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  • 1. Aaghabali, M.
    et al.
    Akbari, S.
    Friedland, S.
    Markström, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Tajfirouz, Z.
    Upper bounds on the number of perfect matchings and directed 2-factors in graphs with given number of vertices and edges2015In: European journal of combinatorics (Print), ISSN 0195-6698, E-ISSN 1095-9971, Vol. 45, p. 132-144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We give an upper bound on the number of perfect matchings in simple graphs with a given number of vertices and edges. We apply this result to give an upper bound on the number of 2-factors in a directed complete bipartite balanced graph on 2n vertices. The upper bound is sharp for even n. For odd n we state a conjecture on a sharp upper bound.

  • 2.
    Aalberg, Carmen
    et al.
    Wageningen UR.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Governance patterns and performance of regional strategies in peri-urban areas: comparative analysis of seven cases in Europe and Chine2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report examines how different regional and local governance patterns and specific spatial planning strategies impact on peri-urban land use in Rural Urban regions. It draws from seven regional case studies, presenting a diverse mix of strategies ranging from protecting biodiversity and agricultural land, creating recreation and tourism opportunities to reducing pressure from building and infrastructure development. To study the means of influence or power an analytical framework of ‘policy arrangement’ was employed (Tatenhove et al, 2000): specifying rules of the game, resources, coalitions and discourses. Both government and nongovernment actors such as environmental groups or developers can form coalitions, adopt rules, employ resources and develop discourses to influence policies and developments in urban regions. The analytical and assessment frameworks defined by regional researchers and practitioners helped to organize the case study data and to evaluate both processes and outcomes of governance in peri-urban areas. The outcomes are represented in a summarized way for each strategy and region.

    The report provides examples of unsustainable developments in peri-urban regions and how certain strategies helped to counteract these, and emphasizes the importance of recognizing peri-urban areas as a policy field in its own right.

    A sustainable spread of land use over the Rural Urban region requires regional authorities whose jurisdiction covers the Rural Urban region and who have the appropriate mix of policy means of influence and relative power over lower level authorities. Under the current predominant discourse of ‘sustainable’ development largely being equal to economic development, the outcome of sustainability concerns depends on urban areas taking financial responsibility for the inclusion of common good interests such as ecosystem services, cultural heritage and social and environmental justice into the periurban areas. Recommendations for policy makers at different levels conclude the report.

  • 3. Aalbers, C
    et al.
    Eckerberg, Katarina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Governance of peri-urban areas and sustainability: A comparative analysis of thePLUREL case studies’2012In: Peri-urbanfutures: Scenarios and models for land use change in Europe / [ed] K Nilsson, S Pauleit, S Bell, C Aalbers & T.S. Nielsen, Heidelberg: Springer Verlag , 2012, p. 330-356Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4. Aalbers, R
    et al.
    Backer, V
    Kava, T T K
    Omenaas, E R
    Sandström, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Pulmonary Medicine.
    Jorup, C
    Welte, T
    Adjustable maintenance dosing with budesonide/formoterol compared with fixed-dose salmeterol/fluticasone in moderate to severe asthma.2004In: Current Medical Research and Opinion, ISSN 0300-7995, E-ISSN 1473-4877, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 225-40Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5. Aalto, Sirpa
    et al.
    Lehtola, Veli-Pekka
    The Sami Representations Reflecting the Multi-Ethnic North of the Saga Literature2017In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 7-30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on contextualizing the Sami (finnar) representations in Old Norse saga literature. The purpose is to show that the Sami representations reflect multi-layered Old Norse textual and oral traditions, and complex interaction between the Sami and the Norwegians in the Middle Ages. The stereotypes of the Sami tell us more about the society that created them than about real, historical events. We can be sure that behind them lie very mundane phenomena such as trade and marriages.

    The ultimate goal of the article is therefore to reveal the multi-ethnic North that provided the background for the saga sources, a North whose history is not as homogeneous as sources suggest and quite unlike the modified version which found its way into the histories of nation states. The literary conventions of sagas are not just imaginary tales—their use in various contexts can reveal something essential in otherwise schematic images or configurations. Even researchers of the sagas have certain personal conceptions of what the “real” lives of the Sami were like at the time, and how the sagas depict this. In fact, they participate in a continuum of saga literature that generates representations of the Sami in history.

  • 6. Aarseth, Espen
    et al.
    Bean, Anthony M.
    Boonen, Huub
    Carras, Michelle Colder
    Coulson, Mark
    Das, Dimitri
    Deleuze, Jory
    Dunkels, Elza
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Edman, Johan
    Ferguson, Christopher J.
    Haagsma, Maria C.
    Bergmark, Karin Helmersson
    Hussain, Zaheer
    Jansz, Jeroen
    Kardefelt-Winther, Daniel
    Kutner, Lawrence
    Markey, Patrick
    Nielsen, Rune Kristian Lundedal
    Prause, Nicole
    Przybylski, Andrew
    Quandt, Thorsten
    Schimmenti, Adriano
    Starcevic, Vladan
    Stutman, Gabrielle
    Van Looy, Jan
    Van Rooij, Antonius J.
    Scholars' open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal2017In: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, E-ISSN 2063-5303, Vol. 6, no 3, p. 267-270Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

