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  • 1.
    Ahnlund, Petra
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Andersson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Sundström, Madelene
    NCK.
    Heimer, Gun
    NCK.
    Prevalence and correlates of sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men of 60 to 74 years in Sweden2020In: Journal of Interpersonal Violence, ISSN 0886-2605, E-ISSN 1552-6518, Vol. 35, no 5-6, p. 1539-1561Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past-year sexual, physical, and psychological violence against women and men aged 60 to 74 years was studied. The data derived from a nationally representative survey on violence in which approximately 2,800 women and men aged 60 to 74 years in Sweden participated. Women were significantly more likely to have been subjected to at least one form of violence in the past year. The prevalence of sexual violence as well as systematic and repeated psychological violence was found to be significantly higher for women than for men. Sexual violence was the most common form of violence against women. Systematic and repeated psychological violence was the most common form of violence against men. Additional gender differences were found in relation to victim characteristics. While associations among women were found between violence victimization and sociodemographic characteristics, health as well as social capital, only health-related characteristics were found to be associated with past-year violence victimization among men. Among women, economic problems, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, lack of trust in other people, and not having anyone to talk to were associated with violence victimization. Poor psychological health and an at-risk consumption of alcohol were found to be associated with violence victimization among men. The results highlight the importance of research on violence victimization to assess gender differences also when inquiring into the situation among persons in older generations. The results also indicate practical implications for caring professions; the need to inquire into the experiences of violence among older persons and to pay particular attention to these characteristics when encountering women and men in this age interval.

  • 2.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Studying the trajectories and mediators of old-age problematic alcohol use and the agency of older persons2023Data set
    Abstract [en]

    Unit of analysis: Individual

    Population: Older people aged between 61 and 73 years who have sought treatment for alcohol at a specialist outpatient clinic in a metropolitan city in Sweden.

    Time Method: Cross-section

    Sampling procedure: Non-probability: Purposive

    The study participants were purposefully recruited from a specialist outpatient alcohol treatment clinic located in a Swedish metropolitan city. To be eligible for the study, participants had to be 55 years or older, had to self-report a history of problematic alcohol use and treatment for alcohol use after the age of 50. Individuals who were unable or unwilling to provide informed consent or participate in the interview via Zoom, Skype, or telephone were excluded from the study.

    Time period(s) investigated: 2021-12 – 2022-04

    Number of individuals/objects: 10

    Data format / data structure: Text

  • 3.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. The Cross-National Behavioral Health Laboratory; Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.
    A Multidimensional Latent Class Analysis of Harmful Alcohol Use Among Older Adults: Subtypes Within the Swedish Addiction Severity Index Registry2020In: Journal of addiction medicine, ISSN 1932-0620, E-ISSN 1935-3227, Vol. 14, no 4, p. e89-e99Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The present study aimed to identify multidimensional typologies of harmful alcohol use based on the Swedish Addiction Severity Index (ASI) assessment data on individuals aged 50 years and above.

    Methods: Latent class analysis examined 11 indicators from ASI data on 1747 individuals (men = 1255, women = 492) who reported they were troubled by alcohol problem at least one day in the past 30 days before their assessment. The discriminative validity of the classes was assessed by comparing other measures of individual characteristics and problem severity of other ASI dimensions.

    Results: Five subtypes of harmful alcohol use were identified. Two classes with alcohol problems varying in psychosocial functioning, age composition and ages of onset of both regular and heavy drinking. Two with psychiatric comorbidity but varying in violence, criminality, gender composition and ages of onset of regular and heavy drinking. One with high prevalence of concurrent use of other substances, psychiatric, legal, and employment problems.

    Conclusions: The analysis identified, in a national sample, heterogeneous risk groups of older adults with harmful alcohol use. These findings suggest a need for healthcare providers to assess older adults not only for their substance use but also for associated problems and needs. Given these findings, the Addiction Severity Index is a valuable assessment tool for older adults with harmful alcohol use.

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  • 4.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Lundgren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, Colorado.
    Alcohol subtypes in older adults: A multidimensional Latent Class Analysis of harmful alcohol use among oder adults: Subtypes within the Swedish addiction severity index registry2019Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 5.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). The Swedish National Graduate School for Competitive Science On Aging and Health (SWEAH), Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hammarberg, Anders
    Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    "Ageing with an alcohol problem is not what I envision": reclaiming agency in shaping personal ageing trajectory and recovery from alcohol problems2023In: BMC Geriatrics, E-ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 23, article id 866Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eliciting and understanding older persons’ descriptions of their resources for healthy ageing and the interaction of these resources with alcohol use and alcohol problems can facilitate health promotion. It can also inform clinicians when identifying areas of recovery capital that present risks and strength for older people seeking alcohol treatment. The objective of this study was to illuminate the experiences and perspectives of older persons on ageing, alcohol use, treatment, and recovery from alcohol problems, as well as their understanding of healthy ageing.

