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  • 1.
    Brändström, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Meyer, Anna C.
    Modig, Karin
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University.
    Determinants of home care utilization among the Swedish old: nationwide register-based study2022In: European Journal of Ageing, ISSN 1613-9372, E-ISSN 1613-9380, Vol. 19, p. 651-662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1990s, Sweden has implemented aging-in-place policies increasing the share of older adults dependent on home care instead of residing in care homes. At the same time previous research has highlighted that individuals receive home care at a higher age than before. Consequently, services are provided for a shorter time before death, increasing reliance on family and kin as caregivers. Previous studies addressing how homecare is distributed rely primarily on small surveys and are often limited to specific regions. This study aims to ascertain how home care services are distributed regarding individual-level factors such as health status, living arrangements, availability of family, education, and socioeconomic position. To provide estimates that can be generalized to Sweden as a whole, we use register data for the entire Swedish population aged 65 + in 2016. The study's main findings are that home care recipients and the amount of care received are among the oldest old with severe co morbidities. Receiving home care is slightly more common among women, but only in the highest age groups. Childlessness and socioeconomic factors play a small role in who receives home care or not. Instead, the primary home care recipients are those older adults living alone who lack direct support from family members residing in the same household.

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  • 2.
    Brändström, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University.
    Retirement, home care and the importance of gender2021In: Historical Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 10, p. 172-179Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades elderly care policies in Sweden have been characterized by a marked shift from institutional care to home care. Previous research has highlighted how this has resulted in the elderly receiving care at a higher age and increased reliance on family and kin for providing care. Using register data for the entire Swedish population aged 65+ in 2016, we analyze how home care services in contemporary Sweden distribute regarding individual-level factors such as gender, health status, living arrangements, and closeness to kin. By far, the most critical determinants of receiving home care are age, health status, and whether the elderly are living alone or not. Although our results do not discard that access to kin has become more important, our results show that childlessness and geographical proximity to adult children play a minor role for differentials in the reception of home care. The main conduit for informal care instead takes the form of spousal support. Gender plays a role in how living arrangements influence the probability of receiving home care, where cohabiting women are significantly more likely to receive care than cohabiting men. We interpret this as a result of women, on average, being younger than their male partners and more easily adopting caregivers' roles. This gendered pattern is potentially explained by the persistence of more traditional gender roles prevailing in older cohorts.

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  • 3.
    Grönberg, Per-Olof
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Lundh Nilsson, Fay
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Desirable skills?: Non-Nordic citizens applying for work permits in Sweden, 1947–19502015In: Labor history, ISSN 0023-656X, E-ISSN 1469-9702, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 481-498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's rapid economic growth after the Second World War meant that the native labour supply was incapable of meeting the high demand, especially for industrial labourers. Three agreements on organised collective transfers were signed, but a large majority of the labour migrants came on their own initiative. Not all applicants were equally welcomed. In this article, logistic regressions are used to investigate a sample of 2830 (every fifth) applications to the National Labour Market Board (AMS) from the years 1947–1950; 1367 had an arrangement with a future Swedish employer, while 1463 applicants lacked such an arrangement. The likelihood of being granted a permit was 11 times higher for the first category. Our hypothesis that the chances were better for high-skilled workers proved true only in part; it was valid if they had an employer agreement. Contrary to our assumptions, women had a better chance than men, partly because domestic servants were always permitted and partly because women did not compete with male labour. However, our assumptions with regard to better chances for the young but experienced, and for those applying for the occupation wherein they had their experience held true. A number of official documents revealed the desirability of Sudeten German labourers. They were viewed as skilled, reliable and loyal by employers, labour unions and governmental authorities. This assumption only held true for applicants lacking an employer. This can be viewed as a prolongation of the practice of helping Sudeten German Social Democrats, established in 1938. The intention to help refugees was, however, also evident in the treatment of Baltic and Polish applicants.

  • 4.
    Hobson, Barbara
    et al.
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Changes in family diversity in Sweden: opportunities, constraints and challenges2023In: The changing faces of families: diverse family forms in various policy contexts / [ed] Marina A. Adler; Karl Lenz, London: Routledge, 2023, 1, p. 142-163Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter traces the changes in family diversity within the social, cultural and legal context of the Swedish welfare state. We focus on three distinctive features, deeply rooted in Swedish law and policy that have shaped family law, discourses and practices of doing a family: (1) the framing of gender equality; (2) the construction and privileging of biological fatherhood; and (3) the mother/father binary in the heteronormative family. The gender equality framework has allowed for agency and choice in the doing of family. The latter two have impeded LGBTQA+ couples and single women from forming families through access to MAR and ultimately from achieving the full legal recognition of their parenthood. Throughout the chapter, we reveal the complexities, contradictions and ambivalent positions in Swedish policy and law by tracing the barriers that had to be overcome and the challenges that remain for the recognition of diverse family forms.

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  • 5.
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Long-term Health Outcomes from Inbreeding: Longevity, Fertility and Impairment2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the paper is to investigate if inbreeding had any health effects on individuals born 1890–1905 in Skellefteå, Sweden, with a follow-up period until 1950. The effects on longevity, fertility and impairments as outcome variables is of particular interest to clarify, as they provide a comprehensive picture of howinbreeding affects human demographic behaviour and health during this period. The effect on longevity was not strong but caused higher mortality for men above one year of age. The risk of stillbirths showed a substantial association with inbreeding, with a higher risk for highly inbred. The probability of having children was lower for persons representing high levels of inbreeding. However, the number of children given that at leastone child is born is not affected. No significant effect of the parents being related is noted on fertility. With respect to an individual’s own inbreeding we find that the higher the level of inbreeding, the higher the risk of impairments.