  • 7. Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Gebre-Medhin, Mehari
    Breastfeeding patterns in relation to thumb sucking and pacifier use.1999In: Pediatrics, ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 104, no 4, p. e50-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:The primary aim was to assess, the association of the quantity and quality of dietary fat intake from 6 to 12 months of age and serum lipids at 12 months.Subjects/Methods:Three hundred healthy term Swedish infants were recruited in a longitudinal prospective study at the age of 6 months; 276 remained in the study at 12 months. Food records and anthropometric data were collected monthly from 6 to 12 months; serum lipids were analysed at 6 and 12 months.Results:Swedish infants had a total fat intake within the Nordic recommendations, but intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) was low (5.6 percent of total energy (E%)) and intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) was high (15.1 E%). Higher PUFA intake was associated with lower total serum cholesterol (TC, B=-0.13, P=0.003), lower low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, B=-0.12, P=0.004) and apolipoprotein B (B=-0.03) (P=0.034) in girls but not in boys. When data from the present study were compared to data from similar studies in Finland and Iceland, it appears that the quality of the dietary fat has greater impact on serum lipid levels than the quantity of fat in the diet.Conclusions:Higher PUFA and lower SAFA intakes may reduce TC and LDL-C early in life, particularly in girls. Further, with respect to lowering serum lipid concentrations in early childhood it seems appropriate to set focus on fat quality rather than the quantity.Sponsorships:Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas), Swedish Research Council, Medicine, Stiftelsen Oskar Foundation, Sven Jerring Foundation, Samariten Foundation, Stiftelsen Goljes minne and Semper AB.European Journal of Clinical Nutrition advance online publication, 20 June 2007; doi:10.1038/sj.ejcn.1602824.

  • 8. Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Hörnell, Agneta
    Umeå University.
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Gebre-Medhin, Mehari
    Greiner, T
    How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data.2000In: Int J Epidemiol, ISSN 0300-5771, Vol. 29, no 6, p. 1041-6Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9. Aartsen, Marja
    et al.
    Beland, Daniel
    Edmondson, Ricca
    Ginn, Jay
    Komp, Kathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Nilsson, Magnus
    Perek-Bialas, Jolanta
    Sorensen, Penny
    Weicht, Bernhard
    Ageing in the light of crises: Economic crisis, demographic change, and the search for meaning2012Report (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Aartsen, Marja
    et al.
    Social Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Komp, Kathrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The future of greying Europe: Conclusion2013In: Old age in Europe: A textbook of gerontology / [ed] Komp, K., & Aartsen, M., Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2013, p. 131-136Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although Europe’s population is greying, the future of Europe does not look grey. What can be learned from this book is that old age is not necessarily characterized by frailty and decline, but instead can be a time of self-fulfillment, activity, and social participation. Moreover, we now know that population ageing does not need to threaten extant social and welfare state-related institutions, but instead opens up potentials for restructuring and reinvention. Life expectancy is longer than ever before and living conditions that enhance healthy ageing have very much improved. New technologies and Information and Communication Technologies may assist older people to stay in their homes longer. The growing possibilities to reach a good old age may have given rise to what is sometimes called ‘a silver economy’: an economy with all kinds of new products and services, particularly aimed at the growing share of healthy and wealthy senior citizens. The greying of Europe might, thus, ultimately lead us into a bright and colourful future.

  • 11.
    Aas, Marit
    et al.
    Oslo universitet.
    Törnsen, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Norske og svenske skolelederprogram: en sammenligning2016In: Bedre Skole, ISSN 0802-183X, no 2, p. 56-61Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [no]

    De nasjonale lederprogrammene i Sverige og Norge blir sammenlignet ved hjelp av et forskningsbasert internasjonalt rammeverk for hva som kjennetegner god ledelse. Målet er å undersøke om og i hvilken grad de nordiske programmene er influert av internasjonal forskning om profesjonsutvikling av skoleledere. Noen områder for videreutvikling av de nordiske lederprogrammene blir foreslått.

  • 12.
    Aas, Marit
    et al.
    Oslo universitet.
    Törnsén, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Principal Development.
    Examining Norwegian and Swedish Leadership training programs in light of international research2016In: Nordic Studies in Education, ISSN 1891-5914, E-ISSN 1891-5949, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 173-187, article id 10.18261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines and compares principal training programs in Sweden and Norway, the two Nordic countries with national leadership programs for already active school leaders. To investigate the knowledge base and design of the programs we draw on two research-derived tools about successful professional learning programs for school leaders. Based on the examinations, we suggest that the programs reflect international research both in terms of content and process factors. In addition, we identify topics and issues, such as balancing democratic participation with managerial decision-making, which can be characterized as making up a Nordic profile.

  • 13.
    Aasa, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Norrlandsklinikens hälsocentral, Umeå, Sweden.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Individualized low-load motor control exercises and education versus a high-load lifting exercise and education to improve activity, pain intensity, and physical performance in patients with low back pain: a randomized controlled trial2015In: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy, ISSN 0190-6011, E-ISSN 1938-1344, Vol. 45, no 2, p. 77-85Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Low back pain is a common disorder. Patients with low back pain frequently have aberrant and pain-provocative movement patterns that often are addressed with motor control exercises. Objective To compare the effects of low-load motor control (LMC) exercise and those of a high-load lifting (HLL) exercise. Methods Seventy participants with recurrent low back pain, who were diagnosed with nociceptive mechanical pain as their dominating pain pattern, were randomized to either LMC or HLL exercise treatments. Participants were offered 12 treatment sessions over an 8-week period. All participants were also provided with education regarding pain mechanisms. Methods Participants were assessed prior to and following treatment. The primary outcome measures were activity (the Patient-Specific Functional Scale) and average pain intensity over the last 7 days (visual analog scale). The secondary outcome measure was a physical performance test battery that included 1 strength, 3 endurance, and 7 movement control tests for the lumbopelvic region. Results Both interventions resulted in significant within-group improvements in pain intensity, strength, and endurance. The LMC group showed significantly greater improvement on the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (4.2 points) compared with the HLL group (2.5 points) (P<.001). There were no significant between-group differences in pain intensity (P = .505), strength, and 1 of the 3 endurance tests. However, the LMC group showed an increase (from 2.9 to 5.9) on the movement control test subscale, whereas the HLL group showed no change (from 3.9 to 3.1) (P<.001). Conclusion An LMC intervention may result in superior outcomes in activity, movement control, and muscle endurance compared to an HLL intervention, but not in pain intensity, strength, or endurance.