    Methods: Eight men and two women, aged 61 to 73 years, with moderate drinking as a treatment goal and treated at an outpatient alcohol clinic in Sweden, participated in semi-structured audio-recorded virtual interviews. A qualitative content analysis examined the transcribed interviews.

    Results: Three themes were identified: “Tipping the balance”, “Staying behind a veil” and “Lifting the vail”. First, participants understood healthy ageing as a personal and multidimensional process that involved actively expanding, maintaining or adjusting to the resources needed to lead an active and meaningful life while preserving autonomy, dignity and independence for as long as possible. Second, most participants viewed moderate alcohol use as a contributor to healthy ageing. They sought treatment when their drinking became unsustainable and an immediate threat to their healthy ageing resources. Stigma, ambivalence and a lack of treatment options, however, contributed to delayed treatment. Third, the participants responded to treatment approaches that elicited their concern, incorporated their expertise and treatment and life goals, appreciated their autonomy and agency, and considered them partners in goal setting and decision making. Reduced drinking helped participants regain their agency and improved their healthy ageing capital which in turn catalyzed continuing recovery.

    Conclusions: Older persons in non-abstinent recovery perceive healthy ageing and alcohol recovery as personal and interacting multidimensional processes involving their agency to improve biopsychosocial functioning. Treatment approaches that recognize older persons’ desire for healthy ageing, incorporate their treatment goals and respect their autonomy are likely to be acceptable and effective.

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  • 6.
    Jemberie, Wossenseged Birhane
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). The Swedish National Graduate School for Competitive Science on Ageing and Health (SWEAH), Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Stewart Williams, Jennifer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Research Centre for Generational Health and Ageing, Faculty of Health, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia.
    Eriksson, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Grönlund, Ann-Sofie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ng, Nawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blom Nilsson, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Priest, Kelsey Caroline
    MD/PhD Program, School of Medicine, Oregon Health & Science University, Portland, OR, United States.
    Sandlund, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychiatry.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    McCarty, Dennis
    Oregon Health & Science University- Portland State University, School of Public Health, Portland, OR, United States.
    Lundgren, Lena M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Cross-National Behavioral Health Laboratory, Graduate School of Social Work, University of Denver, Denver, CO, United States.
    Substance Use Disorders and COVID-19: Multi-Faceted Problems Which Require Multi-Pronged Solutions2020In: Frontiers in Psychiatry, E-ISSN 1664-0640, Vol. 11, article id 714Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    COVID-19 shocked health and economic systems leaving millions of people without employment and safety nets. The pandemic disproportionately affects people with substance use disorders (SUDs) due to the collision between SUDs and COVID-19. Comorbidities and risk environments for SUDs are likely risk factors for COVID-19. The pandemic, in turn, diminishes resources that people with SUD need for their recovery and well-being. This article presents an interdisciplinary and international perspective on how COVID-19 and the related systemic shock impact on individuals with SUDs directly and indirectly. We highlight a need to understand SUDs as biopsychosocial disorders and use evidence-based policies to destigmatize SUDs. We recommend a suite of multi-sectorial actions and strategies to strengthen, modernize and complement addiction care systems which will become resilient and responsive to future systemic shocks similar to the COVID-19 pandemic.

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  • 7.
    Nygård, Mikael
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Department och Social Science, Social Policy Unit.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The (non)politicisation of age discrimination in Finland and Sweden2014In: International journal of sociology and social policy, ISSN 0144-333X, E-ISSN 1758-6720, Vol. 34, no 9/10, p. 694-709Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The article aims at examining the politicisation of age discrimination in relation to the enactment of anti-discrimination legislation in Finland and Sweden in the early-2000s. By showing how politicians constructed the meaning of age discrimination, it seeks to highlight the drivers of country variation in terms of the implementation of directives from the European Union.

    Design/methodology/approach: The article uses a comparative design based on content analyses of parliamentary documents. Theoretically, it uses discursive institutionalism as a starting point but it also builds on previous research/theories on age discrimination.

    Findings: The findings show that although age was seen as a ground for discrimination in both countries, there was surprisingly little debate about discrimination as societal problem. There was however considerable differences between the countries suggesting that age discrimination was a much more heated subject in Sweden.

    Research limitations/implications: Although the analysis focuses on a small part of the policy-making process it highlights drivers (such as political culture) that may cause variation in the ways age discrimination is politicised, even within similar welfare state regimes. It also suggests that more research is needed to fully understand such drivers.

