
    Johansson, G
    Mattisson, I
    Wirfalt, E
    Sieri, S
    Agudo, A
    Celentano, E
    Palli, D
    Sacerdote, C
    Tumino, R
    Dorronsoro, M
    Ocké, M C
    Bueno-De-Mesquita, H B
    Overvad, K
    Chirlaque, Ma D
    Trichopoulou, A
    Naska, A
    Tjonneland, A
    Olsen, A
    Lund, E
    Skeie, G
    Ardanaz, E
    Kesse, E
    Boutron-Ruault, M-C
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Bingham, S
    Welch, A A
    Martinez-Garcia, C
    Nagel, G
    Linseisen, J
    Quirós, J R
    Peeters, P H M
    van Gils, C H
    Boeing, H
    van Kappel, A L
    Steghens, J-P
    Riboli, E
    Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: ecological-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).2005Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, Vol. 59, nr 12, 1397-408 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the ability of a single 24-h dietary recall (24HDR) and food questionnaires (FQ) to predict plasma carotenoid levels at the ecological level by assessing the relationship between mean plasma carotenoid levels and mean intake of fruit and vegetables measured by 24HDR and FQ across 16 European regions. DESIGN: A random subsample of 3089 subjects was included, stratified by age and gender. They provided blood samples and dietary information between 1992 and 2000 as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. RESULTS: Using Spearman's correlation coefficients, the correlations between mean regional 24HDR fruit and vegetable variables and corresponding mean plasma carotenoid levels were generally higher than the correlations using FQ means. The highest correlation was between the 24HDR citrus fruit variable and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.90). For 24HDR, total fruits and vegetables were highly correlated with lutein, zeaxanthin, and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.83-0.87), while vegetables were more closely related with lutein (r = 0.69) and zeaxanthin (r = 0.68), and fruits correlated with zeaxanthin (r = 0.87) and beta-cryptoxanthin (r = 0.84). Root vegetables (r = 0.81) and total carrots (r = 0.71) were well correlated with alpha-carotene. In the multivariate models adjusting for age, body mass index, and season, and using observations of means stratified by sex and region, the association was generally higher for 24HDR compared to FQ. CONCLUSION: Mean regional intakes of fruits and vegetables in several European countries were closely correlated with corresponding mean plasma levels of individual carotenoids. Fruits and vegetables measured by 24HDR were generally better able to predict plasma carotenoids at the ecological level.

  • 27. Al-Delaimy, WK
    et al.
    Ferrari, P
    Slimani, N
    Pala, V
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Kariologi.
    Nilsson, S
    Mattisson, I
    Wirfalt, E
    Galasso, R
    Palli, D
    Vineis, P
    Tumino, R
    Dorronsoro, M
    Pera, G
    Ocké, MC
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, HB
    Overvad, K
    Chirlaque, M
    Trichopoulou, A
    Naska, A
    Tjonneland, A
    Olsen, A
    Lund, E
    Alsaker, EH
    Barricarte, A
    Kesse, E
    Boutron-Ruault, MC
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Key, TJ
    Spencer, E
    Bingham, S
    Welch, AA
    Sanchez-Perez, MJ
    Nagel, G
    Linseisen, J
    Quirós, JR
    Peeters, PH
    van Gils, CH
    Boeing, H
    van Kappel, AL
    Steghens, JP
    Riboli, E
    Plasma carotenoids as biomarkers of intake of fruits and vegetables: individual-level correlations in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).2005Inngår i: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, Vol. 59, nr 12, 1387-1396 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: The aim in this study was to assess the association between individual plasma carotenoid levels (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lutein, zeaxanthin) and fruit and vegetable intakes recorded by a calibrated food questionnaire (FQ) and 24-h dietary recall records (24HDR) in nine different European countries with diverse populations and widely varying intakes of plant foods. DESIGN: A stratified random subsample of 3089 men and women from nine countries participating in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC), who had provided blood samples and dietary and other lifestyle information between 1992 and 2000, were included. RESULTS: beta-Cryptoxanthin was most strongly correlated with total fruits (FQ r = 0.52, 24HDR r = 0.39), lycopene with tomato and tomato products (FQ r = 0.38, 24HDR r = 0.25), and alpha-carotene with intake of root vegetables (r = 0.39) and of total carrots (r = 0.38) for FQ only. Based on diet measured by FQ and adjusting for possible confounding by body mass index (BMI), age, gender, smoking status, alcohol intake, and energy intake, the strongest predictors of individual plasma carotenoid levels were fruits (R(partial)(2) = 17.2%) for beta-cryptoxanthin, total carrots ((partial)(2) = 13.4%) and root vegetables (R(partial)(2) = 13.3%) for alpha-carotene, and tomato products (R(partial)(2) = 13.8%) for lycopene. For 24HDR, the highest R(partial)(2) was for fruits in relation to beta-cryptoxanthin (7.9%). CONCLUSIONS: Intakes of specific fruits and vegetables as measured by food questionnaires are good predictors of certain individual plasma carotenoid levels in our multicentre European study. At individual subject levels, FQ measurements of fruits, root vegetables and carrots, and tomato products are, respectively, good predictors of beta-cryptoxanthin, alpha-carotene, and lycopene in plasma.