  • 14.
    Aasa, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Hellqvist, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Michaelson, Peter
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap, Avdelningen för hälsa och rehabilitering, Fysioterapi.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    A characterisation of pain, disability, kinesiophobia and physical capacity in patients with predominantly peripherally mediated mechanical low back pain2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Aasa, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics. Norrlandskliniken, Umeå.
    Lundström, Lena
    Pain Rehabilitation, Norrlands University Hospital, Umeå.
    Papacosta, Daniel
    Norrlandskliniken, Umeå.
    Sandlund, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Do we see the same movement impairments?: the inter-rater reliability of movement tests for experienced and novice physiotherapists2014In: European Journal of Physiotherapy, ISSN 2167-9169, E-ISSN 2167-9177, Vol. 16, no 16, p. 173-182, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Study design: Inter-rater reliability study. Background: Physiotherapists (PTs) use clinical tests including movement tests to identify faulty movement patterns. Aims: To investigate the inter-rater-reliability of active movement tests in the cervical spine, shoulder joint and scapulo-thoracic joint, and to describe the reasons for judgment of a positive test. Methodology: Four PTs, two experienced and two recently educated (novice), rated performance of five movement tests for 36 participants. Twenty-one of the participants were patients under treatment because of neck and/or shoulder problems, while 15 participants declared no problem from this region of the body. All tests were video recorded and the ratings were done by observing the video recordings. First, the PTs judged the tests as negative (the movement being ideally performed) or positive (the movement not being ideally performed). Then, the PTs described why the movements that they judged positive were not being ideally performed, using a predefined protocol, which represented different movement quality aspects. The inter-rater reliability was calculated for each test using Kappa statistics between the two experienced and the two novice PTs, respectively, and between each of the experienced and each of the novice PTs. Major findings: The experienced PTs had a higher inter-rater reliability than the novice PTs. The reasons for considering a movement test being positive differed highly between the (novice) PTs. Principal conclusion: This study supports previous studies concluding that the observation of active movement tests is reliable when assessed by experienced PTs. Novice PTs might benefit from further supervision.

  • 16.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Ambulance Work: Relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) and other health complaints are an occupational problem for ambulance personnel, there is a lack of knowledge regarding work-related factors associated with MSDs and other health complaints. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate the relationships between occupational demands, individual characteristics and health-related outcomes among ambulance personnel.

    A random sample of 234 female and 953 male ambulance personnel participated in a national questionnaire survey on work-related factors, and musculoskeletal and other health complaints. Physical demands was associated with activity limitation due to neck-shoulder and low-back complaints among the female personnel. Among the male personnel, physical demands was associated with low-back complaints and activity limitation due to low-back complaints. Psychological demands was significantly associated with neck-shoulder complaints, sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms among both female and male ambulance personnel. Worry about work conditions was associated with musculoskeletal disorders and sleeping problems, headache and stomach symptoms.

    A local sample of 26 ambulance personnel was followed during a 24-hour work shift and for the next two work-free days. Subjective stress- and energy levels, and cortisol levels were measured at regular intervals, and heart rate was registered continuously by electrocardiogram (ECG). Autonomic reactivity to standardized tests before (pre-work) and at the end of the work shift (post-work) was also investigated. For the whole group, baseline values of heart rate were higher pre-work than post-work, but autonomic reactivity did not differ. Increased reactivity to the mental test, modest deviation in heart rate variability (HRV) pattern during the late night hours at work and higher morning cortisol values during work than during leisure time were observed in personnel with many health complaints, but not among their co-workers without or with few complaints. Ambulance personnel with many health complaints also reported higher psychological demands and tended to be more worried about work conditions.

    Heart rate (HR), lactate level (LL) and perceived exertion (RPE) were investigated in 17 female and 48 male ambulance personnel during a simulated standardized work task “carry a loaded stretcher”. The ambulance personnel had to carry the loaded stretcher (920 N) up and down three flights of stairs twice. The high physiological strain (HR, LL, RPE) for the male, and near or at maximal strain for the female ambulance personnel, implied the importance to identify what kind of physical capacity is most important for ambulance personnel. Therefore, the explained variance of developed fatigue by tests of cardiorespiratory capacity, muscular strength and endurance, and coordination was investigated. The results showed that VO2max and isometric back endurance were important predictors for development of fatigue when carrying a loaded stretcher.

    The influence of body size on the relationships between maximal strength and functional performance was investigated in a methodological study. The results confirm that the assessment of physical performance could be confounded by the body weight. Therefore, the models for explaining development of fatigue when carrying the loaded stretcher were adjusted for height and weight. Including height in the models significantly increased the explained variance of accumulated lactate among female, but not among male personnel. Lactate levels were higher among short compared to tall female personnel. Weight had no effect on any of the models.