    Originality/value: By analysing the ways in which age discrimination was constructed as a problem within national policy-making frameworks, the article presents valuable insights as to the sources of country variation in relation to the implementation of EU directives

  • 8.
    Nygård, Mikael
    et al.
    Department of Social Sciences, Social Policy, Åbo Akademi University in Vasa, Finland.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    The politization of age discrimination: The parliamentary process relating to the enactment of anti-age-discrimination laws in Finland and Sweden in the 2000s2012In: 21st Nordic Congress of Gerontology. Dilemmas in ageing societies. (Abstracts and Program, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 10th-13th, 2012), 2012, p. 109-110Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Nyqvist, Fredrica
    et al.
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Social Policy Unit, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Nygård, Mikael
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Social Policy Unit, Åbo Akademi University, Vasa, Finland.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Changes in active ageing in a Nordic regional context: Results based on the GERDA study in 2005 and 20162022In: International Journal of Social Welfare, ISSN 1369-6866, E-ISSN 1468-2397, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 8-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examined changes in active ageing among 65/66- and 75/76-year-olds in northern Sweden and western Finland. Data were retrieved from a repeated cross-sectional survey conducted in 2005 and 2016. Logistic regression was used to estimate the probability of ageing actively in terms of employment, social and political participation, confidence in healthcare, economic situation, self-rated health and social contacts. The results showed no significant changes in employment, social participation or economic situation. However, the level of political participation and self-rated good health was significantly higher in 2016 compared with 2005, whereas confidence in healthcare and social contacts was lower. Considering that the implementation of active ageing policies relies heavily on municipal and/or regional level in our study region, our results could be used as a framework for regional policymaking.

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  • 10.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Critical reflections on a proposed definition of ageism: Issues of non-systematic research, validity and delimitation2012In: Ageing in the light of crisis: Economic crisis, demographic change, and the search for meaning, October 3-5, 2012, Umeå, Sweden, 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Samhällsvetenskapliga institutionen / Socialpolitik, Åbo Akademi, Vasa.
    Det beror på hur man tar det.: Kollektiva livsuttryck, individuella livslopp och meningskonstruerande processer i äldres livsberättelser2005Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    I avhandlingen avvänds livsberättelser som materialinsamlingsmetod för att fånga äldre människors levda erfarenheter. Frågorna som ställs i avhandlingen är: Vilka kollektivt konstruerade livsuttryck uppvisar respondenterna? På vilket sätt förhåller sig det individuellt konstruerade livsloppet till det kollektiva livsuttrycket och hur kan det individuella livsloppet lämpligast representeras? Finns det - och i så fall vilka är de - meningskonstruerande element som respondenterna använt i sina livsberättelser samt vilken betydelse har dessa för respondenternas upplevda välbefinnande? I studien presenteras de socialgerontologiska teorierna övergripande för att positionera avhandlingsarbetet. I studien har totalt sexton individer, nio finländska kvinnor och sju män i den kustnära Kvarkenregionen, deltagit och delgivit sina fritt formulerade livsberättelser.

    Baserat på det gemensamma mönster som framträder i alla livsberättelser beskrivs detta som livsfaser och olika livsyttryck under respektive livsfaser. De framträdande livsfaserna är: a) barndoms, ungdoms- och skoltiden, b) krigstiden, c) förvärvsarbetstiden och d) pensionärtiden. För respektive livsfas presenteras vilka liknande och åtskiljande mönster -eller livsuttryck - informanterna delger. De tolkade livsuttrycken baseras på vad och hur informanterna berättar om sina liv. Livsfaserna och livsuttrycken utgör grunden för presentationen av en övergripande typologi av hur livsberättelsernas innehåll kan beskrivas kollektivt. Ett mycket vanligt förekommande livsuttryck under pensiontiden är bland annat det som författaren valt att beskriva som ett "rikt liv". I ett avseende bryter detta livsuttryck mot den homogena bilden av, och i viss mån förekommande eländesbilder av, äldre människor. Samtidigt påvisas uttryckligen att den kollektiva bilden - eller typologin - som åskådliggörs alltid förvränger den enskilde individens berättelse. Detta används som ett reflexivt sätt att kritiskt problematisera - och etiskt förhålla sig - till den bild av informanternas livsberättelser som konstrueras i forskningsprocessen.

  • 12.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Gammfolket": Om livserfarenheter och vardagens ålderism2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     The overall aim of this thesis is to describe and analyse the age-related life experiences of elderly retired people and in relation to this to problematise ageism as an analytical concept in order to present a more dynamic understanding of the phenomenon of ageism in everyday life. Related to the overall objective three overarching research questions are addressed. How do elderly individuals relate to “age” in life and how do they express this in contexts in which standpoints are made in relation to age-codes? What can be generally said to represent the foundation of elderly people’s experiences of ageism? What all-embracing picture of ageism and age-coding is made visible when the phenomenon is examined using different kinds of methods for collecting and analysing empirical material?

