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  • 1.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Kostet, Jakob
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Financial Credibility, Financial Constraints and Rule of Law: A quantitative study on international firms2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing firms’ financial constraints can be an important element for economic growth. Previous scholars have documented various factors that affect firms’ ability to access finance (e.g. Lambert et al., 2007, p. 385). In this study, we investigate the impact of financial reporting credibility in reducing firms’ financial constraints. In addition, we study the role that rule of law at a country level have on the above stated association. We hypothesize that financial reporting credibility decreases firms’ financial constraints. Then, we propose that the ability of financial reporting credibility to reduce financial constraints weakens when rule of law (at a country level) decreases. This is the first study to investigate how the association between financial reporting credibility and financial constraints are affected by rule of law on a country level, to the authors’ knowledge. The study uses 52,381 firms operating in 98 countries that responded to the World Bank’s Enterprise Surveys between the time period 2006 to 2015. Financial constraints are measured through a variable that takes into consideration the perceived amount of obstacles firms are facing in their current operations and the proxy for financial credibility is whether firms have been audited or not. Our moderating term is the World Bank’s rule of law index. By using both regression and matching analysis, we find a significant negative association between financial credibility and financial constraints. This indicates that increased financial reporting credibility leads to less financial constraints for firms. For the moderating effect of the rule of law, the results are insignificant. However, we observe that when the level of rule of law is high, increased financial credibility leads to minor improvements in access to external finance.

  • 2.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Konkurrensklimat och dynamik: en studie av interaktion mellan konkurrenter1994Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

     

    A partly new train of thought has emerged during the last few years, which claims that national conditions are of importance for company strength in relation to international competitors. National competition has stood out as one of the most important explanatory factors, and is seen as the catalyst or motor in dynamic industrial environments. The demands and pressures that evolve from competition between geographically proximate companies stimulate the innovativeness within the industry. Thus, the question about

    why and how dynamics of competition develop and function has not been answered in existing research.

    The main purpose of this study is therefore to

    analyse the process of competition in industries with a high degree of geographical proximity between competitors, in order to improve the understanding of the character and dynamics of competition.

    A general review of literature dealing with competition at industry, strategic group, and organisation level was compiled. The review gave two dimensions by which four types of competition were possible to distinguish,

    degree of symmetry between competitores and degree of activity in competition. To obtain an understanding for the character and dynamics of competition, it is not enough to identify different types of competition. The process through which competition is formed over time also needs to be studied. Other theoretical approaches are therefore necessary. First, the companies' competitive actions should be understood from their experience and expectations of competition. Second, the specific competitive moves that are taken by individual companies are of importance for the competition. Third, competition has to be described as a process of interaction over time.

    A case-study approach has been used for the gathering of data. Case-studies have been conducted within three industries that differ from each other with regard to competition. Competition in the Frontloader industry has been driven by two companies equal in both size and relative strength. The competitors in the Lining industry are,on the other hand, dissimilar, both in respect to relative strength and to the orientation of their business. The third industry, that of Hoisters, is characterised by the domination by one company.

    Two major results have been reached in this study. First the concept

    climate of competition has been coined to analyse and describe the character of the four types of competition. The following four climates of competition emerge from the analysis; climate of rivalling competion, of co-existing competition, of evolutionary competition and climate of revolutionary competition. The climates of competition differ with regard to the functional and psychological distance between competitors, the possibility to survey competition, and the actors' acceptance of current rules-of-play and role distribution.

    The second result of the study is a greater understanding for the dynamics within competition. By analysing the character of and change in competition over time two partly different, but interwined forces, have been detected. Competition gives rise on the one hand to different kinds of learning processes, and on the other forces competitors to innovative and creative measures.

  • 3.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Stickiness and leakiness in inter-organizationalinnovation projects2002Inngår i: Regenerated Projects: Beyond Project Management. New Perspectives on the Temporary-PermanentDilemma. Festschrift for Rolf A. Lundin. / [ed] K. Sahlin-Andersson & A. Söderholm, Malmö: Liber, 2002, 81-107 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Kock, Sören
    The importance of competition and cooperation for the exploration of innovation opportunities2005Inngår i: Managing opportunity development in business networks / [ed] Pervez Ghauri, Amjad Hadjikhani and Jan Johanson, Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan , 2005, 49-66 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 5.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Packendorff, Johann
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Ekonomisk styrning för förändring: en studie av ekonomiska styrinitiativ i hälso- och sjukvården1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the end of the 1980’s  Swedish county council managers has been preoccupied with planning and implementing organisational change in order to alleviate the financial problems and to create more efficient production systems. Many of these efforts to change have implied changing the systems for management accounting and control, changes that have been inspired both by market-oriented ideologies and by the governance principles of large corporations in the private sector. Literature on manage­ment accounting and control indicates however, that management is unintentionally contributing to the creation of organisational inertia and conservatism. This contradiction is formulated as a change dilemma; ”How can managerial principles that make organizations subject to  bureaucratization and inertia be used as important strategies for organizational change?” The purpose of the study is thus to analyze the use of management control systems as organizational change strategies in health care, employing a change perspective on management control.

    When used as a change strategy,  management accounting and control becomes manifest as management control initiatives. Actors handle these control inititatives by organising themselves around the issue at hand. This organising process ends or fades away when there are no need for further attention to the control initiative.

    Empirical studies were made in the councils of Västerbotten, Sörmland and Upp­sala counties. Management control initiatives investigated were performance-related pay, quality improvement work, systematic planning procedures, provider/purchaser-models, downsizing projects and profit center systems.

    The systems for management accounting and control appeared to structure health care organisations in terms of spatial structuring temporal structuring and actor categorization. The management control initiatives introduced were structured as extraordinary organising processes delimited in terms of space, time and involved actors. Actors in the administrative norm system participated with the intention to change the organisation, while those in the medical norm system aimed at just handling the initiative.

    Management control initiatives can therefore be seen as passing opportunities to change, passing in the sense that the organising processes are temporary by nature, opportunities in the sense that temporary re-coupling can be used to  achieve long-term change. One such opportunity is the formulation of control initiatives; the possibility of using simple and standardized change strategies can be useful, but only if they are also linked to the medical norm system. A second opportunity is the temporary organising processes; if the project form of organising change can also be conveyed to the medical norm system, management control initiatives could result in short, intense courses of events that actually change things. The third opportunity  s the recurrent  cyc ica  pro­ perties  of  management  accounting  and control  systems, enabling  recurrent  activities around the same themes, thereby keeping them alive.

  • 6.
    Bodin, Jan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Perpetual product development: a study of small technology-driven firms2000Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This dissertation focuses the attention toward inventors and key actors involved in product development projects. The study focuses on how a new product development process is carried out operationally and strategically in small, technology-driven firms. The study is based on findings from four case studies among small aircraft manufacturers, two from Sweden, one from Germany, and one from northern Finland. By using one of the Swedish cases as a platform, issues concerning the development process emerged and were summarized in sixteen statemens. The statements were then used as themes and checkpoints when gathering information from the three additional cases. The analysis has been made in two steps; first, a comparison between the platform case and the additional case were made based on the statements, second, issues emerging from all four cases are discussed.

    The dissertation introduces perpetual product development as a terminology suitable for explaining the behaviour found in the studied firms. A foundation for perpetual product development is presented based on both actor and process characteristics. The actors are technology devotees with numerous ideas to pursue. Their technological interest result in a preference for the first part of the development process since they experience a higher degree of technological freedom from start. Once the product starts to materialize, the actors' possibility of incorporating new technical gadgets diminishes. As a consequence, a weaker interest for the exploitation/launch phase is present. The actors also have a time conception that differs from what is normally assumed. They do not consider speeding-to-market important, since the actors prefer a superior product than being first out on the market. Their attitude toward speeding-to- market also demand actors with a high degree of stamina, since it often involves projects carried out over a long period of time. Due to the individual characteristics described above, the process is technology-driven. The process also experience a fuzzy start and culmination. The actors will continue to make adjustments to the construction even after the product has been launched, if they believe it can be technically improved. A consequence regarding the way the actors are managing their firm is that there is a tendency to regard the product development as a leisure-time activity. In view of the findings, it can be established that each case has to be evaluated on its own merits, with regard to the central actors' personal objectives.