    In conclusion, the national survey showed that self-reported physical demands was a risk factor of having MSDs, and that self-reported psychological demands and worry about work were important risk factors of having MSDs and other health complaints. Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time showed that physiological and subjective stress markers did not show any differences between the 24-hour ambulance work shift and leisure time afterwards. However, ambulance personnel with many health complaints had certain physiological changes during the work shift in comparison with the next two work-free days. The physiological and subjective responses during carrying a loaded stretcher, especially among the female ambulance personnel, showed that female and male ambulance personnel could be exposed to internal exposures at different levels when performing the same work task. A better understanding of the relationships between occupational demands and health-related outcomes require further studies on age- and gender matched groups in long-term perspective studies.

  • 17.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Angquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Relationships between work-related factors and disorders in the neck-shoulder and low-back region among female and male ambulance personnel.2005In: Journal of Occupational Health, ISSN 1341-9145, E-ISSN 1348-9585, Vol. 47, no 6, p. 481-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This cross-sectional study on a random sample of 1,500 ambulance personnel investigated the relationships between self-reported work-related physical and psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions, and musculoskeletal disorders among female and male ambulance personnel. Three different outcomes, complaints, activity limitation, and sick leave, for the neck-shoulder and low-back region, respectively, were chosen. Among the female personnel, physical demands was significantly associated with activity limitation in the neck-shoulder (OR 4.13) and low-back region (OR 2.17), and psychological demands with neck-shoulder (OR 2.37) and low-back (OR 2.28) complaints. Among the male personnel, physical demands was significantly associated with low-back complaints (OR 1.41) and activity limitation (OR 1.62). Psychological demands and lack of social support were significantly associated with neck-shoulder complaints (OR 1.86 and OR 1.58, respectively) and activity limitation (OR 3.46 and OR 1.71) as well as activity limitation due to low-back complaints (OR 2.22 and OR 1.63). Worry about work conditions was independently associated with activity limitation due to low-back complaints among the female (OR 5.28), and to both neck-shoulder and low-back complaints (OR 1.79 and OR 2.04, respectively) and activity limitation (OR 2.32 and OR 1.95) among the male personnel. In conclusion, the association patterns between physical and psychological demands and MSDs suggest opportunities for intervention.

  • 18.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Krafttag ska stoppa styrkelyftarnas skador2015Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Brulin, Christine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Work-related psychosocial factors, worry about work conditions and health complaints among female and male ambulance personnel.2005In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 251-258Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Jaric, S
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, M
    Johansson, H
    Muscle strength assessment from functional performance tests: role of body size2003In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 17, no 4, p. 664-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to test the hypothesis that the body size plays an important role in assessment of muscle ability to exert force by standard functional performance tests. Twenty-one male students were tested on maximal isometric lift, one leg rising, vertical jump, and box lift tests, and the maximal isokinetic strength of hip and knee extensors was also recorded. When indices of the 4 functional performance tests were related to the strength of each of the 2 leg extensor muscle groups, only maximal isometric lift demonstrated positive correlation with knee extensors strength. When muscle strength was corrected for body mass, however, the aforementioned relationship became insignificant, but the 1 leg rising performance demonstrated a positive relationship with knee extensor strength. In addition, maximal isometric lift and 1 leg rising test performance provided positive and negative correlation, respectively, with body mass. The obtained findings were in line with the effects of scale applied on the tested performance. We generally conclude that the assessment of muscle capability to exert force based on some standard functional performance tests could be confounded by the body size effect.

  • 21.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Jensen, Bente R
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Sandfeld, Jesper
    Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Richter, Hans
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    Crenshaw, Albert
    Centre for Musculoskeletal Research, University of Gävle, Sweden.
    The impact of object size and precision demands on fatigue during computer mouse use2011In: Advances in Physiotherapy, ISSN 1403-8196, E-ISSN 1651-1948, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 118-127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged computer use, especially if fatigue ensues, is associated with visual and musculoskeletal symptoms. The aim was to determine the time-course of perceived fatigue in the wrist, forearm, shoulder and eyes during a 60-min mouse task (painting rectangles), and whether object size and/or mouse use demands were of infl uence. Also, we investigated performance (number of rectangles painted), and whether perceived fatigue was paralleled by local muscle fatigue or tissue oxygenation.

    Ten women performed the task for three conditions (crossover design). At condition 1, rectangles were 45 25 mm, square paint cursor size 1.3 1.3 mm, and mouse – pointer movement ratio 1:26. At condition 2, the same cursor size and mouse – pointer movement ratio was used, but rectangles were smaller. At condition 3, the smaller rectangles were used, but the cursor size was also smaller and mouse – pointer movement ratio was 1:8. The results showed increased self-reported fatigue over time, with the observed increase greater for the eyes, but no change in physiological responses. Condition 2 resulted in higher performance and increased eye fatigue. Perceived fatigue in the muscles or physiological responses did not differ between conditions. In conclusion, computer work tasks imposing high visual and motor demands, and with high performance, seemed to have an infl uence on eye fatigue.

  • 22.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time.Manuscript (Other academic)
  • 23. Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Kalezic, Nebojsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Lyskov, Eugene
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Stress monitoring of ambulance personnel during work and leisure time.2006In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 51-59Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Aasa, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Norrlandskliniken, Umeå, Sweden.
    Westerståhl, Maria
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin, Karolinska institutet.
    Physical Activity Might Be of Greater Importance for Good Spinal Control Than If You Have Had Pain or Not: A Longitudinal Study2015In: Spine, ISSN 0362-2436, E-ISSN 1528-1159, Vol. 40, no 24, p. 1926-1933Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    STUDY DESIGN: Longitudinal design. A cohort followed in 3 waves of data collection.

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to describe the relationships between the performance of 2 tests of spinal control at the age of 52 years and low back pain, physical activity level, and fitness earlier in life, as well as to describe the cross-sectional relationships between these measures.

    SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Altered spinal control has been linked to pain; however, other stimuli may also lead to inability to control the movements of the spine.

    METHODS: Participants answered questions about physical activity and low back pain, and performed physical fitness tests at the age of 16, 34, and 52 years. The fitness test battery included tests of endurance in the back and abdominal muscles, a submaximal bicycle ergometer test to estimate maximal oxygen uptake, and measurements of hip flexion, thoracic spine flexibility, and anthropometrics. Two tests were aggregated to a physical fitness index. At the age of 52, also 2 tests of spinal control, the standing Waiter's bow (WB) and the supine double leg lower (LL) were performed.

    RESULTS: Logistic regression analyses showed that higher back muscle endurance at the age of 34 years could positively predict WB performance at 52 years and higher physical fitness at the age of 34 could positively predict LL performance at 52 years. Regarding cross-sectional relationships, an inability to perform the WB correctly was associated with lower physical fitness, flexibility and physical activity, and larger waist circumference. An inability to correctly perform the LL was associated with lower physical fitness. One-year prevalence of pain was not significantly associated with WB or LL test performance.

    CONCLUSION: An active life resulting in higher physical fitness is related to better spinal control in middle-aged men and women. This further strengthens the importance of physical activity throughout the life span.

    LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3.

  • 25.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Jansson, Eva
    Westerståhl, Maria
    The Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort born in 1958 - dropout analysis and overview at 36-year follow-up2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 418-429Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort study (SPAF-1958) was to describe physical fitness, physical activity, health, and lifestyle across part of the lifespan, and to assess the influences on these factors from the environment, personal factors, and genetics. There is inevitable dropout from longitudinal studies, and it may be systematic. The aim of this first paper of the second follow-up of SPAF-1958 was to provide a dropout analysis to consider to what extent the participants, at 52 years of age, remain a representative sample of the original adolescent study population. Additional aims were to provide an overview of the study protocol and the ongoing study population. Ongoing study participants in SPAF born in 1958 were, at the second follow-up at the age of 52, still representative of the study cohort in terms of sex, adolescent geographical area, upper secondary school program, adolescent body composition, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. However, a higher physical activity and, among women, a higher aerobic capacity in adolescence decreased the risk for dropout. It is important when interpreting results from longitudinal studies to adjust for the systematic dropout that could bias the conclusions drawn from the results.

  • 26.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 27.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Sport Sciences Center.
    Svartholm, Ivar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Andersson, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Berglund, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Sport Sciences Center.
    Injuries among weightlifters and powerlifters: a systematic review2017In: British Journal of Sports Medicine, ISSN 0306-3674, E-ISSN 1473-0480, Vol. 51, no 4, p. 211-219Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting are two sports that expose the body to great forces. Injury characteristics have not been systematically reviewed for these two growing sports.

    Objective The purpose of this study was to systematically review the literature regarding various definitions of injuries used, injury localisation, the prevalence and incidence of injuries and the associated risk factors for injuries in weightlifting and powerlifting.

    Design Systematic review.

    Data sources Five databases, PubMed, MEDLINE, SPORTDiscus, Scopus and Web of Science, were searched between 9 March and 6 April 2015.

    Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Studies assessing injury incidence and prevalence in Olympic weightlifting and powerlifting were included. The Quality assessment tool for observational cohort and cross-sectional studies was used to assess methodological quality.

    Results 9 studies were included in the review. Injury was defined fairly consistently across studies. Most studies were of low methodological quality. The spine, shoulder and the knee were the most common injury localisations in both sports. The injury incidence in weightlifting was 2.4–3.3 injuries/1000 hours of training and 1.0–4.4 injuries/1000 hours of training in powerlifting. Only one retrospective study had analysed possible risk factors.

    Summary/conclusions The risk of injury in both sports were similar to other non-contact sports also requiring strength/power, but low compared to contact sports. The severity of injuries differed in the included studies. Since little has been studied regarding possible risk factors to injuries, further research is therefore warranted to explain why athletes get injured and how to prevent injuries.

    Trial registration number PROSPERO CRD42015014805.

  • 28.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Westerståhl, Maria
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin avd för klinisk fysiologi Karolinska institutet .
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jansson, Eva
    Institutionen för laboratoriemedicin avd för klinisk fysiologi Karolinska institutet .
    Hälsoresan till medelåldern2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, no 2, p. 4p. 40-43Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad är viktigast för att få en god hälsa som vuxen? Sedan 1974 har vi följt samma personer från 16 års ålder in i medelåldern och studerat deras hälsa från flera olika synvinklar. Nu pågår den tredje mätomgången.

  • 29.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Wiitavaara, Birgitta
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Personalens hälsa och arbetsmiljö2009In: Prehospital akutsjukvård / [ed] Björn-Ove Suserud och Leif Svensson, Stockholm: Liber, 2009, p. 33-38Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 30.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Ängquist, Karl-Axel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    The effects of a 1-year physical exercise programme on development of fatigue during a simulated ambulance work task.2008In: Ergonomics, ISSN 0014-0139, E-ISSN 1366-5847, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 1179-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes on development of fatigue during the carrying of a loaded stretcher up and down the stairs. Nineteen ambulance personnel performed the training for 1 year. Testing occurred before and after 1 year of the training. Both the training group (n = 19) and the control group (n = 15) were assessed for physical capacity and lactate concentration in blood and ratings of perceived exertion during carrying a stretcher on the stairs. When comparisons were made between those who had been training three times/week for 1 year and the control group, lactate concentration was significantly decreased. In conclusion, markers of fatigue during stretcher carrying can be reduced by the use of individually prescribed physical exercise programmes.