    Research within the field of ageism is presented in terms of how it has been examined: as an ideology, as an “ideology” that is possible to deconstruct and as manifestations in everyday life. The hegemonic way of defining ageism is to associate it with prejudice, stereotyping and discriminationbased on age. This is viewed to be insufficient in order to understand ageism in everyday life. The positioning of the thesis in relation to the research field is therefore seen as problematising ageism as an analytical concept.

    The thesis consists of three different studies that are based on three different empirical materials. Life-stories, a questionnaire and focus group interviews are used to collect empirical material on the subject of elderly people’s age-related life experiences. The empirical materials and the studies connected to them are distinct ways of investigating ageism. Tentatively, methodtriangulation is applied in order to analyse the topic of ageism in everyday life from differenttheoretical perspectives.

    The most important conclusion is that ageism can be understood more dynamically as a practise that is exceptionally close to us individuals in everyday life. It is suggested that ageism is not only associated to age. Informants use alternative age-markers or time-markers in relation to which theyascribe meaning. When individuals tell their life-story the experiences are for example not tied to age. Age is hardly ever mentioned. In its place meaning is constructed around and ascribed to timemarkers such as for example “young”, “old”, “year”, “month”, “elderly” and so on. The use of and ascription of meaning to time-markers is also applicable in the other studies in the thesis. These alternative time-markers are suggested as something that also indicate ageism. Experiences and meaning are not solely focused on age. However, the meaning constructed in relation to the alternative markers is not unanimous, even if it sometimes appears to be. The experienced meaning takes many different forms and can by no means be fixated once and for all. An important conclusion is also that we cannot disregard gender in the understanding of ageism. It seems imperative to practice intersectional reasoning in order to understand the dynamics of ageism. Gendered ageism or gendered time-coding is essential in comprehending what people experience in everyday life. 

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  • 13.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    GERDA - Gerontological Regional Database: Overview and findings from a multinational and multidisciplinary research project2016In: Symposium at the 23rd Nordic Congress of Gerontology, Tampere, Finland, June 19-22, 2016, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim to present: an overview of the past, present and future activities within the multidisciplinary cross-country GERDA project, and, research findings based on empirical GERDA data published in international journals. The GERDA project started in 2000, at that point titled Umeå 85+ study, and has since then collected empirical data among older people in four waves. Data was collected in two ways (home visits to people 85 years of age and older and postal surveys to people 65, 70, 75 and 80 years of age). The two most recent waves of data collection were conducted in 2005 and 2010, a new wave of home visits started in spring 2015 and longitudinal data-collection will be carried out during autumn 2015 with a third wave of the GERDA survey. A high number of international publications originate from GERDA home visits (several listed on web-page: http://web.novia.fi/gerda/Rapporter/resultat.html), and two of the studies (nr. 2 and 4) will be presented in the session. At present 11 publications are based on GERDA survey data, two of which will be presented in the session (nr. 3 and 5). Other GERDA publications will be listed for overview.

  • 14.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Normative, empiricist and interpretive considerations in the ageism research process2018In: Contemporary perspectives on ageism / [ed] Liat Ayalon & Clemens Tesch-Römer, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 409-424Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter reflects on the normative, empiricist, and interpretive considerations researchers face in the process of researching ageism. The chapter is based on a doctoral dissertation that triangulated data, methods, and theory to explore how ageism is manifested and sustained in the lives of older people. Little attention has previously been devoted to the philosophy of science aspects explicitly related to ageism. An increasing number of ageism publications report on empirical data, but these publications are rarely explicitly related to epistemological and ontological questions. Consequently, there is a gap in what we know about the wide scope of challenges in researching ageism and in how we view and understand ageism in our world. Focusing on the different types of considerations researchers face is a way to show how the choices we are forced to make in the process enable us to or prevent us from making claims about the phenomenon of ageism. Delving into a wider study of epistemological and ontological questions while simultaneously examining ageism definitions and studies can hopefully guide future researchers to make better informed choices on a variety of ways to do research on ageism. Overlapping normative, empiricist, and interpretive contexts can be a way to identify novel research questions, design studies triangularly, and enable new knowledge about ageism, its origins, consequences, and practices.