  • 7.
    Bonnedahl, Karl Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    En företagsstrategisk analys av ekonomisk integration: konsekvenser av Europas inre marknad för svenska mindre tillverkande företag1999Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the mid-eighties, progress in European economic integration has contributed to changing conditions for the conduct of business in many sectors of the economies. Such is the case in Sweden, whose commitment to the formal integration process also has changed in recent years, from a free trade arrangement (EFTA) via the European Economic Area (The EFTA states' affiliation to the European Union's Internal Market), to membership in the European Union.

    A theoretical point of departure for this thesis was the finding that although economic integration entails strategic consequences for firms, studies treating economic integration with a general business strategy perspective were rare. Hence, the main purpose has been to achieve knowledge about the European Internal Market's strategic consequences for Swedish firms, with the focus on manufacturing SMEs.

    Empirically, it is examined how integration has been experienced in firms through two questionnaires, sent in earlier and later stages of the formal integration process. Although the responses indicate a limited impact from the Internal Market, they present some arguments for an increased internationalisation. There are, however, reasons to believe that factors other than political initiatives were behind such a development.

    In the theoretical part of this thesis, obstacles to international competition, and the corresponding competitive advantages, are seen as being central for understanding integration effects as well as for the possibilities to respond to them. An essential distinction is made between different types of obstacles, based on origin or main causes. One or other of these categories may be crucial for a firm when defending a strategic market position, or may hinder the firm from competing in other markets. Furthermore, obstacles in the different categories are in principle influenced by integration measures to a varying degree, and the survey indicated that the type of obstacle that is primarily influenced by integration measures is the one with the least perceived influence on firms' competitive strength.

    In the last part of the thesis, and with several different points of departure - trade and integration theory, international business, strategic management, and the Internal Market's institutional framework - a model for analysis of integration effects in business strategy terminology is developed and presented. The model is constituted by a geographic dimension and a dimension concerning the product and distribution in a broad sense. For firms with strategic positions which are affected according to the analysis, two principal strategic responses are discussed: to re-establish former competitive advantages or to adapt to the new situation by re-orienting the business.

  • 8.
    Bonnedahl, Karl Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Sustainable economic organisation: simply a matter of reconceptualisation or a need for a new ethics?2007Inngår i: International Journal of Innovation and Sustainable Development, ISSN 1740-8822, Vol. 2, nr 1, 97-115 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Today's increasing environmental problems are closely related to how we organise economic activities. This paper departs from the assumption that in order to reach sustainable economic organisation, we must address the dominating Market Discourse (MD), guiding mainstream organising. To understand whether reconceptualisations are sufficient or if changes in underlying ethics are needed, we compare the MD with strong and weak sustainability discourses. The analysis suggests that there is a need for changes in underlying assumptions as well as reconceptualisation of economic organisation that coheres with these assumptions. We also discuss how the related concepts of allocative, governance and throughput efficiency permeates MD, and, as principles for organisation, contribute to the inertia in working towards sustainable economic organisation.

  • 9.
    Bonnedahl, Karl Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    The role of discourse in the quest for low-carbon economic practices: A case of standard development in the food sector2011Inngår i: European Management Journal, ISSN 0263-2373, Vol. 29, nr 3, 165-180 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores a collaborative initiative aiming to set standards for low-carbon practices in the Swedish food sector. Examining stakeholders’ comments and considerations during formative stages of standard development, the process is explained in terms of how it is influenced by discursive activity. Findings illustrate diverging assumptions and interests, but also how science partly bridges economic and ecological perspectives. However, while more critical arguments serve to validate the initiative, the resulting compromise does not question the canon of market discourse, including consumer sovereignty and the legitimacy of established economic interests. When acknowledging the role of consumers and mainstream business as causes to climate change, voluntary initiatives such as our case could, nevertheless, influence discourse through the spread of knowledge and awareness, and finally facilitate change in practices and acceptance for stricter regulation.

  • 10.
    Boter, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Holmquist, Carin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Svenska företag i Europa: Företagsledning i kulturell mångfald1992Inngår i: Glokalisering: Om konsten att tänka globalt och handla lokalt / [ed] Carl Frediksson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 1992, 97-109 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 11.
    Boter, Håkan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Holmquist, Carin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Swedish management style: European or American heritage?1996Inngår i: Perspectives of Scandinavian management / [ed] Jönsson Sten, Kungälv: A. Francke Verlag, 1996, 1, 73-95 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Byberg, Lars-Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Framgångsrika exportörer: En studie av strategiska faktorers inverkan på mindre företags exportutfall2006Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate which factors that are of particular importance for export performance among small and medium-sized manufacturers. The present study concentrates on strategic factors that are within the powers of the exporters to influence themselves. Additionally, different ways of measuring export success are studied. The resourse based perspective on internationalization and the contingency theory of organizations are used as theoretical framework of the study. Three control variables have been choosen for the study: firm-size, line of business and region. A survey was conducted on a sample of 339 companies which have less than 200 employees each. They are located in eihter of two different regions of Sweden and are involved in one of two selected lines of businesses. 239 usable questionnaires were completed and those were analyzed with correlation analysis, component (factor) analysis and multiple regression analysis. The results indicate that commitment is the factor having the strongest relations with export success, and that background variables have the weakest relations. Of four different fields of strategic and general success factors, relationship marketing is the most essential one. On second place comes internal locus of control, and on third place knowledge orientation. The results show that of the strategic factors, those related to entrepreneurship are the least important for export success. One conclusion from the study is that, depending on how export success is defined and measured, the results differ slightly. The results show that larger companies are more professional in their actions than smaller ones, and for that reason more successful in exporting. Industries of more advanced technology have more elaborate export behaviour, and are therefore more successful than others. Concerning the location, it is concluded that different regions have different competitive advantages and that otherwise similar companies can experience differences in export success for that reason. In the study, companies with a more central location are more successful than others.

  • 13.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Branschinteraktion och institutionell förändring: Omvandling i två livsmedelsbranscher2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien tar sin utgångspunkt i de senaste decenniernas trend mot avreglering, marknadsintegration och andra politiska åtgärder som syftar till att skapa bättre förutsättningar för konkurrens. Konkurrens antas skapa dynamik och ge olika positiva effekter såsom innovationer, förnyelse och mångfald. Denna studie belyser hur försöken att skapa mer konkurrens inte bara handlar om att ändra formella regelsystem, eftersom även institutionaliserade normer, olika föreställningar om hur man bör interagera, samt beroenden av olika slag, också påverkar interaktionen. Detta betyder att den institutionella förändringen i branscher, utöver formella regler, är av betydelse för att förstå branschomvandling. Analysen baseras på förändringar i två svenska livsmedelsbranscher. Teoretiskt utgår studien från sociologisk institutionell teori.

    Studien belyser vad branschinteraktionen betyder för institutionell förändring i branscher genom att lyfta fram fyra förändringsprocesser, institutionalisering, anpassning, experimentering och politisering. Särskilt fokus läggs på hur förändringstryck i form av politiska åtgärder leder till dessa processer. Med hjälp av de fyra processerna kan branschomvandling såväl som institutionell förändring beskrivas. Resonemangen leder vidare fram till en dynamisk paradox. Paradoxen utgår ifrån det välkända behovet av både stabilitet och förändring som grunden för dynamik. Politiska åtgärder handlar ofta om en strävan efter förnyelse och mångfald. Detta leder dock till en situation där olika nya produkter, processer med mera konkurrerar om legitimitet. Denna konkurrens leder till försök att skapa legitimitet för det nya, och därmed reducera osäkerheten, både för de konkurrerande företagen och för konsumenter och andra aktörer, vilket ofta understöds av nya politiska åtgärder. Detta begränsar i sin tur fortsatta utrymmet för experimentering. Det kan därför sägas vara svårt att vidmakthålla en kontinuerlig förnyelse och mångfald i branscher till följd av politiska åtgärder. En annan slutsats som dras är att det är kombinationen av konkurrens och samarbete som är av intresse för att skapa ”önskvärd” dynamik, snarare än konkurrens eller samarbete i sig.

