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  • 1.
    Aalto, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Läckberg Holmquist, Victor
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Nervrotsblockad i kombination med fysioterapi för patienter med diskbråck - en single subject experimental design2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Diskbråck i ländryggen med symtom av ischias, bensmärta, är en vanlig orsak till specifika ryggbesvär. Konservativa behandlingsmetoder rekommenderas före kirurgi. Diagnosen diskbråck är förknippad med kraftig smärta och begränsningar och är en vanlig orsak till att söka vård och behandling. Trots detta finns det idag ingen konsensus kring vilka behandlingsmetoder som är mest effektiva vid diskbråck.

    Syfte: Att undersöka effekten av nervrotsblockad i kombination med individanpassad fysioterapi på smärta och aktivitetsförmåga för patienter med symtomgivande lumbosakralt diskbråck.

    Metod: Studiens utformning var en Single Subject Experimental Design (SSED), med en A-B design. Under baslinjefasen, A och interventionsfasen, B utfördes systematiska och upprepade mätningar av smärtintensitet och aktivitetsförmåga över tid. Totalt fem patienter med lumbosakralt diskbråck rekryterades från en klinik. Studien omfattades av två interventioner. Två patienter behandlades med nervrotsblockad (NRB) i kombination med individanpassad fysioterapi och tre patienter behandlades endast med NRB. Mätdata presenteras med grafer i linjediagram och analyserades visuellt.

    Resultat: De två patienterna som fick NRB i kombination med individanpassad fysioterapi förbättrades avseende smärta respektive aktivitetsförmåga, under nio respektive fem veckors interventionsfas. Av de tre patienter som behandlades enbart med NRB upplevde en patient en försämring avseende smärta och aktivitetsförmåga, en valde att avsluta sin medverkan och en behandlades som bortfall.

    Slutsats: NRB i kombination med individanpassad fysioterapi kan minska smärta och förbättra aktivitetsförmåga för enskilda patienter med symtomgivande lumbosakralt diskbråck.

     

  • 2.
    Aasa, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Norrlandsklinikens hälsocentral, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Individualized low-load motor control exercises and education versus a high-load lifting exercise and education to improve activity, pain intensity, and physical performance in patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial2015Inngår i: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, ISSN 0190-6011, E-ISSN 1938-1344, Vol. 45, nr 2, 77-85 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Low back pain is a common disorder. Patients with low back pain frequently have aberrant and pain-provocative movement patterns that often are addressed with motor control exercises. Objective To compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercise and those of a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise. Methods Seventy participants with recurrent low back pain, who were diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical pain as their dominating pain pattern, were randomized to either LMC or HLL exercise treatments. Participants were offered 12 treatment sessions over an 8-week period. All participants were also provided with education regarding pain mechanisms. Methods Participants were assessed prior to and following treatment. The primary outcome measures were activity (the Patient-Specific Functional Scale) and average pain intensity over the last 7 days (visual analog scale). The secondary outcome measure was a physical performance test battery that included 1 strength, 3 endurance, and 7 movement control tests for the lumbopelvic region. Results Both interventions resulted in significant within-group improvements in pain intensity, strength, and endurance. The LMC group showed significantly greater improvement on the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (4.2 points) compared with the HLL group (2.5 points) (P<.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pain intensity (P = .505), strength, and 1 of the 3 endurance tests. However, the LMC group showed an increase (from 2.9 to 5.9) on the movement control test subscale, whereas the HLL group showed no change (from 3.9 to 3.1) (P<.001). Conclusion An LMC intervention may result in superior outcomes in activity, movement control, and muscle endurance compared to an HLL intervention, but not in pain intensity, strength, or endurance.

  • 3.
    Aasa, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Hellqvist, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    A characterisation of pain, disability, kinesiophobia and physical capacity in patients with predominantly peripherally mediated mechanical low back pain2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 4.
    Aasa, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Norrlandskliniken, Umeå.
    Lundström, Lena
    Pain Rehabilitation, Norrlands University Hospital, Umeå.
    Papacosta, Daniel
    Norrlandskliniken, Umeå.
    Sandlund, Jonas
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Do we see the same movement impairments?: the inter-rater reliability of movement tests for experienced and novice physiotherapists2014Inngår i: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, Vol. 16, nr 16, 173-182 s., 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Study design: Inter-rater reliability study. Background: Physiotherapists (PTs) use clinical tests including movement tests to identify faulty movement patterns. Aims: To investigate the inter-rater-reliability of active movement tests in the cervical spine, shoulder joint and scapulo-thoracic joint, and to describe the reasons for judgment of a positive test. Methodology: Four PTs, two experienced and two recently educated (novice), rated performance of five movement tests for 36 participants. Twenty-one of the participants were patients under treatment because of neck and/or shoulder problems, while 15 participants declared no problem from this region of the body. All tests were video recorded and the ratings were done by observing the video recordings. First, the PTs judged the tests as negative (the movement being ideally performed) or positive (the movement not being ideally performed). Then, the PTs described why the movements that they judged positive were not being ideally performed, using a predefined protocol, which represented different movement quality aspects. The inter-rater reliability was calculated for each test using Kappa statistics between the two experienced and the two novice PTs, respectively, and between each of the experienced and each of the novice PTs. Major findings: The experienced PTs had a higher inter-rater reliability than the novice PTs. The reasons for considering a movement test being positive differed highly between the (novice) PTs. Principal conclusion: This study supports previous studies concluding that the observation of active movement tests is reliable when assessed by experienced PTs. Novice PTs might benefit from further supervision.

  • 5.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi.
    Krafttag ska stoppa styrkelyftarnas skador2015Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Jensen, Bente R
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Sandfeld, Jesper
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Richter, Hans
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    The impact of object size and precision demands on fatigue during computer mouse use2011Inngår i: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, nr 3, 118-127 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer use, especially if fatigue ensues, is associated with visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim was to determine the time-course of perceived fatigue in the wrist, forearm, shoulder and eyes during a 60-min mouse task (painting rectangles), and whether object size and/or mouse use demands were of infl uence. Also, we investigated performance (number of rectangles painted), and whether perceived fatigue was paralleled by local muscle fatigue or tissue oxygenation.

    Ten women performed the task for three conditions (crossover design). At condition 1, rectangles were 45 25 mm, square paint cursor size 1.3 1.3 mm, and mouse – pointer movement ratio 1:26. At condition 2, the same cursor size and mouse – pointer movement ratio was used, but rectangles were smaller. At condition 3, the smaller rectangles were used, but the cursor size was also smaller and mouse – pointer movement ratio was 1:8. The results showed increased self-reported fatigue over time, with the observed increase greater for the eyes, but no change in physiological responses. Condition 2 resulted in higher performance and increased eye fatigue. Perceived fatigue in the muscles or physiological responses did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, computer work tasks imposing high visual and motor demands, and with high performance, seemed to have an infl uence on eye fatigue.

