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• 1. Aaghabali, M.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Upper bounds on the number of perfect matchings and directed 2-factors in graphs with given number of vertices and edges2015Inngår i: European journal of combinatorics (Print), ISSN 0195-6698, E-ISSN 1095-9971, Vol. 45, 132-144 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We give an upper bound on the number of perfect matchings in simple graphs with a given number of vertices and edges. We apply this result to give an upper bound on the number of 2-factors in a directed complete bipartite balanced graph on 2n vertices. The upper bound is sharp for even n. For odd n we state a conjecture on a sharp upper bound.

• 2.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen Designhögskolan.
En intuitiv & lättillgänglig flyktmask för gruvmiljö2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave

I have always lived around mines and around people work­ing with mines. They are a natural part of my life and, inev­itably, a great interest of mine. When time came to make a decision for a degree project, focusing on the mine context felt as natural as breathing.

In LKABs underground mines, safety in fire accidents is a great priority. Of outmost importance for the escape is to have a personal gas filter for filtration of smoke and/or gas. My design project resulted in a concept which is aimed at shortening the user journey from the start of the accident until the user has applied the personal safety solution and is ready to escape.

Throughout the project I’ve been working with a context which is heavily regulated, and all problems are serious, important ones. I have been striving towards keeping a high level of innovation during the process, whatever the result in the end might be. I’ve been heavily relying on scenarios/workflows, product testing, observation, and I’ve had the great joy to be able to take part of LKABs accident reports.

The concept can be divided into three parts, but it is the way these collaborate that makes out the main part of the concept.

1: An escape station, providing a standardized placement of escape hoods.

2: A container for the vacuum sealed escape hood.

3: An escape hood which enables a personalized fit for the user.

Interactive surfaces are color coded with the goal to provide an intuitive workflow. When the container is opened, the vacuum seal is immediately broken and the user gains access to two handles, one white and one red. The handles are used to lift and apply the escape hood, and the red handle is then used, by pulling, to tighten the throat fit.

Combined, these solutions help the user applying her escape hood in shorter time, and a large head size, glasses, beard and a thick neck are no longer problematic for the applica­tion

Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan2013Inngår i: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 148, nr 2, 528-536 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.

• 4.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Test of Rapid Control System Development using TargetLink2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave

The aim of this thesis is to employ and evaluate an evaluation board with the standard microprocessor freescale MPC5554EVB board for implementation of control algorithms which are created in Matlab/Simulink instead of using dSPACE prototyping hardware. The Simulink real-time model shall be compiled to the MPC5554EVB board. TargetLink is a powerful software tool which allows an automatic generation of efficient C code from Simulink and facilitates model-based control design. The goal of this thesis is to learn how to use TargetLink in a control design workflow from model to real code and what are the limitations of a microprocessor platform and to evaluate the capabilities of TargetLink to generate a working code for a generic microprocessor.

• 5.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Arkitekthögskolan vid Umeå universitet.
Open Music2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
• 6. Abbott, Benjamin W.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016Inngår i: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, nr 3, 034014Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

• 7.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of high-temperature H2O in a flame2014Inngår i: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, nr 11, 13889-13895 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We demonstrate near-infrared cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of water in a premixed methane/air flat flame. The detection system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser, a high finesse optical cavity containing the flame, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). High absorption sensitivity is obtained by the combination of a high-bandwidth two-point comb-cavity lock and auto-balanced detection in the FTS. The system allows recording high-temperature water absorption spectra with a resolution of 1 GHz and a bandwidth of 50 nm in an acquisition time of 0.4 s, with absorption sensitivity of 4.2 x 10 (9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) per spectral element.

• 8. Abdelsalam, UM
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany; Nonlinear Physics Centre & Center for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany; Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching, Germany; GoLP/Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal; CCLRC Centre for Fundamental Physics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon 0X11 0QX, UK; SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G 40NG, UK; School of Physics, Faculty of Science & Agriculture, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa; Department of Physics, CITT, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense pair-ion plasma containing degenerate electrons and positrons2008Inngår i: Physics Letters A, ISSN 0375-9601, E-ISSN 1873-2429, Vol. 372, nr 22, 4057-4061 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Fully nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless dense/quantum electron-positron-ion plasma is investigated. The electrons and positrons are assumed to follow the Thomas-Fermi density distribution and the ions are described by the hydrodynamic equations. An energy balance-like equation involving a Sagdeev-type pseudo-potential is derived. Finite amplitude solutions are obtained numerically and their characteristics are discussed. The small-but finite-amplitude limit is also considered and an exact analytical solution is obtained. The present studies might be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a degenerate plasma such as in superdense white dwarfs.

• 9. Abdelsalam, UM
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany; Nonlinear Physics Centre & Center for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany; Max-Planck-Institut für Extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching, Germany; GoLP/Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal; CCLRC Centre for Fundamental Physics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon 0X11 0QX, UK; SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G 40NG, UK; School of Physics, Faculty of Science & Agriculture, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa; Department of Physics, CITT, Islamabad, Pakistan.
Localized electrostatic excitations in a Thomas-Fermi plasma containing degenerate electrons2008Inngår i: Physics of Plasmas, ISSN 1070-664X, E-ISSN 1089-7674, Vol. 15, nr 5, 052303Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

By using the Thomas-Fermi electron density distribution for quantum degenerate electrons, the hydrodynamic equations for ions, and the Poisson equation, planar and nonplanar ion-acoustic solitary waves in an unmagnetized collisionless plasma are investigated. The reductive perturbation method is used to derive cylindrical and spherical Korteweg-de Vries equations. Numerical solutions of the latter are presented. The present results can be useful in understanding the features of small but finite amplitude localized ion-acoustic solitary pulses in a degenerate plasma.