  • 15.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perceived levels of ageism in society: A deconstructive approachManuscript (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

     Little attention has been devoted to how aged individuals relate to existing age attitudes at different levels of society. This article focuses on the general ways in which individuals (born in 1930 and 1940) report positive, neutral and negative attitudes towards elderly people in our society. The aim of this study is to present descriptive data on perceived ageism and based on this to identify a holistic model that outlines an option in which the explicit attitudes reported at different levels in society relate to each other. GERDA-survey data (n=2010) collected in 2005 in Sweden and Finland, principal component analysis and structural equation modelling (SEM) are applied in order to explore the topic. An attempt is made to connect survey items derived from previous gerontological research in Sweden to the explicit research field of ageism. Results suggest that aged individuals perceive and report experiences of ageism at individual, cultural and structural levels of society. These three levels, the mediational direction that links them and the intersectional issue of perceived gendered ageism are discussed in relation to previous empirical and theoretical contributions. One of the arguments emphasized is the necessity of analysing the constructs of ageism in order to identify a satisfying condition upon which it is possible to attribute ageism as potentially constitutive of individual subjective and objective experiences. 

  • 16.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Perceptions of birthday card messages: Negotiated, contradictory and counter-hegemonic meaning2009In: The Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, ISSN ISSN 1279-7707, EISSN 1760-4788, Vol. 13, no Supplement 1, p. s683-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age and ageing related humour expressed in birthday cards has been suggested to support negative attitudes towards aged people. Little attention has been paid to how retired people themselves experience these messages. The objective in this presentation is to depict some of the perceived meanings of age related messages envisioned in birthday cards. The empirical material consists of six focus group interviews collected in Sweden (3) and Finland (3) in 2007-2008. Retired women and men, urban and rural, living at home and institutionalized informants of different ages have participated. In the interview different cards were used as focus- or questions to achieve a ”...culturally appropriate instrument that accurately reflected the community’s life experiences” (Willgerodt, M.A. 2003, Western Journal of Nursing Research; 25[7]: 798-814) with regards to ageism as a phenomenon. Results indicate that informants negotiate consensus to the meaning of the age related messages in greeting cards within groups. Contradictory perceptions occur between groups. Perceptions of the messages in the cards appear both positive (good) and negative (bad). There is a notion of individual discrepancy in that individuals do not conform to neither of the two mentioned. This is discussed in terms of counter-hegemonic meaning and as counteracting ageism in everyday life. It can be concluded that negative attitudes are supported according to some people, but this does not give us the complex picture. Other people, other voices explicitly claim otherwise. There is a greater picture of meanings that are perceived in birthday cards if we look at the ways in which people actually relate to the cards in everyday life. This brings to the fore the issue of human agency and the freedom we have as humans to act according to existing norms, or to resist, or simply to live.

  • 17.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Retired peoples perceptions of birthday cards: A focus group design: 2008S011132008In: Sociological Abstracts from CSA: Supplement Abstracts / [ed] Conly, L., Jondle, J., Fontanilla, E., Miller, D., Ruben, M., & Weaver, S., 2008, p. 200-200Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Age & ageing related humour expressed in birthday cards has been suggested to support negative attitudes towards aged people. Little/no atten- tion has been paid to how retired people themselves experience this humour. Objective in this paper is to report retired peoples perceptions of ageism by using six birthday cards representing varying aging messages as topic in focus group interviews. In order to facilitate the uncovering of discourses perceptions & contradicting perceptions are highlighted in rela- tion to the different cards. Data consists of eight focus group interviews collected in Sweden (4) & Finland (4) in 2007-2008. Women & men, urban & rural, living at home and institutionalized retirees of different ages have participated. Interviews are analysed using computer-assisted soft- ware, primary with the objective of systematically categorizing percep- tions. Results indicate that people perceive double meanings in the birth- day cards. Perceptions appear both positive & negative in their nature. Participants reported negative accounts as “discrimination” & as “label- ling” elderly people in certain ways. An example of a positive account is the perception that messages are genuinely funny although negative in their nature. In addition this bipolar nature is discussed relating to what specific birthday cards optimally should contain.

  • 18.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Swedish School of Social Sciences, University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Whose ageism?: The reinvigoration and definitiopns of an elusive concept2016In: Nordic Psychology, ISSN 1901-2276, E-ISSN 1904-0016, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 148-159Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article deals with a critical conceptual understanding of ageism. It does so foremost by prob- lematizing some of the inadequacies in a previously published article that introduces a new defi- nition of the concept ageism. Attention is devoted to (i) the prima facie that the ageism concept is repeatedly underscored as a concept for older people exclusively and the "us-them" distinction; (ii) what the concept ageism means and different ways of defining ageism; and, (iii) different ways in which we desire to study ageism. The article finishes with a simple example in which age- ism is compared to a box of chocolates. The example is used to illuminate how we can carry out anti-ageist work more effectively in society. That is, to help us understand and sometimes avoid the different and relative inferiorities that follow with different ages, in order to come to grips with the different and relative inferiorities that is often assumed to come with old age.