  • 7.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Ortopedi. Norrlandskliniken, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerståhl, Maria
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, Karolinska institutet.
    Physical Activity Might Be of Greater Importance for Good Spinal Control Than If You Have Had Pain or Not: A Longitudinal Study2015Inngår i: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 40, nr 24, 1926-1933 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. A cohort followed in 3 waves of data collection.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the performance of 2 tests of spinal control at the age of 52 years and low back pain, physical activity level, and fitness earlier in life, as well as to describe the cross-sectional relationships between these measures.

    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Altered spinal control has been linked to pain; however, other stimuli may also lead to inability to control the movements of the spine.

    METHODS: Participants answered questions about physical activity and low back pain, and performed physical fitness tests at the age of 16, 34, and 52 years. The fitness test battery included tests of endurance in the back and abdominal muscles, a submaximal bicycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake, and measurements of hip flexion, thoracic spine flexibility, and anthropometrics. Two tests were aggregated to a physical fitness index. At the age of 52, also 2 tests of spinal control, the standing Waiter's bow (WB) and the supine double leg lower (LL) were performed.

    RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that higher back muscle endurance at the age of 34 years could positively predict WB performance at 52 years and higher physical fitness at the age of 34 could positively predict LL performance at 52 years. Regarding cross-sectional relationships, an inability to perform the WB correctly was associated with lower physical fitness, flexibility and physical activity, and larger waist circumference. An inability to correctly perform the LL was associated with lower physical fitness. One-year prevalence of pain was not significantly associated with WB or LL test performance.

    CONCLUSION: An active life resulting in higher physical fitness is related to better spinal control in middle-aged men and women. This further strengthens the importance of physical activity throughout the life span.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

  • 8.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Jansson, Eva
    Westerståhl, Maria
    The Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort born in 1958 - dropout analysis and overview at 36-year follow-up2017Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, nr 4, 418-429 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort study (SPAF-1958) was to describe physical fitness, physical activity, health, and lifestyle across part of the lifespan, and to assess the influences on these factors from the environment, personal factors, and genetics. There is inevitable dropout from longitudinal studies, and it may be systematic. The aim of this first paper of the second follow-up of SPAF-1958 was to provide a dropout analysis to consider to what extent the participants, at 52 years of age, remain a representative sample of the original adolescent study population. Additional aims were to provide an overview of the study protocol and the ongoing study population. Ongoing study participants in SPAF born in 1958 were, at the second follow-up at the age of 52, still representative of the study cohort in terms of sex, adolescent geographical area, upper secondary school program, adolescent body composition, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. However, a higher physical activity and, among women, a higher aerobic capacity in adolescence decreased the risk for dropout. It is important when interpreting results from longitudinal studies to adjust for the systematic dropout that could bias the conclusions drawn from the results.

  • 9.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017Inngår i: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, nr 2, 451-461 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 10.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Centrum för idrottsvetenskap.
    Svartholm, Ivar
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Centrum för idrottsvetenskap.
    Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review2017Inngår i: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 51, nr 4, 211-219 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting are two sports that expose the body to great forces. Injury characteristics have not been systematically reviewed for these two growing sports.

    Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding various definitions of injuries used, injury localisation, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the associated risk factors for injuries in weightlifting and powerlifting.

    Design Systematic review.

    Data sources Five databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched between 9 March and 6 April 2015.

    Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies assessing injury incidence and prevalence in Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting were included. The Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess methodological quality.

    Results 9 studies were included in the review. Injury was defined fairly consistently across studies. Most studies were of low methodological quality. The spine, shoulder and the knee were the most common injury localisations in both sports. The injury incidence in weightlifting was 2.4–3.3 injuries/1000 hours of training and 1.0–4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training in powerlifting. Only one retrospective study had analysed possible risk factors.

    Summary/conclusions The risk of injury in both sports were similar to other non-contact sports also requiring strength/power, but low compared to contact sports. The severity of injuries differed in the included studies. Since little has been studied regarding possible risk factors to injuries, further research is therefore warranted to explain why athletes get injured and how to prevent injuries.

    Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015014805.

  • 11.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Westerståhl, Maria
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin avd för klinisk fysiologi Karolinska institutet .
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Jansson, Eva
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin avd för klinisk fysiologi Karolinska institutet .
    Hälsoresan till medelåldern2011Inngår i: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, nr 2, 4 s.40-43 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är viktigast för att få en god hälsa som vuxen? Sedan 1974 har vi följt samma personer från 16 års ålder in i medelåldern och studerat deras hälsa från flera olika synvinklar. Nu pågår den tredje mätomgången.

  • 12.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Personalens hälsa och arbetsmiljö2009Inngår i: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud och Leif Svensson, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, 33-38 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 13.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    The effects of a 1-year physical exercise programme on development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task.2008Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 51, nr 8, 1179-94 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes on development of fatigue during the carrying of a loaded stretcher up and down the stairs. Nineteen ambulance personnel performed the training for 1 year. Testing occurred before and after 1 year of the training. Both the training group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 15) were assessed for physical capacity and lactate concentration in blood and ratings of perceived exertion during carrying a stretcher on the stairs. When comparisons were made between those who had been training three times/week for 1 year and the control group, lactate concentration was significantly decreased. In conclusion, markers of fatigue during stretcher carrying can be reduced by the use of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes.

  • 14.
    Aasted, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Danielsson, Johanna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Den laddade gymspegeln: - Unga styrketränande kvinnors förhållande till speglar på gymmet2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Spegeln har en lång historia som en väsentlig del i rehabilitering och används med varierade syften inom olika fysioterapeutiska områden. Forskning har dock visat att träning i speglade miljöer kan ge en negativ påverkan på självkänslan. Det är därför av stor vikt för fysioterapeuter att vara medveten om och inventera speglarnas olika påverkan.

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att utforska unga styrketränande kvinnors förhållande till speglar på gymmet och hur det påverkar deras kroppsuppfattning och självkänsla.

    Metod: Studien baseras på kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra unga kvinnor. Inkluderingskriterierna är var unga styrketränande kvinnor i åldrarna 20-25 år. Intervjuguiden som användes är var semistrukturerade och analysmetoden är var Grounded Theory.

    Resultat: Resultatet av analysen utmynnade i kärnkategorin ”Den laddade gymspegeln” och kategorier med tillhörande underkategorier. De kategorier som formulerades fram var: ”Speglad trygghet och motivation”, ”Reflekterad osäkerhet”, ”Den dömande gymspegeln”, ”Gymspegeln skapar bidrar till stressig gymmiljö”, ”Gymspegeln som förstärkare av krävande kroppsideal”. Som sista steg i analysen skapades en modell.

