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  • 1.
    Adler, John
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Statistical models for estimating career mobility2003Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för naturvetenskapernas och matematikens didaktik.
    Benckert, Sylvia
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
    Wiberg, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Gapet har minskat: skillnader mellan hög- och lågpresterande flickors och pojkars attityder till biologi, fysik och kemi 1995 och 20072011Inngår i: NorDiNa: Nordic Studies in Science Education, ISSN 1504-4556, Vol. 7, nr 1, 3-16 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the change over time of boys’ and girls’ attitudes towards biology, physics and chemistry. We use data from the TIMSS studies for grade 8 in Sweden to investigate how the attitudes for high- and low performing pupils have changed between 1995 and 2007. The attitude is measured by four questions from the student questionnaire in the TIMSS study. The results indicate that there have been some changes in attitudes between 1995 and 2007. High-achieving pupils and especially boys have a more negative attitude towards all three subjects, biology, physics and chemistry, in 2007 compared to 1995. The low-achieving students think that they are performing better in all three subjects 2007 compared to 1995. The difference between the group that are most positive to physics and chemistry and the least positive group has diminished between the two years. The results are discussed in relation to the changes in Swedish schools during the period.

  • 3.
    Alatalo, Marita
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Garvill, Jörgen
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för psykologi.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Zackrisson, Uno
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Utvärdering av kollektivtrafikprojekt1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 4. Alter, George
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Edvinsson, Sören
    Family Effects on Mortality in Nineteenth-century Northern Sweden2002Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 5. Alter, George
    et al.
    Oris, Michel
    Neven, Muriel
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Maternal Depletion and Mortality after the Childbearing Years in Nineteenth-Century East Belgium2002Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 6.
    Andersdotter Persson, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Kalibrering som ett sätt att hantera bortfall: Vilken korrelation krävs mellan hjälp- och responsvariabler?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 7.
    Andersson, Björn
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Consequences of near-unfaithfulness in a finite sample: a simulation study2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 8.
    Appelgren, Jari
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Locally D-optimal Designs for Bivariate Logistic Regression2004Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Generalised Linear Models and Optimal Design1994Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Optimal Design for Inference in Generalized Linear Models1997Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Optimal designs for beta-binomial logistic regression models2003Inngår i: Journal of Applied Statistics, Vol. 30, nr 8, 939-951 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 12.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Optimal Designs for Binomial Sampling Under a Mixture Hypothesis2001Inngår i: Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, 1532-415X, Vol. 30, nr 5, 897-911 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 13.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Visualisering av kvantitativ information: Grafik och regression2007Inngår i: Qvartilen, ISSN 0283-3654, Vol. 22, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 14.
    Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Inflammation, poststroke depression and statins2011Inngår i: International Journal of Stroke, ISSN 1747-4930, Vol. 6, nr 6, 567-568 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 15.
    Asplund, Kjell
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Glader, Eva-Lotta
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälsa och klinisk medicin, Medicin.
    Norrving, Bo
    Eriksson, Marie
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Effects of Extending the Time Window of Thrombolysis to 4.5 Hours: Observations in the Swedish Stroke Register (Riks-Stroke)2011Inngår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 42, nr 9, 2492-2497 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose: The European Cooperative Acute Stroke Study (ECASS) III trial and Safe Implementation of Thrombolysis in Stroke–International Stroke Thrombolysis Register (SITS-ISTR) data were published in 2008. Riks-Stroke, the Swedish Stroke Register, was used to explore how thrombolysis in the 3- to 4.5-hour window has been spread in different hospitals and patient groups and what effects this has had on treatment within 3 hours.

    Methods: All 76 hospitals in Sweden admitting patients with acute stroke participate in Riks-Stroke. During the study period, January 2003 to June 2010, 92 150 18- to 80-year-old patients were hospitalized for acute ischemic stroke.

    Results: After the publication of the ECASS III results in the third quarter of 2008, thrombolysis in the 3- to 4.5-hour window increased from 0.5% before publication to 2.1% in 2010. Thrombolysis in the 3- to 4.5-hour window spread somewhat faster in men than women (P=0.04) but at a similar rate in different age groups. The use of thrombolysis within 3 hours after onset of symptoms increased successively from 0.9% in 2003 to 6.6% in late 2008 and then it stabilized at 6%. The median time from arrival to the hospital to start of treatment remained unchanged at 66 to 69 minutes before and after 2008 (P=0.06).

    Conclusions: Since the end of 2008, there has been a rapid nationwide dissemination of thrombolysis in the 3- to 4.5-hour window, whereas rates in the <3-hour window have leveled off. The extended time window has not affected door-to-needle time.