  • 19.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Whose ageism? The reinvogoration and definitions of an elusive concept2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Yngre tittar på en och tänker, vilken gammal kärring": Om åldersdiskriminering och om att behandlas som gammal2012In: Äldres delaktighet, värdighet och hälsa: Resultat från GERDA-Botnia projektet / [ed] Susanne Jungerstam; MikaelNygård; Birgitta Olofsson; Tony Pellfolk; Maria Sund, Vasa: Novia publikation och produktion , 2012, p. 42-53Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom åldersgrupperna 65-, 70-, 75- och 80-åriga individer i Västerbotten och Österbotten tyckte en av tio att de under det senaste året hade behandlats som gamla. En mindre andel av individerna, mer precist 2.9 procent, ansåg att de hade blivit diskriminerade på grund av sin ålder under det senaste året. Bland annat det här visar resultaten från GERDA enkätstudien som genomfördes år 2010 och som besvarades av 6838 individer. Det här kapitlet beskriver situationer i vilka GERDA-enkätens svarare kärnfullt berättat om sina erfarenheter av att behandlas som gamla och av att ha blivit diskriminerade på grund av ålder.

  • 21.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ålderismens nivåer: en analytisk ram2008In: Ageing, dignity and diversity, Nordisk Gerontologisk Forening , 2008, p. 27-28Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Åldersdiskriminering kommer till uttryck genom att människor diskrimineras på arbetsmarknaden, inte har tillgång till hälso- och sjukvård på lika villkor eller är socialt exkluderade. Dessa mest iögonfallande exempel på diskriminering samt fördomar och stereotypa uppfattningar om äldre människor kan gemensamt beskrivas med samlingsbegreppet ålderism. Begreppet ålderism definierades i slutet av sextiotalet av Butler (1969)[1] som ”the systematic stereotyping of and discrimination against people because they are old” (s 243). När människor agerar på basen av åldersrelaterade negativa och positiva stereotypa föreställningar handlar de åldersdiskriminerande. Diskrimineringens processer vilar på ett samspel mellan underliggande samhällsnivåer. I artikeln testas en modell för att beskriva innehållet i och förhållandet mellan dessa nivåer på vilka åldersdiskrimineringen tar sig olika uttryck. Thompson (2006) [2] har formulerat en modell (PCS) där nivåerna benämns personlig (P), kulturell (C) och strukturell (S). Syftet i föreliggande studie är att empiriskt testa PCS modellens nivåer och förhållande till varandra och att kritiskt reflektera över alternativa tolkningsmöjligheter testningen föranleder.

    2010 individer i Kvarkenregionen har besvarat frågan ”vilken inställning tycker du generellt att det finns gentemot äldre människor i vårt samhälle”: i dagstidningar; på TV; i reklamen; inom politiken; på arbetsmarknaden; inom hälso- och sjukvården; i affärer/banker och i kulturella sammanhang. Med hjälp av faktoranalys (SPSS 11) testas indikatorernas nivåtillhörighet (P, C eller S) och med hjälp av en strukturell ekvationsmodell (AMOS 7 graphics) testas förhållandet mellan nivåerna.

    Resultaten visar att PCS modellen kan bekräftas, det finns belägg för att indikatorer tillhör de nivåer som modellen föreslår och att nivåerna har föreslaget förhållande till varandra. Modellens alternativa tolkningsmöjligheter berörs. Renodlade sätt på vilka nivåerna kan förstås, baserat på motstridiga beskrivningar av den grundläggande PCS modellen diskuteras. Modellen utgör ett konkretiserat sätt att närma sig frågan varför diskriminering förekommer.

    [1] Butler, Robert N. (1969). Age-ism: another form of bigotry. Gerontologist 1969; 9: 243-246.

    [2] Thompson, Neil. (2006). Anti-Discriminatory practice. (4th edn). Basinstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • 22.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    "Ålderspension - det är ett jävligt ord det tycker jag": begreppet ålderism och några av dess vardagliga uttryck2011In: Hälsa och välfärd i ett föränderligt samhälle: festskrift till Gunborg Jakobsson / [ed] Nygård, Mikael., & Finnäs, Fjalar, Åbo: Åbo Akademis Förlag , 2011, 1Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi människor gör ofta obemärkt något med ålder i vardagliga situationer. Kring det finns obetydligt med forskning och då i synnerhet sådant som skrivits på svenska. Kapitlet söker förbättra den tillgången och synliggöra frambringandet och förståelsen av ålderism i vardagliga situationer. Åtminstone fyra, men förmodligen fler av den vardagliga ålderismens uttryckssätt problematiseras. I blickfånget är: a) omfattningen av den självupplevda åldersdiskrimineringen, b) upplevelsen av ålder jämsides andra ojämlikhetsskapande orsaker och c) upplevda inställningar generellt mot gruppen äldre människor. Ett fjärde levandegörande uttryckssätt presenteras genom att: d) citera människors vardagliga erfarenheter. En översiktlig beskrivning av ålderismbegreppets innebörd erbjuds och har funktionen att ge det individer känner och uttrycker en tankemässig inramning. Här uppges en preciserad och kortfattad betydelse av fenomenet "vardagens ålderism" och att vissa markörer blottlägger när vardaglig ålderism åstadkoms. En tolkning om skillnaden mellan ålderism och åldersdiskriminering presenteras. Tankeutbytet berör infallsvinklar om vad det är som fångas upp när vi försöker ställa frågor om vardaglig ålderism. Kapitlet avslutas med att föreslå en förståelse av ålderism som ålderismer. 