    Konklusion: Unga styrketränande kvinnor upplevdeer att det finns en såväl positiv som negativ laddning med speglar på gymmet. Det var viktigt med speglar ur teknik- och skadepreventionssyfte. Samtidigt bidrog den speglade miljön till ett jämförande och ökat dömande. Det är fördelaktigt för fysioterapeuter att vara medvetna om speglarnas påverkan på unga styrketränande kvinnors självkänsla och kroppsuppfattning. Mer forskning krävs inom området.

  • 15.
    Abdollahi, Nyayesh
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Modifierad constraint-induced movement therapy förbättrar livskvalité hos unga stroke-patienter2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Britt-Inger
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Norberg, Eva-Britt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Fischl, Caroline
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Hur lärandekontraktet används som examination i olika kurser2015Inngår i: Universitetspedagogiska konferensen 2015: Gränslös kunskap, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2015, 4-5 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Risén, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Arbetsterapeutiskt resonemang i mötet med unga vuxna med autism2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Bemötandets betydelse - ur de allergiska och överkänsliga individernas synvinkel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att individer med allergier själv vidtar åtgärder för att undvika allergiexponering och försöker minimera risker för insjuknande, utsätts de inför situationer i sin omgivande miljö som de inte kan kontrollera. Omgivningens kunskaper och synsätt kring allergier varierar. Syftet med denna studie var då att belysa hur individer med astma, allergi- och överkänsligheter upplever att omgivningens indirekta- och direkta bemötande inverkar på sättet att se på sig själva, sin livssituation och sin delaktighet i aktivitet. Fyra kvinnor med olika typer av astma, allergi och överkänslighet intervjuades. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för att bearbeta det insamlade intervjumaterialet. Resultatet presenterades i fem huvudkategorier: Viljan att berätta beror på vem du möter. Att tvingas prioritera och acceptera risker för att få vara delaktig. Familj och vänners stöd underlättar. Vårdens och samhällets bemötande skapar osäkerhet. Andras agerande och kunskap påverkar. Denna studie visar bland hur omgivningens sätt att bemöta kan ha en försvårande och underlättande effekt för individer med allergiers självbild, livssituation och delaktighet i samhället, både fysiskt och socialt. Slutsatsen är att andra människors bemötanden, beteenden och sätt att vara har betydelse för hur individer med allergier påverkas av sin sjukdom. Arbetsterapeuter kan med sina kunskaper bidra till ökad förståelse och delaktighet för målgruppen i samhället.

     

    Sökord: allergi, hanteringsstrategier, bemötande, delaktighet, aktivitetsorättvisor, arbetsterapi   

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Bemötandets betydelse - ur de allergiska och överkänsliga individernas synvinkel2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots att individer med allergier själv vidtar åtgärder för att undvika allergiexponering och försöker minimera risker för insjuknande, utsätts de inför situationer i sin omgivande miljö som de inte kan kontrollera. Omgivningens kunskaper och synsätt kring allergier varierar. Syftet med denna studie var då att belysa hur individer med astma, allergi- och överkänsligheter upplever att omgivningens indirekta- och direkta bemötande inverkar på sättet att se på sig själva, sin livssituation och sin delaktighet i aktivitet. Fyra kvinnor med olika typer av astma, allergi och överkänslighet intervjuades. Kvalitativ innehållsanalys användes för att bearbeta det insamlade intervjumaterialet. Resultatet presenterades i fem huvudkategorier: Viljan att berätta beror på vem du möter. Att tvingas prioritera och acceptera risker för att få vara delaktig. Familj och vänners stöd underlättar. Vårdens och samhällets bemötande skapar osäkerhet. Andras agerande och kunskap påverkar. Denna studie visar bland hur omgivningens sätt att bemöta kan ha en försvårande och underlättande effekt för individer med allergiers självbild, livssituation och delaktighet i samhället, både fysiskt och socialt. Slutsatsen är att andra människors bemötanden, beteenden och sätt att vara har betydelse för hur individer med allergier påverkas av sin sjukdom. Arbetsterapeuter kan med sina kunskaper bidra till ökad förståelse och delaktighet för målgruppen i samhället.

     

    Sökord: allergi, hanteringsstrategier, bemötande, delaktighet, aktivitetsorättvisor, arbetsterapi   

  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Berglund, Catarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Att möjliggöra delaktighet i behandlingen för personer med ätstörningsproblematik: En kvalitativ studie utifrån arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Personer med ätstörningsproblematik kan ha en bristande insikt och ett kontrollbehov gentemot sin ätstörning. De kan även stundtals vara omotiverade till behandling och kan känna svårigheter i att förändra sitt beteende för att kunna bli fri från sin ätstörning. Detta kan försvåra för arbetsterapeuten att få dessa personer delaktiga i behandlingen, och därför blir syftet med studien att belysa arbetsterapeuters erfarenheter av vad som kan möjliggöra eller hindra delaktighet i behandlingen för personer med ätstörningsproblematik. Fem arbetsterapeuter intervjuades för att kunna besvara syftet och innehållet analyserades utifrån kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Resultatet presenterades i fyra kategorier; samarbete med patienten, klientcentrerad behandling, att medvetet använda sig själv och motivationens betydelse. Studiens slutsats är att om arbetsterapeuten lyckas skapa ett förtroende hos patienten, kan detta möjliggöra att patienten blir mer motiverad till att vilja bli fri från sin ätstörning. Detta kan uppnås genom att arbetsterapeuten bemöter patienten som en unik och kompetent person och tillsammans med denne reflekterar över personens livssituation och sätter upp mål i behandlingen, vilket leder till en ökad delaktighet i behandlingen. 

  • 21. Abramowicz, K
    et al.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Hébert-Losier, K
    Pini, A
    Schelin, L
    Strandberg, J
    Vantini, S
    Anterior Cruciate Ligament Rupture: Functional Data Analysis of Knee Motion2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 22.
    Abramowicz, Konrad
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Häger, Charlotte
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Hérbert-Losier, Kim
    National Sports Institute of Malaysia.
    Pini, Alessia
    MOX – Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano.
    Schelin, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Strandberg, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
    Vantini, Simone
    MOX – Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano.
    An inferential framework for domain selection in functional anova2014Inngår i: Contributions in infinite-dimensional statistics and related topics / [ed] Bongiorno, E.G., Salinelli, E., Goia, A., Vieu, P, Esculapio , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a procedure for performing an ANOVA test on functional data, including pairwise group comparisons. in a Scheff´e-like perspective. The test is based on the Interval Testing Procedure, and it selects intervals where the groups significantly differ. The procedure is applied on the 3D kinematic motion of the knee joint collected during a functional task (one leg hop) performed by three groups of individuals.