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  • 6.
    Junkka, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The emergence of social gaps in mental health: a longitudinal population study in Sweden, 1900-19592020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232462Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the recent decades, social inequalities in mental health have increased and are now one of the most persistent features of contemporary society. There is limited knowledge about when this pattern emerged or whether it has been a historically fixed feature. The objective of this study was to assess whether socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental health changed during the period 1900–1959 in Sweden. We used historical micro data which report all necessary information on individuals’ demographic characteristics, occupational attainment and mental disorders (N = 2,450) in a Swedish population of 193,893. Changes over time was tested using multilevel Cox proportional hazard models. We tested how gender-specific risks of mental disorder changed and how gender-specific socioeconomic status was related to risks of mental disorder later in life. We found a reversal in gender gaps in mental health during the study period. Women had a lower risk than men in 1900 and higher risks in 1959. For men, we found a negative gradient in SES risks in 1900 and a positive gradient in 1959. For women, we found no clear SES gradient in the risk of mental disorder. These findings suggest that the contemporary patterns in socioeconomic and gender gaps in mental disorder emerged during the 1940s and 1950s and have since then persisted.

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  • 7.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Supply or demand?: Institutionalization of the mentally ill in the emerging Swedish welfare state, 1900–19592021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical studies on the institutionalization of the mentally ill have primarily relied on data on institutionalized patients rather than the population at risk. Consequently, the underlying factors of institutionalization are unclear. Using Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1900–1959 reporting mental disorders, we examine whether supply-side factors such as distance to institutions and number of asylum beds influenced the risk of institutionalization, in addition to demand-side factors such as access to family. Institutionalization risks were associated with the supply of beds and proximity to an asylum, but also dependent on families’ unmet demand for care of relatives. As the supply of mental care met this family-driven demand in the 1930s, the relative risk of institutionalization increased among those lacking family networks.

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  • 8.
    Liselotte, Eriksson
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Junkka, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vikström, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Supply or demand? Institutionalization of the mentally ill in the emerging Swedish welfare state, 1900–592022In: History of Psychiatry, ISSN 0957-154X, E-ISSN 1740-2360, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 180-199Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical studies on the institutionalization of the mentally ill have primarily relied on data for institutionalized patients rather than the population at risk. Consequently, the underlying factors of institutionalization are unclear. Using Swedish longitudinal microdata from 1900–59 reporting mental disorders, we examine whether supply factors, such as distance to institutions and number of asylum beds, influenced the risk of institutionalization, in addition to demand factors such as access to family. Institutionalization risks were associated with the supply of beds and proximity to an asylum, but also dependent on families’ unmet demand for care of relatives. As the supply of mental care met this family-driven demand in the 1930s, the relative risk of institutionalization increased among those lacking family networks.

  • 9.
    Meyer, Anna C.
    et al.
    Institute of Environmental Medicine Unit of Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ebeling, Marcus
    Institute of Environmental Medicine Unit of Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Drefahl, Sven
    Stockholm University Demography Unit, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hedström, Margareta
    Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC) Karolinska Institutet Department of Clinical Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital Department of Orthopaedics, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ek, Stina
    Institute of Environmental Medicine Unit of Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Modig, Karin
    Institute of Environmental Medicine Unit of Epidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The impact of hip fracture on geriatric care and mortality among older swedes: Mapping care trajectories and their determinants2023In: American Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0002-9262, E-ISSN 1476-6256, Vol. 192, no 1, p. 41-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the impact of hip fractures on trajectories of home care, care home residence, and mortality among individuals aged 65 and older and explores the impact of living arrangement, cohabitation, frailty, and socioeconomic position on these trajectories. Based on a linkage of nationwide Swedish population registers, our study included 20,573 individuals with first hip fracture in 2014-2015. Care trajectories during two years following the fracture were visualized and compared to two hip fracture-free control groups drawn from the general population; age-and-sex-matched controls and health-matched controls identified through propensity score matching. Multistate modeling was employed to identify sociodemographic and health-related factors associated with care trajectories among hip fracture patients. Already before their fracture, hip fracture patients had worse health than the general population. However, when controlling for pre-fracture health, hip fractures still had a considerable impact on care use and mortality. Comparisons to the health-matched controls suggest that hip fractures have an immediate, yet short-term, impact on care trajectories. Long-term care needs are largely attributable to poorer health profiles independent of the fracture itself. This emphasizes the importance of adequate comparison groups when examining the consequences of diseases which are often accompanied by other underlying health problems.

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  • 10.
    Meyer, Anna C.
    et al.
    Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Modig, Karin
    Unit of Epidemiology, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Nationwide data on home care and care home residence: presentation of the Swedish Social Service Register, its content and coverage2022In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 50, no 7, p. 946-958Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: All Swedish municipalities are legally obliged to provide publicly funded eldercare to individuals in need. The Swedish Social Service Register collects data on such care. It is the only nationwide source of information on care home residency and use of home care but has rarely been used for research. This study aims to present the content and coverage of the Social Service Register and to provide guidance for researchers planning to use these data.