  • 23.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Johansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Kalman, Hildur
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    A Pilot Study of Birthday Cards as Vignettes: Methodological Reflections on the Elusive Everyday Ageism2012In: International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, ISSN 2220-8488, E-ISSN 2221-0989, Vol. 2, no 7, p. 21-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines the expressions and experiences of everyday ageism among elderly retired people. Remarkably little attention has previously been paid to how elderly people themselves experience everyday ageism. The phenomenon of everyday ageism is both neglected and demanding to identify and analyse. This pilot study uses focus group interviews and birthday card vignettes in order to encourage informants to speak freely and discuss their experiences of attitudes towards ageing. The results of the pilot study show ancillary perceptions, agreements and silences that are characteristic of everyday ageism, and either directly related to the vignettes or to other everyday experiences. It is emphasised that the phenomenon at hand is multifaceted and complex. Methodological implications are discussed in order to shed light on the uncovering of signifiers and intersecting signifiers of everyday ageism. The study demonstrates a particularly useful approach in researching everyday ageism.

  • 24.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Krekula, Clary
    Karlstad universitet, Avdelningen för sociala studier.
    Perceived inequalities: causes advocated by women and men in two national contexts2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygård, Mikael
    Department of Social Sciences, Social Policy, Åbo Akademi University in Vasa, Finland.
    Jungerstam, Susanne
    NOVIA University of Applied Sciences, Vasa, Finland.
    Conceptions and tendencies of age discrimination among elderly people in Finland and Sweden2012In: 21st Nordic Congress of Gerontology. Dilemmas in Ageing Societies (Abstracts and Program, Copenhangen, Denmark, June 10th-13th, 2012), 2012, p. 109-109Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygård, Mikael
    Department of Social Sciences/Social Policy, Åbo Akademi University in Vasa, Finland.
    Jungerstam, Susanne
    NOVIA University of Applied Sciences.
    Experienced age-discrimination and attitudes towards elderly people: Regional Finnish and Swedish trends of ageism2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Nygård, Mikael
    Department of Social Policy, Åbo Akademi University, Finland.
    Susanne, Jungerstam
    Degree Programme Social Services, Novia University of Applied Sciences, Finland.
    Conceptions and tendencies of age discrimination and attitudes towards older people in selected regions in Finland and Sweden2013In: Nordic Journal of Social Research, E-ISSN 1892-2783, Vol. 4, p. 115-138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to access and explore tendencies in the conceptualization of age discrimination and the perceived attitudes towards older people in regions of Finland and Sweden. The analysis draws on GERDA survey data (GErontological Regional DAtabase), a repeated cross-sectional study in which data was collected in 2005 and 2010. The results indicate that the conceptions of age discrimination are changing in a positive direction, which is contrary to results shown in the Eurobarometer. On the basis of balance coefficients we show that conceived attitudes towards older people are changing as well, except for individuals in some sub-groups. We discuss the role of political rhetoric in relation to ageing awareness, the (non)individualization of society and the negotiation of age relations as tentative interpretations that strongly challenge the observed empirical tendencies.

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  • 28.
    Snellman, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Svenlin, Anu-Riina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. University of Jyväskylä.
    Burén, Linda
    Umeå kommun, Umeå, Sverige.
    Jägerving Isaksson, Camilla
    Umeå kommun, Umeå, Sverige.
    Bergmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Tillsammans för ett bättre liv – livet ut: forskningsöversikt om äldres självständighet och aktiva deltagande i samhällslivet samt hur kommuner kan förbättra sin samhällsplanering2024Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten är ett resultat av ett samverkansprojekt mellan Umeå kommun och Umeå Universitet. Syftet är att ta reda på vilka förhållanden som kan främja äldre invånares möjligheter att bo kvar hemma i eget boende och samtidigt möjliggöra förutsättningar till ett aktivt deltagande i samhällslivet, ökad självständighet och ett förlängt steg till vård- och omsorg.