  • 23.
    Acosta Romero, Carolin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner vid depression – en systematisk litteraturöversikt: Occupational therapy interventions for depression - a systematic literature review2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Depression kan drabba personer i alla åldrar och är en av de vanligaste psykiska sjukdomarna i Sverige och i världen. I Sverige drabbas ca 4-10% av befolkningen av depression och symtom kan återkomma flera gånger under en livstid, vilket beskrivs som depressiva episoder. Sjukdomstillståndet kan leda till nedsatt livskvalitet som orsakas av depressiva symtom som nedstämdhet, minskat intresse, aptitförändring, sömnsvårigheter, energilöshet, pessimistiska tankar, koncentrationssvårigheter och självmordstankar. Studiens syfte var att identifiera och beskriva effekten av arbetsterapeutiska interventioner vid diagnostiserad depression samt att belysa upplevelsen av dessa interventioner.  Nio vetenskapliga artiklar granskades och analyserades i en litteraturöversikt. Endast vuxna deltagare med egentlig depression som primär diagnos inkluderades i sökning i databaserna PsycINFO, Academic Search Elite, PubMed, - OT-Seeker och CINAHL. Resultatet presenterar aktivitetsbaserade interventioner för att hantera vardagen så som arbetsinriktade interventioner, skapande aktiviteter och programbaserade interventioner. Effekter av dessa arbetsterapeutiska interventioner beskrivs förbättra klientens livskvalitet, minska depressions symtom, öka känsla av delaktighet och tillfredställelse i vardagliga aktiviteter, samt främja klientens återgång till arbete utan att uppleva ökad stress. Författaren i den här studien anser att det kan vara av stor betydelse för yrkesverksamma arbetsterapeuter att använda sig av aktivitetsbaserade interventioner som känns meningsfulla och tillfredställande för klienten. Ytterligare forskning behövs dock, då det finns för få studier som undersöker effekten av arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för personer med depression och upplevelse av att leva med depression. 

  • 24.
    Ahlgren, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Folkesson, Robert
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    The association between self-paced walking speed and cognitive function among very old people.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning:

    I Sverige förväntas medelåldern att stiga och den äldsta åldersgruppen förutspås växa sig allt större. Nedgång i fysisk funktion och kognitiv funktion är vanligt bland människor som är äldre. Nyligen genomförda tvärsnitts- och longitudinella studier visar att det finns ett samband mellan gång och kognition. Tyvärr är forskningen begränsad då den nästintill exkluderar mycket gamla människor.Syfte:

    Utforska sambandet mellan självvald gånghastighet och kognition hos mycket gamla människor. Det specifika syftet är att analysera sambandet vid baslinjen och vid 5 års uppföljning samt sambandet i förändringen hos mycket gamla människor. Metod:

    Deltagare undersökta i Umeå 85 + / Gerontologisk regional databas-studie (GERDA), med en ålder på 85 år eller äldre, bedömdes vid baslinjen och med 5 års uppföljning. Självvald gånghastighet mättes med 2,4 meters gångtest och individernas kognitiva funktion undersöktes med hjälp av Mini-Mental State Examination.Resultat:

    Medelåldern vid baslinjen var 89,76 (SD ± 4,82). Korrelation för förändringen i självvald gånghastighet och Mini-Mental State Examination mellan baslinjen och vid uppföljningen (n = 277), r = .251, p <.001, r2 värde .063. Konklusion:

    Det finns ett samband mellan självvald gånghastighet och kognitiv funktion bland de mycket gamla, både tvärsnitt och longitudinellt. Sambandet är starkt bland de som utvecklar demens.

  • 25.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Hamberg, Katarina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Johansson, Eva E
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Stålnacke, Britt-Marie
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    The meanings given to gender in studies on multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain: a literature review2016Inngår i: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 38, nr 23, 2255-2270 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to assess and describe the meanings given to "gender" in scientific publications that evaluate multidisciplinary, interdisciplinary or multimodal rehabilitation for patients with chronic musculoskeletal pain.

    Method: A systematic literature search for papers evaluating multimodal rehabilitation was conducted. The PubMed and EBSCO databases were searched from 1995 to 2015. Two or three researchers independently read each paper, performed a quality assessment and coded meanings of gender using qualitative content analysis.

    Results: Twenty-seven papers were included in the review. Gender was used very differently in the MMR studies investigated but primarily it referred to factual differences between men and women. Only one paper provided a definition of the concept of gender and how it had been used in that study. In the content analysis, the meaning of gender formed three categories: "Gender as a factual difference", "The man is the ideal" and "Gender as a result of social role expectations".

    Conclusions: The meaning of the concept of gender in multimodal rehabilitation is undefined and needs to be developed further. The way the concept is used should be defined in the design and evaluation of multimodal rehabilitation in future studies.

    Implications for rehabilitation

    Healthcare professionals should reflect on gender relations in encounters with patients, selection of patients into rehabilitation programs and design of programs. In rehabilitation for chronic pain the patients' social circumstances and cultural context should be given the same consideration as biological sex and pain symptoms.

  • 26.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Gadin, Katja Gillander
    Struggle for time to teach: Teachers' experiences of their work situation2011Inngår i: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, Vol. 40, nr S1, S111-S118 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of this study was to from a gender perspective, explore elementary school teacher' experiences of their work situation, and identify conditions that could be health risks. Participants: Eighteen female teachers who work in an elementary school in Northern Sweden. Method: Thematic interviews were conducted using an interview guide. The interviews were tape-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Qualitative content analysis was used to analyse the transcribed text and interpretations were made within gender theory. Results: Four categories emerged: "Squeezed between dream and reality", "Effort to keep up with demands", "We can make it together" and "The school needs men's qualities". The categories were linked together with the theme "A struggle for time to teach". The theme describes the conflict between the teachers' ambitions to teach and create a stimulating learning environment versus the increased need for behaviour control that took time from classroom work. Beside work at the school, the teachers carried a large burden of domestic work. Conclusions: Teachers' work includes both endless demands and great joy. Their work is structured within the schools gender system in which caring duties are subordinated despite a growing demand for behaviour control. Traditional gender roles affect their domestic work load.