    Methods: For each month between 2013and 2020, we examined which of Sweden’s 290 municipalities reported data to the Social Service Register. We calculated proportions of the population (restricted to ages 80–89 years to enable comparison) that were reported to the Social ServiceRegister in each municipality and presented the types and amount of care recorded in the register.

    Results: The proportion of municipalities reporting to the Social Service Register increased from 82% to 98% during the study period but several municipalities reported fragmentarily and inconsistently, particularly during earlier years. Among municipalities reporting to the Social Service Register, 9% of the population aged 80–89 years resided in care homes and 19% received home care, but the registered amount and types of care varied substantially between municipalities and over time.

    Conclusions: The Swedish Social Service Register provides valuable data for research on aging and eldercare utilization, but data should be selected and vetted carefully, especially for earlier years. The amount and types of care may not always be comparable between geographical regions and different time periods. In recent years, however, the coverage of the Social Service Register is good.

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  • 11.
    Oláh, Livia
    et al.
    Dept. of Sociology, Demography Unit, Stockholm University.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Committed to independence?: An exploratory study of living-apart-together (LAT) in contemporary Sweden2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is among the countries with the highest share of single households in Europe, but not all are truly partnerless. We explore who are living-apart-together beyond ages of the late twenties and their potential vulnerability, analyzing data of the Swedish GGS. We apply multinomial logistic regression. The results show that vis-á-vis co-residence, LAT is more prevalent among: i) childless men than women, but the opposite is true for single parents; ii) the elderly (aged 70+); iii) those with long-term illness. Individuals engaged in LAT seem to be better off than singles, but are more likely to have economic difficulties than the co-residents. Neither growing up in a non-intact family, non-Swedish origin, metropolitan residence, nor educational attainment matter for living-apart-together rather than in any other living arrangement. The majority feels constrained to have separate households, rather than this being their choice, yet concerns of vulnerability in relation to LAT seem exaggerated.

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  • 12.
    Oláh, Livia Sz.
    et al.
    Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University.
    Karlsson, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Living-apart-together (lat) in contemporary Sweden: (how) does it relate to vulnerability?2023In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 44, no 1, p. 3-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden is among the countries with the highest share of single households in Europe, but not all are truly partnerless. We examine the potential vulnerability of individuals in living-apart-together relationships at age 30 and above, analyzing data from the Swedish GGS. We apply multinomial logistic regression. The results show that individuals engaging in LAT occupy an intermediate position in terms of socioeconomic resources (homeownership and economic situation), being less advantaged than co-residents but better-off than singles, especially men. We find no association between ill-health and living in a LAT arrangement. Having previous family experiences (unions with or without children) is positively associated with LAT, but childhood family composition does not matter. The majority of LAT individuals claim to be constrained to living-apart-together rather than LAT being their preferred alternative. Women and the elderly (aged 70+) are, however, more likely to engage in LAT by choice and appreciate their non-residential partnerships.

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  • 13.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Reher, David
    Requena, Miguel
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Going It Alone in Later Life: A Comparative Analysis of Elderly Women in Sweden and Spain2019In: Journal of Family Issues, ISSN 0192-513X, E-ISSN 1552-5481, Vol. 40, no 8, p. 1038-1064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the determinants of living alone in later life in Spain and Sweden, two countries with relatively similar levels of economic development from a global view point but different family systems and institutional contexts. With microdata coming from census (Spain) and linked administrative registers (Sweden), logistic regression techniques, including a nonlinear regression–based decomposition of differences between, are used to estimate the weight of different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women. Theoretical expectations are validated. Levels of living alone are associated with age, childlessness, marital status, and education in both populations. Population characteristics (compositions effects) explain only a small part of the differences in living alone between both countries, while behaviors (rate effects) account for the larger part of the variation. Therefore, among elderly women proximate determinants of living arrangements produce different outcomes in different sociocultural environments largely determined by existing family systems.

  • 14.
    Reher, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Ciencas Politicas y Sociología, Universidad Complutense, Madrid.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Dimensions of Rational Decision-making During the Demographic Transition; Aranjuez (Spain) Revisited2015In: Historical Life Course Studies, E-ISSN 2352-6343, Vol. 2, p. 20-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of linked reproductive histories taken from the Spanish town of Aranjuez during the demographic transition is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. This paper builds on the existing literature and especially on the findings first shown in Reher & Sanz-Gimeno (2007) and in Van Poppel et al. (2012) where the links between childhood survival and reproductive decision-making were specified. This paper goes beyond the original ones in two  important ways: (a) the sex composition of the surviving sibset is included in the analysis and (b) behavior is modeled by means of event history analysis. In these models, controls for the survival status of the previous child are introduced so as to distinguish between biological factors related to the cessation of breastfeeding and both short term (child replacement) and more long-term reproductive strategies. The results offer convincing proof that couples were continually regulating their fertility in order to achieve reproductive goals both in terms of net fertility and of the sex composition of the resulting sibset. Here results show that both sexes were desired by parents but that lack of surviving males had greater influence on fertility behavior. As expected, controls for the survival status of the previous-born child were important though they did not diminish appreciably the overall effect of the number of surviving offspring. This article offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history of the couple.