• 10.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Designhögskolan vid Umeå universitet. Mid Sweden University.
A Design Research Lab—An Integrated Model to Identify Conscious and Unconscious Behavior in the Design Process2016Inngår i: Proceedings of the AHFE 2016 International Conference on Design for Inclusion, July 27-31, 2016, Walt Disney World®, Florida, USA: Advances in Design for Inclusion, Springer International Publishing Switzerland, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

To understand how different design solutions affect users, designers traditionally use different evaluation methods that mainly rely on conscious feedback from the users. However, the complexity of human behaviour, where a large part is unconscious, point to a need for an extended tool box addressing the part not accessible to human conscious knowledge. Here, we describe a design research lab where traditional methods are complemented with tools to measure physiological signals influenced by emotional and sympathetic responses. These tools include galvanic skin response (GSR), electrocardiograph (ECG), and electroencephalograph (EEG). Typical sessions with acquired data of conscious and unconscious user reactions are described. The large body of data collected, which also require non-design expertise for interpretation, suggest that a further development towards simplified output data of the unconscious reactions is needed to allow wider use within industrial design work.

• 11.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Development of breath sampling system for detection of exhaled nitric oxide by Faraday modulation spectroscopy2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave

Technological developments over the years have resulted in many different techniques for detection of nitric oxide (NO) in both the atmosphere and from biological sources. One such technique is Faraday Modulation Spectroscopy (FAMOS), which is a laser-based spectroscopic technique for detection of paramagnetic molecules in gas phase. The technique uses a modulated magnetic field that introduce rotation of the polarization plane of linearly polarized laser light, which can be related to the concentration of the molecules. This enables sensitive and selective detection of paramagnetic gaseous compounds and the technique is thus well suited for detection of NO for biomedical applications in low concentrations which is essential for breath analysis.

In this thesis, a system for breath analysis is developed and coupled to a Faraday modulation spectrometer for sensitive detection of NO at 5.33 μm based on a room temperature continuous wave distributed feedback (DFB) QCL. It also provides a theoretical model of FAMOS utilizing the most sensitive Q3/2 (3/2 ) transition in NO. The results from this study indicate that the mid-infrared FAMOS system, which was built around a continuous wave (cw) quantum cascade laser (QCL) emitting light with an output power of approximately 70 mW, is fully capable of detection of ppb levels of NO in exhaled human breath.

• 12.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Realization of an instrumentation for detection of acetylene in breath by the NICE-OHMS technique2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave

Measurement is an important activity in nearly all branches of science and technology. A measurement technique provides an observer with a numerical value corresponding to the variable being measured. Researchers envision that laser spectroscopy will serve as a functional tool for measurement to detect molecules in gas phase. One such a laser spectroscopic technique for measurement is noise-immune cavity enhanced optical heterodyne molecular spectroscopy (NICE-OHMS), which is a highly sensitive laser-based spectroscopic technique for detection of molecules in gas phase. The technique was developed in the mid-1990s at the Joint Institute for Laboratory Astrophysics (JILA).

In this thesis, a realization of instrumentation for detection of acetylene in breath by a fiber laser-based NICE-OHMS instrumentation working in the near-infrared wavelength region is obtained. The results of this study show that the NICE-OHMS system is fully capable of detection of parts-per-billion (ppb) levels of acetylene in exhaled human breath.

• 13.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Optimering av kortaste vägen vid hantering och avledning av skadligt dagvatten: Lösning med A-stjärna algoritm samt en guide med ekonomiska styrmedel för beslutsfattande aktörer2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave

Jordens befolkning växer och allt fler flyttar in till urbana områden. Detta medför att städer växer, nya byggnader tillkommer och infrastrukturer expanderar. Denna snabba tillväxtfas står i direkt anslutning till ökade översvämningar till följd av de förändringar som görs i naturen.

De redan överbelastade dagvattensystemen har i många fall svårt att hantera de befintliga kraven. Till följd av detta uppstår översvämningar vid större regnintensitet och utgör stora omkostnader för samhället. Dagvattenhanteringen brister då det inom kommunens organisationer är otydliga ansvarsfördelningar. För att kunna planera för hållbara städer även i framtiden är det viktigt att hitta en genomförbar lösning gällande både ansvarsfördelningen samt hur dagvattnet ska hanteras på bästa sätt för att uppnå kostnadsfördelar.

I denna studie tas det fram en guide för kommunen över hur ansvaret bör fördelas mellan kommun och exploatör i dagvattenfrågan. Guiden bygger på simuleringar och teorier inom optimeringslära för att kunna föreslå rimliga lösningar. Genom dessa simuleringar av dagvattensystemet har mängden vatten som inte ryms i dagvattensystemet kvantifierats. Vidare för att hitta en rimlig alternativ avrinningsväg för det överflödiga dagvattnet har olika algoritmer för kortaste vägen problemet undersökts.

Resultaten visar att en klassisk algoritm med en heuristisk funktion som appliceras på kortaste vägen problemet inte kan identifiera den mest lämpliga avrinningsvägen. Detta då den heuristiska funktionen i algoritmen förhindrar att en naturligare avrinningsväg uppströms väljs även om denna skulle ge en mer optimal lösning.

• 14. Abdoullaye, Doukary
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
Permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 August 2009 - 30 September 20092010Inngår i: Molecular Ecology Resources, ISSN 1755-098X, Vol. 10, nr 1, 232-236 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

• 15. Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
Bisimulation minimization of tree automata2007Inngår i: International Journal of Foundations of Computer Science, ISSN 0129-0541, Vol. 18, nr 4, 699-713 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We extend an algorithm by Paige and Tarjan that solves the coarsest stable refinement problem to the domain of trees. The algorithm is used to minimize nondeterministic tree automata (NTA) with respect to bisimulation. We show that our algorithm has an overall complexity of $O(\hat{r} m \log n)$, where $\hat{r}$ is the maximum rank of any symbol in the input alphabet, m is the total size of the transition table, and n is the number of states.

• 16. Abdulla, Parosh Aziz
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
Bisimulation minimization of tree automata2006Inngår i: Implementation and Application of Automata : 11th International Conference, CIAA 2006, 2006, 699-713 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

We extend an algorithm by Paige and Tarjan that solves the coarsest stable refinement problem to the domain of trees. The algorithm is used to minimize nondeterministic tree automata (NTA) with respect to bisimulation. We show that our algorithm has an overall complexity of O ((r) over cap log n), where (r) over cap is the maximum rank of any symbol in the input alphabet, m is the total size of the transition table, and n is the number of states.

Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Quantum Chemical Designing of Efficient Sensitizers for Dye Sensitized Solar Cells2013Inngår i: Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society (Print), ISSN 0253-2964, E-ISSN 1229-5949, Vol. 34, nr 7, 2093-2098 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Density functional theory (DFT) was used to determine the ground state geometries of indigo and new design dyes (IM-Dye-1 IM-Dye-2 and IM-Dye-3). The time dependant density functional theory (TDDFT) was used to calculate the excitation energies. All the calculations were performed in both gas and solvent phase. The LUMO energies of all the dyes were above the conduction band of TiO2, while the HOMOs were below the redox couple (except IM-Dye-3). The HOMO-LUMO energy gaps of new design dyes were smaller as compared to indigo. All new design dyes were strongly red shifted as compared to indigo. The improved light harvesting efficiency (LHE) and free energy change of electron injection Delta G(inject) of new designed sensitizers revealed that these materials would be excellent sensitizers. The broken coplanarity between the benzene near anchoring group having LUMO and the last benzene attached to TPA unit in all new design dyes consequently would hamper the recombination reaction. This theoretical designing will the pave way for experimentalists to synthesize the efficient sensitizers for solar cells.

• 18.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
Sjuksköterskors bidrag till farmakovigilans arbete i Sverige En retrospektiv analys av alla sjuksköterskors biverkningsrapporter år 2015: En retrospektiv analys av alla sjuksköterskors biverkningsrapporter år 20152016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
• 19.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
Läkemedel mot Bcl-2 överuttryckande resistenta Prostatatumörer: Läkemedel mot Bcl-2 överuttryckande resistenta Prostatatumörer2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
• 20.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Bring Your Body into Action: Body Gesture Detection, Tracking, and Analysis for Natural Interaction2014Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)

Due to the large influx of computers in our daily lives, human-computer interaction has become crucially important. For a long time, focusing on what users need has been critical for designing interaction methods. However, new perspective tends to extend this attitude to encompass how human desires, interests, and ambitions can be met and supported. This implies that the way we interact with computers should be revisited. Centralizing human values rather than user needs is of the utmost importance for providing new interaction techniques. These values drive our decisions and actions, and are essential to what makes us human. This motivated us to introduce new interaction methods that will support human values, particularly human well-being.

The aim of this thesis is to design new interaction methods that will empower human to have a healthy, intuitive, and pleasurable interaction with tomorrow’s digital world. In order to achieve this aim, this research is concerned with developing theories and techniques for exploring interaction methods beyond keyboard and mouse, utilizing human body. Therefore, this thesis addresses a very fundamental problem, human motion analysis.

Technical contributions of this thesis introduce computer vision-based, marker-less systems to estimate and analyze body motion. The main focus of this research work is on head and hand motion analysis due to the fact that they are the most frequently used body parts for interacting with computers. This thesis gives an insight into the technical challenges and provides new perspectives and robust techniques for solving the problem.

• 21.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Human Motion Analysis for Creating Immersive Experiences2012Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)

From an early age, people display the ability to quickly and effortlessly interpret the orientation and movement of human body parts, thereby allowing one to infer the intentions of others who are nearby and to comprehend an important nonverbal form of communication. The ease with which one accomplishes this task belies the difficulty of a problem that has challenged computational systems for decades, human motion analysis.

Technological developments over years have resulted into many systems for measuring body segment positions and angles between segments. In these systems human body is typically considered as a system of rigid links connected by joints. The motion is estimated by the use of measurements from mechanical, optical, magnetic, or inertial trackers. Among all kinds of sensors, optical sensing encompasses a large and varying collection of technologies.

In a computer vision context, human motion analysis is a topic that studies methods and applications in which two or more consecutive images from an image sequences, e.g. captured by a video camera, are processed to produce information based on the apparent human body motion in the images.

Many different disciplines employ motion analysis systems to capture movement and posture of human body for applications such as medical diagnostics, virtual reality, human-computer interaction etc.

This thesis gives an insight into the state of the art human motion analysissystems, and provides new methods for capturing human motion.

• 22.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
3D Active Human Motion Estimation for Biomedical Applications2012Inngår i: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering May 26-31, 2012, Beijing, China / [ed] Mian Long, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, , 4 s.1014-1017 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Movement disorders forbid many people from enjoying their daily lives. As with other diseases, diagnosis and analysis are key issues in treating such disorders. Computer vision-based motion capture systems are helpful tools for accomplishing this task. However Classical motion tracking systems suffer from several limitations. First they are not cost effective. Second these systems cannot detect minute motions accurately. Finally they are spatially limited to the lab environment where the system is installed. In this project, we propose an innovative solution to solve the above-mentioned issues. Mounting the camera on human body, we build a convenient, low cost motion capture system that can be used by the patient while practicing daily-life activities. We refer to this system as active motion capture, which is not confined to the lab environment. Real-time experiments in our lab revealed the robustness and accuracy of the system.

• 23.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. KTH Royal Institue of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design, School of Computer Science and Communication.
Telelife: An Immersive Media Experience for Rehabilitation2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 24.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Smart Baggage in Aviation2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE International Conferences on Internet of Things, and Cyber, Physical and Social Computing / [ed] Feng Xia, Zhikui Chen, Gang Pan, Laurence T. Yang, and Jianhua Ma, Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2011, 620-623 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Nowadays, the Internet has dramatically changed the way people take the normal course of actions. By the recent growth of the Internet, connecting different objects to users through mobile phones and computers is no longer a dream. Aviation industry is one of the areas which have a strong potential to benefit from the Internet of Things. Among many problems related to air travel, delayed and lost luggage are the most common and irritating. Therefore, this paper suggests anew baggage control system, where users can simply track their baggage at the airport to avoid losing them. Attaching a particular pattern on the bag, which can be detected and localized from long distance by an ordinary camera, users are able to track their baggage. The proposed system is much cheaper than previous implementations and does not require sophisticated equipment.

