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  • 1. Abafe, Ovokeroye A.
    et al.
    Späth, Jana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Buckley, Chris
    Stark, Annegret
    Pietruschka, Bjoern
    Martincigh, Bice S.
    LC-MS/MS determination of antiretroviral drugs in influents and effluents from wastewater treatment plants in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa2018In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 200, p. 660-670Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    South Africa has the largest occurrence of the human immune deficiency virus (HIV) in the world but has also implemented the largest antiretroviral (ARV) treatment programme. It was therefore of interest to determine the presence and concentrations of commonly used antiretroviral drugs (ARVDs) and, also, to determine the capabilities of wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) for removing ARVDs. To this end, a surrogate standard based LC-MS/MS method was optimized and applied for the detection of thirteen ARVDs used in the treatment and management of HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in two major and one modular WWTP in the eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The method was validated and the detection limits fell within the range of 2–20 ng L−1. The analytical recoveries for the ARVDs were mainly greater than 50% with acceptable relative standard deviations. The concentration values ranged from <LOD – 53000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 34000 ng L−1 (effluent) in a decentralized wastewater treatment facility (DEWATS); <LOD – 24000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 33000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Northern WWTP and 61–34000 ng L−1 (influent), <LOD – 20000 ng L−1 (effluent) in Phoenix WWTP. Whilst abacavir, lamivudine and zidovudine were almost completely removed from the effluents, atazanavir, efavirenz, lopinavir and nevirapine persisted in the effluents from all three WWTPs. To estimate the ecotoxicological risks associated with the discharge of ARVDs, a countrywide survey focussing on the occurrence of ARVDs in WWTPs, surface and fresh water bodies, and aquatic organisms, is necessary.

  • 2. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Batisson, Isabelle
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Grabic, Roman
    Removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) and other selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater using a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of Phanerochaete chrysosporium2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 436-43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of the ligninolytic fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium to degrade a wide variety of environmentally persistent xenobiotics has been largely reported in the literature. Beside other factors, one barrier to a wider use of this bioremediation fungus is the availability of effective formulations that ensure easy preparation, handling and application. In this series of laboratory experiments, we evaluated the efficiency of a granular bioplastic formulation entrapping propagules of P. chrysosporium for removal of four selected pharmaceuticals from wastewater samples. Addition of inoculated granules to samples of the wastewater treatment plant of Bologna significantly increased the removal of the antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu), and the antibiotics, erythromycin, sulfamethoxazol, and ciprofloxacin. Similar effects were also observed in effluent water. Oseltamivir was the most persistent of the four active substances. After 30d of incubation, approximately two times more oseltamivir was removed in bioremediated wastewater than controls. The highest removal efficiency of the bioplastic formulation was observed with the antibiotic ciprofloxacin. Microbiological DNA-based analysis showed that the bioplastic matrix supported the growth of P. chrysosporium, thus facilitating its adaptation to unusual environment such as wastewater.

  • 3. Accinelli, Cesare
    et al.
    Saccà, Maria Ludovica
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Mencarelli, Mariangela
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsen, Björn
    Dissipation and removal of oseltamivir (Tamiflu) in different aquatic environments2010In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 79, no 8, p. 891-897Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The antiviral drug oseltamivir (Tamiflu) has received recent attention due to the potential use as a first-line defense against H5N1 and H1N1 influenza viruses. Research has shown that oseltamivir is not removed during conventional wastewater treatments, thus having the potential to enter surface water bodies. A series of laboratory experiments investigated the fate and the removal of oseltamivir in two surface water ecosystems of Japan and in a municipal wastewater treatment plant located in Northern Italy. Persistence of oseltamivir in surface water ranged from non-detectable degradation to a half-life of 53d. After 40d, <3% of radiolabeled oseltamivir evolved as (14)CO(2). The presence of sediments (5%) led to a significant increase of oseltamivir degradation and mineralization rates. A more intense mineralization was observed in samples of the wastewater treatment plant when applying a long incubation period (40d). More precisely, 76% and 37% of the initial radioactivity applied as (14)C-oseltamivir was recovered as (14)CO(2) from samples of the biological tank and effluent water, respectively. Two bacterial strains growing on oseltamivir as sole carbon source were isolated and used for its removal from synthetic medium and environmental samples, including surface water and wastewater. Inoculation of water and wastewater samples with the two oseltamivir-degrading strains showed that mineralization of oseltamivir was significantly higher in both inoculated water and wastewater, than in uninoculated controls. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis showed that Tamiflu would not affect the microbial population of surface water and wastewater.