  • 28. Al-Delaimy, WK
    et al.
    Van Kappel, AL
    Ferrari, P
    Slimani, N
    Steghens, JP
    Bingham, S
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Kariologi.
    Wallström, P
    Overvad, K
    Tjonneland, A
    Key, TJ
    Welch, AA
    Bas Bueno-De-Mesquita, H
    Peeters, PH
    Boeing, H
    Linseisen, J
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Guibout, C
    Navarro, C
    Quiros, JR
    Palli, D
    Celentano, E
    Trichopoulou, A
    Benetou, V
    Kaaks, R
    Riboli, E
    Plasma levels of six carotenoids in nine European countries: report from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC).2004Inngår i: Public Health Nutrition, ISSN 1368-9800, Vol. 7, nr 6, 713-722 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: In addition to their possible direct biological effects, plasma carotenoids can be used as biochemical markers of fruit and vegetable consumption for identifying diet-disease associations in epidemiological studies. Few studies have compared levels of these carotenoids between countries in Europe. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess the variability of plasma carotenoid levels within the cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). METHODS: Plasma levels of six carotenoids--alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, beta-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin--were measured cross-sectionally in 3043 study subjects from 16 regions in nine European countries. We investigated the relative influence of gender, season, age, body mass index (BMI), alcohol intake and smoking status on plasma levels of the carotenoids. RESULTS: Mean plasma level of the sum of the six carotenoids varied twofold between regions (1.35 micromol l(-1) for men in Malmö, Sweden vs. 2.79 micromol l(-1) for men in Ragusa/Naples, Italy; 1.61 micromol l(-1) for women in The Netherlands vs. 3.52 micromol l(-1) in Ragusa/Naples, Italy). Mean levels of individual carotenoids varied up to fourfold (alpha-carotene: 0.06 micromol l(-1) for men in Murcia, Spain vs. 0.25 micromol l(-1) for vegetarian men living in the UK). In multivariate regression analyses, region was the most important predictor of total plasma carotenoid level (partial R(2)=27.3%), followed by BMI (partial R(2)=5.2%), gender (partial R(2)=2.7%) and smoking status (partial R(2)=2.8%). Females had higher total carotenoid levels than males across Europe. CONCLUSIONS: Plasma levels of carotenoids vary substantially between 16 different regions in Italy, Greece, Spain, France, Germany, the UK, Sweden, Denmark and The Netherlands. Compared with region of residence, the other demographic and lifestyle factors and laboratory measurements have limited predictive value for plasma carotenoid levels in Europe.

  • 29. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Boeing, Heiner
    Nöthlings, Ute
    Jenab, Mazda
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Lukanova-McGregor, Annekatrin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi. Division of Cancer Epidemiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Boffetta, Paolo
    Trepo, Elisabeth
    Westhpal, Sabine
    Duarte-Salles, Talita
    Stepien, Magdalena
    Overvad, Kim
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Halkjær, Jytte
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Racine, Antoine
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Bamia, Christina
    Benetou, Vassiliki
    Agnoli, Claudia
    Palli, Domenico
    Panico, Salvatore
    Tumino, Rosario
    Vineis, Paolo
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, Bas
    Peeters, Petra H
    Gram, Inger Torhild
    Lund, Eiliv
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Quirós, J Ramón
    Agudo, Antonio
    Sánchez, María-José
    Gavrila, Diana
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Lindkvist, Björn
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Näringsforskning.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas
    Travis, Ruth C
    Riboli, Elio
    Pischon, Tobias
    Inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers and risk of liver and bilary tract cancer2014Inngår i: Hepatology, ISSN 0270-9139, E-ISSN 1527-3350, Vol. 60, nr 3, 858-871 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity and associated metabolic disorders have been implicated in liver carcinogenesis; however there is little data on the role of obesity-related biomarkers on liver cancer risk. We studied prospectively the association of inflammatory and metabolic biomarkers with risks of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), intra-hepatic bile duct (IBD) and gallbladder and bilary tract cancers outside of the liver (GBTC) in a nested case-control study within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Over an average of 7.7 years, 296 participants developed HCC (n=125), GBTC (n=137) or IBD (n=34). Using risk set sampling, controls were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for recruitment center, age, sex, fasting status, time of blood collection. Baseline serum concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-peptide, total, high-molecular-weight (HMW) adiponectin, leptin, fetuin-a, and glutamatdehydrogenase (GLDH) were measured and incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI-s) estimated using conditional logistic regression. After adjustment for lifestyle factors, diabetes, hepatitis infection and adiposity measures, higher concentrations of CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin were associated with higher risk of HCC (IRR per doubling of concentrations = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.02-1.46, P=0.03; 1.90; 95%CI = 1.30-2.77, P=0.001; 2.25; 95%CI = 1.43-3.54, P=0.0005 and 2.09; 95%CI = 1.19-3.67, P=0.01, respectively). CRP was associated also with risk of GBTC (IRR = 1.22; 95%CI = 1.05-1.42, P=0.01). GLDH was associated with risks of HCC (IRR = 1.62; 95%CI = 1.25-2.11, P=0.0003) and IBD (IRR = 10.5; 95%CI = 2.20-50.90, P=0.003). The continuous net reclassification index was 0.63 for CRP, IL-6, C-peptide and non-HMW adiponectin, and 0.46 for GLDH indicating good predictive ability of these biomarkers. Conclusion: Elevated levels of biomarkers of inflammation and hyperinsulinemia are associated with a higher risk of HCC, independent of obesity and established liver cancer risk factors.