  • 31. Aazh, Hashir
    et al.
    Knipper, Marlies
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Cavanna, Andrea E.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schecklmann, Martin
    Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment2018In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 95, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis. Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis. Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

  • 32. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, p. 660-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 33. Abalaka, J. L.
    et al.
    Ottosson, Ulf
    Tende, Talatu
    Larson, Keith W.
    Rock Firefinch Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis in the Mandara Mountains, north-east Nigeria: a new subspecies?2010In: African Bird Club Bulletin, ISSN 1352-481X, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 210-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [fr]

    L’Amarante des rochers Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis dans les Monts Mandara, Nigeria du sud-est: une nouvelle sous-espèce ? Nous fournissons une description d’un mâle et d’une femelle, ainsi que desphotos d’un mâle, d’un amarante capturé dans les Monts Mandara, au nord-est du Nigeria. Le plumage et le cri de cet amarante sont identiques à ceux de l’Amarante des rochers Lagonosticta sanguinodorsalis, une espèce précédemment rapportée de la zone, excepté que le mâle n’a pas la couronne grise typique de l’espèce. Des travaux supplémentaires sur le terrain sont nécessaires pour déterminer s’il agit d’un individu aberrant ou d’une population de l’Amarante des rochers morphologiquement distincte.

  • 34. Abat, F
    et al.
    Alfredson, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Sports medicine. Alfredson Tendon Clinic Inc, Umeå, Sweden; Pure Sports Medicine Clinic, ISEH, UCLH, London, UK.
    Cucchiarini, M
    Madry, H
    Marmotti, A
    Mouton, C
    Oliveira, J M
    Pereira, H
    Peretti, G M
    Spang, Christoph
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Anatomy.
    Stephen, J
    van Bergen, C J A
    de Girolamo, L
    Current trends in tendinopathy: consensus of the ESSKA basic science committee. Part II2018In: Journal of experimental orthopaedics, ISSN 2197-1153, Vol. 5, no 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The treatment of painful chronic tendinopathy is challenging. Multiple non-invasive and tendon-invasive methods are used. When traditional non-invasive treatments fail, the injections of platelet-rich plasma autologous blood or cortisone have become increasingly favored. However, there is little scientific evidence from human studies supporting injection treatment. As the last resort, intra- or peritendinous open or endoscopic surgery are employed even though these also show varying results. This ESSKA basic science committee current concepts review follows the first part on the biology, biomechanics and anatomy of tendinopathies, to provide a comprehensive overview of the latest treatment options for tendinopathy as reported in the literature.

  • 35. Abbara, Aula
    et al.
    Al-Harbat, Nizar
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Abo-Yahya, Bashar
    El-Amin, Wael
    Hatcher, James
    Gabbar, Omar
    Antimicrobial Drug Resistance among Refugees from Syria, Jordan2017In: Emerging Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1080-6040, E-ISSN 1080-6059, Vol. 23, no 5, p. 885-886Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36. Abbara, Aula
    et al.
    Rawson, Timothy M.
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    El-Amin, Wael
    Hatcher, James
    Tajaldin, Bachir
    Dar, Osman
    Dewachi, Omar
    Abu Sitta, Ghassan
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sparrow, Annie
    A summary and appraisal of existing evidence of antimicrobial resistance in the Syrian conflict2018In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1201-9712, E-ISSN 1878-3511, Vol. 75, p. 26-33Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in populations experiencing war has yet to be addressed, despite the abundance of contemporary conflicts and the protracted nature of twenty-first century wars, in combination with growing global concern over conflict-associated bacterial pathogens. The example of the Syrian conflict is used to explore the feasibility of using existing global policies on AMR in conditions of extreme conflict. The available literature on AMR and prescribing behaviour in Syria before and since the onset of the conflict in March 2011 was identified. Overall, there is a paucity of rigorous data before and since the onset of conflict in Syria to contextualize the burden of AMR. However, post onset of the conflict, an increasing number of studies conducted in neighbouring countries and Europe have reported AMR in Syrian refugees. High rates of multidrug resistance, particularly Gram-negative organisms, have been noted amongst Syrian refugees when compared with local populations. Conflict impedes many of the safeguards against AMR, creates new drivers, and exacerbates existing ones. Given the apparently high rates of AMR in Syria, in neighbouring countries hosting refugees, and in European countries providing asylum, this requires the World Health Organization and other global health institutions to address the causes, costs, and future considerations of conflict-related AMR as an issue of global governance. (c) 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of International Society for Infectious Diseases.

  • 37. Abbara, Aula
    et al.
    Rawson, Timothy M.
    Karah, Nabil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR).
    El-Amin, Wael
    Hatcher, James
    Tajaldin, Bachir
    Dar, Osman
    Dewachi, Omar
    Abu Sitta, Ghassan
    Uhlin, Bernt Eric
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Microbial Research (UCMR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Molecular Infection Medicine Sweden (MIMS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Sparrow, Annie
    Antimicrobial resistance in the context of the Syrian conflict: Drivers before and after the onset of conflict and key recommendations2018In: International Journal of Infectious Diseases, ISSN 1201-9712, E-ISSN 1878-3511, Vol. 73, p. 1-6Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current evidence describing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in the context of the Syrian conflict is of poor quality and sparse in nature. This paper explores and reports the major drivers of AMR that were present in Syria pre-conflict and those that have emerged since its onset in March 2011. Drivers that existed before the conflict included a lack of enforcement of existing legislation to regulate over-the-counter antibiotics and notification of communicable diseases. This contributed to a number of drivers of AMR after the onset of conflict, and these were also compounded by the exodus of trained staff, the increase in overcrowding and unsanitary conditions, the increase in injuries, and economic sanctions limiting the availability of required laboratory medical materials and equipment. Addressing AMR in this context requires pragmatic, multifaceted action at the local, regional, and international levels to detect and manage potentially high rates of multidrug-resistant infections. Priorities are (1) the development of a competent surveillance system for hospital-acquired infections, (2) antimicrobial stewardship, and (3) the creation of cost-effective and implementable infection control policies. However, it is only by addressing the conflict and immediate cessation of the targeting of health facilities that the rehabilitation of the health system, which is key to addressing AMR in this context, can progress. 