  • 4. Almroth, Bethanie M. Carney
    et al.
    Gunnarsson, Lina M.
    Cuklev, Filip
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Waterborne beclomethasone dipropionate affects the physiology of fish while its metabolite beclomethasone is not taken up2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 511, p. 37-46Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is commonly treated with inhalable glucocorticosteroids, including beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP). This is a synthetic prodrug which is metabolized to the more active monopropionate (BMP) and free beclomethasone in humans. To evaluate potential effects of residual drugs on fish, we conducted a 14 day flow-through exposure experiment with BDP and beclomethasone using rainbow trout, and analyzed effects on plasma glucose, hepatic glutathione and catalase activity together with water and body concentrations of the BDP, BMP and beclomethasone. We also analyzed hepatic gene expression in BDP-exposed fish by micro-array and quantitative PCR Beclomethasone (up to 0.65 mu g/L) was not taken up in the fish while BDP (0.65 and 0.07 mu g/L) resulted in accumulation of both beclomethasone, BMP and BDP in plasma, reaching levels up to those found in humans during therapy. Accordingly, exposure to 0.65 mu g/L of BDP significantly increased blood glucose as well as oxidized glutathione levels and catalase activity in the liver. Exposure to beclomethasone or the low concentration of BDP had no effect on these endpoints. Both exposure concentrations of BDP resulted in significantly higher transcript abundance of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase involved in gluconeogenesis, and of genes involved in immune responses. As only the rapidly metabolized prodrug was potent in fish, the environmental risks associated with the use of BDP are probably small. However, the observed physiological effects in fish of BDP at plasma concentrations known to affect human physiology provides valuable input to the development of read-across approaches in the identification of pharmaceuticals of environmental concern.

  • 5.
    Andersson, Patrik L
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rännar, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A Multivariate Chemical Similarity Approach to Search for Drugs of Potential Environmental Concern2011In: Journal of chemical information and modeling, ISSN 1549-960X, Vol. 51, no 8, p. 1788-1794Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A structural similarity tool was developed and aimed to search for environmentally persistent drugs. The basis for the tool was a selection of so-called anchor molecules and a multidimensional chemical map of drugs. The map was constructed using principal component analysis covering 899 drugs described by 67 diverse calculated chemical descriptors. The anchor molecules (diclofenac, trimethoprim, and carbamazepine) were selected to represent drugs of known environmental concern. In addition 12 chemicals listed by the Stockholm Convention on persistent organic pollutants were used representing typical environmental pollutants. Chemical similarity was quantified by measuring relative Euclidean distances in the five-dimensional chemical map, and more than 100 nearest neighbors (kNNs) were found within a relative distance of less than 10% from each drug anchor. The developed chemical similarity approach not only identified persistent or semipersistent drugs but also a large number of potentially persistent drugs lacking environmental fate data.

  • 6. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodriguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansen, Jes La Cour
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Variability in required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013In: Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology / [ed] Lekkas, TD, Global Nest, Secretariat , 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim of study. The aim of the present study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality originating from different wastewater treatment processes. Methods. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (VWVTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1pg/L) and treated with different 03 doses (0.5-12.0 mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments (Antoniou et al, 2012). Concentrations of APIs were measured by SPE extraction using OASIS HLB cartridges followed by quantification using LC-MS-MS (Grabic et al, 2012).. Results. For each wastewater effluent a profile of sensitivity of each API to a range of ozone doses were generated as shown in Figure 1.