• 25.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design.
Direct hand pose estimation for immersive gestural interaction2015Inngår i: Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655, E-ISSN 1872-7344, Vol. 66, 91-99 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

This paper presents a novel approach for performing intuitive gesture based interaction using depth data acquired by Kinect. The main challenge to enable immersive gestural interaction is dynamic gesture recognition. This problem can be formulated as a combination of two tasks; gesture recognition and gesture pose estimation. Incorporation of fast and robust pose estimation method would lessen the burden to a great extent. In this paper we propose a direct method for real-time hand pose estimation. Based on the range images, a new version of optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be utilized to directly estimate 3D hand motion without any need of imposing other constraints. Extensive experiments illustrate that the proposed approach performs properly in real-time with high accuracy. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the system performance in 3D object manipulation On two different setups; desktop computing, and mobile platform. This reveals the system capability to accommodate different interaction procedures. In addition, a user study is conducted to evaluate learnability, user experience and interaction quality in 3D gestural interaction in comparison to 2D touchscreen interaction.

• 26.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Direct three-dimensional head pose estimation from Kinect-type sensors2014Inngår i: Electronics Letters, ISSN 0013-5194, E-ISSN 1350-911X, Vol. 50, nr 4, 268-270 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

A direct method for recovering three-dimensional (3D) head motion parameters from a sequence of range images acquired by Kinect sensors is presented. Based on the range images, a new version of the optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be used to directly estimate 3D motion parameters without any need of imposing other constraints. Since all calculations with the new constraint equation are based on the range images, Z(xyt), the existing techniques and experiences developed and accumulated on the topic of motion from optical flow can be directly applied simply by treating the range images as normal intensity images I(xyt). In this reported work, it is demonstrated how to employ the new optical flow constraint equation to recover the 3D motion of a moving head from the sequences of range images, and furthermore, how to use an old trick to handle the case when the optical flow is large. It is shown, in the end, that the performance of the proposed approach is comparable with that of some of the state-of-the-art approaches that use range data to recover 3D motion parameters.

• 27.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Gesture Tracking for 3D Interaction in Augmented Environments2011Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
• 28.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Real 3D Interaction Behind Mobile Phones for Augmented Environments2011Inngår i: 2011 IEEE International Conference on Multimedia and Expo (ICME), IEEE conference proceedings, 2011, 1-6 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Number of mobile devices such as mobile phones or PDAs has been dramatically increased over the recent years. New mobile devices are equipped with integrated cameras and large displays which make the interaction with device easier and more efficient. Although most of the previous works on interaction between humans and mobile devices are based on 2D touch-screen displays, camera-based interaction opens a new way to manipulate in 3D space behind the device in the camera's field of view. This paper suggests the use of particular patterns from local orientation of the image called Rotational Symmetries to detect and localize human gesture. Relative rotation and translation of human gesture between consecutive frames are estimated by means of extracting stable features. Consequently, this information can be used to facilitate the 3D manipulation of virtual objects in various applications in mobile devices.

• 29.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
3D Head Pose Estimation Using the Kinect2011Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Head pose estimation plays an essential role for bridging the information gap between humans and computers. Conventional head pose estimation methods are mostly done in images captured by cameras. However accurate and robust pose estimation is often problematic. In this paper we present an algorithm for recovering the six degrees of freedom (DOF) of motion of a head from a sequence of range images taken by the Microsoft Kinectfor Xbox 360. The proposed algorithm utilizes a least-squares minimization of the difference between themeasured rate of change of depth at a point and the rate predicted by the depth rate constraint equation. We segment the human head from its surroundings and background, and then we estimate the head motion. Our system has the capability to recover the six DOF of the head motion of multiple people in one image. Theproposed system is evaluated in our lab and presents superior results.

• 30.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Active human gesture capture for diagnosing and treating movement disorders2013Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)

Movement disorders prevent many people fromenjoying their daily lives. As with other diseases, diagnosisand analysis are key issues in treating such disorders.Computer vision-based motion capture systems are helpfultools for accomplishing this task. However Classical motiontracking systems suffer from several limitations. First theyare not cost effective. Second these systems cannot detectminute motions accurately. Finally they are spatially limitedto the lab environment where the system is installed. In thisproject, we propose an innovative solution to solve the abovementionedissues. Mounting the camera on human body, webuild a convenient, low cost motion capture system that canbe used by the patient in daily-life activities. We refer tothis system as active motion capture, which is not confinedto the lab environment. Real-time experiments in our labrevealed the robustness and accuracy of the system.

• 31.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Media Technology and Interaction Design.
Head operated electric wheelchair2014Inngår i: IEEE Southwest Symposium on Image Analysis and Interpretation (SSIAI 2014), IEEE , 2014, 53-56 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

Currently, the most common way to control an electric wheelchair is to use joystick. However, there are some individuals unable to operate joystick-driven electric wheelchairs due to sever physical disabilities, like quadriplegia patients. This paper proposes a novel head pose estimation method to assist such patients. Head motion parameters are employed to control and drive an electric wheelchair. We introduce a direct method for estimating user head motion, based on a sequence of range images captured by Kinect. In this work, we derive new version of the optical flow constraint equation for range images. We show how the new equation can be used to estimate head motion directly. Experimental results reveal that the proposed system works with high accuracy in real-time. We also show simulation results for navigating the electric wheelchair by recovering user head motion.

• 32.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
A Direct Method for 3D Hand Pose Recovery2014Inngår i: 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2014, 345-350 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

This paper presents a novel approach for performing intuitive 3D gesture-based interaction using depth data acquired by Kinect. Unlike current depth-based systems that focus only on classical gesture recognition problem, we also consider 3D gesture pose estimation for creating immersive gestural interaction. In this paper, we formulate gesture-based interaction system as a combination of two separate problems, gesture recognition and gesture pose estimation. We focus on the second problem and propose a direct method for recovering hand motion parameters. Based on the range images, a new version of optical flow constraint equation is derived, which can be utilized to directly estimate 3D hand motion without any need of imposing other constraints. Our experiments illustrate that the proposed approach performs properly in real-time with high accuracy. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate the system performance in 3D object manipulation. This application is intended to explore the system capabilities in real-time biomedical applications. Eventually, system usability test is conducted to evaluate the learnability, user experience and interaction quality in 3D interaction in comparison to 2D touch-screen interaction.