  • 30. Aleksandrova, Krasimira
    et al.
    Pischon, Tobias
    Jenab, Mazda
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Norat, Teresa
    Romaguera, Dora
    Knüppel, Sven
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Dossus, Laure
    Dartois, Laureen
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Li, Kuanrong
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Quirós, José Ramón
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Sánchez, María José
    Dorronsoro, Miren
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nicholas J
    Bradbury, Kathryn E
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Lagiou, Pagona
    Trichopoulos, Dimitrios
    Palli, Domenico
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Tumino, Rosario
    Naccarati, Alessio
    Panico, Salvatore
    Siersema, Peter D
    Peeters, Petra HM
    Ljuslinder, Ingrid
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för strålningsvetenskaper, Onkologi.
    Johansson, Ingegerd
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Ericson, Ulrika
    Ohlsson, Bodil
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Skeie, Guri
    Borch, Kristin
    Rinaldi, Sabina
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Kong, Joyce
    Gunter, Marc J
    Ward, Heather A
    Riboli, Elio
    Boeing, Heiner
    Combined impact of healthy lifestyle factors on colorectal cancer: a large European cohort study2014Inngår i: BMC Medicine, ISSN 1741-7015, Vol. 12, nr 1, 168- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Excess body weight, physical activity, smoking, alcohol consumption and certain dietary factors are individually related to colorectal cancer (CRC) risk; however, little is known about their joint effects. The aim of this study was to develop a healthy lifestyle index (HLI) composed of five potentially modifiable lifestyle factors - healthy weight, physical activity, non-smoking, limited alcohol consumption and a healthy diet, and to explore the association of this index with CRC incidence using data collected within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) cohort. METHODS: In the EPIC cohort, a total of 347,237 men and women, 25- to 70-years old, provided dietary and lifestyle information at study baseline (1992 to 2000). Over a median follow-up time of 12 years, 3,759 incident CRC cases were identified. The association between a HLI and CRC risk was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards regression models and population attributable risks (PARs) have been calculated. RESULTS: After accounting for study centre, age, sex and education, compared with 0 or 1 healthy lifestyle factors, the hazard ratio (HR) for CRC was 0.87 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.44 to 0.77) for two factors, 0.79 (95% CI: 0.70 to 0.89) for three factors, 0.66 (95% CI: 0.58 to 0.75) for four factors and 0.63 (95% CI: 0.54 to 0.74) for five factors; P-trend <0.0001. The associations were present for both colon and rectal cancers, HRs, 0.61 (95% CI: 0.50 to 0.74; P for trend <0.0001) for colon cancer and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.53 to 0.88; P-trend <0.0001) for rectal cancer, respectively (P-difference by cancer sub-site = 0.10). Overall, 16% of the new CRC cases (22% in men and 11% in women) were attributable to not adhering to a combination of all five healthy lifestyle behaviours included in the index. CONCLUSIONS: Combined lifestyle factors are associated with a lower incidence of CRC in European populations characterized by western lifestyles. Prevention strategies considering complex targeting of multiple lifestyle factors may provide practical means for improved CRC prevention.

  • 31.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Lorentzon, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Bäckman, Stina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral cellbiologi.
    Bäckman, Assar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral cellbiologi.
    Lerner, Ulf H
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Oral cellbiologi.
    cDNA-arrays and real-time quantitative PCR techniques in the investigation of chronic Achilles tendinosis.2003Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, ISSN 0736-0266, E-ISSN 1554-527X, Vol. 21, nr 6, 970-975 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aetiology and pathogenesis of chronic painful Achilles tendinosis are unknown. This investigation aimed to use cDNA arrays and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) technique to study tendinosis and control tissue samples. Five patients (females mean age 57.1+/-4.3 (years+/-SD)) with chronic painful Achilles tendinosis were included. From all patients, one biopsy was taken from the area with tendinosis and one from a clinically normal area (control) of the tendon. The tissue samples were immediately immersed in RNAlater and frozen at -80 degrees C until RNA extraction. Portions of pooled RNA from control and tendinosis sites, respectively, were transcribed to cDNA, radioactively labelled (32P), hybridized to cDNA expression arrays, and exposed to phosphoimager screens over night. Expressions of specific genes, shown to be regulated in the cDNA array analysis, were analyzed in the individual samples using real-time PCR. cDNA arrays showed that gene expressions for matrix-metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2), fibronectin subunit B (FNRB), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 (MAPKp38) were up-regulated, while matrix-metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) and decorin were down-regulated, in tendinosis tissue compared with control tissue. Using real-time PCR, 4/5 and 3/5 patients showed up-regulation of MMP-2 and FNRB mRNA, respectively. For decorin, VEGF, and MAPKp38, real-time PCR revealed a great variability among patients. Interestingly, the mRNAs for several cytokines and cytokine receptors were not regulated, indicating the absence of an inflammatory process in chronic painful Achilles tendinosis. In conclusion, cDNA-arrays and real-time PCR can be used to study differences in gene expression levels between tendinosis and control tendon tissue.