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  • 15.
    Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Spain.
    Requena, Miguel
    UNED, Spain.
    De Santis, Gustavo
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Esteve, Albert
    Centre d’Estudis Demogràfics, Spain.
    Livi Bacci, Massimo
    Università degli Studi di Firenze, Italy.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The COVID-19 pandemic in an aging world2020Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since death rates from the COVID-19 are highest among the oldest, the impact of the current pandemic in a given society depends to a large extent on the share of elderly persons and their living arrangements. Whereas the former is well known, the latter is not. Arguably, contagion itself and the severity of its symptoms are likely to vary among elderly persons living alone, co-residing with family members or dwelling in institutions. Arguments in favour and against the premise that single-living elderly are better able to self-isolate can be made. Long-term care facilities have worsened the effects of the epidemic because they have often become death traps in some but not all countries. Once contagion takes place, living arrangements can make a huge difference in the way the disease can be managed by the individual, his family and society. Properly understanding the dynamics of contagion and the handling of the disease in terms of living arrangements of elderly people is essential for effectively tackling future outbreaks of similar epidemics.

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  • 16. Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    van Poppel, Frans W. A.
    Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe During the Demographic Transition: A Comparative Perspective2017In: Demography, ISSN 0070-3370, E-ISSN 1533-7790, Vol. 54, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We use a set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands, and Spain for the period 1871–1960 to address key issues regarding how reproductive change was linked specifically to mortality and survivorship and more generally to individual agency. Using event-history analysis, this study investigates how the propensity to have additional children was influenced by the number of surviving offspring when reproductive decisions were made. The results suggest that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals. Families experiencing child fatalities show significant increases in the hazard of additional births. In addition, the sex composition of the surviving sibset also appears to have influenced reproductive decisions in a significant but changing way. The findings offer strong proof of active decision-making during the demographic transition and provide an important contribution to the literature on the role of mortality for reproductive change.

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  • 17.
    Reher, David Sven
    et al.
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Sanz-Gimeno, Alberto
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    van Poppel, Frans W. A.
    Netherlands Interdisciplinary Demographic Institute (NIDI).
    Agency in Fertility Decisions in Western Europe during the Demographic Transition: The Role of Childhood Mortality and Sex-Composition2015In: Popoulation Association of America 2015 Annual Meeting: Session 150: Sex Preferences and Sex Composition Effects on Fertility Intentions, San Diego, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A set of linked reproductive histories taken from Sweden, the Netherlands and Spain for the period 1871-1960 is used to address key issues regarding reproductive change and reproductive choice. Using event history analysis the paper investigates how the hazard of additional births was influenced by childhood mortality and the sex-composition among the surviving children when the reproductive decisions were made. The preliminary results show that couples were continuously regulating their fertility to achieve reproductive goals even during the early stages of the fertility transition. Couples experiencing child fatalities as well as gender imbalance in the surviving sibset show significant increases in the hazard of additional births net of any biological impact of terminated breastfeeding. The findings offers strong proof for the existence of active decision-making during the demographic transition and applies a method to model these behaviors over the full reproductive history.

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  • 18.
    Requena, Miguel
    et al.
    Departamento de Sociología II, UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educación a Distancia) and GEPS (Grupo de Estudios ‘Población y Sociedad’), Madrid, Spain.
    Reher, David
    Facultad de Ciencias Políticas y Sociología (Departamento de Sociología II), UCM (Universidad Complutense de Madrid) and GEPS (Grupo de Estudios ‘Población y Sociedad’), Madrid, Spain.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Women living alone in later life: A multicountry comparative analysis2019In: Population, Space and Place, ISSN 1544-8444, E-ISSN 1544-8452, Vol. 25, no 7, article id e2269Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper compares the determinants of living alone among elderly women in six countries (Tanzania, Kyrgyzstan, Indonesia, Brazil, Spain, and Sweden) with very different family systems, policy contexts, levels of development, and socio-economic characteristics. Different factors behind the residential choices of elderly women are estimated by means of logistic regression. Decomposition models are used to assess the extent to which observed differences between countries correspond to specific population compositions or to other factors. Although the importance of all independent variables for living alone is shown to be strong and statistically significant, persistent intercountry disparities in behaviour linked to levels of familism and development remain. Population composition explains only a small part of the observed differences in living alone. Economic development provides an important underlying explanation for the incidence of living alone among women, but many specific differences can also be explained by societal characteristics such as family systems and available policy options.

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  • 19.
    Sandstrom, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    The mid-twentieth century baby boom in Sweden: changes in the educational gradient of fertility for women born 1915-19502014In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 120-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes changes in the educational gradient of fertility among Swedish women who participated in the mid twentieth-century baby boom. Using individual-level data covering the entire Swedish population drawn from the Population and Housing Census of 1960, and the Multi-generation Register, the study determines fertility outcomes during the baby boom across educational strata. The results indicate important differences between the first wave of the baby boom during the 1940s and the second peak in the 1960s. This is the case with regard to both education and age-specific fertility patterns. The results show that a pertinent feature of the first wave was a recovery among older women who had postponed births during the 1930s, and that the educational gradient was still strongly negative at this time. On the other hand, the second wave during the 1960s was primarily created by increased fertility among younger women below 30 years of age. For these women born in the 1930s and 1940s, who increased their educational levels compared to earlier generations, fertility differentials across educational strata were almost eliminated. This convergence of childbearing behavior between high and low educated women was an important prerequisite for the second peak of the Swedish baby boom in the 1960s, as the proportion of secondary and post-secondary educated women had increased substantially in the cohorts born since the mid 1930s.