  • 14.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Marell, Agneta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Perception of opportunities from an infrastructure investment: investigating the effects of institutional thickness, innovativeness and local embeddedness2012Inngår i: Book of Abstracts, RENT XXVI – Research in Entrepreneurship and Small Business, ECSB., 2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this paper is to explore organizations’ perception of opportunities as a consequence of an infrastructure investment. More specifically, the study investigates the effects of organizations’ perception of institutional thickness, innovativeness, and local embeddedness on perception of opportunities. The study reports on investments made in a new railway in a Swedish peripheral region. The sample included organizations from different economic sectors located in seven selected municipalities. The data was analyzed by using structural equation modeling. The results indicate that activities supporting institutional thickness have a positive effect on perception of opportunities. In addition, organizations characterized by high levels of innovativeness and local embeddedness are more likely to perceive positively opportunities arising from an infrastructure investment.

  • 15.
    Gabrielsson, Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Universitetspedagogiskt centrum (UPC). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Paulsson, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Humanistiska fakulteten, Universitetspedagogiskt centrum (UPC). Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Att utveckla ekonomers informationskompetens: en idéskiss för ekonomprogrammen2004Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Gabrielsson, Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Paulsson, Margareta
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Individ och agentskap i strategiska processer: En syntetisk och handlingslogisk ansats2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Even if strategy research often assumes that strategies are the result of intentional and purposeful behaviour the individual and human agency have tended to be neglected. Few empirical studies focus on how the individuals, their conceptions and actions interact with strategy formation. Based on ideas from process research and critical realism we made a review of the research and we maintain that the bulk of the research is based on simplified assumptions. We therefore propose a supplementary socio-cognitive approach based on more realistic assumptions, a synthesis and action logic approach, emphasising the individuals, the leading team and their embeddedness.

    In a process study with a comparative case study design we followed, in real time for about a decade, strategy formation processes in intermediate organisation in local economic development. Various methods of data collection and analysis were combined. By laying bare some of the mechanisms that explain the outcome in four processes we demonstrate the use of the proposed approach.

    A theoretical construction, the agent´s strategic concepts of action (SCA), aims at capturing the conceptions as an expression of the individual frame of reference providing reasons for action. The SCA carries explanatory power and is significant for both the process and content of the strategies. A typology of the SCAs is developed. The composition, the interaction and the structure of the team are other central aspects. We conclude that a strong group well suited to lead a formation process include a proactive strategist with a strategic idea and social capability; the role constellation is differentiated, and supplementary and other strategic actors relate to the strategy and the contextual roots in a way that will support the strategy. We also demonstrate in which circumstances some cognitive, social and political mechanisms discussed in earlier research are activated.

  • 17.
    Glader, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Bohman, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Gabrielsson, Åke
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Företagsformer i teori och tillämpning: En studie med inriktning på mindre och medelstora företag1975Bok (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18.
    Hamilton, Ian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Influence strategies in shareholder engagement: a case study of all Swedish national pension funds2011Inngår i: Journal of sustainable Finance & Investment, ISSN 2043-0795, Vol. 1, nr 1, 44-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investors spend money and resources trying to reduce the environmental, social and governance risks in companies they own. If unattended, these risks may cause reputational damage not only to the portfolio firm but also to its owner. In this article, we study five Swedish national pension funds and the influence strategies used in shareholder engagement. Knowledge about influence strategies is important because successful shareholder engagements can lead to more sustainable corporate behaviour and a lower risk to the investor. In addition to the traditional power and legitimacy dependencies that have been reported as influential in deciding stakeholder salience, our findings reveal five additional factors useful for determining influence strategies in shareholder engagement. We provide a conceptual model showing how these factors interlink with choices of influence strategies, offering a practical use of this study. Stakeholder theory has been used as our theoretical frame of reference, based on existing influence strategy literature using a stakeholder–firm perspective.

  • 19.
    Henfridsson, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Beyond the common sense of practice: A case for organizational informatics1997Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Information Systems, ISSN 0905-0167, Vol. 9, nr 1, 47-56 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Henfridsson, Ola
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Söderholm, Anders
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Organizational Informatics – On the Notion of Organization in Scandinavian Information Systems Research1997Inngår i: Proceedings of IRIS20: Social Informatics. Oslo: Department of informatics, University of Oslo. / [ed] K. Braa & E. Monteiro, 1997Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 21.
    Holmlund, Lars-Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Hur man tillämpar teorier om planering: en genomgång av några teorier om planering och analys av planeringssystemet i ett praktikfall1973Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Hultén, Peter
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Managing a cross-institutional setting: a case study of a Western firm's subsidiary in the Ukraine2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the development of a Western firm's subsidiary in the Ukraine and sets out to contribute to the theoretical development about the managing of subsidiaries in the Post-Soviet market. The cross-institutional approach to analyse the subsidiary has been adopted to explore influence from the institutional setting of the parent firm and from local institutions. In the theoretical framework, special attention is directed to studies analysing the challenges that Western firms encounter when operating in the Post-Soviet market. Institutional theory therefore serves as a framework for theories on market entries, networks and management transfers.The empirical study is based on a case study conducted in connection to a training project for local employees of a Western firm's subsidiary operating in the Ukraine. Besides being a source of inspiration, the training project provided good access to respondents and insights about the challenges that the subsidiary faced.The analysis shows that the introduction of the Western firm's management in the subsidiary reflects in the local employees' forming of identities. A clear pattern is that local employees' development of identities in line with the Western firm's norms is supported by socialisation in settings dominated by the Western firm. A setting dominated by conflicts between Western and local norms, in contrast, resulted in developments of conflict identities. The analysis of the subsidiary's managing of influences from the local institutional setting indicates that this concerned filtering. Striking was that the subsidiary was successful in managing influences when the filtering conditions were characterised by consonance. Looking into aspects making the filtering of external influences difficult, the analysis points out barter trade and local actors' boundary spanning towards authorities in the Ukrainian society as aspects creating dissonances and vacuum. Thus, influences characterised by dissonance and/or vacuum made it particularly difficult for the subsidiary to manage these influences.One of the major contributions of this thesis is the cross-institutional approach to analyse developments in a subsidiary in the Post-Soviet market. By applying this approach the study suggests that the managing of a cross-institutional setting concerns both internal and external boundary spanning. Of vital importance for the internal boundary spanning are issues influencing local employees' forming of a 'we' with the Western firm's representatives. The standpoint is that this concerns local employees' identity identification, which is a new perspective on management transfers towards a subsidiary in the Post-Soviet market. Concerning the managing of external boundary spanning, the study points towards the importance of observing local actors' ways of dealing with dissonances and vacuum in local networks.

  • 23.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Avvikelsens mekanismer: Observationer av projekt i praktiken2009Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund I det närmaste alla organisationer strävar efter att använda sina resurser så effektivt som möjligt. Vad som dock inte diskuterats i någon större utsträckning är att den starkt kopplade komplexa organisationen inte klarar av att bemöta ens den minsta avvikelsen utan att ägna den direkt uppmärksamhet. Den övergripande frågan är därför Hur hanteras avvikelser i starkt kopplade projekt? Det teoretiska ramverket är först och främst projektlitteratur men ramverket vidgas sedermera till att omfatta praktikansatslitteratur samt Weicks (1976) ”Loosely coupled systems”.