  • 32. Alghadir, A. H.
    et al.
    Anwer, S.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Rehabilitation Research Chair, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia ; Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Al-Eisa, E. S.
    Effect of quadriceps and hamstrings muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men2017Inngår i: Journal of Musculoskeletal and Neuronal Interactions - JMNI, ISSN 1108-7161, Vol. 17, nr 3, 176-182 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The present study compared the effect of quadriceps and hamstring muscle cooling on standing balance in healthy young men.

    Methods: Thirty healthy young men (18-30 years) participated in the study. The participants were randomly assigned to three groups (n=10 each): quadriceps cooling (QC), hamstring cooling (HC), or control group (no cooling). Participants in the QC and HC groups received 20 minutes of cooling using a cold pack (gel pack), placed on the anterior thigh (from the apex of the patella to the mid-thigh) and the posterior thigh (from the base of the popliteal fossa to the mid-thigh), respectively. Balance score including unilateral stance was measured at baseline and immediately after the application of the cold pack.

    Results: No significant difference in the balance score was noted in any group after the application of the cold pack (p>0.05). Similarly, no significant differences in post-test balance score were noted among the three groups (p>0.05).

    Conclusions: Cooling of the quadriceps and hamstring muscles has no immediate effect on standing balance in healthy young men. However, longitudinal studies are warranted to investigate the long-term effects of cooling these muscles on standing balance.

  • 33. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Aly, Farag
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Effect of face veil on ventilatory function among Saudi adult females2012Inngår i: Pakistan journal of medical sciences print, ISSN 1682-024X, Vol. 28, nr 1, 71-74 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The use of face veil called "niqab" by women to cover their faces at public places is a common practice in some Muslim communities. The long-term effect of niqab use on ventilatory function (VF) has not previously been reported. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to compare VF between niqab wearing and non-niqab wearing healthy Saudi females. Methodology: Thirty eight healthy adult Saudi females participated in this study. Nineteen subjects were regular niqab users and the other nineteen were either not using niqab at all or used it for less than one hour per day. Forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), FEV1/FVC (%), and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were recorded using a digital spirometer. Results: Mean values of FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC (%) and MVV for niqab wearers were significantly lower than the corresponding values for non-niqab wearers. Significant negative correlation was found between the FVC and FEV1 values and the number of hours of the use of face veil per day. Conclusions: Long-term use of traditional niqab use can affect VF.

  • 34. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Aly, Farag
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Klinisk oral fysiologi.
    Sex-Based Differences in Lung Functions of Saudi Adults2012Inngår i: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 24, nr 1, 5-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Background] Sex-based differences in lung function are known. [Purpose] To investigate sex-based differences in ventilatory function among Saudi adults, anti to relate it to their level of physical activity. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy healthy Saudi adult subjects (35 males and 35 females) participated in this study. Measurements of forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEVI). FEVI/FVC%, and maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) were made. In addition, physical activity scores (MET-minutes/week) were measured using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). [Results] The studied parameters were significantly higher for males than for females. The female values were significantly lower even after the male values were adjusted to compensate for gender-based anatomical and physiological differences in lung capacity. The MET-minutes/week was significantly higher for males than for females, but it was not significantly correlated with the pulmonary function parameters of either gender. [Conclusions] There are sex-based differences in lung function parameters of Saudi adults, with higher values for males. This difference in lung function tests between the genders is greater than the known anatomical and physiological differences in the respiratory systems of males and females. Saudi males are more physically active than females but no significant correlation between pulmonary function parameters and physical activity score was found for either gender.

  • 35. Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of three different jaw positions on postural stability during standing2015Inngår i: Functional Neurology, ISSN 0393-5264, E-ISSN 1971-3274, Vol. 30, nr 1, 53-57 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies in the literature show that jaw and neck regions are linked anatomically, biomechanically and neurologically. Voluntary clenching has been shown to improve muscle strength and performance of various motor tasks. Information from the neck sensory-motor system is reported to be important for posture. Hence it is reasonable to believe that activation of the jaw sensory-motor system has the potential to modulate posture. In a sample of 116 healthy subjects, we compared center of gravity (COG) velocity during quiet standing on a foam surface during three test positions: i) resting jaw, ii) open jaw, and iii) clenching; these were tested in two conditions: with eyes open and with eyes closed. The COG velocity decreased significantly during clenching in comparison to both open and resting jaw positions (p<0.0001). This suggests that the jaw sensory-motor system can modulate postural mechanisms. We conclude that jaw clenching can enhance postural stability during standing on an unstable surface in both the presence and absence of visual input in healthy adults and suggest that this should be taken into consideration in treatment and rehabilitation planning for patients with postural instability.