  • 27.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS). Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Yrkes- och miljömedicin.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för kostvetenskap. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå centrum för genusstudier (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016Inngår i: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, nr 1, 84-93 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 28.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Malmgren Olsson, Eva-Britt
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Gender analysis of musculoskeletal disorders and emotional exhaustion: interactive effects from physical and psychosocial work exposures and engagement in domestic work2012Inngår i: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 55, nr 2, 212-228 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to assess the relationships between physical and psychosocial work exposures, engagement in domestic work and work-home imbalance in relation to symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders and emotional exhaustion in white- and blue-collar men and women. Three thousand employees from 21 companies were asked to answer a questionnaire on family structure, household and child care tasks, work exposure, work-home imbalance and symptoms of neck/shoulder disorders, low back disorders and emotional exhaustion. Women reported more musculoskeletal disorders and engagement in domestic work. Adverse at-work exposures were highest in blue-collar women. High engagement in domestic work was not separately associated with symptoms but paid work exposure factors were associated. High engagement in domestic work interacted with adverse work exposure and increased risk estimates for low back disorders and emotional exhaustion. Reported work-home imbalance was associated with neck/shoulder disorders in women and with emotional exhaustion in both women and men.

    Practitioner Summary. The current article adds to earlier research by showing that high engagement in domestic work is not separately associated with increased symptoms, but interacts with psychosocial work exposure variables to produce emotional exhaustion in both women and men and low back disorders in women.

  • 29.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Stenlund, Therese
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Steinholtz, K
    Slunga- Birgander, L
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Perceived benefits from a rehabilitation program: A study on patients with burnout2007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 30.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Waling, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin.
    Kadi, Fawzi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Djupsjöbacka, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, National Institute for Working Life, Umeå , Sweden.
    Thornell, Lars-Eric
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för integrativ medicinsk biologi (IMB), Anatomi.
    Sundelin, Gunnevi
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering.
    Effects on physical performance and pain from three dynamic training programs for women with work-related trapezius myalgia2001Inngår i: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, Vol. 33, nr 4, 162-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To compare training programs for women with trapezius myalgia regarding physical performance and pain, 102 women were randomized to strength, endurance, co-ordination and non-training groups. Before and after the intervention, static strength and dynamic muscular endurance in shoulder muscles were measured on a Cybex II dynamometer. Muscle activity in shoulder muscles was monitored via surface EMG. The signal amplitude ratio between the active and passive phase of repeated contractions indicated the ability to relax. Pain at present, pain in general and pain at worst were measured on visual analogue scales. After training, within group comparisons showed that the training groups rated less pain, and in the strength training group ratings of pain at worst differed from the non-training group. Using the non-training group as a reference, static strength increased in the strength and endurance training groups and muscular endurance in all training groups. The study indicates that regular exercises with strength, endurance or co-ordination training of neck/shoulder muscles might alleviate pain for women with work-related trapezius myalgia.

  • 31.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Traffic and drowning incidents with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, fatal traffic injuries and drowning deaths are important problems. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the cirumstances of fatal and non-fatal traffic injuries and drowning deaths in Sweden including analysis of the presence of alcohol and drugs, which are considered to be major risk factors for these events. Data where obtained from the database of National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    In the first study, we investigated 420 passenger deaths from 372 crashes during 1993-1996. There were 594 drivers involved. In total, 21% of the drivers at fault were alcohol positive compared to 2% of drivers not at fault (p<0.001) (Paper I). During 2004-2007, crashes involving 56 fatally and 144 non-fatally injured drivers were investigated in a prospective study from Northern Sweden (Paper II). The drivers were alcohol positive in 38% and 21%, respectively. Psychoactive drugs were found in 7% and 13%, respectively. Benzodiazepines, opiates and antidepressants were the most frequent drugs found in drivers. Illict drugs were found 9% and 4% respectively, with tetrahydrocannabinol being the most frequent of these drugs (Paper II).

    We investigated 5,125 drowning deaths in Sweden during 1992-2009 (Paper III). The incidence decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). Unintentional drowning was most common (50%). Alcohol was found in 44% of unintentional, 24% of intentional, and 45% of undetermined drowning deaths. Psychoactive substances were detected in 40% and benzodiazepines were the most common substance. Illicit drugs were detected in 10%. Of all drowning deaths, a significantly higher proportion females commited suicide compared with males (55% vs. 21%, p<0.001). Suicidal drowning deaths (n=129) in Northern Sweden were studied further in detail (Paper IV). of these, 53% had been hospitalized due to a psychiatric diagnosis within five years prior to the suicide. Affective and psychotic disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. Almost one third had performed a previous suicide attempt. One fourth had committed suicide after less than one week of discharge from hospital. Alochol was found in 16% and psychoactive drugs in 62% of these cases, respectively. 

    In conclusion, alcohol and psychoactive drugs are commonly detected among injured drivers and drowning victims, and probably play a role in these events. Most of the individuals that tested positive for alcohol and high blood concentrations, indicating alochol dependence or abuse. This association warrants futher attention when planning future prevention. 

  • 32.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden2009Inngår i: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, nr 1, 129-136 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

  • 33.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Blood loss in exsanguination deaths2011Inngår i: Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, ISSN 0973-9122, Vol. 5, nr 2, 5-8 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Deaths by exsanguination among various underlying causes of death were analyzed in order to expand the knowledge on the relation of extravasated blood volume to other documented parameters.

    A consecutive series of 193 cases of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm (n=13), gunshot wounds (n=63), stab wounds (n=28), rib fractures (n=5), and blunt injury to thoracic aorta (n=84) were investigated.

    The amount of internal bleeding into pleural cavities only varied greatly (200-3,400 ml) with a mean value of 1,174 ml, slightly higher among males. Age, body weight, cause and manner of death, external bleeding, alcohol inebriation, multiplicity of injuries, and degree of coronary heart disease did not significantly affect the amount of internal (pleural) bleeding. Also, post-mortem delay to autopsy did not correlated to the amount of extravasated blood, indicating that post-mortem bleeding is of no importance in these days.

     

  • 34.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Driver's alcohol and passenger's death in motor vehicle crashes2006Inngår i: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, Vol. 7, nr 3, 219-223 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on alcohol involvement associated with fatal injury in traffic crashes have focused on the drivers, but the passenger's view is not well known. This study (1) analyzes the relationship between passenger's death and alcohol inebriation of the driver and (2) estimates the role of alcohol as the cause of a crash by examining who was at fault, sober, or inebriated.

    METHOD: The study includes all motor vehicle passengers (n = 420) who died in crashes in Sweden 1993 through 1996 and were medicolegally autopsied. Autopsy reports from the Departments of Forensic Medicine, including toxicological analyses, and police reports were studied. Presence of alcohol among drivers was based on blood and breath tests.

    RESULTS: One-fifth of the fatally injured passengers and one-fifth of the tested drivers were under the influence of alcohol. The youngest drivers had the highest prevalence of drunken driving. Drivers at fault were alcohol positive in 21% of these crashes and drivers were not at fault in 2% of these crashes. In 53% of the crashes where both the passenger and driver were alcohol positive, the passenger had a lower alcohol concentration than the driver. Children (<16 years) comprised 15% of the killed passengers. Notably, the children were riding with a driver who was under influence of alcohol in 13% of these crashes. Alcohol involvement was not tested in half of the surviving drivers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data show that 20% of both passengers and drivers were under the influence of alcohol. Increased testing of surviving drivers regarding alcohol and other drugs is recommended.