    Metod Givet ansatsen faller det sig naturligt att göra en fallstudie med observationer som huvudsaklig metod. Utöver tolv veckors observationer förlitar jag mig på 57 intervjuer och mängder av dokument. En organisation, två projektgrupper och 118 avvikelser observerades totalt under perioden. De data som samlades in analyserades med hjälp av dataprogrammet Nvivo.

    Resultat Analysen är uppdelad i tre integrerade kapitel. Det första kapitlet diskuterar avvikelser som företeelse och definierar begreppet närmare. En avvikelse definieras som en händelse som kräver såväl identitet som handlingskraft. Det andra analyskapitlet analyserar praktiken närmare. Allt som allt observerades 29 praktiker vilka kunde grupperas i åtta praktikmönster. Praktikmönstren kunde sedermera inordnas i två distinkta löskopplingsmönster i en teoretiskt underbyggd och empiriskt styrkt figur. Figuren och följaktligen praktikmönstren beskriver hur avvikelsen görs löst kopplad. Det tredje analyskapitlet diskuterar fem mekanismer som följer av med de löst kopplade avvikelserna. Dessa fem mekanismer kan sedermera betonas och utnyttjas av projektledaren.

    Slutsatser Slutsatserna följer två spår. Det ena spåret fokuserar på projekt i allmänhet och projektledning i synnerhet. Slutsatsen som kan dras där är att det finns en inneboende osäkerhet i projekt som kan utnyttjas för att hantera avvikelser. Alla avvikelser har inte stora konsekvenser men de besitter vissa gemensamma egenskaper. Det andra spåret är ett bidrag till teorin om löst kopplade system. Länge har en processuell och praktikbaserad studie saknats. Genom att undersöka löskopplingsprocesser i ljuset av en praktikansats har jag visat hur löskopplingsprocesser ser ut.

  • 24.
    Hällgren, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Mellan plan och kaos: En studie av avvikelser i projektintensiva organisationer2004Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 25.
    Jaensson, Jan-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Marknadsorientering i tjänsteföretag: en studie av försäkringsbolag1997Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The background to this thesis is found in the growing importance of the marketing concept. The concept has been used frequently in articles in the past few years, in spite of lack of consensus about what it is.

    To make a contribution to the theoretical field the theories about service marketing and market orientation had to be examined and the relevant factors drawn out to construct a model for describing market orientation in service companies. The theoretical examination resulted in the follo­wing three components that together constitutes the foundation of the marketing concept in service companies: market information, the support system and the customer meeting.

    The main purpose of this thesis is to describe and analyze the marke­ting concept in service companies. Within this purpose the study also will identify which driving forces and obstacles affects market orientation. To a certain extent the process towards market orientation also is examined.

    The first analyses of the two insurance companies showed that the de­gree of activity in working with the factors that constituted the marketing concept varied. In general they had worked with approximately the same factors almost in the same way. In so doing they had worked more with some of the conceptual and behavioral factors than with the others.

    The cases differed from the theoretical frame of reference, as expected. However, the differences were impossible to explain with the component model. New analyses of the empirical data showed other factors that had influenced the market orientation process in the companies.

    The new factors could be divided into four groups depending on whether they were considered as internal or external factors and whether they were driving forces or obstacles for the process.

    One original component that proved to be of great importance in the market orientation process was market information. Neither of the insu­rance companies had worked with that component in a systematic way to find out, for example, the customers needs and wants.

    The study resulted in a more dynamic model of the market orientation process - the cycle model. It visualize the relation between the compo­nents and it also adds on a time perspective to market orientation, since it is supposed to continue over time.

  • 26.
    Jensen, Tommy Nöhr
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Översättningar av konkurrens i ekonomiska laboratorier: Om ekonomiska teoriers förenkling, komplexitet och fördunkling i hälso- och sjukvården2004Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    FRAGMENTERAD SAMMANFATTNING

    Aktörerna i Stockholms läns landsting simulerar marknad och konkurrens och är väl medvetna om att de gör detta (Den Stora Upphandlingen; en inre marknad inom ramen för en förvaltningsstyrd struktur). Det är inte det denna alternativa berättelse om konkurrens avslöjar. Aktörerna vet precis vad de försöker göra när de försöker organisera hälso- och sjukvården i Stockholms läns landsting genom att låta sig influeras av andra ”världar”. En särskilt relevant ”annan värld” är ekonomen och ekonomisk teori. Men i den till synes medvetna processen händer något, det uppstår komplexitet; det uppträder många olika världar som cirkulerar i Stockholms läns landsting. Men översättningsprocessen av konkurrens stannar inte här. Aktörerna intensifierar sina ansträngningar för att komma tillrätta med det som blivit komplicerat. Nya förslag på hur hälso- och sjukvården ska organiseras konstrueras, där var och en för fram Det Bästa Sättet för att komma till rätta med de observerade problemen. Situationen och tillvaron blir fördunklad och ekonomisk teori har nu översatts så många gånger, av så många olika aktörer, att det cirkulerar otaliga kopior av den. Det är processen av förenkling, komplexitet och fördunkling som är essensen i min re-presentation och i mina anspråk på att försöka förstå konkurrensprocesser. En essens som jag fångar och illustrerar med hur aktörer i aktörsnätverk översätter (associerar, enrollerar och etiketterar) den neoklassiska marknaden.

    Men annat står också på spel. Aktörer översätter såväl människor som ting samtidigt som ting i sin tur influerar mänskliga föreställningar och ageranden. Men tings förmåga att konstruera människor är begränsat eftersom ting agerar utifrån givna koder, en given Ordning, (som givetvis kan bryta samman och ta oanade vägar, till exempel dataprogram), men som i sig är fyllda av mänskliga avsikter och intentioner. Vissa ”sociotekniska” ting är designade att centrera ”världar”, exempelvis Stockholms läns landsting uttryckt i siffror i en årsredovisning. Likafullt är det bara människor som, i processerna av förenkling, komplexitet och fördunkling, kan träda fram och konstruera och centrera heterogent materiella världar, men genom att centrera mängder av heterogena material (såväl människor som ting) förmår ting visa epistemologiska möjligheter för mänskligt agerande. Människor kan med andra ord färdas långt ut i världen med hjälp av ting. En empirisk observation är att ju längre aktörerna, i hälso- och sjukvården i Stockholms läns landsting, reser i de centrerade heterogent materiella världarna desto mer närsynta blir de samtidigt som potentialen att orsaka allvarliga sidoeffekter blir större och större. En annan empirisk observation i studien är att sidoeffekter hanteras på samma sätt i den nationalekonomiska neoklassiska teorin som i hälso- och sjukvårdens praktik, där internaliserade och väl avgränsade ekonomiska transaktioner antas utgöra normen och sidoeffekter undantagen på marknaden. Istället förhåller sig det precis tvärtom: Sidoeffekter är normen och internaliserade och väl avgränsade ekonomiska transaktioner utgör undantagen.

  • 27.
    Johansson, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Study on balancing cooperation and competition in coopetitive relationships through bridging and bondingManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopetitive relationships, with simultaneous cooperation and competition, are argued to be beneficial for the development of competitive advantage. To obtain and maintain such advantage over time the relationship however needs to be balanced. Through two longitudinal case studies we examine how bridging and bonding activities can facilitate and restrict the balancing of coopetitive relationships. Our findings illustrate changes in coopetitive relationships over time, focusing how these changes affect the coopetitive balance. We show how bridging and bonding possibilities arise in coopetitive relationships, how bridging and bonding are related and influence each other, and outline mechanisms in the different processes that facilitate and restrict firms’ ability to balance coopetitive relationships over time. The study offer implications for the literature on firms’ capabilities to manage coopetition as a strategy.