     Rapporten innehåller en narrativ litteraturöversikt, där målsättningen är att sammanfatta och diskutera empiriska och teoretiska studier på ett område där det saknas en etablerad översikt och kunskapsläget är oklart. Översikten genomfördes i fyra faser: 1) Inledande litteratursökning, 2) Fokuserad litteratursökning, 3) Översiktlig analys av identifierade publikationer, samt 4) Kompletterande sökning och slutlig analys. För att identifiera relevanta publikationer gjordes datorbaserade sökningar i vetenskapliga databaser och etablerade sökmotorer. Det empiriska materialet består av 99 publikationer som slutligen valdes ut och analyserades systematiskt i fem steg.

    Resultaten presenteras i fem kapitel: 1) Förhållanden relaterade till den egna personen, 2) Social delaktighet, sociala relationer och nätverk, 3) Boende och bostaden, 4) Digital teknik, 5) Fysisk omgivning. Resultaten visar att för att äldre ska kunna bo kvar hemma krävs ett holistiskt perspektiv som inkluderar både bostaden och den sociala och fysiska miljön utanför. Viktiga faktorer inkluderar självständighet, trygghet och säkerhet inom hemmet, samt att ta hänsyn till äldres egna uppfattningar om stöd och service. Det finns begränsat med forskning med fokus på att främja äldres boende i eget hem, och i rapporten betonas att det är en komplex fråga som kräver insatser från olika discipliner och sektorer. Att se de äldre som individer med varierande behov, och att använda ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt är centralt, trots att många insatser ofta utformas utifrån en homogen bild av äldre.

    Baserat på resultaten diskuteras i det sista kapitlet tre huvudteman: Proaktiv bostads- och samhällsplanering, Social delaktighet och tredje rum, samt Digital teknik i den äldres vardag. Där belyses även bristen på studier som tar ett helhetsgrepp kring främjande av äldres vardag och självständighet i olika livssituationer.

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  • 29.
    Snellman, Marie-Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Svenlin, Anu-Riina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Burén, Linda
    Umeå municipality, Umeå, Sweden.
    Jägerving Isaksson, Camilla
    Umeå municipality, Umeå, Sweden.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Bergmark, Magnus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Blom, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    What needs must be met for older people to be able to stay at home longer?: A scoping review by multi-professional collaborators2023Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden and in many other countries, the proportion of older people will increase dramatically over the next ten years. Resources such as residential care will not be sufficient for the needs within the target group to the same extent as today. Organizations responsible for care needs to initiate new solutions to promote older people’s independence, active participation to extend the age of onset for elderly care interventions. This societal challenge was investigated through a scoping review with an overarching research question: What needs must be met for older people to be able to stay at home longer?

    Review: Sub-questions were designed informed by Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Which conditions make it possible for older people to stay at home longer regarding: 1) the person her/himself?, 2) the housing?, 3) the social relations?, 4) the surroundings? Several databases and search engines were used to search for a range of literature published 2000-2021, in English and Scandinavian languages. The search resulted in approx. 2500 abstracts of which 386 publications were selected.

    Results: A preliminary assessment indicates that:

    - the research area is heterogeneous (many different disciplines, target groups, questions, designs and theories).

    - the publications include person-related factors (73%), environment-related factors (19%) and housing factors (8%).

    - person-related factors include physical conditions (35%), psychological conditions (24%) and social relationships (13%).

    We will present a compilation of preconditions that enable older people to stay at home longer, as well as demonstrate a model of how these preconditions are interrelated.

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  • 30.
    Vaartio-Rajalin, Heli
    et al.
    Turku University of Applied Sciences/Master School, Turku, Finland; Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Department of Health Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Snellman, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Ylva, Gustafsson
    Faculty of Humanities, Department of Philosophy, Åbo Akademi University, Turku, Finland.
    Auvo, Rauhala
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Department of Health Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland; Finnish Centre for Client and Patient Safety, Wellbeing Services County of Ostrobothnia, Vaasa, Finland.
    Emilia, Viklund
    Faculty of Education and Welfare Studies, Department of Health Sciences, Åbo Akademi University, Vaasa, Finland.
    Understanding health, subjective aging, and participation in social activities in later life: a regional Finnish survey2024In: Journal of Applied Gerontology, ISSN 0733-4648, E-ISSN 1552-4523, Vol. 43, no 6, p. 638-649Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand health and well-being in later life, it is vital to consider the meaning of subjective aging. This study aimed to explore how perceived health, self-perceptions of aging, and participation in social activities relate to each other among older persons in the Bothnia region and Åland islands in Finland. Data were analyzed using Spearman’s and polychoric correlation and multinomial logistic regression analyses. The perceived good health and the younger physical, psychological, and social dimensions of subjective age were found to be associated with each other and with participation in social activities outside one's home.

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