  • 36. Alghadir, Ahmad H.
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of tongue position on postural stability during quiet standing in healthy young males2015Inngår i: Somatosensory & motor research, ISSN 0899-0220, E-ISSN 1369-1651, Vol. 32, nr 3, 183-186 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: Role of the neck and jaw sensory motor system in control of body balance has been established. Tongue is an integral part of jaw sensory motor system and helps in execution of purposeful and precise motor tasks like eating, drinking and speaking. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possible effects of tongue position on the postural control system. Materials and method: We compared the mean center of gravity (COG) velocity during quiet standing on an unstable surface with eyes closed during two test conditions: (i) with habitual jaw resting position and (ii) with instructed tongue positioned against the upper incisors. One hundred and sixteen normal healthy male subjects (average age 31.56 +/- 8.51 years and height 170.86 +/- 7.26 cm) participated in the study. Their COG velocity (deg/s) was measured using the NeuroCom (R) Balance Master version 8.5.0 (Clackamas, OR, USA). Results and conclusions: The results show that COG velocity decreased significantly while tongue was positioned against upper incisors in comparison to the habitual jaw resting position. Our findings suggest that the tongue positioning can modulate postural control mechanisms. Tongue positioning against the upper incisors can enhance the postural stability during upright standing on an unstable surface and in the absence of vision in healthy young adults. Our findings can be of value for evaluation and rehabilitation protocols for postural control dysfunction.

  • 37. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Rehabil Res Chair, POB 10219, Riyadh 11433, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Effect of upright and slouch sitting postures and voluntary teeth clenching on hand grip strength in young male adults2017Inngår i: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation, ISSN 1053-8127, E-ISSN 1878-6324, Vol. 30, nr 5, 961-965 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Estimation of handgrip strength (HGS) is routinely used by clinicians and epidemiologists for objective assessment of functional status of hand and upper extremity. It is also used as an indirect indicator of overall physical strength and health status in variety of clinical situations and chronic general medical conditions. OBJECTIVE: The present study was conducted to examine the effects of upright and slouch sitting postures and voluntary teeth clenching on hand grip strength in healthy young male subjects. METHODS: One hundred healthy young males (aged 18-30 years) participated in this study. The HGS was measured using a commercially available dynamometer for the dominant hand. The HGS was measured during four test conditions; (a) slouch sitting without teeth contact, (b) slouch sitting with teeth clenching, (c) upright sitting without teeth contact, and (d) upright sitting with teeth clenching. RESULTS: The HGS values were significantly higher during slouch than upright sitting posture, both during similar and opposite teeth related conditions (p < 0.001). Teeth clenching had no effect on the in HGS values during slouch or upright sitting posture (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: As compared to upright sitting, higher HGS values can be obtained during slouch sitting in young healthy males. Teeth clenching does not affect the HGS values during slouch or upright sitting posture.

  • 38. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia2015Inngår i: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, nr 4, 1107-1112 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] Musculoskeletal disorders are common causes of work-related disability in different professions involving the frequent practice of lifting, stooping, twisting, prolonged sitting, or standing. The dental profession is one such profession. Our aim was to determine the prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia, the factors associated with them, and their consequences and to propose preventive measures for them.

    [Subjects and Methods] A self-administered online questionnaire was sent to 225 members of the Saudi Dental Association. It included questions on demographic and professional characteristics, general medical history, and history of work-related musculoskeletal disorders before and after joining the dental profession.

    [Results] The questionnaire was completed by 65% of the respondents. Among them 85% reported that they had developed some pain due to work after joining the dental profession, and 42% reported that they were suffering pain at the time of the survey. Besides lower back, shoulder, and neck regions, the hands, upper back, and other regions like the elbows, buttocks, thighs, leg, and feet were areas in which they pain.

    [Conclusion] The prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental professionals in Saudi Arabia is high, affecting their daily activities, sometimes even forcing them to change their work setting. Age, gender, specialty of work, work setting, number of contact hours with patients, etc., were all found to be related to their work-related pain. We need to emphasize the role of ergonomics, counseling, proper techniques of patient handling, etc., during the training of dental professionals so that they can work efficiently.

  • 39. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Rehabil Res Chair, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen A.
    Al-Eisa, Einas
    Work-Related Low Back Pain Among Physical Therapists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia2017Inngår i: Workplace Health & Safety, ISSN 2165-0799, Vol. 65, nr 8, 337-345 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Low back pain (LBP) is a common health problem. Professions like physical therapy (PT), involving frequent lifting, bending, or standing, are at risk for developing LBP. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of work-related LBP and factors associated with and consequences of work-related LBP among physical therapists in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. A self-administered online questionnaire (i.e., demographic data, history of LBP before and after working as a physical therapist, work setting, and effect on daily activities) was sent to 600 members of the Saudi PT association. Data were analyzed using the Pearson chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test. Eighty-eight percent of potential respondents completed the questionnaire. Of these, 89.65% of the therapists reported LBP after beginning their PT practice, and 35.6% reported LBP at the time of this survey. Gender, PT specialty, and duration of contact with patients were all found to be related to LBP. The prevalence of work-related LBP among physical therapist in Riyadh was high, affecting patient care and daily activities of the therapists. Both primary and secondary prevention strategies (e.g., introduce ergonomics into PT curricula, reduce therapist stress, and promote teamwork) are needed to decrease LBP among therapists, so they can effectively care for patients.