  • 38. Abbas, S
    et al.
    Linseisen, J
    Rohrmann, S
    Beulens, JWJ
    Buijsse, B
    Amiano, P
    Ardanaz, E
    Balkau, B
    Boeing, H
    Clavel-Chapelon, F
    Fagherazzi, G
    Franks, Paul W
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Gavrila, D
    Grioni, S
    Kaaks, R
    Key, TJ
    Khaw, KT
    Kuehn, T
    Mattiello, A
    Molina-Montes, E
    Nilsson, PM
    Overvad, K
    Quiros, JR
    Rolandsson, Olov
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Sacerdote, C
    Saieva, C
    Slimani, N
    Sluijs, I
    Spijkerman, AMW
    Tjonneland, A
    Tumino, R
    van der A, DL
    Zamora-Ros, R
    Sharp, SJ
    Langenberg, C
    Forouhi, NG
    Riboli, E
    Wareham, NJ
    Dietary vitamin D intake and risk of type 2 diabetes in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition: the EPIC-InterAct study2014In: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0954-3007, E-ISSN 1476-5640, Vol. 68, no 2, p. 196-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Prospective cohort studies have indicated that serum vitamin D levels are inversely related to risk of type 2 diabetes. However, such studies cannot determine the source of vitamin D. Therefore, we examined the association of dietary vitamin D intake with incident type 2 diabetes within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-InterAct study in a heterogeneous European population including eight countries with large geographical variation.

    SUBJECTS/METHODS: Using a case-cohort design, 11 245 incident cases of type 2 diabetes and a representative subcohort (N = 15 798) were included in the analyses. Hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for type 2 diabetes were calculated using a Prentice-weighted Cox regression adjusted for potential confounders. Twenty-four-hour diet-recall data from a subsample (N = 2347) were used to calibrate habitual intake data derived from dietary questionnaires.

    RESULTS: Median follow-up time was 10.8 years. Dietary vitamin D intake was not significantly associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes. HR and 95% CIs for the highest compared to the lowest quintile of uncalibrated vitamin D intake was 1.09 (0.97-1.22) (P-trend = 0.17). No associations were observed in a sex-specific analysis. The overall pooled effect (HR (95% CI)) using the continuous calibrated variable was 1.00 (0.97-1.03) per increase of 1 mg/day dietary vitamin D.

    CONCLUSIONS: This observational study does not support an association between higher dietary vitamin D intake and type 2 diabetes incidence. This result has to be interpreted in light of the limited contribution of dietary vitamin D on the overall vitamin D status of a person.

  • 39. Abbas, Sascha
    et al.
    Linseisen, Jakob
    Rohrmann, Sabine
    Chang-Claude, Jenny
    Peeters, Petra H
    Engel, Pierre
    Brustad, Magritt
    Lund, Eiliv
    Skeie, Guri
    Olsen, Anja
    Tjønneland, Anne
    Overvad, Kim
    Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine
    Clavel-Chapelon, Francoise
    Fagherazzi, Guy
    Kaaks, Rudolf
    Boeing, Heiner
    Buijsse, Brian
    Adarakis, George
    Ouranos, Vassilis
    Trichopoulou, Antonia
    Masala, Giovanna
    Krogh, Vittorio
    Mattiello, Amalia
    Tumino, Rosario
    Sacerdote, Carlotta
    Buckland, Genevieve
    Suárez, Marcial Vicente Argüelles
    Sánchez, Maria-José
    Chirlaque, Maria-Dolores
    Barricarte, Aurelio
    Amiano, Pilar
    Manjer, Jonas
    Wirfält, Elisabet
    Lenner, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B
    van Duijnhoven, Fränzel J B
    Khaw, Kay-Tee
    Wareham, Nick
    Key, Timothy J
    Fedirko, Veronika
    Romieu, Isabelle
    Gallo, Valentina
    Norat, Teresa
    Wark, Petra A
    Riboli, Elio
    Dietary intake of vitamin D and calcium and breast cancer risk in the European prospective investigation into cancer and nutrition2013In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 65, no 2, p. 178-187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies assessing the effects of vitamin D or calcium intake on breast cancer risk have been inconclusive. Furthermore, few studies have evaluated them jointly. This study is the largest so far examining the association of dietary vitamin D and calcium intake with breast cancer risk in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. During a mean follow-up of 8.8 yr, 7760 incident invasive breast cancer cases were identified among 319,985 women. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression was used to estimate hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for pre- and postmenopausal breast cancer risk. Comparing the highest with the lowest quintile of vitamin D intake, HR and 95% CI were 1.07 (0.87-1.32) and 1.02 (0.90-1.16) for pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively. The corresponding HR and 95% CIs for calcium intake were 0.98 (0.80-1.19) and 0.90 (0.79-1.02), respectively. For calcium intake in postmenopausal women, the test for trend was borderline statistically significant (P(trend) = 0.05). There was no significant interaction between vitamin D and calcium intake and cancer risk (P(interaction) = 0.57 and 0.22 in pre- and postmenopausal women, respectively). In this large prospective cohort, we found no evidence for an association between dietary vitamin D or calcium intake and breast cancer risk.