  • 7. Antoniou, Maria G.
    et al.
    Hey, Gerly
    Rodríguez Vega, Sergio
    Spiliotopoulou, Aikaterini
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    la Cour Jansen, Jes
    Andersen, Henrik Rasmus
    Required ozone doses for removing pharmaceuticals from wastewater effluents2013In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 456-457, p. 42-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the this study was to investigate the ozone dosage required to remove active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) from biologically treated wastewater of varying quality, originated from different raw wastewater and wastewater treatment processes. Secondary effluents from six Swedish wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) were spiked with 42 APIs (nominal concentration 1μg/L) and treated with different O3 doses (0.5-12.0mg/L ozone) in bench-scale experiments. In order to compare the sensitivity of APIs in each matrix, the specific dose of ozone required to achieve reduction by one decade of each investigated API (DDO3) was determined for each effluent by fitting a first order equation to the remaining concentration of API at each applied ozone dose. Ozone dose requirements were found to vary significantly between effluents depending on their matrix characteristics. The specific ozone dose was then normalized to the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) of each effluent. The DDO3/DOC ratios were comparable for each API between the effluents. 15 of the 42 investigated APIs could be classified as easily degradable (DDO3/DOC≤0.7), while 19 were moderately degradable (0.7<DDO3/DOC≤1.4), and 8 were recalcitrant towards O3-treatment (DDO3/DOC >1.4). Furthermore, we predict that a reasonable estimate of the ozone dose required to remove any of the investigated APIs may be attained by multiplying the experimental average DDO3/DOC obtained with the actual DOC of any effluent.

  • 8.
    Aurell, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of sulfur on PCDD/F formation under stable and transient combustion conditions during MSW incineration2009In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 76, no 6, p. 767-773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SO2 levels in the flue gas from a laboratory-scale fluidized bed reactor combusting artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) were varied (resulting in four different SO2:HCl ratios 0, 0.2, 0.7 and 2.7 (by mass)) to study the effects of sulfur on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and polychlorinated dibenzothiophenes (PCDTs). Sampling was performed simultaneously at three fixed points in the post-combustion zone with temperatures of 400, 300 and 200 °C, under normal combustion conditions and both during and after transient combustion conditions. The findings indicate that sulfur has a greater inhibitory effect on PCDF formation than on PCDD formation and that the PCDD/PCDF ratio in the flue gas depends on both the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas and memory effects arising from transient combustion conditions. The results also indicate that the relative importance of different pathways shifts in the post-combustion zone; condensation products increasing with reductions in temperature and increases in residence time. However, these changes appear to depend on the SO2:HCl ratio in the flue gas and combustion conditions. Sulfur seems to inhibit the chlorination of PCDFs. A tendency for increased SO2 levels in the flue gas to increase levels of PCDTs was also detected, but the increases were much less significant than the reductions in PCDF levels.

  • 9.
    Aurell, Johanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Marklund, Stellan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Effects of transient combustion conditions on the formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, dibenzofurans, and benzenes, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons during municipal solid waste incineration2009In: Environmental Engineering Science, ISSN 1092-8758, E-ISSN 1557-9018, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 509-520Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigated the effects of transient combustion conditions on formation of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDD) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDF) along the postcombustion zone. Polychlorinated benzenes (PCBz) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) were also studied. The study was conducted in a laboratory fluidized-bed reactor fed with an artificial municipal solid waste (MSW) under controllable but realistic combustion conditions. PCDD/Fs, PCBz, and PAHs were monitored under normal, transient, and posttransient combustion conditions and simultaneously sampled at three different sampling points/temperatures (400°C, 300°C, and 200°C). Substantially higher PCDD/F, PCBz, and PAH concentrations were found during transient combustion than during normal combustion. Elevated concentrations were found to decrease with time. PCDD/F concentrations were similar at all points during normal and transient combustion conditions, but were found in higher concentrations at 200°C than 400°C under the posttransient combustion periods. Higher concentrations of the sum PAH and PCBz were also found at 200°C than 400°C in the posttransient combustion periods. Transient combustion conditions induced changes in both PCDD/F homologue profile and PCDD/F congener patterns compared to normal combustion. PCDD/PCDF ratios indicated an increase of the de novo synthesis during transient combustion conditions. Although, the PCDD/F congeners found to be most strongly affected by the transient combustion conditions indicated different reactions pathways active for formation of PCDF and PCDD, de novo synthesis and precursors, respectively. The most strongly affected PCDD/F congeners of transient combustion were identified and are presented.