  • 40. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. King Saud Univ, Coll Appl Med Sci, Dept Rehabil Sci, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed
    Anwer, Shahnawaz
    Physical therapy education in Saudi Arabia2015Inngår i: Journal of Physical Therapy Science, ISSN 0915-5287, Vol. 27, nr 5, 1621-1623 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    [Purpose] To review the physical therapy educational program model, professional curriculum, and gender representation at major universities, as well as the quality and scope of physical therapy practice in Saudi Arabia. [Methods] Information regarding course curriculum, gender representation, and the quality and scope of physical therapy practice was collected from six universities in Saudi Arabia, the Saudi Physical Therapy Association, and the Saudi Health Commission. [Results] The first bachelor's degree course of physical therapy was started in Saudi Arabia more than 30 years ago. In the last 10 years, the number of universities offering a bachelor's degree in physical therapy has risen from 6 to 16, of which 14 are governmental and two are private. The 5- to 6 year bachelor's degree program in physiotherapy includes an internship and preparatory prerequisite courses. Postgraduate study in physical therapy was introduced in 2000. Most universities offer segregated physical therapy courses for male and female students. [Conclusion] The enrollment of students in physical therapy programs in Saudi Arabia is gradually increasing. There are many opportunities to extend the scope of practice and contribute to the health needs of the Arab population and international communities.

  • 41. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Iqbal, Zaheen
    Al-Eisa, Einas
    Effect of sitting postures and shoulder position on the cervicocephalic kinesthesia in healthy young males2016Inngår i: Somatosensory & motor research, ISSN 0899-0220, E-ISSN 1369-1651, Vol. 33, nr 2, 93-98 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about head orientation, position, and movement with respect to the trunk relies on the visual, vestibular, extensive muscular, and articular proprioceptive system of the neck. Various factors can affect proprioception since it is the function of afferent integration, and tuning of muscular and articular receptors. Pain, muscle fatigue, and joint position have been shown to affect proprioceptive capacity. Thus, it can be speculated that changes in body posture can alter the neck proprioception. This study was undertaken to investigate the effect of body posture on cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in healthy subjects. Cervicocephalic kinesthetic sensibility was measured by the kinesthetic sensibility test in healthy young adults while in (a) habitual slouched sitting position with arms hanging by the side (SS), (b) habitual slouched sitting position with arms unloaded (supported) (SS-AS), and (c) upright sitting position with arms hanging by the side (US) during maximum and 30 degree right, left rotations, flexion, and extension. Thirty healthy male adults (mean age 27.83; SD 3.41) volunteered for this study. The least mean error was found for the SS-AS position (0.48; SD 0.24), followed by SS (0.60; SD 0.43) and US (0.96; SD 0.71), respectively. For all test conditions, there was significant difference in mean absolute error while head repositioning from maximum and 30 degree rotation during SS and SS-AS positions (p<0.05). In conclusion, body posture can affect the proprioception function of the neck. Supporting the upper extremities in such a way that their weight is unloaded, which leads to reduction in the tension between the neck and shoulder girdle, can improve cervicocephalic kinesthetic sense in both the horizontal and vertical planes. The findings of this study can be implemented in people who have to do repeated arm and neck movements, by using ergonomically effective chairs with proper arm supports. This might help in prevention and treatment of neck pain.

  • 42. Alghadir, Ahmad
    et al.
    Zafar, Hamayun
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi. Department of Rehabilitation Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.
    Whitney, S. L.
    Iqbal, Zaheen
    Effect of chewing on postural stability during quiet standing in healthy young males2015Inngår i: Somatosensory & motor research, ISSN 0899-0220, E-ISSN 1369-1651, Vol. 32, nr 2, 72-76 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: There is an important role of the neck sensory motor system in control of body posture and balance, and it is reasonable to believe that the jaw sensory motor system can directly and indirectly influence the modulation of the postural control system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible effects of dynamic jaw position while chewing on the postural control system. Materials and methods: We compared the mean center of gravity (COG) velocity during quite standing on a foam surface with eyes closed during three test conditions: (i) with resting jaw position, (ii) with open jaw position, and (iii) while chewing standard bolus of chewing gum. One hundred and sixteen normal healthy male subjects (average age 31.56 +/- 8.51 years; height 170.86 +/- 7.26 cm) were recruited for the study. Their COG velocity (deg/s) was measured using the NeuroCom (R) Balance Master Version 8.5.0 (Clackamas, OR, USA). Statistical analysis: Data was tested by the Friedman test. Results and conclusions. The results show that COG velocity decreased significantly while chewing in comparison to both open and resting jaw position (p < 0.0001). Our finding corroborates previous studies and suggests that the jaw sensory motor system can modulate postural control mechanisms. Gum chewing activity can enhance the postural stability during upright standing on an unstable surface and in the absence of visual input in healthy young adults. Our results should be taken into consideration in treatment and rehabilitation planning for patients with postural instability.