  • 16. Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Characterizing the degree of stability of non-linear dynamic models2002Inngår i: Studies in Nonlinear Dynamics and Econometrics, Vol. 6, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 17. Bask, Mikael
    et al.
    de Luna, Xavier
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    EMU and the Stability and Volatility of Foreign Exchange: Some Empirical Evidence2005Inngår i: Chaos, Solitons & Fractals, Vol. 25, 737-750 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 18. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Distinguishing time series models by impulse response-A case study of mortality and population economy1997Inngår i: Historical Methods, ISSN 0161-5440, Vol. 30, 165-171 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Effects of life-course conditions on old-age mortality in southern Sweden, 1829-18942003Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 20. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Effects of Life-Course Events on Old Age Mortality in Southern Sweden 1766-18942002Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 21. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Effects of mothers on children's mortality in older ages, Southern Sweden, 1829-18942004Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 22.
    Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Centre for Economic Demography and Department of Economic History, Lund University.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för befolkningsstudier (CBS).
    Famines and mortality crises in 18th to 19th century southern Sweden2011Inngår i: Genus: Journal of Population Sciences, ISSN 2035-5556, Vol. 67, nr 2, 119-139 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Causality is an important but complicated issue, not only within social sciences in general but also within economic and historical demography. Here we are dealing with two different, but related, problems of causality. The first is to what extent the impact of food prices on mortality is biased when selecting on years with mortality crises. The second concerns the problem of mixing factors that directly and indirectly have an impact on mortality. Dealing with the first problem, we compare the effects of food prices on child and adult mortality when selecting on mortality crises with a standard approach without selection. When dealing with the second problem we use the additive hazards model, in combination with dynamic path analysis, which allows for investigating the mediating effect of intermediate covariates in a causal framework. We use individual level data from the Scanian Economic Demographic Database for five rural parishes for the period 1766 to 1865. Data on food prices refers to the local area of these parishes. The statistical analyses are performed in the R statistical computing environment, especially with the aid of the package eha. The main findings are that selecting on mortality crises created a large bias in the direction of overestimating the impact of food prices and that that the direct effects of food prices are dominating.

  • 23. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    How conditions in early-life and social mobility influence mortality in later life: Southern Sweden, 1829-18942003Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 24. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Mortality crises in rural southern Sweden 1766-18602009Inngår i: Demographic Responses to Economic and Environmental Crises / [ed] Satomi Kurosu, Tommy Bengtsson, and Cameron Campbell, Kashiwa, Japan: IUSSP , 2009, 1-16 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 25. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Old-age mortality in a life-course perspective, southern Sweden , 1829-18942006Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26. Bengtsson, Tommy
    et al.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Lindström, Martin
    Effects of Conditions in Early-Life on Old Age Mortality in Southern Sweden 1766-1894: Functional Form and Frailty2002Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Berhan, Yonas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Waernbaum, Ingeborg
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Lind, Torbjörn
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Möllsten, Anna
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Dahlqvist, Gisela
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Pediatrik.
    Thirty years of prospective nationwide incidence of childhood type 1 diabetes: the accelerating increase by time tends to level off in Sweden.2011Inngår i: Diabetes, ISSN 0012-1797, E-ISSN 1939-327X, Vol. 60, nr 2, 577-81 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Childhood T1D increased dramatically and shifted to a younger age at onset the first 22 years of the study period. We report a reversed trend, starting in 2000, indicating a change in nongenetic risk factors affecting specifically young children.

  • 28.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    An overview of mixed effects models in forestryManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 29.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Statistical modeling and design in forestry: The case of single tree models2008Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Forest quantification methods have evolved from a simple graphical approach to complex regression models with stochastic structural components. Currently, mixed effects models methodology is receiving attention in the forestry literature. However, the review work (Paper I) indicates a tendency to overlook appropriate covariance structures in the NLME modeling process.

    A nonlinear mixed effects modeling process is demonstrated in Paper II using Cupressus lustanica tree merchantable volume data and compared several models with and without covariance structures. For simplicity and clarity of the nonlinear mixed effects modeling, four phases of modeling were introduced. The nonlinear mixed effects model for C. lustanica tree merchantable volume with the covariance structures for both the random effects and within group errors has shown a significant improvement over the model with simplified covariance matrix. However, this statistical significance has little to explain in the prediction performance of the model.

    In Paper III, using several performance indicator statistics, tree taper models were compared in an effort to propose the best model for the forest management and planning purpose of the C. lustanica plantations. Kozak's (1988) tree taper model was found to be the best for estimating C. lustanica taper profile.

    Based on the Kozak (1988) tree taper model, a Ds optimal experimental design study is carried out in Paper IV. In this study, a Ds-optimal (sub) replication free design is suggested for the Kozak (1988) tree taper model.

  • 30.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    et al.
    Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hawassa University, Awassa, Ethiopia.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Ds-optimal designs for Kozak's tree taper model2011Inngår i: Journal of Applied Statistics, ISSN 0266-4763, E-ISSN 1360-0532, Vol. 38, nr 5, 1087-1102 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we study Ds-optimal design for Kozak's tree taper model. The approximate Ds-optimal designs are found invariant to tree size and hence create a ground to construct a general replication-free Ds-optimal design. Even though the designs are found not to be dependent on the parameter value p of the Kozak's model, they are sensitive to the stimes1 subset parameter vector values of the model. The 12 points replication-free design (with 91% efficiency) suggested in this study is believed to reduce cost and time for data collection and more importantly to precisely estimate the subset parameters of interest.