  • 10. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Boulund, Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Larsson, D. G. Joakim
    Shotgun metagenomics reveals a wide array of antibiotic resistance genes and mobile elements in a polluted lake in India2014In: Frontiers in Microbiology, ISSN 1664-302X, E-ISSN 1664-302X, Vol. 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is increasing evidence for an environmental origin of many antibiotic resistance genes. Consequently, it is important to identify environments of particular risk for selecting and maintaining such resistance factors. In this study, we described the diversity of antibiotic resistance genes in an Indian lake subjected to industrial pollution with fluoroquinolone antibiotics. We also assessed the genetic context of the identified resistance genes, to try to predict their genetic transferability. The lake harbored a wide range of resistance genes (81 identified gene types) against essentially every major class of antibiotics, as well as genes responsible for mobilization of genetic material. Resistance genes were estimated to be 7000 times more abundant than in a Swedish lake included for comparison, where only eight resistance genes were found. The sul2 and qnrD genes were the most common resistance genes in the Indian lake. Twenty-six known and 21 putative novel plasmids were recovered in the Indian lake metagenome, which, together with the genes found, indicate a large potential for horizontal gene transfer through conjugation. Interestingly, the microbial community of the lake still included a wide range of taxa, suggesting that, across most phyla, bacteria has adapted relatively well to this highly polluted environment. Based on the wide range and high abundance of known resistance factors we have detected, it is plausible that yet unrecognized resistance genes are also present in the lake. Thus, we conclude that environments polluted with waste from antibiotic manufacturing could be important reservoirs for mobile antibiotic resistance genes.

  • 11. Bengtsson-Palme, Johan
    et al.
    Hammarén, Rickard
    Pal, Chandan
    Östman, Marcus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Flach, Carl-Fredrik
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D.G. Joakim
    Elucidating selection processes for antibiotic resistance in sewage treatment plants using metagenomics2016In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 572, p. 697-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sewage treatment plants (STPs) have repeatedly been suggested as “hotspots” for the emergence and dissemination of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. A critical question still unanswered is if selection pressures within STPs, caused by residual antibiotics or other co-selective agents, are sufficient to specifically promote resistance. To address this, we employed shotgun metagenomic sequencing of samples from different steps of the treatment process in three Swedish STPs. In parallel, concentrations of selected antibiotics, biocides and metals were analyzed. We found that concentrations of tetracycline and ciprofloxacin in the influent were above predicted concentrations for resistance selection, however, there was no consistent enrichment of resistance genes to any particular class of antibiotics in the STPs, neither for biocide and metal resistance genes. The most substantial change of the bacterial communities compared to human feces occurred already in the sewage pipes, manifested by a strong shift from obligate to facultative anaerobes. Through the treatment process, resistance genes against antibiotics, biocides and metals were not reduced to the same extent as fecal bacteria. The OXA-48 gene was consistently enriched in surplus and digested sludge. We find this worrying as OXA-48, still rare in Swedish clinical isolates, provides resistance to carbapenems, one of our most critically important classes of antibiotics. Taken together, metagenomics analyses did not provide clear support for specific antibiotic resistance selection. However, stronger selective forces affecting gross taxonomic composition, and with that resistance gene abundances, limit interpretability. Comprehensive analyses of resistant/non-resistant strains within relevant species are therefore warranted.

  • 12. Berg, C
    et al.
    Säfholm, M
    Jansson, E
    Olsson, A J
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brandt, I
    Combined exposure to progestin and oestrogen mixtures: Effects on vitellogenin and hormone receptor mRNA expression2012In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 163, no 1, p. S56-S57Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 13. Berglund, Bjorn
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Urban wastewater effluent increases antibiotic resistance gene concentrations in a receiving northern european river2015In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 192-196Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are an emerging global problem that threatens to undermine important advances in modern medicine. The environment is likely to play an important role in the dissemination of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) among both environmental and pathogenic bacteria. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) accumulate both chemical and biological waste from the surrounding urban milieu and have therefore been viewed as potential hotspots for dissemination and development of antibiotic resistance. To assess the effect of wastewater effluent on a river that flows through a Swedish city, sediment and water samples were collected from Stangan River, both upstream and downstream of an adjacent WWTP over 3 mo. Seven ARGs and the integrase gene on class 1 integrons were quantified in the collected sediment using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to assess the abundance of 10 different antibiotics in the water phase of the samples. The results showed an increase in ARGs and integrons downstream of the WWTP. The measured concentrations of antibiotics were low in the water samples from the Stangan River, suggesting that selection for ARGs did not occur in the surface water. Instead, the downstream increase in ARGs is likely to be attributable to accumulation of genes present in the treated effluent discharged from the WWTP. Environ Toxicol Chem 2015;34:192-196. (c) 2014 SETAC