  • 35.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Hassler, Sven
    Sjölander, Per
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Unnatural deaths in reindeer-herding Sami families in Sweden, 1961-20012010Inngår i: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, Vol. 69, nr 2, 129-137 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Unnatural deaths among Indigenous populations, including the Swedish Sami, occur more often than among the general population. To find prevention strategies, we explored the circumstances of the unnatural deaths of members of reindeer-herding Sami families.

    STUDY DESIGN: The number of deaths from among a cohort of 7,482 members of reindeer-herding Sami families were retrieved from the National Board of Health and Welfare for the years 1961- 2001.

    METHODS: An evaluation of the information from autopsy records at the National Board of Forensic Medicine, police reports, and available medical records identified 158 unnatural deaths. These were then analysed in detail.

    RESULTS: Transport-related deaths and suicides were the most common unnatural deaths among Swedish reindeer-herding Sami family members. Suicides contributed to 23% of all deaths, road traffic accidents to 16%, and snowmobile fatalities to 11%. The accidents generally reflected an "outdoor lifestyle" and the working conditions were characterized by the use of off-road vehicles such as snowmobiles. Half of the number of victims tested positive for alcohol and alcohol abuse was documented in 15% of all victims.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that alcohol is an important factor in preventing unnatural deaths among reindeer-herding Sami, together with increased safety of both on-road and off-road transportation.

  • 36.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Klinisk fysiologi. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in Northern Sweden 1992-2009Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 37.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Division of Social and Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in northern Sweden 1992-2009: the role of mental disorder and intoxication2015Inngår i: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 34, 168-172 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicides by drowning have received limited attention by researchers. A recent finding that almost onethird of all drowning deaths in Sweden were classified as suicide instigated this study. We identified 129 cases of suicide by drowning in Northern Sweden and analyzed the circumstances and the psychiatric history prior to the suicide. Information was obtained from autopsy, police and medical records, as well as from the National Inpatient Register. One-third of the suicide victims had previously attempted suicide and half of the victims had been hospitalized due to mental health problems. One-third of these had left the hospital less than one week before the suicide. Alcohol and psychoactive drugs were present in 16% and 62% of the cases, respectively. A history of mental disorder and previous suicide attempt (s), especially by drowning, is an ominous combination necessitating efficient clinical identification, treatment and follow-up if a complete suicide is to be prevented.

  • 38.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Drowning deaths in Sweden with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs: a retrospective study, 1992-20092013Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, 216- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drowning deaths constitute a significant proportion of unnatural deaths globally. In Sweden and other high-income countries, drowning deaths have decreased. This study investigates the epidemiology and current trends of unintentional, intentional, and undetermined drowning deaths with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and other drugs.

    Methods: During an 18-years period, 5,125 drowning deaths were autopsied in Sweden. Data on cases including toxicological analysis on alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    Results: During the study period, the annual incidence of drowning deaths in Sweden was 3.1/100,000 inhabitants and decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). The highest incidence was found among males and in middle/older age groups. The incidence increased 3% for each year of age. Children/adolescents (<= 18 years) constituted 5% of all drowning deaths. Of all drowned females in the study, 55% (847/1,547) committed suicide, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with males (21%, 763/3,578) (p<0.001). In total, 38% (1,656/4,377) of tested drowned persons had alcohol in their blood and the mean concentration was 1.8 g/l. In the unintentional drowning group, intentional drowning group, and the undetermined group, the proportion of alcohol positive was 44%, 24%, and 45%, respectively. One or several psychoactive drugs were present in the blood in 40% (1,688/4,181) of all tested persons and in 69% (965/1,394) of tested persons who died from suicidal drowning. The most common drug was benzodiazepines (21%, 891/4,181). Illicit drugs were detected in 10% (82/854) of tested persons.

    Conclusion: Presence of alcohol and drugs were frequent and may have contributed to the drowning deaths. The incidence of drowning deaths significantly decreased during the study period. Males and the middle/older age groups had a higher incidence compared to females and children. Suicidal drowning was common especially among women. Alcohol and drugs are significant contributors in drowning deaths in Sweden and should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention program.

  • 39.
    Ahlström, Stina
    et al.
    Rehabilitation Unit, Luleå Primary Health Care, Luleå, Sweden.
    Bernspång, Birgitta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Occupational  performance of persons who have suffered a stroke: a follow-up study2003Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 1103-8128, E-ISSN 1651-2014, Vol. 10, nr 2, 88-94 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to describe the progress made in terms of occupational performance during a two-year period by persons who had suffered a stroke and had been discharged to their home after their initial hospital stay. The population of the study consisted of 49 persons, 30 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 69 years. The Assessment of Motor and Process Skills (AMPS) was used to assess their occupational performance. Of the whole population at discharge, 66% showed increased effort and 29% showed decreased efficiency and independency. The results also showed that the persons who had decreased the most in their efficiency dropped out from the study. Twenty-nine persons participated in the study for 2 years. The best ADL ability was seen in the population at 3 months after discharge. A decrease was seen at 18 months after discharge in AMPS ADL process ability and at 24 months in AMPS ADL motor ability. The results suggest that persons who have suffered a stroke and live in their homes maintain their AMPS ADL ability performance for 1.5 to 2 years. A low AMPS ADL process ability measure in persons who have suffered a stroke signifies a reduced possibility of living at home.

  • 40.
    Akner, G.
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, 70185 Örebro, Sweden.
    Gustafson, Yngve
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik.
    Personalized geriatric medicine2014Inngår i: European Geriatric Medicine, ISSN 1878-7649, Vol. 5, nr 3, 145-146 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Alafuzoff, Irina
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Geriatrik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biovetenskap, Patologi.
    Histopathological and immunocytochemical studies in age-associated dementias: the importance of rigorous histopathological criteria for classification of progressive dementia disorders1985Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Dementia is an age-associated organic brain disorder, recogniz­able by the essential features of psychological or behavioral abnormality associated with permanent dysfunction of the brain interfering with social and occupational functioning.