  • 31.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Mixed effects models in Forestry: Modeling covariance structuresManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 32.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Tree taper models for Cupressus lusitanica plantations in Ethiopia2008Inngår i: Southern Forests: a Journal of Forest Science, Vol. 70, nr 3, 193-203 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Berhe, Leakemariam
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Arnoldsson, Göran
    Tree taper models for Cupressus lusitanica plantations in EthiopiaManuskript (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 34.
    Björnham, Åke
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Wiklund, Dan-Erik
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Analysis of Fetal Heart Rate Variability During Labour: Registration, Estimation, and Decision1976Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 35.
    Blomqvist, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Lanhede, Jenny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Inget fel vid prediktering av el?: Prognostisering av elförbrukning hos elanvändare i Katrineholm och Linköping2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 36.
    Boberg, Lina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Fertilitet och mortalitet i 1700- och 1800-talets Skellefteå: En modelleringsstudie2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 37.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    A fixed effects approach to GLMs with clustered data2006Konferansepaper (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 38.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    A martingale approach to the change-point problem1997Inngår i: Journal of the American Statistical Association, ISSN 0162-1459, Vol. 92, 1177-1183 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    A modification of Fisher's omnibus test1998Inngår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, Vol. 27, 2663-2674 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Contributions to subset selection theory1979Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 41.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Cox regression, Ties without tears2002Inngår i: Communications in Statistics: Theory and Methods, Vol. 31, 285-297 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Event history analysis and historical demography1991Inngår i: Health and Social Change / [ed] A. Brändström and L.-G. Tedebrand, 1991, 15-22 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 43.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Generalized linear models with clustered data2005Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 44.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Generalized linear models with random intercepts2003Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 45.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Longevity and the aging Swedish population2008Inngår i: Population Association of America: 2008 Annual Meeting, New Orleans, USA, April 17-19, 2008, 4- s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper is focusing, first, on the very concept of aging, what does it mean for a population, and what does it mean to an individual. Second, on the individual level, is longevity clustered within certain families (family trees)?

  • 46.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    On optimal choice of components for parallel systems1981Inngår i: Journal of the American Statistical Association, ISSN 0162-1459, Vol. 76, 486-490 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    On sequentially rejective subset selection procedures1981Inngår i: Communications in Statistics - Theory and Methods, ISSN 0361-0926, Vol. A10, nr 3, 203-221 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 48.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    Practical aspects on the estimation of the parameters in Coale's model for marital fertility1985Inngår i: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, Vol. 22, 625-631 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 49.
    Broström, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Statistik.
    The influence of mother's mortality on infant mortality, A case study in matched data survival analysis1987Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Statistics, ISSN 0303-6898, Vol. 14, 113-123 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 50.
    Broström, Göran
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Statistiska institutionen.
    Bengtsson, Tommy
    Department of Economic History, Lund University.
    Do conditions in early life affect old-age mortality directly and indirectly?: Evidence from 19th-century rural Sweden2009Inngår i: Social Science and Medicine, ISSN 0277-9536, E-ISSN 1873-5347, Vol. 68, nr 9, 1583-1590 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that the disease load experienced during the birth year, measured as the infant mortality rate, had a significant influence on old-age mortality in nineteenth-century rural Sweden. We know that children born in years with very high rates of infant mortality, due to outbreaks of smallpox or whooping cough, and who still survived to adulthood and married, faced a life length several years shorter than others. We do not know, however, whether this is a direct effect, caused by permanent physical damage leading to fatal outcomes later in life, or an indirect effect, via its influence on accumulation of wealth and obtained socio-economic status. The Scanian Demographic Database, with information on five rural parishes in southern Sweden between 1813 and 1894, contains the data needed to distinguish between the two mechanisms. First, the effects of conditions in childhood on obtained socio-economic status as an adult are analyzed, then the effects of both early-life conditions and socio-economic status at various stages of life on old-age mortality. By including random effects, we take into account possible dependencies in the data due to kinship and marriage. We find that a high disease load during the first year of life had a strong negative impact on a person's ability to acquire wealth, never before shown for a historical setting. This means that it is indeed possible that the effects of disease load in the first year of life indirectly affect mortality in old age through obtained socio-economic status. We find, however, no effects of obtained socio-economic status on old-age mortality. While the result is interesting per se, constituting a debatable issue, it means that the argument that early-life conditions indirectly affect old-age mortality is not supported. Instead, we find support for the conclusion that the effect of the disease load in early-life is direct or, in other words, that physiological damage from severe infections at the start of life leads to higher mortality at older ages. Taking random effects at family level into account did not alter this conclusion.

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