• 33.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
Self-supervised language grounding by active sensing combined with Internet acquired images and text2017Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fourth International Workshop on Recognition and Action for Scene Understanding (REACTS2017) / [ed] Jorge Dias George Azzopardi, Rebeca Marf, Málaga: REACTS , 2017, 71-83 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

For natural and efficient verbal communication between a robot and humans, the robot should be able to learn names and appearances of new objects it encounters. In this paper we present a solution combining active sensing of images with text based and image based search on the Internet. The approach allows the robot to learn both object name and how to recognise similar objects in the future, all self-supervised without human assistance. One part of the solution is a novel iterative method to determine the object name using image classi- fication, acquisition of images from additional viewpoints, and Internet search. In this paper, the algorithmic part of the proposed solution is presented together with evaluations using manually acquired camera images, while Internet data was acquired through direct and reverse image search with Google, Bing, and Yandex. Classification with multi-classSVM and with five different features settings were evaluated. With five object classes, the best performing classifier used a combination of Pyramid of Histogram of Visual Words (PHOW) and Pyramid of Histogram of Oriented Gradient (PHOG) features, and reached a precision of 80% and a recall of 78%.

• 34.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
Autonomous Object Category Learning for Service Robots Using Internet Resources2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave

With the developments in the field of Artificial Intelligence (AI), robots are becoming smarter, more efficient and capable of doing more dififcult tasks than before. Recent progress in Machine Learning has revolutionized the field of AI. Rather than performing pre-programmed tasks, nowadays robots are learning things, and becoming more autonomous along the way. However, in most of the cases, robots need a certain level of human assistance to learn something. To recognize or classify daily objects is a very important skill that a service robot should possess. In this research work, we have implemented a fully autonomous object category learning system for service robots, where the robot uses internet resources to learn object categories. It gets the name of an unknown object by performing reverse image search in the internet search engines, and applying a verification strategy afterwards. Then the robot retrieves a number of images of that object from internet and use those to generate training data for learning classifiers. The implemented system is tested in actual domestic environment. The classification performance is examined against some object categories from a benchmark dataset. The system performed decently with 78:40% average accuracy on ve object categories taken from the benchmark dataset and showed promising results in real domestic scenarios. There are existing research works that deal with object category learning for robots using internet images. But those works use Human-in-the-loop models, where humans assist the robot to get the object name for using it as a search cue to retrieve training images from internet. Our implemented system eliminates the necessity of human assistance by making the task of object name determination automatic. This facilitates the whole process of learning object categories with full autonomy, which is the main contribution of this research.

• 35. Abeli, Thomas
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
Geographical pattern in the response of the arctic-alpine Silene suecica (Cariophyllaceae) to the interaction between water availability and photoperiod2015Inngår i: Ecological research, ISSN 0912-3814, E-ISSN 1440-1703, Vol. 30, nr 2, 327-335 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We hypothesized a geographical pattern of the plant performance (seedling development, biomass production, relative water content and chlorophyll content) as a result of response to the interaction between photoperiod and water availability in populations of the arctic-alpine Silene suecica from different latitudes, thus experiencing different photoperiods during the growing season. Particularly, we expected a lower drought sensitivity in northern compared to southern populations as a consequence of harsher conditions experienced by the northern populations in terms of water availability. The experiment was carried out under common garden conditions, manipulating the water availability (wet and dry) and the photoperiod (21 and 16 h). We found an interaction between photoperiod and water availability on plant height, leaves, growth, biomass and total chlorophyll. However, the photoperiod neither counteracted nor intensified the effect of drought. Plants exposed to drought compensated for decreasing water availability by reducing their shoot growth. Changes in the chlorophyll content and chlorophyll a/b ratio were observed. Northern populations showed a higher basal growth performance and a greater response to the changed water regime (from wet to dry) than the southern populations. Southern populations showed a reduced ability to respond to drought, but their low basal performance may be advantageous under low water availability, avoiding water loss. In contrast, northern populations showed a stronger plastic response that limited the negative effects of reduced water availability. This study highlights the possibility that the plant response to environmental constraints (specifically water availability) may follow a geographical pattern.

• 36.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Implementering av Lean Production på Hedson Technologies AB2014Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave

Denna rapport är avslutningen på min maskiningenjörsutbildning på Umeå universitet. Rapporten är resultatet av arbetet som utförts på Hedson Technologies AB i Malmö. Hedson är marknasledande inom hjultvättar, torkredskap och billyftar. De har två anläggningar i Sverige och en anläggning i Tyskland. Detta arbete begränsas till anläggningen i Arlöv, Malmö.

För att förbli marknadsledande och konkurrenskraftiga har Hedson insett att de behöver ett effektivare produktionsflöde. För att få ett effektivare och ett resurssnålt flöde vänder sig företag till Lean Production. Lean är en filosofi som genomsyrar hela företaget och dess produktionsflöde, från leverans av material till att kunden mottagit varan. Syftet är att påbörja ett arbete inom Lean på företaget. Arbetet ska lägga grunden för en Lean satsning som företaget senare bygger vidare på för att nå en så effektiv produktion som möjligt.

Genom en analys av produktionsflödet och intervjuer med marknads- och produktansvariga har jag skapat mig en helhetsbild om hur företaget fungerar. Denna information har jag sedan använt mig av tillsammans med förstudien för att hitta det optimala tillvägagångssättet för Hedson att starta ett arbete inom Lean.

Tack vare ett gott samarbete med personalen på företaget har ett framgångsrikt resultat tagits fram. Eftersom produktionsanläggningen var väldigt oorganiserad och rörig skulle implementering av 5S metoden vara den bästa starten på en lång och framgångsrik resa igenom Lean Production. Slutligen gjordes en introduktion till Lean och 5S i form av en presentation för att skapa förståelse och medvetenhet på företaget.

Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Structural properties of carbon nanotubes derived from (13)C NMR2011Inngår i: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 84, nr 16, 165417- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We present a detailed experimental and theoretical study on how structural properties of carbon nanotubes can be derived from 13C NMR investigations. Magic angle spinning solid state NMR experiments have been performed on single-and multiwalled carbon nanotubes with diameters in the range from 0.7 to 100 nm and with number of walls from 1 to 90. We provide models on how diameter and the number of nanotube walls influence NMR linewidth and line position. Both models are supported by theoretical calculations. Increasing the diameter D, from the smallest investigated nanotube, which in our study corresponds to the inner nanotube of a double-walled tube to the largest studied diameter, corresponding to large multiwalled nanotubes, leads to a 23.5 ppm diamagnetic shift of the isotropic NMR line position d. We show that the isotropic line follows the relation d = 18.3/D + 102.5 ppm, where D is the diameter of the tube and NMR line position d is relative to tetramethylsilane. The relation asymptotically tends to approach the line position expected in graphene. A characteristic broadening of the line shape is observed with the increasing number of walls. This feature can be rationalized by an isotropic shift distribution originating from different diamagnetic shielding of the encapsulated nanotubes together with a heterogeneity of the samples. Based on our results, NMR is shown to be a nondestructive spectroscopic method that can be used as a complementary method to, for example, transmission electron microscopy to obtain structural information for carbon nanotubes, especially bulk samples.

Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
NMR strategies to study the local magnetic properties of carbon nanotubes2012Inngår i: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, Vol. 407, nr 4, 740-742 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

The local magnetic properties of the one dimensional inner space of the nanotubes are investigated using C-13 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy of encapsulated fullerene molecules inside single walled carbon nanotubes. Isotope engineering and magnetically purified nanotubes have been advantageously used on our study to discriminate between the different diamagnetic and paramagnetic shifts of the resonances. Ring currents originating from the pi electrons circulating on the nanotube, are found to actively screen the applied magnetic field by -36.9 ppm. Defects and holes in the nanotube walls cancel this screening locally. What is interesting, that at high magnetic fields, the modifications of the NMR resonances of the molecules from free to encapsulated can be exploited to determine some structural characteristics of the surrounding nanotubes, never observed experimentally. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

• 39.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Université Montpellier II, France. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Germany. Université Montpellier II, France. Physikalisches Institut, Universität Stuttgart, Germany. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Electronic properties of Cs-intercalated single-walled carbon nanotubes derived from nuclear magnetic resonance2011Inngår i: New Journal of Physics, ISSN 1367-2630, Vol. 13, 053045 (1)-(9) s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

We report on the electronic properties of Cs-intercalated singlewalled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). A detailed analysis of the 13C and133Cs nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra reveals an increased metallization of the pristine SWNTs under Cs intercalation. The ‘metallization’ of CsxC materials where x =0–0.144 is evidenced from the increased local electronic density of states (DOS) n(EF)at the Fermi level of the SWNTs as determined from spin–lattice relaxation measurements. In particular, there are two distinct electronic phases called α and β and the transition between these occurs around x = 0.05. The electronic DOS at the Fermi level increases monotonically at low intercalation levels x <0.05 (α-phase), whereas it reaches a plateau in the range 0.05 < x < 0.143 at high intercalation levels (β-phase). The new β-phase is accompanied by a hybridization of Cs(6s) orbitals with C(sp2)orbitals of the SWNTs. In both phases, two types of metallic nanotubes are found with a low and a high local n(EF), corresponding to different local electronic band structures of the SWNTs.

• 40.
Universite Montpellier II.
University of Pennsylvania. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Fysik. Universite Montpellier II. University of Pennsylvania. University of Basque Country. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Fysik.
Hydrogenation of C-60 in Peapods: Physical Chemistry in Nano Vessels2009Inngår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, Vol. 113, nr 20, 8583-8587 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Hydrogenation of C-60 molecules inside SWNT was achieved by direct reaction with hydrogen gas at elevated pressure and temperature. Evidence for the C-60 hydrogenation in peapods is provided by isotopic engineering with specific enrichment of encapsulated species and high resolution C-13 and H-1 NMR spectroscopy with the observation of characteristic diamagnetic and paramagnetic shifts of the NMR lines and the appearance of sp(3) carbon resonances. We estimate that approximately 78% of the C-60 molecules inside SWNTs are hydrogenated to an average degree of 14 hydrogen atoms per C-60 molecule. As a consequence, the rotational dynamics of the encapsulated C60Hx molecules is clearly hindered. Our successful hydrogenation experiments open completely new roads to understand and control confined chemical reactions at the nano scale

• 41.
Universite Montpellier 2, France.
University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik. University of California at Berkeley, and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. University of California at Berkeley, and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. University of California at Berkeley, and Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory. Universidad del Pas Vasco UPV/EHU. University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia. CNRS Universit Montpellier 2.
Molecular dynamics and phase transition in one-dimensional crystal of C60 encapsulated inside single wall carbon nanotubes2009Inngår i: ACS Nano, ISSN 1936-0851, Vol. 3, nr 12, 3878-3883 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

One-dimensional crystals of 25% 13C-enriched C60 encapsulated inside highly magnetically purified SWNTs were investigated by following the temperature dependence of the 13C NMR line shapes and the relaxation rates from 300 K down to 5 K. High-resolution MAS techniques reveal that 32% of the encapsulated molecules, so-called the C60α, are blocked at room temperature and 68%, labeled C60β, are shown to reversly undergo molecular reorientational dynamics. Contrary to previous NMR studies, spin−lattice relaxation time reveals a phase transition at 100 K associated with the changes in the nature of the C60β dynamics. Above the transition, the C60β exhibits continuous rotational diffusion; below the transition, C60β executes uniaxial hindered rotations most likely along the nanotubes axis and freeze out below 25 K. The associated activation energies of these two dynamical regimes are measured to be 6 times lower than in fcc-C60, suggesting a quiet smooth orientational dependence of the interaction between C60β molecules and the inner surface of the nanotubes.