  • 14. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Abundance and dynamics of antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in lake sediment microcosms2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 9, article id e108151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance in bacteria causing disease is an ever growing threat to the world. Recently, environmental bacteria have become established as important both as sources of antibiotic resistance genes and in disseminating resistance genes. Low levels of antibiotics and other pharmaceuticals are regularly released into water environments via wastewater, and the concern is that such environmental contamination may serve to create hotspots for antibiotic resistance gene selection and dissemination. In this study, microcosms were created from water and sediments gathered from a lake in Sweden only lightly affected by human activities. The microcosms were exposed to a mixture of antibiotics of varying environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e., concentrations commonly encountered in wastewaters) in order to investigate the effect of low levels of antibiotics on antibiotic resistance gene abundances and dynamics in a previously uncontaminated environment. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Abundances of seven antibiotic resistance genes and the class 1 integron integrase gene, intL1, were quantified using real-time PCR. Resistance genes sulI and ermB were quantified in the microcosm sediments with mean abundances 5 and 15 gene copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies, respectively. Class 1 integrons were determined in the sediments with a mean concentration of 3.86x10(4) copies/10(6) 16S rRNA gene copies. The antibiotic treatment had no observable effect on antibiotic resistance gene or integron abundances.

  • 15. Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Khan, Ghazanfar Ali
    Weisner, Stefan E. B.
    Ehde, Per Magnus
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Efficient removal of antibiotics in surface-flow constructed wetlands, with no observed impact on antibiotic resistance genes2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 476-477, p. 29-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, there have been growing concerns about pharmaceuticals including antibiotics as environmental contaminants. Antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater have been suggested to affect bacterial population dynamics and to promote dissemination of antibiotic resistance. Conventional wastewater treatment processes do not always adequately remove pharmaceuticals causing environmental dissemination of low levels of these compounds. Using constructed wetlands as an additional treatment step after sewage treatment plants have been proposed as a cheap alternative to increase reduction of wastewater contaminants, however this means that the natural microbial community of the wetlands becomes exposed to elevated levels of antibiotics. In this study, experimental surface-flow wetlands in Sweden were continuously exposed to antibiotics of concentrations commonly encountered in wastewater. The aim was to assess the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands and to evaluate the impact of low levels of antibiotics on bacterial diversity, resistance development and expression in the wetland bacterial community. Antibiotic concentrations were measured using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and the effect on the bacterial diversity was assessed with 16S rRNA-based denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Real-time PCR was used to detect and quantify antibiotic resistance genes and integrons in the wetlands, during and after the exposure period. The results indicated that the antibiotic removal efficiency of constructed wetlands was comparable to conventional wastewater treatment schemes. Furthermore, short-term treatment of the constructed wetlands with environmentally relevant concentrations (i.e. 100-2000 ng x 1(-1)) of antibiotics did not significantly affect resistance gene concentrations, suggesting that surface-flow constructed wetlands are well-suited for wastewater treatment purposes. (c) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 16. Björlenius, Berndt
    et al.
    Ripszám, Mátyás
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pharmaceutical residues are widespread in Baltic Sea coastal and offshore waters: Screening for pharmaceuticals and modelling of environmental concentrations of carbamazepine2018In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 633, p. 1496-1509Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The consumption of pharmaceuticals worldwide coupled with modest removal efficiencies of sewage treatment plants have resulted in the presence of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems globally. In this study, we investigated the environmental concentrations of a selection of 93 pharmaceuticals in 43 locations in the Baltic Sea and Skagerrak. The Baltic Sea is vulnerable to anthropogenic activities due to a long turnover time and a sensitive ecosystem in the brackish water. Thirty-nine of 93 pharmaceuticals were detected in at least one sample, with concentrations ranging between 0.01 and 80 ng/L. One of the pharmaceuticals investigated, the anti-epileptic drug carbamazepine, was widespread in coastal and offshore seawaters (present in 37 of 43 samples). In order to predict concentrations of pharmaceuticals in the sub-basins of the Baltic Sea, a mass balance-based grey box model was set up and the persistent, widely used carbamazepine was selected as the model substance. The model was based on hydrological and meteorological sub-basin characteristics, removal data from smaller watersheds and wastewater treatment plants, and statistics relating to population, consumption and excretion rate of carbamazepine in humans. The grey box model predicted average environmental concentrations of carbamazepine in sub-basins with no significant difference from the measured concentrations, amounting to 0.57–3.2 ng/L depending on sub-basin location. In the Baltic Sea, the removal rate of carbamazepine in seawater was estimated to be 6.2 10−9 s−1 based on a calculated half-life time of 3.5 years at 10 °C, which demonstrates the long response time of the environment to measures phasing out persistent or slowly degradable substances such as carbamazepine. Sampling, analysis and grey box modelling were all valuable in describing the presence and removal of carbamazepine in the Baltic Sea.