    There are two clinical and three histopathological forms of dementia 1) primary degenerative dementia, (PDD), or Alzhei­mer's dementia/Senile dementia of Alzheimers type (AD/SDAT) which is associated with clinical features of uniform progres­sion and insidious onset of symptoms and histopathologically i- dentified by the occurrence of neurofibrillary tangles (NFT) and senile/neuritic plaques (SP/NP) in various cortical and subcor- tical regions; 2) vascular dementia, or multi-infarct dementia (MID), which is associated with clinical features of stepwise progress and patchy distribution of deficits, and histopatholo­gically identified by the occurrence of multiple large and/or small haemorrhagic and/or ischaemic infarcts in various cortical and subcortical regions and 3) intermediate form of dementia or "mixed” ("combined") dementia (AD-MID), which is histopatho- logically associated with the coexistance of symptoms and le­sions observed in AD/SDAT and MID, and clinically referred to the MID group. The DSM-III criteria separate the demented into two groups, AD/SDAT and MID, while there are no unique clinical criteria for the AD-MID patients. The clinical diagnosis of dementia according to the DSM-III criteria was shown to be in­sufficient . Histopathological diagnostic criteria were postu­lated by us for 1) pathological changes developing in mentallyunimpaired ageing, 2) AD/ SPAT, 3) MID and 4) AD-MID.

    These histopathological classes could be separated, by means of multivariate data analysis. The pathology in AD-MID was shown not to be merely a linear combination of the AD/SDATand MID pathology.

    Intrathecal synthesis of Ig, oligoclonal bands or other abnormal proteins in the CSF could not be demonstrated in aged non-demen- ted and demented patients.

    The blood-cerebrospinal barrier (B-CSF-B) or blood-brain barrier (BBB) function alters with age and this alteration was shown to be more pronounced in MID and AD-MID patients. In MID and AD-MID patients the BBB alteration involves primarily the grey matter while in AD/SDAT patients the alteration would appear to involve only the white matter. The BBB dysfunction and a possible complement activation, either through antibody-anti- gen activation or other complement activators, was visualized in MID and AD-MID patients as perivascular serum protein depo­sits in the grey matter, always with a capillary in the center. The occurrence of some serum proteins in plaques, and the previously descibed localization of plaques in close relation­ship to the capillaries, suggest that altered BBB function and serum factors may be involved in the etiology and maturation of plaques while the etiology and maturation of tangles may not be directly dependent on these factors, as they were never labelled with any of the antisera studied.

  • 42.
    Alastalo, Pihla
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Mörfelt, Isabella
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Arbetsterapi.
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner i förskole- och skolmiljö för barn med autismspektrumtillstånd: En litteraturstudie2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Autismspektrumtillstånd (AST) sammanfattar olika diagnoser som innebär svårigheter inom social interaktion, kommunikation och föreställningsförmåga. Barn med AST ställs inför många utmaningar i förskole- och skolmiljö och är i behov av anpassningar och stöd i sina studier. Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att beskriva arbetsterapeutiska interventioner i förskole- och skolmiljö för barn med autismspektrumtillstånd. En beskrivande litteraturöversikt genomfördes genom att granska vetenskapliga artiklar. Litteraturstudiens resultat omfattar nio vetenskapliga artiklar publicerade mellan åren 2006-2012 och beskriver arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för barn mellan tre och tjugo år med diagnos inom AST. Analysen av de utvalda studierna resulterade i tre kategorier: Kompensatoriska interventioner för att möjliggöra delaktighet i klassrummet, Interventioner riktade mot träning av sociala färdigheter och Interventioner riktade mot modifiering av beteenden. För att öka barnens kommunikation och sociala interaktion med omvärlden kan till exempel rollspel, yoga och interventioner med djur vara till hjälp. Kompensatoriska interventioner som bollstolar och tyngdvästar kan utgöra ett stöd för vissa barn men för andra barn påverkas koncentrationsförmågan negativt. Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner har potential att underlätta skolsituationen för barn och unga vuxna med AST. Det finns ett behov av att utveckla arbetsterapeutiska interventioner och undersöka dess effekter.

     

     

    Sökord: arbetsterapi, elev, åtgärd, autismspektrum, klassrum

  • 43.
    Alex, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik.
    Lundman, Berit
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Christianson, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Allmänmedicin.
    Beyond a Dichotomous View of the Concepts of 'Sex' and 'Gender' Focus Group Discussions among Gender Researchers at a Medical Faculty2012Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, nr 11, e50275- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: The concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' are both of vital importance in medicine and health sciences. However, the meaning of these concepts has seldom been discussed in the medical literature. The aim of this study was to explore what the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' meant for gender researchers based in a medical faculty. Methods: Sixteen researchers took part in focus group discussions. The analysis was performed in several steps. The participating researchers read the text and discussed ideas for analysis in national and international workshops. The data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The authors performed independent preliminary analyses, which were further developed and intensively discussed between the authors. Results: The analysis of meanings of the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender' for gender researchers based in a medical faculty resulted in three categories; "Sex as more than biology", with the subcategories 'sex' is not simply biological, 'sex' as classification, and 'sex' as fluid and changeable; "Gender as a multiplicity of power-related constructions", with the subcategories: 'gender' as constructions, 'gender' power dimensions, and 'gender' as doing femininities and masculinities; "'Sex and gender as interwoven", with the subcategories: 'sex' and 'gender' as inseparable and embodying 'sex' and 'gender'. Conclusions: Gender researchers within medicine pointed out the importance of looking beyond a dichotomous view of the concepts of 'sex' and 'gender'. The perception of the concepts was that 'sex' and 'gender' were intertwined. Further research is needed to explore how 'sex' and 'gender' interact.

  • 44.
    Alexandersson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Påverkas rehabiliteringen av att patienter som genomgår en total knäplastiksoperation opereras i blodtomt fält och i så  fall hur? .: Enrandomiserad kontrollerad studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: År 2011genomfördes 12 048 primära totala knäartroplastiker (TKA) i Sverige. Av dessa opererades 90 96 iblodtomt fält (BTF) och10 96 i icke BTF. För att åstadkomma ett bladtomt fält används en blodtrycksmanschett pä låret, trycket kan variera mellan olika kliniker. Effekten av trycket mot hud, muskler, nerver och lodkärl kan orsaka neuromuskulära skador som kan leda tillpost-operativ svaghet i quadriceps.

    Syfte:Att se om rehabiliteringsresultatet päskyndades ochförbättrades av att patienterna inte opereradesiblodtomt fält.

    Metod: 37 patienter med knäartros randomiserades till cementerad TKA i blodtomt fält respektive icke blodtomt fält Aktiv knäflexion, smärta, svullnad, quadricepsfunktion och timed up and go (TUG) mättes före ochupp till tre månader post-operativt.

    Resultat: ANCOVA visade ingen effekt på knäflexion dag trepost-operativt mellan grupperna. Inte heller något av de övriga utfallsmåtten visade en signifikant skillnad post­ operativt. Gruppen med BTF hade tendens till mindre smärta dag tre post-operativt och det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad avseende extra morfinkonsumtion utöver ordinarie dos.

    Konklusion:Operation av TKAiblodtomt fält påverkade inte knäflexion men ytterligare studier med fler deltagare behövs för att säkert kunna säga om rehabiliteringen påverkas av operation i blodtomt fält.