• 42. Abraham, Edit
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC). Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysiologisk botanik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
Immunodetection of retinoblastoma-related protein and its phosphorylated form in interphase and mitotic alfalfa cells2011Inngår i: Journal of Experimental Botany, ISSN 0022-0957, E-ISSN 1460-2431, Vol. 62, nr 6, 2155-2168 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)

Plant retinoblastoma-related (RBR) proteins are primarily considered as key regulators of G(1)/S phase transition, with functional roles in a variety of cellular events during plant growth and organ development. Polyclonal antibody against the C-terminal region of the Arabidopsis RBR1 protein also specifically recognizes the alfalfa 115 kDa MsRBR protein, as shown by the antigen competition assay. The MsRBR protein was detected in all cell cycle phases, with a moderate increase in samples representing G(2)/M cells. Antibody against the human phospho-pRb peptide (Ser807/811) cross-reacted with the same 115 kDa MsRBR protein and with the in vitro phosphorylated MsRBR protein C-terminal fragment. Phospho-MsRBR protein was low in G(1) cells. Its amount increased upon entry into the S phase and remained high during the G(2)/M phases. Roscovitine treatment abolished the activity of alfalfa MsCDKA1;1 and MsCDKB2;1, and the phospho-MsRBR protein level was significantly decreased in the treated cells. Colchicine block increased the detected levels of both forms of MsRBR protein. Reduced levels of the MsRBR protein in cells at stationary phase or grown in hormone-free medium can be a sign of the division-dependent presence of plant RBR proteins. Immunolocalization of the phospho-MsRBR protein indicated spots of variable number and size in the labelled interphase nuclei and high signal intensity of nuclear granules in prophase. Structures similar to phospho-MsRBR proteins cannot be recognized in later mitotic phases. Based on the presented western blot and immunolocalization data, the possible involvement of RBR proteins in G(2)/M phase regulation in plant cells is discussed.

• 43.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för fysik.
Three dimensional tracking of multiple objects using digital holographic microscopy2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
• 44.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Värmeöverföring från smälta till vattenkyld tapputrustning2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave

Examensarbetet är utfört på smältverket Rönnskärsverken på uppdrag av Boliden Mineral AB. Kopparhyttan är en elektrisk smältugn för smältning av kopparslig och sekundära material i form av askor, fragmenterat skrot, krossad skärsten, slagger och slam. Beroende på hur det ingående materialet varierar kommer smältans kemiska sammansättning att variera. Variationerna i smältans kemiska sammansättning medför också att de fysikaliska egenskaperna hos smältan varierar och därmed också värmeöverföringen mellan smälta och tapputrustning. En hög värmelast på tapputrustningen medför ett ökat slitage på tapputrustningen och därför behövs en förståelse för de bakomliggande orsakerna för att förebygga och om möjligt undvika detta.

De genomförda analyserna visar på att en hög värmelast på tapputrustningen framförallt är kopplad till kopparhalten. En lägre kopparhalt medför att smältpunkten sänks och dessutom minskar viskositeten, vilket leder till ett ökat massflöde. En ökad värmelast indikerar således ett ökat massflöde i kombination med en sänkt smältpunkt, vilket innebär att tillfrysningen av ett erosionsskyddande skikt skärstenen på insidan av tappkanalens väggar försvåras och därmed en ökad erosion av tapputrustningen. Svavelunderskottet, som beräknas utifrån en kemisk analys av skärstensproven, visade ingen korrelation mot en hög värmelast vid tappning och ingen koppling mellan svavelunderskott och erosion av tapputrustningen kunde därmed konstateras.

De åtgärder som föreslås för att minska slitaget på tapputrustningen är ökning av kylvattenflödet samt minskning av tapphålsdiametern för att öka tillfrysning av ett skyddande lager samt reducera flödet vid tappning.

• 45.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
Metoder för utredning av inomhusmiljö: En studie inom hälsoskyddet med delsyfte att utföra dammätningar i skolor2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave

Methods for inspection of the indoor environment – a study within health protection where a part of the aim is to perform measurements of dust in schools

In Sweden the communities are responsible for the health protection in many agencies. The control of the indoor environment can be done in different ways and with different means. The aim of this report was to study in which way the inspectors made this kind of inspections and if there was anything in their approach that could be developed. A part of the aim of the report was to study how fast a clean surface in a school become dusty. Interviewes with healthinspectors in Uppsala, Håbo and Tierp was made. Together with them also some inspections were performed. To get a larger view of methods to investigate the indoor environment some inspections of schools and dwellings were done with an employee at the unit of Arbets- och miljömedicin at the University Hospital in Uppsala. The dust study was performed at two schools in Knivsta. The results were that the inspectors had well developed methods for assessings of the indoor environment. The approach differed in some matters between the larger and the smaller communities. Regardless of the size of the communities the inspectors rarely used instruments as a tool for the inspections. The communication and agreement between the inspectors was also shown as an important part in their work. In general the inspectors felt secure in their role and to make decisions. It appeared some shortcomings in the general advice and guidelines from the national board of health and welfare, which is the national supervisory authority that shall guide inspection of health protection. For example there was shown a lack in the guidelines regarding cleaning in schools and kindergardens. The study of dust in schools showed that there was more dust after five days than after one day.