  • 28.
    Johansson-Lindfors, Maj-Britt
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Organisationers ideologiska ansikten: om grundläggande föreställningar i mindre företag1989Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The question raised in this study is: Why are similar companies so different? That is, why do companies of the same size, in the same line of business, and with the same organizational structures, etc., function in different ways? The answer to these questions is expected to be found through knowledge of basic ideas in companies. Important points of departure are that small companies are interesting research objects and that an organization can be viewed as a set of deep and surface structures which may appear in the language of its members and other interested parties. Based chiefly on deep interviews, the study is intended to generate knowledge and understanding of basic ideas and their function in small companies.

    The deep structures of the four companies show that the basic ideas can be understood as ideologies. They refer to basic values, are apprehended by the members of the organization and other interested parties, and prescribe what is desirable. The differences between the cases form the basis of a classification of the ideologies into four ideal types: capitalistic, religious, narcissistic, and socialistic.

    The surface structures are viewed in two perspectives, one referring to the behaviour of the companies and the other to the relational behaviour between the companies and the interested parties. The former shows that the patterns of behaviour are different in the four companies and may be characterized as efficiency-directed, adaptation-directed, ego-directed, and socially-directed. A comparison between these patterns of behaviour and the ideologies of the companies makes the directing function of the ideologies visible. Through situation interpretation, ideologies direct organizational behaviour towards particular patterns. The relational perspective causes the controlling function of ideologies to appear. Differences in co-acting between the companies - that is, the extent to which and on what grounds the interested parties behave in accordance with the behaviour of the companies and the attitudes of the interested parties to the ideological values - show that ideologies can exercise control either through their power over problem interpretation or their power over acting.

    The results of this study indicate that the answer to the initial question is that organizations have different ideological faces.

  • 29.
    Junghagen, Sven
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Strategiska förhållningssätt till informationsteknik i små företag1998Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Both information technology and small business are considered to be of great importance for economy today. Several empirical studies have however showed that the diffusion of information technology among small business have been limited. Since information technology is considered to be of strategic importance for organisations, the aim of this study is to identify and analyse strategic dispositions to information technology. This study has shown that information technology can be of different strategic importance for different managers. Strategic dispositions is a concept based on the managers perceptions of the strategic context, perceptions of information technology and the individual characteristics of the manager. The perspective used is based on a view upon strategies formed in an entrepreneurial mode or an adaptive mode.A survey is conducted with a sample of 600 managers in small business in Sweden. Analyses are conducted with a multivariate approach, using factor analysis to reduce complexity in data, cluster analysis to group objects and finally discriminant analysis to categorise groups and analyse different strategic dispositions to information technology.The classification of managers resulted in six groups, separated by their inclination to use technology, their dynamics and their uncertainty avoidance. Further analysis however showed that there are mainly four strategic dispositions within the population, where the two groups with a lower inclination to use technology showed similar patterns to two of the other groups. The four strategic dispositions are therefore divided by means of dynamics and uncertainty avoidance. Dynamics is a concept mainly based on contextual characteristics and uncertainty avoidance is a concept mainly based on how the firms handles the context. The overall context and handling of this context constitute an application context.The first application context in a situation of high dynamics and low uncertainty avoidance is labelled stratège development, where information technology has a strong linkage to core competencies in the business. In this application context, the strategic disposition is proactive. The second, based on high dynamics and high uncertainty avoidance, labelled adaptive change, includes patterns where information technology are used to adapt to uncertain environments. The strategic disposition is reactive. The third application context, in low dynamics and high uncertainty avoidance, is labelled fixed relations, where information technology is used to maintain a fixed relation with an other actor in the environment. This strategic disposition is interactive. Finally, in low dynamics and low uncertainty avoidance, the application context is labelled fixed structures. Information technology is in this case used not to achieve dynamics or growth, nor to reduce uncertainty, but merely because of a fixed structural complexity best handled with information technology. The disposition is inactive in its mode.The different strategic dispositions show that introduction of information technology is influenced by both context as well as individual intentions. The strategic importance of information technology is therefore a complex conception, to be used with discretion.

  • 30.
    Lindbergh, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Essays of Financial Performance and Capital Structure2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four self-contained essays on financial performance and capital structure.

    Essay I assesses the strength of strategic inputs into profitability among firms within several sub-sectors within the industrial service sector in the U.S. and Sweden. In this study we employ an ordinary least square regression. The results, coupled with structural observations on production sectors, suggest that significant differences may indeed occur in both productivity and pricing in the two systems, i.e. the U.S. and Sweden.

    Essay II estimates the impact of operating costs and cost of debt on revenue, profit generation and asset retention in public housing companies in Sweden. A general conclusion to draw from the empirical results is that expentitures on consolidated maintenance is not only associated with short-term rental revenues, but undoubtedly long-term viability as well. Further, first difference results suggested that negotiated rents produced operating profits that kept pace with revenues over the time period of study.

    Essay III examines the impact of selected financial and contextual variables on managers’ decisions to appropriate funds to tax allowances in small firms in Sweden. The motive for appropriating to the tax allocation reserve is twofold. First, the tax allocation reserve is intended to lower the tax levy on investments financed with internally generated income. Second, it creates a possibility for firms to smooth income over a number of years. The results, from the logistic regression, suggest that financial performance, financial position and prior appropriations do impact on managers’ decision to appropriate.

    Essay IV examines the association between the two sides of the balance sheet based on financial statement information from small firms in Sweden The results of the multivariate canonical correlation analysis provides some support to the hypotheses that firms develop patterns, in their use of assets and their financing.

  • 31.
    Lindbergh, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    The Association between Investment and Finance Decisions: A Canonical Correlation Analysis on Swedish dataArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 32.
    Lindbergh, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Andersson, Håkan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    An Assessment of the Impact of Financial and Contextual Variables on Managers Decisions to Utilize Tax Allowances in Small Swedish FirmsArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Lindbergh, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Larsson, Claes-Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Wilson, Timothy L.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    Cost Control and Revenue Generation: The Case of Public Housing Companies Experiences in Sweden2004Inngår i: Regional studies, ISSN 0034-3404, Vol. 38, nr 7, 803-815 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased competition for funds associated with the provision of public-sector housing, stock privatization, and attempts to introduce more tenant-centred and effective housing management services are trends seen in social housing throughout the European Union. Consequently, studies have been done that compare programmes worldwide and in Europe, or analyse changes in single countries. The Swedish system has received attention because of its long-term viability. An ordinary least-squares analysis of financial information from providers in this system has been made with special regard to revenue generation capabilities, the ability to remain profitable, and the retention of asset values for both level and first difference approaches. If one general lesson can be drawn from the empirical results, it would be that expenditures on consolidated maintenance are associated not only with short- term rental revenues, but also undoubtedly with long-term viability. Further, first difference results suggested that negotiated rents produced operating profits that kept pace with revenues over that period of the study. The results should be especially relevant to the interests of a wide range of local governments where public housing is of concern. In particular, those individuals bearing greater responsibility for running self-sufficient systems and also policy-makers interested in running efficient, effective systems should be interested in these observations.

  • 34.
    Lindbergh, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Olofsson, Thomas
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Vesterberg, Jimmy
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Andersson, Steffan
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Wilson, Timothy
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Reflections on Sustainable Ålidhem: A Case Study in Swedish Municipal Public Housing Refurbishment2018Inngår i: Property Management, ISSN 0263-7472, E-ISSN 1758-731X, Vol. 36, nr 2Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This work was initiated under the premise that reliable evaluation methods are necessary to ensure investments in energy conservation, and the purpose of this paper is to contribute to that literature.  It describes some pilot changes and their impact in an actual field study oriented toward upgrading municipal public housing (MPH) units. 