  • 17. Breitholtz, Magnus
    et al.
    Näslund, Maria
    Stråe, Daniel
    Borg, Hans
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    An evaluation of free water surface wetlands as tertiary sewage water treatment of micro-pollutants2012In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, ISSN 0147-6513, E-ISSN 1090-2414, Vol. 78, p. 63-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased attention is currently directed towards potential negative effects of pharmaceuticals and other micro-pollutants discharged into the aquatic environment via municipal sewage water. A number of additional treatment technologies, such as ozonation, have therefore been suggested as promising tools for improving the removal efficiency of pharmaceuticals in existing Sewage Treatment Plants (STPs). Constructed wetlands are also capable of removing a variety of micro-pollutants, including some pharmaceuticals, and could hence be a resource efficient complement to more advanced treatment technologies. The purpose of the present study was therefore to increase the knowledge base concerning the potential use of constructed wetlands as a treatment step to reduce emissions of organic micro-pollutants from municipal sewage effluents. Under cold winter conditions, incoming and outgoing waters from four Swedish free water surface wetlands, operated as final treatment steps of sewage effluent from municipal STPs, were sampled and analyzed for levels of a set of 92 pharmaceuticals and 22 inorganic components as well as assessed using subchronic ecotoxicity tests with a macro-alga and a crustacean.

    Sixty-five pharmaceuticals were detected in the range from 1ngL(-1) to 7.6μgL(-1) in incoming and outgoing waters from the four investigated wetlands. Although the sampling design used in the present study lacks the robustness of volume proportional to 24h composite samples, the average estimated removal rates ranged from 42% to 52%, which correlates to previous published values. The effects observed in the ecotoxicity tests with the macro-alga (EC(50)s in the range of 7.5-46%) and the crustacean (LOECs in the range of 11.25-90%) could not be assigned to either pharmaceutical residues or metals, but in general showed that these treatment facilities release water with a relatively low toxic potential, comparable to water that has been treated with advanced tertiary treatments.

    From the present study it can be concluded that constructed wetlands may provide a complementary sewage treatment option, especially where other treatment is lacking today. To fully remove micro-pollutants from sewage effluent, however, other more advanced treatment technologies are likely needed.

  • 18.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Dilute concentrations of a psychiatric drug alter behavior of fish from natural populations2013In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 339, no 6121, p. 814-815Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A variety of pharmaceuticals enter waterways by way of treated wastewater effluents and remain biochemically active in aquatic systems. Several ecotoxicological studies have been done, but generally, little is known about the ecological effects of pharmaceuticals. Here we show that a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) alters behavior and feeding rate of wild European perch (Perca fluviatilis) at concentrations encountered in effluent-influenced surface waters. Individuals exposed to water with dilute drug concentrations (1.8 micrograms liter–1) exhibited increased activity, reduced sociality, and higher feeding rate. As such, our results show that anxiolytic drugs in surface waters alter animal behaviors that are known to have ecological and evolutionary consequences.