  • 20.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    A reversal of the socioeconomic gradient of nuptiality during the Swedish mid-20th-century baby boom2017In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 37, no 50, p. 1625-1658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND Research into the causes of the mid-twentieth-century baby boom has concluded that the main proximate cause of the fertility increase during the 1940s was earlier and more universal marriage in the cohorts born after 1910, and that this association between nuptiality trends and fertility was particularly strong in Sweden.

    OBJECTIVE However, we do not know whether this was a general trend or if certain socio-economic groups spearheaded the change towards earlier marriage.

    METHODS The present study uses event history analysis to investigate the marital histories of approximately 100,000 men and women in Sweden, born 1880-1934, to determine how socio-economic differentials in nuptiality developed during the period 1900-1960.

    CONCLUSIONS The analysis shows that the sharp increase in nuptiality was not driven uniformly across different social strata, but rather took the form of earlier and more universal marriage among men in the mid and upper social strata and among economically active women, while male unskilled workers and women outside the labor market did not participate in the nuptiality boom during the peak baby boom years and even showed some signs of decreased marriage probabilities compared to earlier cohorts.

    CONTRIBUTION The results indicate that sector-specific economic growth after the depression and the breakthrough of the Swedish welfare state benefitted couples who could aspire to a middle-class identity, and that pronatalist policies made female economic activity more compatible with marriage. The results show that the shift towards a positive female socio-economic gradient of marriage and family formation that can be observed in contemporary Sweden, had its beginnings already with the cohorts that participated in the mid-twentieth-century baby boom.

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  • 21.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Från stora till små familjer: Historisk demografi som verktyg för att förstå drivkrafter bakom globala befolkningsförändringar2020In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets Årsbok 2020 / [ed] Jacobsson, Roger, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundet , 2020, Vol. 33, p. 49-69Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This article focuses on how research on the European historical fertility decline can be used to inform us on current demographic developments. Specifically, it focuses on how reduced infant and child mortality was a necessary precondition for the shift from large to small families through the adoption of parity-dependent fertility control in Europe during the late 19th and early twentieth century. A conclusion of these findings is that reduced population growth in today's developing nations is highly unlikely as long as child health and survival have not reached levels where parents can be reasonably sure that all their children survive to adulthood.

  • 22.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    “Laws shouldn’t chain people to one another”: Attitudes toward divorce in Swedish public debate 1964-19722011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labor force participation rate of marriedwomen and the divorce rate increased more than during any other period of the twentiethcentury. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, cohabitation among unmarried spouses andincreasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developmentsexemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition, and weremarkedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. Studying the national newspapersfrom 1964 to 1969, this paper traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomicchanges on the public debate on divorce prior to the implementation of the 1974divorce law.The Swedish divorce law of 1974 was based on unilateral no-fault and thus meant aremoval of more or less all legal constraints against divorce. The aim of this paper is toidentify the normative views of divorce that dominated the public debate during the secondhalf of the 1960s, just prior to the implementation of the new divorce law. In thispaper, the daily press is used to detect the arguments that were publically raised for andagainst an increased access to divorce and how the argumentation changed over time.With regard to gender and socio-economic position, the study further identifies the participantsin the debate and whether they represented any political or other group affiliations.Focusing on this divorce debate, the findings will contribute to the knowledge onhow changes in cultural and normative values in society interact with dramatic demographicdevelopments and institutional changes.

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  • 23.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Ready, Willing and Able: The Divorce Transition in Sweden 1915-19742012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis attempts to extend the historical scope of divorce research in Sweden by providing an analysis ofhow the variations in the divorce rate over time and across geographical areas are connected to the economic, normative and institutional restructuring of Swedish society during the period 1915-1974. The thesis finds that the economic reshaping of Sweden into a modern market economy is at the center of the process that has resulted in decreased marital stability during the twentieth century. The shift from a single- to a dual-provider model and an increased integration of both men and women into market processes outside the family have resulted in lowered economic interdependence between spouses, which in turn has decreased the economic constraints to divorce. This conclusion is supported by the empirical finding that indicators of female economic self-sufficiency are associated with increased propensities for divorce, during the entire period under research in this thesis. That changes in the constraints experienced by women have been important is further emphasized by the finding that women have been more prone than men to initiate divorce, and that this gendered pattern of divorce was established already during the early twentieth century in Sweden.The results further indicate that the growth of divorce is connected not only to a shift in the provider model but also to the way sustained economic growth has resulted in a general increase in the resources available to individuals, as proposed by the socio-economic growth hypothesis. During the 1920s and 1930s, high-strata groups, such as lawyers, journalists, engineers and military officers, exhibited a divorce rate on the same level as in the general population of Sweden today. By the early 1960s, however, this positive associa- tion between social class and divorce had changed: by then it was rather couples in working-class occupations who exhibited the highest probability of divorce, which is a pattern that appears to have persisted since then. These findings indicate that a general increase and more even distribution of economic resources betweenboth genders and social classes have facilitated individuals’ possibilities to sustain themselves independent of family ties. This democratization in the access to divorce has meant that growing segments of the populationhave gained the means to act on a demand for divorce.However, another result of the thesis is that it is not possible to limit the analysis to a strictly economic perspective. Rather, economic changes have interacted with and been reinforced by changes in values, as wellas in institutions, during the periods when widespread and rapid behavioral change has occurred. In Sweden, like in most other Western countries, this was primarily the case during the 1940s and a period covering approximately the second half of the 1960s and first half of the 1970s. The studies of the thesis suggest that these two periods of rapid growth in the divorce rate stand out as periods in Swedish history when attitudes also changed more rapidly toward values that can be regarded as permissive, secular and more open to indi- vidual freedom of choice. Trenchantly, these two periods also correspond to the two harvest periods in Social Democratic welfare state policy. In the thesis it is argued that the marked increase in government services and social security at these time points integrated with and reinforced economic restructuring in a way that worked to “de-familializate” individuals by making them less dependent on family ties for social security. Institutional changes of this type have been particularly important for making single life more feasible for women and low- income groups. In the thesis, it is argued that the timings of substantial behavioral change become difficult to understand if the analytical perspective does not explicitly incorporate how such contextual-level changes in values and institutions have integrated with changes in the provider model and the economy during thesedynamic periods of the divorce transition in Sweden.