     

    Method: The research for this paper was connected to an MPH refurbishment project situated in northern Sweden. The overall energy efficiency goal within the project was a 40-50% reduction in the supplied energy for central electricity, domestic hot water and space heating. In order to evaluate if these goals were feasible, a measurement system was installed in a pilot building and in a neighboring building used as a reference. The evaluation was conducted by comparing the post-retrofit performance of the pilot building with the performance of the reference building when it was kept in its initial state (a comparison possible because both buildings had initial similarities). 

                         

    Findings: Impacts could be quantified insofar as a reference (control) building in the same environment was sustained for comparison purposes.  A 43% improvement was observed in energy utilization in the pilot building compared to its reference companion (99.8 vs 174.5 kWh/m2 per year).  When the approach described herein was applied to new construction, the present goal of 65 kWh/m2 per year was approached as measured by Swedish building code. 

     

    Practical implications: Results should be of interest to academics in the housing field, professionals involved in refurbishment and residents, themselves, renting MPH flats.

     

    Originality/value: The uniqueness of this study is that 1.) It really was a field experiment with a control; thus it did not have any exogenous interference in interpreting results.  To the best of our knowledge that is a first.  2.) The second interesting characteristic was that results were subsequently used in the refurbishment of other buildings in the complex and in the construction of others.  The major value of the paper may be associated with its timing.  It comes at a time when the Kyoto agreement has raised concerns about sustainability, but also at a time when many buildings are facing a need for refurbishment.

  • 35.
    Lindbergh, Lars
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Wilson, Timothy L.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
    A Comparative Study of Industrial Services in the U.S. and Sweden: Profitability, Productivity and Pricing2001Inngår i: Journal of Global Marketing, ISSN 0891-1762, Vol. 14, nr 4, 67-87 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrialized countries now depend on the service sector, especially industrial services, for a significant portion of employment and GDP. Despite this importance, there has been little attention given to comparative studies in this area. Cross-sectional, financial data from Swedish and U.S. industrial service sectors were used to assess the dependence of profitability on four strategic factors--relative market share, revenue/employee, investment intensity, and segment growth rate. Both market share and revenue/employee were statistically significant in U.S. performance. Swedish results suggested that market share was not a significant contributor to a profitable strategy. Investment intensity and revenue/ employee, however, were significant contributions to profitability. These results, coupled with structural observations on production sectors, suggest that significant differences may indeed occur in both productivity and pricing in the two systems.

  • 36.
    Lindgren, Monica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Möjligheter till kompetensutveckling: ett individperspektiv på relationen människa - organisation : en studie av individer i reklam- och revisionsföretag1996Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This study deals with individual possibilities for competence development in knowledge-intensive firms, especially advertising and audit firms. The study has an individual perspective which means that the organization is analyzed as subjective perception of indivi­duals. In this approach I seek for differences between people (subjective interpretations), instead of similarities (intersubjective interpretations). Different subjective interpretations are important for the understanding of different possibilities and restrictions individual competen­ce development. Different individuals can, depending on different values about work and life in general, have different experieces of possibilities for competence development. The rese­arch problem deals with different relations between the individual and the organization from the individual perspective of personal competence development. The empirical study is in two parts; case studies at the individual level and a questionnaire to people in advertising firms and audit firms.

    From the theoretical perspective and the empirical studies, different types of relations between man and organisation have been developed; Respectful professional, respectless professional, respectful holistic, respectless holistic, sectorial professional and holistic professional. The implications of these relations are that certain individual values seems to fit these knowledge- intensive firms better than others. These individual values have been termed respectful, pro­fessional and holistic. Individuals with these values experience their possibilities of compe­tence development better than other individuals. Individuals with the values termed re­spectless and sectorial were less pleased with their companies and their possibilities of compe­tence development. The study also show that individual commitment to organisational values is important for the experienced possibilities for personal competence development.

  • 37.
    Lindqvist, Rafael
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för utvärderingsforskning (UCER).
    Nylén, Ulrika
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Samverkan i vård och omsorg: Delrapport 2 från utvärderingen av försöksverksamhet i Västerbottens län2000Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 38.
    Ljunggren, Elisabet C.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Entreprenørskap og kjønn: en kunnskapsreise mellom to perspektiver: fra individ til relasjon2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The subject of this study is entrepreneurship and gender, and the research question addressed is: What meaning has gender for entrepreneurship? Through a "journey of learning" the issue of entrepreneurship and gender is examined with two perspectives; the individual- and the relational perspective. This implies that the entrepreneur is studied with a mainstream entrepreneurship approach as well as a socioeconomic inspired ap­proach where embeddedness is a crucial concept. The doctoral dissertation consists of three studies of the entrepreneurial process, and one study where the entrepreneur is viewed as a participant in a household as well as in a firm; hence he/she is socially embedded. The thesis is based on a broad empirical material and represents a methodological diversity. Doing studies with different perspectives and approaches contribute to a diversified under­standing of entrepreneurship. In this understanding gender is crucial and in the disserta­tion two different approaches to gender are applied. The dissertation demonstrates the interconnection between gender and research on entrepreneurship; from one point of view where similarities and differences between men and women are important, to an­other point of view where gender is perceived as socially constructed. One main conclusion is that entrepreneurship is gendered and this needs to be taken into account when entrepreneurial research is conducted.

  • 39.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Accounting-based trading strategies and insider tradingManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 40.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Essays on the value relevance of financial statment information2003Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis consists of an introductory chapter and four self-contained essays on the value relevance of financial statement information.

    Essay 1: The purpose of this essay is to examine relevance of environmental information from an investor’s perspective. The study proposes that the market value of companies will reflect both financial and environmental performance. The theoretical foundation of the study is the accounting based valuation theory outlined by Ohlson (1995). This study provides new insights into how environmental performance is reflected in the market value of Swedish companies listed on the Swedish Stock market.

    Essay 2: In financial accounting research, much effort has been devoted to study the relation between accounting earnings and stock prices. The primary purpose of the second essay is to investigate the effect of alternative return-earnings model specifications to the estimated returns-earnings relation, that is, the earnings response coefficients. The returns-earnings models investigated include the traditional earnings levels and changes, and models including analysts’ earnings forecasts based on Ohlson’s (1995) extended residual income model.

    Essay 3: Fundamental analysis research that focuses on the use of accounting information to estimate equity value, has surfaced as a central theme in market based accounting research of the 1990s (Lee, 1999). The purpose of third essay is to compare two different approaches to valuation based on the theory presented in Ohlson (1995) in terms of explanatory and predictive power of the value estimates. Both approaches are implemented with and without the use of analysts forecasts.

    Essay 4: In this essay data from the Swedish stock market is used to investigate the profitability of two different types of investment strategies based on fundamental-to-value ratios and past insider trading activity. The purpose of the research is to explore four related research questions: (i) Do accounting based trading strategies generate abnormal returns on the Swedish stock market?; (ii) Do trading strategies based on insider trading behaviour generate abnormal returns on the Swedish stock market?; (iii) Do insiders who buy stocks tend to favour value stocks and do insiders who sell stocks tend to dispose growth stocks?; and (iv) Are insiders able to discriminate between temporary high/low fundamentals and temporary low/high prices when buying/selling value stocks and growth stocks?

  • 41.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Kallunki, Juha-Pekka
    Martikainen, Minna
    Accounting earnings, analysts' forecasts and stock returns: Swedish evidenceInngår i: The international journal of accountingArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Nilsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Michael, McCrae
    The explanatory and predictive power of different specificatons of the Ohlson valuation models2001Inngår i: European Accounting Review, ISSN 0963-8180, Vol. 10, nr 2, 315-341 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Nilsson, Kerstin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Nilsson, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Småföretag i flerpartssamverkan: en studie av aktörer, byggstenar och fogmassa vid nätverksbyggande1992Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The environment for business enterprises and other organizations is changing rapidly and profoundly. These changes generate threats as well as possibilities. The threats are especially pronounced for small enterprises since they lack the large firm's resources to stand up to increasing international competition. One way for small enterprises to deal with this situation is to co-operate with other small enterprises. By pooling resources they may be able to maintain their positions and even move forward. An Multibusiness Co-operation System, MCS, includes many autonomous enterprises and is characterized by voluntary, long-term agreements, flexibility and commitment to a joint goal.