  • 19.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nordling, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lagesson, Annelie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hellström, Gustav
    Christensen, Bent
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Environmental relevant levels of a benzodiazepine (oxazepam) alters important behavioral traits in a common planktivorous fish, (Rutilus rutilus)2017In: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, ISSN 1528-7394, E-ISSN 1087-2620, Vol. 80, no 16–18, p. 963-970Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental pollution by pharmaceuticals is increasingly recognized as a major threat to aquatic ecosystems worldwide. A complex mix of pharmaceuticals enters waterways via treated wastewater effluent and many remain biochemically active after the drugs reach aquatic systems. However, to date little is known regarding the ecological effects that might arise following pharmaceutical contamination of aquatic environments. One group of particular concern is behaviorally modifying pharmaceuticals as seemingly minor changes in behavior may initiate marked ecological consequences. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of a benzodiazepine anxiolytic drug (oxazepam) on key behavioral traits in wild roach (Rutilus rutilus) at concentrations similar to those encountered in effluent surface waters. Roach exposed to water with high concentrations of oxazepam (280 mu g/L) exhibited increased boldness, while roach at low treatment (0.84 mu g/L) became bolder and more active compared to control fish. Our results reinforce the notion that anxiolytic drugs may be affecting fish behavior in natural systems, emphasizing the need for further research on ecological impacts of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems and development of new tools to incorporate ecologically relevant behavioral endpoints into ecotoxicological risk assessment.

  • 20.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Piovano, Susanna
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Ecological effects of pharmaceuticals in aquatic systems-impacts through behavioural alterations2014In: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Biological Sciences, ISSN 0962-8436, E-ISSN 1471-2970, Vol. 369, no 1656, p. 20130580-Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study of animal behaviour is important for both ecology and ecotoxicology, yet research in these two fields is currently developing independently. Here, we synthesize the available knowledge on drug-induced behavioural alterations in fish, discuss potential ecological consequences and report results from an experiment in which we quantify both uptake and behavioural impact of a psychiatric drug on a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis) and its invertebrate prey (Coenagrion hastulatum). We show that perch became more active while damselfly behaviour was unaffected, illustrating that behavioural effects of pharmaceuticals can differ between species. Furthermore, we demonstrate that prey consumption can be an important exposure route as on average 46% of the pharmaceutical in ingested prey accumulated in the predator. This suggests that investigations of exposure through bioconcentration, where trophic interactions and subsequent bioaccumulation of exposed individuals are ignored, underestimate exposure. Wildlife may therefore be exposed to higher levels of behaviourally altering pharmaceuticals than predictions based on commonly used exposure assays and pharmaceutical concentrations found in environmental monitoring programmes.

  • 21.
    Cerveny, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. University of South Bohemia in Ceske Budejovice, Faculty of Fisheries and Protection of Waters, South Bohemian Research Center of Aquaculture and Biodiversity of Hydrocenoses, Zátiší 728/II, 389 25 Vodnany, Czech Republic.
    Brodin, T.
    Cisar, P.
    McCallum, E. S.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconcentration and behavioral effects of four benzodiazepines and their environmentally relevant mixture in wild fish2020In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 702, article id UNSP 134780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We studied the adverse effects of four benzodiazepines frequently measured in European surface waters. We evaluated bioaccumulation potential of oxazepam, bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam in freshwater fish species - perch (Perca fluviatilis) and we conducted a series of behavioral trials to assess their potential to alter boldness, activity, and social behavior. All selected endpoints were studied individually for each target benzodiazepine and as a mixture of all tested compounds to assess possible combinatory effects. We used a three-dimensional automated tracking system to quantify the fish behavior. The four compounds bioconcentrated differently in fish muscle (temazepam > clobazam > oxazepam > bromazepam) at high exposure (9.1, 6.9, 5.7, 8.1 mu g L-1, respectively) and low exposure (0.5, 0.5, 0.3, 0.4 mu g L-1, respectively) concentrations. A significant amount of oxazepam was also measured in fish exposed to temazepam, most likely because of the metabolic transformation of temazepam within the fish. Bromazepam, temazepam, and clobazam significantly affected fish behavior at high concentration, while no statistically significant changes were registered for oxazepam. The studied benzodiazepines affected behavior in combination, because the mixture treatment significantly changed several important behavioral traits even at low concentration, while no single compound exposure had such an effect at that dose. Based on our results, we conclude that effects of pharmaceuticals on aquatic environments could be underestimated if risk assessments only rely on the evaluation of single compounds. More studies focused on the combinatory effects of environmentally relevant mixtures of pharmaceuticals are necessary to fill the gaps in this knowledge. 