• 46.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Elkvalitet på ett industrinät2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave

En tung industri har oftast utrustning installerad som kan bidra till övertoner på ett elnät. Samtidigt är oftast elnäten starka inom dessa industrier vilket ska bidra till att reducera spänningsövertonerna som går att finna på respektive fas.Studien har arbetat med de villkor och föreskrifter som gäller både för en ansluten elanläggning till Vattenfalls elnät, men även hur en elkvalitetsmätning ska genomföras och vilka krav som behöver uppfyllas.Åkers Sweden AB, där studien har ägt rum, har induktionsugnar för smältning av metaller. Det förekommer olika tekniska lösningar samt 3 olika fabrikat. Mätningar har genomförts på samtliga dessa fabrikat för att kontrollera om någon av dessa urskiljer sig gentemot de övriga.Genomförda mätningar indikerar att spänningsövertoner förekommer men inte i sådan utsträckning att man inte uppfyller gällande regelverk. Det finns dock anledning till att fortsätta arbetet och utöka mätningarna till övriga objekt inom företaget som inte har ingått i denna studie.Företaget har ett effektabonnemang och en kontroll av detta med avseende på nu gällande effekt och förbrukning under 2015 har genomförts för att kunna ge förslag på eventuella förändringar. Eftersom företaget har ungefär samma produktionsvolym 2016 som 2015 finns anledning till att se över nu gällande avtal för att kunna erhålla en kostnadsreducering.En enkät har skickats ut till samtliga anställda inom företaget med syfte att både upplysa de anställda om vilka kvalitetsproblem som kan förekomma inom ett elnät, men även få en återkoppling på hur de anställda upplever nuvarande situation. Enkäten fick låg svarsfrekvens men svaren som inkom indikerade att de anställda upplever att företaget har en god elkvalitet.

• 47.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
Ny lösning för uppvärmning av Nordanås provbana2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave

BAE Systems Hägglunds testbana är belägen i Nordanås nordväst om Örnsköldsvik. Detta projekt hade till avsikt att på BAE Systems förfrågan inventera testanläggningens nuvarande oljebaserade värmesystem för att finna ett mer ekonomiskt och miljövänligt alternativ. Utifrån en omfattande litteraturstudie samt kontakt med flera olika leverantörer, undersöktes vilka eventuella värmesystem som skulle kunna vara intressanta utifrån de krav som fanns i Nordanås.

De alternativa värmesystemen som ansågs vara tekniskt hållbara var följande; bergvärme med lätt biooljepanna, tung biooljepanna eller pelletspanna; pelletspanna, lätt biooljepanna och tung biooljepanna. Dessa alternativ är de som undersökts noggrant i studien och därefter jämförts med det nuvarande värmesystemet i form av ekonomi och miljöpåverkan.

I en ekonomisk kalkyl jämfördes de olika alternativens kapitalvärde och återbetalningstid. För att jämföra deras miljöpåverkan skapades en kalkyl som utifrån framtagna värden på olika bränslens utsläpp beräknade varje alternativs förväntade årliga utsläpp i form av koldioxidekvivalenter.

Slutligen konstaterades att om BAE Systems Hägglunds ska byta ut nuvarande systemet bör man antingen investera i ett bergvärmesystem med en lätt biooljepanna som spetspanna eller en konvertering till lätt biooljepanna. Med priser från den tid då rapporten skrevs skulle alternativet med bergvärme ha en beräknad återbetalningstid på ca 6,4 år och kapitalvärdet 1,0 Mkr. Motsvarande värden för alternativet med enbart en lätt biooljepanna uppgick till 1,0 års återbetalningstid samt 0,8 Mkr i kapitalvärde. Den stora skillnaden i återbetalningstid berodde på bergvärmesystemets höga investeringskostnad. Att investera i ett bergvärmesystem ansågs trots detta som ett bra alternativ på grund av den förväntade prisökningen av eldningsolja.

• 48.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Numerical analysis for random processes and fields and related design problems2011Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)

In this thesis, we study numerical analysis for random processes and fields. We investigate the behavior of the approximation accuracy for specific linear methods based on a finite number of observations. Furthermore, we propose techniques for optimizing performance of the methods for particular classes of random functions. The thesis consists of an introductory survey of the subject and related theory and four papers (A-D).

In paper A, we study a Hermite spline approximation of quadratic mean continuous and differentiable random processes with an isolated point singularity. We consider a piecewise polynomial approximation combining two different Hermite interpolation splines for the interval adjacent to the singularity point and for the remaining part. For locally stationary random processes, sequences of sampling designs eliminating asymptotically the effect of the singularity are constructed.

In Paper B, we focus on approximation of quadratic mean continuous real-valued random fields by a multivariate piecewise linear interpolator based on a finite number of observations placed on a hyperrectangular grid. We extend the concept of local stationarity to random fields and for the fields from this class, we provide an exact asymptotics for the approximation accuracy. Some asymptotic optimization results are also provided.

In Paper C, we investigate numerical approximation of integrals (quadrature) of random functions over the unit hypercube. We study the asymptotics of a stratified Monte Carlo quadrature based on a finite number of randomly chosen observations in strata generated by a hyperrectangular grid. For the locally stationary random fields (introduced in Paper B), we derive exact asymptotic results together with some optimization methods. Moreover, for a certain class of random functions with an isolated singularity, we construct a sequence of designs eliminating the effect of the singularity.

In Paper D, we consider a Monte Carlo pricing method for arithmetic Asian options. An estimator is constructed using a piecewise constant approximation of an underlying asset price process. For a wide class of Lévy market models, we provide upper bounds for the discretization error and the variance of the estimator. We construct an algorithm for accurate simulations with controlled discretization and Monte Carlo errors, andobtain the estimates of the option price with a predetermined accuracy at a given confidence level. Additionally, for the Black-Scholes model, we optimize the performance of the estimator by using a suitable variance reduction technique.

• 49.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Was it snowing on lake Kassjön in January 4486 BC? Functional data analysis of sediment data.2014Inngår i: Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Functional and Operatorial Statistics (IWFOS 2014), Stresa, Italy, June 2014., 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
• 50.
Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik.
Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Sjukgymnastik. National Sports Institute of Malaysia. MOX – Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano. Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Handelshögskolan vid Umeå universitet, Statistik. Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi. Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för matematik och matematisk statistik. MOX – Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano.
An inferential framework for domain selection in functional anova2014Inngår i: Contributions in infinite-dimensional statistics and related topics / [ed] Bongiorno, E.G., Salinelli, E., Goia, A., Vieu, P, Esculapio , 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)

We present a procedure for performing an ANOVA test on functional data, including pairwise group comparisons. in a Scheff´e-like perspective. The test is based on the Interval Testing Procedure, and it selects intervals where the groups significantly differ. The procedure is applied on the 3D kinematic motion of the knee joint collected during a functional task (one leg hop) performed by three groups of individuals.

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