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  • 24.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Socio-economic determinants of divorce in early twentieth-century Sweden2011In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, ISSN 1081-602X, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 292-307Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using a combination of census data and aggregated divorce statistics, this study investigates how socio-economic conditionsinfluenced the risk of divorce among men in different occupations during the 1920s and 1930s in Sweden. The results support thetheoretical presupposition that the stability of marriage was associated with the degree of economic interdependence betweenspouses. Rural, low-income, single-provider households with many children exhibit a significantly lower probability of divorcethan urban, dual-provider, high-income households with few children. This lends support to a socio-economic growth hypothesisstating that lower levels of marriage stability first developed in the more affluent strata of society living in urban settings. Thetendency of decreasing marriage stability then successively spread to the middle and lower classes as the divorce rate continued toincrease during the course of the twentieth century.

  • 25.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stretching from the past to the present: using historical demography to understand current trends2016In: The future of historical demography: upside down and inside out / [ed] Koen Matthijs, Saskia Hin, Jan Kok and Hideko Matsuo, Leuven: Acco, 2016, p. 28-30Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    The Breakthrough of a Post-Materialistic Marital Ideology: The discussion of divorce in Swedish newspapers during the 1960s2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 161-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the 1960s and 1970s in Sweden, both the labour force participation rate of married women and the divorce rate increased more than any other period of the 20th century. Higher levels of extramarital fertility, non-marital cohabitation, and increasing age at first birth accompanied the rise of these two rates. These developments exemplify phenomena associated with the second demographic transition (SDT), and were markedly evident in Sweden during the 1960s and 1970s. By investigating the debate on divorce in national newspapers during the 1960s, this study traces the impact of these demographic and socioeconomic changes prior to the implementation of the permissive 1974 divorce law in Sweden. The main finding of the study is that a normative shift occurred in Sweden during the 1960s. From 1964 to 1969, publicly expressed attitudes towards divorce were increasingly characterized by post-materialist and individualistic values and a marital ideology prioritizing individual autonomy and emotional fulfilment started to dominate the debate. Conversely, representatives expressing a conservative view on marriage that framed the conjugal family rather than the individual as the most important social unit were increasingly marginalized in public discussions.

  • 27.
    Sandström, Glenn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS). Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Time–space trends in Swedish divorce behaviour 1911–19742011In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 65-90Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how the divorce rate in Sweden has varied over time and across different geographical areas during the period 1911-1974, and how these variations can be connected to the political, socio-economic, and cultural development in Sweden. The analysis provides empirical support for the hypothesis that increased divorce rates has been the result of changes in the structural conditions that determine the degree of economic interdependence between spouses. There is a strong connection between the degree of urbanization and the divorce rate on a regional level for the entire research period. The statistical analysis of the regional data indicates that these patterns are connected to the more diversified economy that has developed in urban settings, in the form of a more qualified labor market and higher wages for females. These characteristics resulted in a faster and more pronounced reduction of economic interdependence between spouses, which made divorce more attainable in these areas as compared to rural settings.

  • 28.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Garðarsdóttir, Ólöf
    Long-Term Perspectives on Divorce in the Nordic Countries: Introduction2018In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 43, no 1, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are often put forward as forerunners in the acceptance of permissive divorce practices and in the shift away from a patriarchal family system during the twentieth century. This special issue focuses on the long term historical path dependencies that make Nordic institutions and norms regarding divorce stand out as liberal and individualistic in an international comparison, but also shed new light on the differences that exist between the countries. Specific traits that are raised is the role played by the shared Lutheran culture that facilitated the breakthrough of a secular notion of marriage as a civil contract, but also the important role played by the first wave feminist movement in all of the Nordic countries for the early breakthrough of liberal divorce laws. However, it is clear that permissive norms and institutions have tended to spread in two distinct waves with leaders and laggards within the Nordic context. In the early twentieth century, Denmark and Norway spearheaded the shift to bi-lateral no-fault divorce. In the 1970s, Sweden took over as the leader when the country adopted unilateral no-fault divorce while Finland consistently has tended to stand out as the conservative laggard within the Nordic context.

  • 29.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Gender gaps and educational differences in living alone across Europe2019In: N-IUSSP, ISSN 2704-7067Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, the proportion of individuals living alone has increased in many European countries. Glenn Sandström and Lena Karlsson compare the living arrangements of the working-age population, showing that in more gender-equal countries, gender differences are smaller (also) in this respect and that the highly educated are the least likely to live alone.