  • 40. Abbasi, Arshad Mehmood
    et al.
    Khan, Mir Ajab
    Khan, Nadeem
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Shah, Munir H
    Ethnobotanical survey of medicinally important wild edible fruits species used by tribal communities of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan2013In: Journal of Ethnopharmacology, ISSN 0378-8741, E-ISSN 1872-7573, Vol. 148, no 2, p. 528-536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethnopharmacological relevance: Present survey was conducted to explore ethnomedicinal uses and cultural importance of wild edible fruits species by the inhabitants of Lesser Himalayas-Pakistan. Materials and methods: Information was obtained through informed consent semi-structured interviews, questionnaires, market survey, focus group conversation, unceremonious dialogue and village walks with key informants. Cultural significance of each species was calculated based on use report by participants at each study site. Results: A total of 35 wild edible fruits belonging to 21 genera and 17 families were used for the treatment of various ailments and consumed. Rosaceae was found dominating family with (8 spp.), followed by Moraceae (6 spp.), Rhamnaceae (5 spp.), Palmae and Vitaceae (2 spp. each) and remaining families were represented by one species each. Fruits (48%) were found highly utilized plant parts, followed by leaves (34%), bark, flowers and seeds (4% each), branches, latex and roots (2% each). Water was used as a medium for preparation while milk, ghee, oil, egg and butter are used for application. Modes of preparation were fall into seven categories like fresh parts eaten raw (38%), powder (24%), decoction (20%), extract (12 %), paste (4%), juice and latex (2% each). Based on cultural important index (CI) Morus nigra was found most significant species within top ten fruit plants followed by Morus alba, Olea ferruginea, Berberis lycium, Pyrus pashia, Ficus carica, Ficus palmata, Ziziphus mauritiana, Diospyros lotus and Ziziphus nummularia. Conclusions: Traditional uses of wild edible plant depend mainly on socio-economic factors rather than climatic conditions or wealth of flora. Use reports and citation demonstrated that there is a common cultural heritage regarding the gathered food plants. Further investigation is required for Antioxidant study, essential and toxic components, pharmacological applications; dietary requirements and biotechnological techniques to improve yields.

    (C) 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 41. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Bowden, William B.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    Aiken, George R.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Bishop, Kevin
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Breen, Amy L.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Cai, Yihua
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Carey, Sean K.
    Chen, Jing M.
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    de Groot, William J.
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fetcher, Ned
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Gough, Laura
    Grogan, Paul
    Guo, Laodong
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Hinzman, Larry
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jandt, Randi
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Kelly, Ryan
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kling, George W.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Kouki, Jari
    Kuhry, Peter
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Mann, Paul J.
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    McClelland, James W.
    Molau, Ulf
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pare, David
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Payette, Serge
    Peng, Changhui
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Reynolds, James F.
    Robards, Martin
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Schaedel, Christina
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Sky, Jasper
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Starr, Gregory
    Striegl, Robert G.
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Zimov, Sergei
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 034014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

  • 42.
    Abd Alrahman, Chadi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Khodabakhsh, Amir
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Schmidt, Florian M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Qu, Zhechao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of high-temperature H2O in a flame2014In: Optics Express, ISSN 1094-4087, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 22, no 11, p. 13889-13895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We demonstrate near-infrared cavity-enhanced optical frequency comb spectroscopy of water in a premixed methane/air flat flame. The detection system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser, a high finesse optical cavity containing the flame, and a fast-scanning Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS). High absorption sensitivity is obtained by the combination of a high-bandwidth two-point comb-cavity lock and auto-balanced detection in the FTS. The system allows recording high-temperature water absorption spectra with a resolution of 1 GHz and a bandwidth of 50 nm in an acquisition time of 0.4 s, with absorption sensitivity of 4.2 x 10 (9) cm(-1) Hz(-1/2) per spectral element.

  • 43. Abdelsalam, UM
    et al.
    Moslem, WM
    Shukla, Padma Kant
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Institut für Theoretische Physik IV, Fakultät für Physik und Astronomie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany; Nonlinear Physics Centre & Center for Plasma Science and Astrophysics, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, D-44780 Bochum, Germany; Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching, Germany; GoLP/Instituto Superior Técnico, 1049-001 Lisbon, Portugal; CCLRC Centre for Fundamental Physics, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, Oxon 0X11 0QX, UK; SUPA Department of Physics, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow G 40NG, UK; School of Physics, Faculty of Science & Agriculture, University of Kwazulu-Natal, Durban 4000, South Africa; Department of Physics, CITT, Islamabad, Pakistan.
    Ion-acoustic solitary waves in a dense pair-ion plasma containing degenerate electrons and positrons2008In: Physics Letters A, ISSN 0375-9601, E-ISSN 1873-2429, Vol. 372, no 22, p. 4057-4061Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fully nonlinear propagation of ion-acoustic solitary waves in a collisionless dense/quantum electron-positron-ion plasma is investigated. The electrons and positrons are assumed to follow the Thomas-Fermi density distribution and the ions are described by the hydrodynamic equations. An energy balance-like equation involving a Sagdeev-type pseudo-potential is derived. Finite amplitude solutions are obtained numerically and their characteristics are discussed. The small-but finite-amplitude limit is also considered and an exact analytical solution is obtained. The present studies might be helpful to understand the excitation of nonlinear ion-acoustic solitary waves in a degenerate plasma such as in superdense white dwarfs.

  • 44. Abdelsalam, UM