    The purpose of this dissertation is to answer the questions of why an MCS is established, what it should be based on, how to keep it together and who should establish the MCS.

    To answer these questions we have used a research strategy which can be described as multi-methodological. While starting out with an inductive approach, the theory thus generated has allowed an element of deduction at later stages.

    The inductive approach was used in an Experience study and in an In-Depth study. The Experience study showed that it was possible to identify promoting and obstructing factors for forming an MCS. The study also pointed out an existing MCS to be worthy an in-depth study.

    This MCS had existed for 20 years and consisted of 15 small enterprises within the joinery-industry. After having interviewed all managers including those who had left the MCS, and after analysing our results through interorganizational theories, we were able to generate a theory of Multibusiness Co-operation Systems. This theory can be divided into three different phases showing an MCS's lifecycle and what is important to consider during the three phases with respect to the Environment, what Bricks to use to form an MCS, the Concrete to use to keep the bricks together and, finally, who should be the Master Builder.

    The generated theory has an empirical as well as a theoretical basis but in our opinion it was not yet sufficiently grounded. One way to make it more grounded was to participate in a co-operation process and to learn by acquaintance and, thus, develop the theory.

    At this stage our research strategy has got an element of deduction while implementing the generated theory by action research within two different groups of small enterprises. The implementation was successful in both cases showing that the theory worked and even was developed. These two cases also brought some methodological experiences. We found that the dialogue method was fruitful and that different arenas for developmental work can be used during the three different phases of an MCS's lifecycle.

  • 44.
    Nordling, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    Ohlander, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Företagsekonomi.
    VD-bonus inte bara vid bra resultat2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Debatten kring bonus och andra former av belöningsprogram som svenska företag ger ut till sina verkställande direktörer och andra chefer har på senare tid fått allt större plats i media. Syftet med denna uppsats är att kartlägga hur uppbyggnaden av bonusar ser ut i dagens företag. Vi skall även analysera om det finns samvariation mellan bonusprogram och företagens resultat.

    Uppsatsen bygger på en skrivbordsundersökning där vi studerat nitton företag på Large Cap listan. Då möjligheten att studera samtliga företag på Lage Cap listan är för omfattande, valde vi att hålla oss till finanssektorn. Vi valde att studera företagen under en femårsperiod för att på så vis få en större förståelse om hur det ser ut över tiden.

    Vi har valt att använda oss av teorier som är inriktade på att besvara hur en ledare motiveras av bonus. Initialt har vi beskrivit bakgrunden och olika former av belöningssystem samt varför man använder sig av dessa. Genom att titta på Agentteorin och Stewardshipteorin behandlar vi motivationen hos ledare. Vi använder oss även av Herzbergs arbetsmotivationsteori, förväntansteorin och drivkraftsteorier, för att på så sätt få en större förståelse. Vi för även en diskussion om de etiska och moraliska aspekterna i denna fråga samt omvärldens påverkan och i synnerhet konjunkturens effekt på företagens resultat.

    Efter genomförd kartläggning och analys har vi i uppsatsen kunnat dra slutsatsen att bonus används av de flesta företag. Hos våra studerade företag är det bara fem företag som inte använder sig av bonus. I kartläggningen av bonusens uppbyggnad, kan vi se att de flesta företagen baserar sin bonus på resultatet. På frågan om det finns samvariation mellan bolagens resultat och bonus blir svaret i de flesta fall givet, då bonusen baseras på resultatet finns givetvis också en samvariation dem emellan. Hos de företag som inte använder sig av resultatbaserad bonus har vi sett att bonusen också där har följt resultatutvecklingen väl.

  • 45.
    Nylén, Ulrica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Gott och ont inom affärslivet: utveckling av ett etiskt perspektiv på företags relationer med aktörer1996Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethical issues and problems in business are receiving increasing attention, both in terms of criticism of examples of "bad" behaviour of business actors and in terms of the development of ethical codes of conduct in certain companies, ethical visions for businesses etc. In general, ethical problems seem to be increasingly prevalent in business, but ethics tend to be disre­garded by traditional organisational and managerial theory. This calls for the development of an ethical perspective on business.

    This study adopts a stakeholder approach to the problem, meaning that the empirical focus lies on how business actors deal with the ethical issues that arise in their daily work in relation to various stakeholder groups. Two empirical studies have been conducted: one is a survey study of the attitudes of Swedish managing directors, and the other a case study of the ethical values and behaviour of two companies. These studies resulted in the formulation of concepts which reflect contextually interpreted moral views on the individual and organisational levels, respectively. On the individual level, a distinction was made between humanitarian morality, meaning that ethical problems in business are judged according to what is best for individuals, and organisational morality, where economic and practical concerns for the company are considered. On the organisational level, I found a principled, individually based morality where rule-following, voluntary agreements and personal moral norms were important, and an instrumental, collectively based morality, which meant that company goals dictated the way stakeholder relations and ethical dilemmas were taken care of. Overall, it was possible to make a distinction between two basic ethical criteria business actors use when judging ethical dilemmas: principles versus objectives. The results indicate that the use of principles and moral rules presuppose an intimate and personal handling of stakeholder relations. On the other hand, when business actors acquire a more professional way of managing their activi­ties, stakeholder relationships are handled in accordance with objectives and economic utility, these usually being the same as company goals.

    One of the major contributions of this thesis is the concept of the ethical contract, as a meta­phor for the relationship between a company and any one particular stakeholder with special focus on the informal and implicit aspects of the relationship. The contract is characterised by two opposing forces: the striving for self-interest, which underpins ethical problems, and the development of self-imposed duties, which are necessary if instrumentally based interaction is to be "good". The mutual development of such duties is stimulated by proximity and personal relations.

  • 46.
    Peterson, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Familjeföretag i omvandling: en studie av fusionsförlopp och utvecklingsmönster1985Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study a population of 60 family owned businesses acquired in 1971 are analysed over a period of 15 years. The firms are followed historically for four years before and ten years after the merger.

    The aim is to identify dominating processes and behaviour in different variables during the period 1967-81. This will be done through the following:

    - on an aggregated level, identify and analyse characteristic processes and patterns by the acquired businesses before and after the acquisition

    - on an aggregated level compare the pre- and post-merger performances

    - on an individual business level illustrate, validate and theoretically interpret results and conclusions.

    Primarily this study has not a theoretical but an empirical point of departure. A working paradigm is that the "confrontation" between the firms

    1 "external environment and internal resources" results in dynamics having an impact on the firms. The processes are classified in taxonomies/typologies, in an attempt to answer what has happened. Interpreting the forces behind the development is the attempt to answer why it has happened.

    The empirical data was collected through three different surveys resulting in quantitative and qualitative observations combined in different perspectives in a multimethological approach. The first is economic data (sales, financial ratios etc) gathered from the firms' external account statements. However, several firms were found to have gone bankrupt, closed down etc. This initiated a second, follow-up study, which had a longitudinal "geography of enterprise" approach and was implemented through a telephone inquiry. The third collection is a case-study of five firms from the population carried out by discussions with representatives of the merging companies.

    The merged businesses turned out to be extremes compared to branch characteristics respectively. Refinements of the patterns made it possible to construct a three-dimensional typology showing four principal processes.

    Ten years after the merger there followed five principal spatial and institutional changes. Closures, removals from community and amalgamation with group companies, reduction to production units only, the joining of premises with group companies in the same community and relatively "indépendant" affiliations. One third of the population have been closed down or removed. One half do not exist as "indépendant units". Only one third have escaped larger infringement. Thirty businesses have once more been acquired. Some more than once.