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  • 30.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden; Institute of Environmental Medicine (IMM), Epidemiology, Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    The educational gradient of living alone: A comparison among the working-age population in Europe2019In: Demographic Research, ISSN 1435-9871, Vol. 40, p. 1645-1670, article id 55Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In recent decades, the proportion of individuals in Western countries living in a one-person household has increased. Previous research has mainly focused on the increase among the elderly and younger segments of the population, and there is a lack of research regarding the characteristics of individuals living alone among the working-age population.

    Objective: The aim of this study is to examine the educational gradient of living alone in the working-age population (aged 30–64 years) in a comparative perspective and to assess if the differences in the educational gradient are related to the level of gender equality in different European societies.

    Methods: Using data on 12 European countries from the Generations and Gender Surveys, the estimated probabilities of living alone for men and women with different levels of education were calculated using logistic regression models while controlling for parental status and differences in the age distribution across different populations.

    Results: In the more gender equal countries, we found a negative educational gradient of living alone, especially for men, with decreasing gender differences in the probability of living alone as education increases. In the less gender equal countries, women tend to live alone to a higher extent than men regardless of their educational level. In the least gender equal countries, we found a positive educational gradient of living alone most markedly among women. Here we found the lowest probability of living alone among those who had received only a primary education and the highest levels among men and women with university degrees. Thus, we found a shift in the educational gradient of living alone from a negative gradient in the most gender equal countries in Northern Europe to a positive gradient in the least gender equal countries in the South and in Eastern Europe.

    Contribution: This study highlights differences in living alone for men and women in the working-age population in Europe across different levels of education.

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  • 31.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A prelude to the dual provider family: the changing role of female labor force participation and occupational field on fertility outcomes during the baby boom in Sweden 1900–602019In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 149-173Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By investigating changes in the association between women’s socioeconomic status, labor market activity and fertility outcomes during the Swedish baby boom 1900–60 this study reaches three main conclusions. First, the results show that a convergence of fertility behavior occurred across female socioeconomic strata during the peak baby boom period in the 1940s and 1950s in terms of a strong two child norm. Second, the negative socio-economic gradient of fertility found in Sweden before the baby boom declined sharply among women who came of age during the 1940s and 1950s, as white-collar women increased their fertility more than all the other strata. Third, this was especially the case for women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have a substantially higher fertility was thus formed in Sweden already during the 1940s and 1950s. The empirical finding fit with the interpretation that middle-class women employed in the public sector experienced stronger reductions in constraints to family formation compared to women employed in the private sector. We propose that the pronatalist polices implemented in the 1930s and 1940s, especially the extensive improvements in employment protection implemented for women who got married or became pregnant in the late 1930s in Sweden, is one important factor to consider when we try to understand why especially women employed in the public sector in education and healthcare increased their fertility more than other groups.

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  • 32.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the changing effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education during the first half of the 20th century. The analysis reaches three main findings. Firstly, there is a marked shift in the effect of female economic activity on fertility in the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. During this period a strong convergence of fertility behavior across female economic strata occurs and a two child norm is established that has persisted in Sweden since then. Secondly, the negative impact of female economic activity especially for upper strata women is strongly reduced among women that came of age during the 1940s and 1950s. Thirdly, this was especially the case for upper strata women engaged in the so called ‘caring professions’ that exhibit by far the largest changes in behavior. The pattern found in contemporary Western contexts where women in healthcare and education have substantially higher fertility formed already during the 1940s and 1950s in Sweden. The finding of the study illustrates how the mid-twentieth century baby boom works as a ”hinge” between contemporary fertility patterns and those that prevailed during the historical decline up until the 1930s.

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  • 33.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Marklund, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Fertility differentials in Sweden during the first half of the twentieth century: the effect of female labor force participation and occupational field2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Contrary to the expected negative link between rising female education and fertility it has been shown that in Sweden (Sandström, 2014a) and many other Western countries (Van Bavel, 2014a; Van Bavel et al., 2015) fertility differentials across educational strata decreased sharply during the baby boom. Studies on contemporary data find that the field of education/occupation has a larger net effect than the level of education (Hoem, Neyer, & Andersson, 2006a; e.g. Michelmore & Musick, 2014a; Van Bavel, 2010). Little is however know about the fertility patterns among economically active women prior to the 1960s and how they changed over time. Using individual level data this paper investigates the fertility of women in different sectors of the economy in Sweden during the early expansion of female labor force participation and higher education from the 1920s up until the end of the baby boom.

  • 34.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Namatovu, Fredinah
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ineland, Jens
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Larsson, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Stattin, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    The Persistence of High Levels of Living Alone Among Adults with Disabilities in Sweden, 1993–20112021In: Population: Research and Policy Review, ISSN 0167-5923, E-ISSN 1573-7829, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 163-185Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates how the probability to live alone has developed among working age individuals with and without disabilities in Sweden during the period 1993–2011 when extensive political reforms to improve the integration of disabled individuals in society were implemented. The results show that individuals with disabilities are approximately twice as likely to be living alone when compared to individuals without disabilities. People with disabilities were also more likely to report low life satisfaction, and this was especially true among individuals with disabilities living alone. Men and women with disabilities also tend to experience longer periods of living as a one-person household than non-disabled people. Over time we find no indications of reduced differences in family outcomes between disabled and non-disabled individuals but rather evidence to the contrary. These differences are interpreted as being the result of the disadvantage disabled individual’s experience in the partner market and that people with disabilities are less successful in forming partnerships that can lead to cohabitation and family formation. The results thus show how disabled individuals still face societal barriers that limit their possibilities to find and sustain relationships that result in stable cohabitation despite increased efforts to improve their inclusion in Swedish society.