  • 45.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin. Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, London, UK; The Institute of Sport Exercise & Health (ISEH), University College London Hospitals (UCLH), London, UK.
    Clinical commentary of the evolution of the treatment for chronic painful mid-portion Achilles tendinopathy2015Inngår i: Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, ISSN 1413-3555, E-ISSN 1809-9246, Vol. 19, nr 5, 429-432 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion was for many years, and still is in many countries, treated with intratendinous revision surgery. However, by coincidence, painful eccentric calf muscle training was tried, and it showed very good clinical results. This finding was unexpected and led to research into the pain mechanisms involved in this condition. Today we know that there are very few nerves inside, but multiple nerves outside, the ventral side of the chronic painful Achilles tendon mid-portion. These research findings have resulted in new treatment methods targeting the regions with nerves outside the tendon, methods that allow for a rapid rehabilitation and fast return to sports.

  • 46.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering. 2Institute of Sport, Exercise and Health, University College London Hospitals, London, UK.
    Low recurrence rate after mini surgery outside the tendon combined with short rehabilitation in patients with midportion Achilles tendinopathy2016Inngår i: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 1179-1543, E-ISSN 1179-1543, Vol. 7, 51-54 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There is a general opinion that a structured and specific rehabilitation is needed after treatment of midportion Achilles tendinopathy to minimize recurrence of the condition. There is sparse knowledge about the recurrence rates in large patient materials after specific treatments for midportion Achilles tendinopathy.

    Aim: This study aimed to investigate the recurrence rates in a large number of patients with chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinopathy that had been surgically treated with the ultrasound (US) and Doppler (DP)-guided mini-surgical scraping technique. Postoperatively, a relatively simple rehabilitation protocol, including a range of movement exercises and gradually increased walking and biking before allowing free activity, was used.

    Materials and methods: From a database, information about the recurrence rates after US + DP-guided mini-surgical scraping, performed by a single surgeon on 519 tendons with US + DP-verified chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinopathy, was obtained.

    Results: Recurrence of painful midportion Achilles tendinopathy was found in 26 of 519 (5%) operated tendons, 13 from women and 13 from men. In 13 tendons, a close by located plantaris tendon was extirpated during the reoperation.

    Conclusion: In this large material on patients treated with US + DP-guided mini-surgical scraping for midportion Achilles tendinopathy, there were few recurrences, although only a simple and nonspecific rehabilitation protocol was used.

  • 47.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Idrottsmedicin.
    Reply to the letter from Dr. Karsten Knobloch regarding our article "Sclerosing injections to treat midportion Achilles tendinosis: a randomized controlled study evaluating two different concentrations of polidocanol"2009Inngår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 17, nr 1, 113-114 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Forsgren, Sture
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Integrativ medicinsk biologi, Anatomi.
    Thorsen, Kim
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin. Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Johansson, Håkan
    Lorentzon, Ronny
    Umeå universitet, Medicinsk fakultet, Kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Glutamate NMDAR1 receptors localised to nerves in human Achilles tendons. Implications for treatment?2001Inngår i: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy, ISSN 0942-2056, E-ISSN 1433-7347, Vol. 9, nr 2, 123-126 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation, we show the presence of both free glutamate (microdialysis) and glutamate NMDAR1 receptors (immunohistochemical analyses of tendon biopsies), in tendons from patients with chronic Achilles tendon pain (Achilles tendinosis) and in controls (pain-free tendons). The NMDAR1 immunoreaction was usually confined to acetylcholinesterase-positive structures, implying that the reaction is present in nerves. Glutamate is a potent pain mediator in the human central nervous system, and in animals it has been shown that peripherally administered glutamate NMDA receptor antagonists diminish the response to formalin-induced nociception. Our present finding of glutamate NMDA receptors in human Achilles tendons might have implications for pain treatment.

  • 49.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Zeisig, Eva
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Idrottsmedicin.
    Fahlström, Martin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rehabiliteringsmedicin.
    No normalisation of the tendon structure and thickness after intratendinous surgery for chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinosis.2009Inngår i: British journal of sports medicine, ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 43, nr 12, 948-9 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To characterise Achilles tendon structure and thickness a minimum of 8 years after intra-tendinous surgery. Material and METHODS: Fourteen patients (16 tendons; 9 men and 5 women, mean age 43 years, range 27-55) surgically treated (intra-tendinous surgery) for chronic painful midportion Achilles tendinosis, were followed with clinical examination and grey-scale ultrasonography for a minimum of 8 years (range 8-16 years, mean 13 years). RESULTS: All patients were satisfied with the result of surgery and were active in Achilles tendon loading activities without restrictions. In all operated tendons, structural abnormalities remained and tendons remained thicker than normal tendons. CONCLUSIONS: Resection of tendinosis is associated with persistent structural abnormalities and thickening of the tendon 13 years after surgery, despite successful clinical outcomes.

  • 50.
    Alkhed, Ann-Kristin
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Har konditionsträning positiv effekt på hjärntrötthet, kognitiva förmågor och dynamisk balans under gång hos personer med förvärvad hjänskada?: En Single-Subject Experimental Design studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund och syfte: Personer med förvärvad hjärnskada har ofta problem med hjärntrötthet, kognitiva förmågor och dynamisk balans under gång. Syftet med studien var att utvärdera om konditionsträning hade positiva effekter på hjärntrötthet, kognitiva förmågor samt dynamisk balans under gång hos personer med förvärvad hjärnskada.

     

    Metod: Single subject experimental design, A-B-design, användes. Inklusionskriterierna var förvärvad hjärnskada, ålder mellan 18-70 år, att de hade haft hjärnskadan minst två år, medverkat i klinikens grupprehabilitering samt skattat sin trötthet till minst 4 på Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS). Tre deltagare inkluderades. De cyklade 30 minuter, två gånger/vecka under 12 veckor på 70-80 % av max hjärtfrekvens. Interventionen fördelades på uppvärmning och fyra intervaller med återhämtning emellan. Ansträngningen skulle i intervallerna ligga mellan 12-15 på Rating of Percieved Exertion–skalan. Övriga mätinstrument som användes var FSS, Flanker, N-back, Stroop test och Dynamic Gait Index (DGI). Deskriptiv statistik, visuell analys och 2SD-metoden användes.

     

    Resultatet visade att kognitiva förmågor förbättrades hos samtliga deltagare och FSS förbättrades för en deltagare. Däremot blev det ingen förbättring på DGI.

     

    Slutsats: Konditionsträningen hade positiva effekter på kognitiva förmågor och skulle därför kunna vara en del i den fysiska och kognitiva rehabiliteringen efter förvärvad hjärnskada. Däremot verkade konditionsträningen inte ha någon effekt på hjärntrötthet och dynamisk balans under gång.

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