  • 43.
    ALi, Kassem
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Henning, Petra
    Lundberg, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Movérare-Skrtic, Sofia
    Souza, Pedro
    Lindholm, Catharina
    Lerner, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Toll-like receptor induced inflammation causes local bone formationManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is well established that inflammatory processes in the vicinity of bone often induce osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Effects on bone formation by inflammatory processes are much less studied and available information is partly contradictory. In the present study, we have assessed the effect on bone formation by locally induced inflammation. LPS from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Pam2, used as Toll-like receptor (TLR) 2 agonists, and flagellin from Salmonella typhimurium, used as TLR5 agonist, were injected subcutaneously on the top of mouse skull bones. After 1-5 days, the calvarial bones were dissected and processed either for histological or gene expression analyses. Femur was dissected for analysis with microCT and histology. At day 5, all three agonists induced bone formation on periosteal and endosteal sites, as well as in the bone marrow compartment of the calvaria. This response was seen both in close vicinity to, but also apart from, osteoclasts and bone resorption cavities. In areas close to new bone formation, abundance of proliferating cells was observed as assessed by Ki67 labelling. Gene expression analyses showed that Pam2 treatment resulted in increased mRNA expression at day 5 of genes encoding bone matrix proteins, alkaline phosphatase and of the osteoblastic transcription factors Runx2 and osterix. Robust Runx2 protein was observed in osteoblasts in areas with new bone formation. Pam2 treatment also increased the mRNA expression of cytokines in the IL-6 family, as well as of their cognate receptors and common signaling transduction subunit gp130. At day 5, the mRNA expression of Bmp2, Bmp4, Tgfb1, Lrp5, Lrp6 and Wnt7b was increased, whereas Sost was decreased. In the femur, excessive osteoclast formation and trabecular bone loss was found at day 5, but new bone formation was not observed. In conclusion, these data show that inflammatory processes not only induce osteoclastogenesis but also have the capacity to activate osteoblasts and stimulate new bone formation distinct from bone remodeling sites. Stimulation of inflammation- induced new bone formation may be due to enhanced gp130 signaling. Osteoblast activation in the inflammatory processes may also involve the BMP and WNT signaling systems.

  • 44.
    Almgren, Sanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Huei-Min, Chiang
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Patients´Perspective of Caries A systematic literature review2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 45.
    Al-Obeidi, Aliakbar
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Baza, George
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Precision of Digitally Produced Stabilization Splints2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In the management of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) a stabilization splint is usually recommended. The time needed to adjust a splint to the individual patient can be considerable and may thus be a factor related to a relatively low percentage of performed treatments using such therapy. Digital technology was developed primarily for prosthodontic work, but could as well serve as an aid in manufacturing occlusal splints. The aim of this study was to evaluate the precision of digitally manufactured splints in vivo and try to find systematic errors, if any.

     

    Five test subjects were included. Digital intraoral scans were recorded using Trios 3Shape™. Two sets of splints with different vertical dimensions were manufactured for each test subject. The splints were analyzed using an examination protocol, to determine fit, comfort, and distribution of contacts. The contact patterns were also analyzed with occlusal foil, silicone impressions, and a non-commercial software, Optic Bite. A splint angle was calculated with the intention of defining whether or not there is a systematic angular error.

     

    Overall, adequate fit and excellent patient-comfort was observed for all but two of the digitally manufactured splints. The number of contacts and their distribution varied from 1-11 with a median of 4 and was not correlated to splint thickness or splint angle. Four splints showed acceptable number of contacts, bilaterally distributed. No systematic errors were found.

     

    The digitally produced splints had good fit to the upper jaw. The causes behind variations in occlusal contacts were not disclosed.

  • 46. Al-Otaibi, M
    et al.
    Al-Harthy, M
    Gustafsson, A
    Johansson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Parodontologi.
    Claesson, Rolf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Oral mikrobiologi.
    Angmar-Månsson, B
    Subgingival plaque microbiota in Saudi Arabians after use of miswak chewing stick and toothbrush2004Inngår i: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, Vol. 31, nr 12, 1048-53 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The chewing stick, the miswak, is used in many developing countries as the traditional means for oral hygiene. It is prepared from the roots, twigs and stem of Salvadora persica or other alternative local plants. OBJECTIVES: To compare the effects of the chewing stick miswak (from S. persica) and toothbrush on subgingival plaque microflora among Saudi Arabian individuals. Further, to investigate whether components extracted from S. persica may interfere with the subgingival plaque micro-organisms. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Fifteen healthy Saudi Arabian male volunteers aged 21-36 years were included in a single-blind, randomized cross-over study. The participants were taught how to use each device properly. Plaque sampling for DNA test was performed at the baseline, 1 week after professional tooth cleaning, and after 3 weeks of either miswak or toothbrush use. Identification and quantification of microbial species were performed by the checkerboard method, using whole genomic, digoxigenin-labelled DNA probes. Inhibition zones around miswak were examined on agar plates with Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans and the leukotoxicity of this bacterium was analyzed in a bioassay with macrophages+/-extracts of miswak. RESULTS: Miswak and toothbrushing had a similar influence on the levels of the subgingival microbiota. However, A. actinomycetemcomitans was significantly more reduced by miswak (p<0.05) than by toothbrushing. These results were supported by our in vitro results which, indicated that extracts from S. persica might interfere with the growth and leukotoxicity of A. actinomycetemcomitans. CONCLUSIONS: In contrast to toothbrush use, miswak use significantly reduced the amount of A. actinomycetemcomitans in the subgingival plaque.