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  • 35.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University.
    Noguchi, Haruko
    Faculty of Political Science and Economics, Waseda University, Waseda Institute of Political Economy, and Waseda Institute of Social & Human Capital Studies.
    FU, Rong
    School of Commerce, Waseda University.
    Changes in demographic and socioeconomic determinants of living alone among women in Sweden and Japan since the 1990s2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in one-person household (OPHs) in the developed world is often seen as theresult of a trend where family solidarity is replaced by individualistic values and behaviourswhere the Nordic countries have been identified as forerunners in this development. In Asia,countries such as Japan have reached equal levels of economic development but retainelements of a strong family system and exhibit a much more asymmetric gender regime.This study compares the changes in the demographic and socioeconomic composition ofOPH women in Sweden and Japan between 1990 and 2016. The probability to be an OPHhousehold is analysed by means of logistic regression models using microdata covering the entire population in Sweden and the Comprehensive Survey of Living Conditions in Japan. In Sweden, the growth of the female OPH population has halted and shifted to a decline compared to Japan where it has increased rapidly since the 1990s. The analysis finds increasing similarities between the countries in the age patterns and urban-rural differences while persistent contrast in the impact of women’s socioeconomic status and family history remains salient. The findings provide evidence that the transformation of women’s economic role does not result in an ever-increasing shift towards “less” family. Rather, living arrangements depend on the extent to which gender regime adapts to increased economic self-sufficiency among women. These findings highlight the need for preparedness for continued increases of the OPH population among policymakers in economically developed strong family societies such as Japan 

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  • 36.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Stockholm University Demography Unit (SUDA), Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Noguchi, Haruko
    Faculty of Political Science and Economics, Waseda Institute of Political Economy, and Waseda Institute of Social & Human Capital Studies, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Fu, Rong
    School of Commerce, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan.
    Convergence and persistent contrasts in the determinants of working-age women in Sweden and Japan living alone since the 1990s2023In: Genus - Journal of Population Sciences, E-ISSN 2035-5556, Vol. 79, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increase in one-person households (OPHs) in the developed world is often seen as the result of a trend in which individualistic values and behaviors are replacing family solidarity. Nordic countries have been identified as frontrunners in this development. In Asia, equally developed countries like Japan retain elements of a strong-family system and an asymmetrical gender regime, simultaneously as they are experiencing rapid increases in OPHs. This article aims to uncover how the demographic and socioeconomic composition of OPHs have developed since the 1990s among working-age women in Sweden and Japan. Our results show that, in particular, civil status and income play different roles for OPH-living in Sweden and Japan. In contrast to Japan, the level of OPHs remained stable over time in Sweden, and even declined among women with high incomes. This suggests that the negative association between family formation and women’s economic activity is temporary and only prevails as long as society has not adapted to the convergence of men’s and women’s socioeconomic roles. The findings are discussed in light of the "second demographic transition" and "dual equilibrium theory".

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  • 37.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Reher, David
    Universidad Complutense de Madrid.
    Dimensions of rational decision-making during the demographic transition; Aranjuez (Spain) revisited2014In: European  Population  Conference  Budapest,  Hungary,  25-­‐28  June   2014: Presented in Session 114: Demographic transition from micro-perspective, 18-20th century, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Focusing on the issue of rational decision-making and human agency in historical contexts this paper investigates the influence of childhood mortality and the sex composition of the surviving offspring during the demographic transition in Spain. The main results show that parents adjusted their behavior in accordance with the number of surviving children and that child fatalities tended to stimulate further childbearing. Thus, parents seem to have actively regulated their fertility in order to achieve a minimum number of surviving children that would reach adulthood. Further, the results indicate that this active adjustment of fertility to compensate for child fatalities increased as the fertility transition progressed in the early twentieth century. As another indicator of agency in fertility decisions we use the sex composition of the surviving offspring. Also in this case, the results indicate that couples actively regulated their fertility to achieve a desired sex composition among the surviving children. Families that lacked surviving male offspring show a significant increase in the propensity for additional childbearing as compared to couples having a mixed or only boys sibset. Thus it seems, as the desire to have surviving boys was more important than having girls though the ideal sibset combination was one of each sex and that couples actively regulated their fertility to achieve this goal.

  • 38.
    Sandström, Glenn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Stanfors, Maria
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Socio-economic status and the rise of divorce in Sweden: the case of the 1880–1954 marriage cohorts in Västerbotten2023In: Population Studies, ISSN 0032-4728, E-ISSN 1477-4747, Vol. 77, no 3, p. 417-435Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An established negative association between socio-economic status (SES) and divorce has applied to most Western nations since 1960. We expected a positive association between SES and divorce for low-divorce contexts historically because only individuals in higher social strata had the resources to overcome barriers to divorce. According to Goode’s socio-economic growth theory, this relationship was reversed as industrialization and modernization began removing the economic and normative barriers. Making use of longitudinal data from parish registers, we investigated SES and other micro-level determinants of divorce among men and women in northern Sweden who married between 1880 and 1954. Results indicated a positive association between SES and divorce among those who married 1880–1919, with the middle class, not the elite, featuring the highest divorce risks. This association changed for couples who married in the 1920s, for whom divorce became more common and the working class faced similar divorce risks to the higher social strata.