    When comparing the pre- and post-merger performances, a convergence phenomenon was identified. Oscillating and deviating pre-merger trends later converged towards standard variable values and equilibrium, searching for an optimum group course.

    The different changes and restructuring activities conducted after the acquisitions, can be summarized in three principal post-merger processes:

    - liquidation and adjustment of output capacity to market demand.

    - reorientation through new product and market combinations.

    - growth and development through "multiplying by splitting" and emancipation of expansion potential.

  • 47.
    Sandström, Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Organizational approaches to greening: technocentrism and beyond2002Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    How and why do organizations approach greening? How can we conceptualize approaches and how can we encourage reflexive dialogues on them? These are the main questions addressed in this qualitative study on organizational greening. The study sets off by discussing matters of research philosophy, arguing that our trust in science ought to be revised and that a more postmodern and constructionist philosophy might be a way to go. This is then followed by a theoretical review, showing that organizational studies have a history in environmental issues, but that it is basically technocentric in orientation. A more reflexive organizational approach is suggested. The empirical part of the study is based on qualitative research of five case studies, representing a mix of organizations situated in Sweden, all with an explicit ambition to approach greening. The analyses target the organizations' approaches from practice to assumptions, pointing at the commonalities as well as the tensions. Basically, greening was an issue for all studied organizations, but an increasing pressure to market-orient their operations in line with the business rhetoric dominated their identity construction. The environment was included if there were opportunities of win-win situations between environment and economy in sight. Once embarked upon, the organizations tended to focus on technocratic practices, developing or implementing management systems, product development indexes, life-cycle methodologies and other tools. On a more philosophical level, in the study referred to as the worldview level, the approaches were predominandy characterized by a representative epistemology and a dualistic ontology, that is, they were clearly anthropocentric. With a base in these findings, an alternative approach is discussed as a way out, or as a way of constructing a reflexive dialogue on greening. This is partly based on the tensions within and between the cases, which encouraged reflections on how greening was approached. In the alternative, organizations are seen as actors on a symbolic agora where transparency, participation and self-reflexivity are keys to organizational legitimacy. This view frames organizations in the dominating approach as agoraphobic producers of materialistically dependent satisfiers. The alternative also targets the limits of a preference and materialistically oriented view on die satisfaction of human needs. Instead, it is argued that environmental and cultural sensitivity should be acknowledged as natural parts of organizational greening. This, however, demands more room for reflexive dialogues encouraging ontological awareness and a respect for more ecocentric views.

  • 48.
    Strandberg, Christer
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Glesbygdsbutiker: en studie av tillkomst, köptrohet och socialt samspel1984Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of establishment and development of conveniencestores. The test specimens are two stores established in the northern parts ofSweden during the second half of 1975.The study consists of two parts. In the first part the interest is concentratedon the establishment of the stores and their development during the firstbusiness year. The development afterwards, i.e. up to and included the stores'sixth business year, is taken up in part two.In the first part a model is produced on variables of importance when stores insparsely populated areas are established and developed (chapter 2). Theoreticallythe model is based partly on the marketing mix approach, with theinterest concentrated on the design of marketing mix measures in order to meetthe households' demands, and partly on establishment studies.The empirical studies of the first stage have mainly consisted of personalinterviews with the store owners and their potential customers. Eurther, thestores' potential customers have replied to an inquiry on two occasions. Theplanning and realization of the empirical studies are shown in chapter 4.The results of the first studies are shown in chapters 4-8. In chapter 4 the testareas are presented. The establishment and development of the stores duringtheir first business year are accounted for in chapters 5 and 6. The households'buying behavior, with emphasis on store loyalty and attitudes towards the newstores, is taken up in chapter 7. The results of these studies, which aresummarized in chapter 8, show that the establishment processes of the newstores were in no way unique. An important factor in this connection is the useof local resources. Eurther, the results showed that the two stores differed intheir development of the marketing mix. Here the aim of the activities was ofimportance. There was also a certain connection between the marketing mixpolicy and the households' store loyalty.In the second part the theoretical reference frame is extended to include alsothe social aspects of food supply in sparsely populated areas (chapter 10). Theplanning and realization of the empirical studies, which on the whole agreedwith those of the first stage, are shown in chapter 11. The results of thesestudies show that the development of the stores' marketing mix as well as thehouseholds' store loyalty and attitudes towards the local stores, only hadchanged marginally (chapter 12). The social exchange between sellers andbuyers were of great importance in this connection (chapter 13).In the final chapter (chapter 14) the results are summarized and analyzed. Theimportance of developing the social exchanges between sellers and buyers isstressed here. However, these social exchanges can change over time. In thischapter the importance of continued research in this field, also includingdensely populated areas, is commented on. Einally some alternative perspectiveson food supply in sparsely populated areas are shown.

  • 49.
    Stål, Herman
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Bonnedahl, Karl Johan
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Företagsekonomi.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Micro-level translation of GHG reduction - policy meets industry in the Swedish agriculture sectorManuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Reducing GHG emissions is an urgent challenge for mankind. However, as aggregate emissions continue to rise, necessary changes in industrial practices are lagging behind. The article addresses this discrepancy by exploring how the issue of GHG reduction is channeled from policy to industry, in oneof the more GHG intensive sectors, agriculture. We adopt the translation perspective to outline how the climate issue travels between contexts. Our study explores the activities involved as advisors, functioning as translating agents within Swedish agri-policy, inform producers about the issue of GHG reduction. The study sheds new light on the effectiveness of mitigation policy in promoting practicechange and illustrates how translation is an analytical framework suitable for studying this within different industries.

  • 50.
    Sundin, Elisabeth
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Företagsekonomi.
    Företag i perifera regioner: fallstudier av företagartradition, företagsmiljö och företags framväxt i Norrbottens inland1980Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This is a study of how industries develop in regions that are industrially weak, exemplified by Norrbotten, the northernmost province of Sweden. Developing industries are represented by three companies manufacturing prefabricated wooden houses, situated in the municipalities Övertorneå, Kalix (Morjärv) and Älvsbyn in the interior of Norrbotten.For the period ending in 1918, the economy of Norrbotten is analysed in terms of staple theory. Thereafter, an analysis in dependency theoretic terms is judged to be more relevant. The communities in which the house factories are located are described similarly.Övertorneåand Mor j ärv are in the periphery of a peripheral region. There has never been any locally generated economic life of any importance. The house factory in the community first mentioned was established there in 1970 by AMS (The Swedish Labour Market Board). The other one was started by a local entrepreneur in the 1930's. It has changed hands several times, being incorporated into ever larger conglomerates. The third company studied was started by a local carpenter who still controls it. The factory is located in Älvsbyn, near Piteå, which has to be considered the center of the periphery.The integration of these three companies with other local firms, and their economic importance was studied in terms of their buying behavior. The method of investigation was a study of the internal records of the firms.All three of the companies showed that a decrease in the local and regional shares of their total purchases took place between the sample years studied. A comparison of the companies showed the Älvsby factory, the one locally initiated and controlled, to have by far more solid local and regional foundations than the other two. This could partly be explained by firm-related theories but the most important factor seemed to be the industrial tradition in the communities. Industrial tradition is a factor mostly determined by the position of a community in a dependency hierarchy, in part however, it is controllable by local decision-makers and individual entrepreneurs.Even for the company with the best local foundations, there was a drop in local and regional shares of purchases. The reason for this is the size of the company in relation to other local industries. The company has reached the limits of the capacity of the local community to support it. Such limits exist everywhere but their exact level depends on the status of the community and region they are in, the line of industry, the nature of ownership, etc.A series of implications for regional politics can be derived from the present study. Economic measures designed to improve weak industrial areas should be undertaken with utmost care in order not to damage existing local economy. Much greater efforts should be made to study the conditions of existing economic life and its potential for change, i.e. to study the historical development.

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