  • 47.
    Al-Taai, Nameer
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Alfatlawi, Fakhri
    Univ Baghdad, Coll Dent, Dept Orthodont, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Ransjö, Maria
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Dept Orthodont, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Fakhry, Saad
    Univ Al Nahrain, Coll Med, Dept Endocrinol & Metab, Baghdad, Iraq.
    Effect of rapid maxillary expansion on monosymptomatic primary nocturnal enuresis2015Inngår i: Angle orthodontist, ISSN 0003-3219, Vol. 85, nr 1, 102-108 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of rapid maxillary expansion (RME) on nocturnal enuresis (NE) related to the nasal airway, nasal breathing, and plasma osmolality (as an indicator for antidiuretic hormone). Materials and Methods: Nineteen patients with monosymptomatic primary NE, aged 6-15 years, were treated with RME for 10-15 days. To exclude a placebo effect of the RME appliance, seven patients were first treated with a passive appliance. Computed tomography of nasal cavity, rhinomanometric, and plasma osmolality measurements were made 2-3 days before and 2-3 months after the RME period. RME effects on NE were followed for three more years. Results: Two to three months after the expansion there were significant improvements in the breathing function and a decrease in the plasma osmolality. NE decreased significantly in all patients after the RME period, and all patients showed full dryness after 3 years. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that RME causes complete dryness in all patients, with significant effects on pathophysiological mechanisms related to NE.

  • 48.
    Al-Zuheri, Insam
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    Persson, Gina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi, Tandläkarutbildning.
    The Effect of Topical Anesthesia on Jaw Pain Thresholds in Patients with Generalized Pain2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Chronic widespread pain and fibromyalgia often coexist with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and affects mostly women. Studies have shown lower pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in these patients indicating that hyperalgesia is involved. The aim for this study was to investigate the effect of topical anesthesia on PPT for jaw muscles in patients with widespread pain. The hypothesis was that the PPT in these patients would increase after applying topical anesthetic cream. Ten women (aged 25-64 years, median: 50 years) diagnosed with TMD associated with widespread pain, reported from at least three different anatomical sites apart from the jaw region and pain to palpation according to the American College of Rheumatology criteria 1990, were included in the study. The double blind randomized trial was based on measurements of PPT with an Algometer before and after the application of anesthetic cream (EMLA) or placebo cream. The chosen measurement sites were the anterior part of the temporal muscle bilaterally, the belly of the masseter muscle bilaterally and the pollicis transversa muscle of the dominant hand. In the statistical analysis Wilcoxon’s rank sum test was used and a P-value <0.05 was considered statistically significant. There was a large inter-individual variation of PPT. No statistically significant differences in PPT-values before and after application of the EMLA or placebo creams were observed.

    In conclusion, the study showed that application of topical anesthesia had no significant effect on PPT in patients with widespread pain. Mechanisms related to central sensitization may have contributed to this result.

  • 49.
    Amin, Maha
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Asker, Firangiz
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för odontologi.
    Persistence and Detection of Bacterial DNA in a Root Canal Flora2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 50. Anderson, M
    et al.
    Stecksén-Blicks, Christina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Odontologi, Pedodonti.
    Stenlund, Hans
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Ranggård, L
    Tsilingaridis, G
    Mejàre, I
    Detection of approximal caries in 5-year-old Swedish children2005Inngår i: Caries Research, Vol. 39, nr 2, 92-99 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to assess how accurately some commonly used risk factors/risk markers (predictors) for caries development could identify children with and without approximal caries as judged from bitewing radiography. 267 consecutive 5-year-old children from two Swedish cities participated. Three experienced dentists examined the children. The predictors were the overall dmfs value (canines and molars), the number of occlusal dmfs, the frequency of intake of between meal sugary products, visible plaque on free smooth surfaces of second primary molars, toothbrushing habits, and (before bitewing examination) an overall judgement by the examining dentist. The mean dmfs without bitewing examination (BW) was 0.40 (SD = 1.22). Twelve percent of the children had at least one dentin lesion and 33 % at least one enamel lesion that were detected from BW only. The gain from adding BW to clinical examination amounted to a mean of 1.2 approximal enamel and/or dentin lesions. Results: The ability to correctly identify children with approximal caries from the predictors was limited; sensitivity ranged from 0.27 to 0.75 and specificity ranged from 0.41 to 0.93. The single best predictor was the dentist's overall judgement with an average precision of 73 %; average sensitivity for the presence of enamel and dentin lesions was 0.48 and for the presence of dentin lesions 0.66. The rest of the predictors added little to the predictive power. It is concluded that 33 % of the 5-year-olds, representing a low caries prevalence population, benefited from BW. The ability to identify these children from the predictors was, however, limited.

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