  • 22. Cuklev, Filip
    et al.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Cvijovic, Marija
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Förlin, Lars
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Does ketoprofen or diclofenac pose the lowest risk to fish?2012In: Journal of Hazardous Materials, ISSN 0304-3894, E-ISSN 1873-3336, Vol. 229-230, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ketoprofen and diclofenac are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) often used for similar indications, and both are frequently found in surface waters. Diclofenac affects organ histology and gene expression in fish at around 1μg/L. Here, we exposed rainbow trout to ketoprofen (1, 10 and 100μg/L) to investigate if this alternative causes less risk for pharmacological responses in fish. The bioconcentration factor from water to fish blood plasma was <0.05 (4 for diclofenac based on previous studies). Ketoprofen only reached up to 0.6‰ of the human therapeutic plasma concentration, thus the probability of target-related effects was estimated to be fairly low. Accordingly, a comprehensive analysis of hepatic gene expression revealed no consistent responses. In some contrast, trout exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents bioconcentrated ketoprofen and other NSAIDs much more efficiently, according to a meta-analysis of recent studies. Neither of the setups is however an ideal representation of the field situation. If a controlled exposure system with a single chemical in pure water is a reasonable representation of the environment, then the use of ketoprofen is likely to pose a lower risk for wild fish than diclofenac, but if bioconcentration factors from effluent-exposed fish are applied, the risks may be more similar.

  • 23.
    Cuklev, Filip
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Erik
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology and University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Asker, Noomi
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden och Faculty of Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Förlin, Lars
    Faculty of Science, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Diclofenac in fish: blood plasma levels similar to human therapeutic levels affect global hepatic gene expression2011In: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry, ISSN 0730-7268, E-ISSN 1552-8618, Vol. 30, no 9, p. 2126-2134Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diclofenac is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug frequently found in the aquatic environment. Previous studies have reported histological changes in the liver, kidney and gills of fish at concentrations similar to those measured in treated sewage effluents (approximately 1 µg/L). Analyses or predictions of blood plasma levels in fish allow a direct comparison with human therapeutic plasma levels, and may therefore be used to indicate a risk for pharmacological effects in fish. To relate internal exposure to a pharmacological interaction we investigated global hepatic gene expression together with bioconcentration in blood plasma and liver of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to waterborne diclofenac. At the highest exposure concentration (81.5 µg/L) the fish plasma concentration reached approximately 88% of the human therapeutic levels (C(max) ) after two weeks. Using an oligonucleotide microarray followed by quantitative PCR we found extensive effects on hepatic gene expression at this concentration, and some genes were found to be regulated down to the lowest concentration tested (1.6 µg/L) corresponding to approximately 1.5% of the human C(max) . Thus, at concentrations detected in European surface waters, diclofenac can affect the expression of multiple genes in exposed fish. Functional analysis of differentially expressed genes revealed effects on biological processes such as inflammation and immune response, in agreement with the mode of action of diclofenac in mammals. In contrast to some previously reported results, the bioconcentration factor was found to be stable (4.02 ± 0.75 for blood plasma and 2.54 ± 0.36 for liver) regardless of the water concentration. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. © 2011 SETAC.

  • 24. Davidsson, A
    et al.
    Eriksson, E
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Ozonation and thermal pre-treatment of municipal sewage sludge-implications for toxicity and methane potential2013In: Journal of residuals science & technology, ISSN 1544-8053, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 85-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to determine effects on methane potential and overall sludge quality from two different sludge pre-treatment technologies (ozonation high/low dosage and thermal treatment 55/70 degrees C). In general both treatments produced increased methane potential. Thermal treatment resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD)-solubilisation, while the highest volatile fatty acids (VFA) increase was obtained with ozonation. Sludges had inhibiting effects in a barley seed germination assay and a yeast oestrogen screen both before and after pre-treatment, but inhibition was reduced by ozone treatment and digestion. No statistical significant reduction in concentrations of included pharmaceuticals could be observed.

  • 25. Davidsson, A.
    et al.
    Kjerstadius, H.
    Haghighatafshar, S.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Olsson, M.
    Wachtmeister, H.
    Eriksson, E.
    Jansen, J. la Cour
    Effect of anaerobic digestion at 35, 55 and 60 degrees C on pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants2014In: Water Science and Technology, ISSN 0273-1223, E-ISSN 1996-9732, Vol. 69, no 6, p. 1282-1288Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of treated sewage sludge on farmland is a suggested method for recycling nutrients and reducing demand for commercial fertilizer. However, sludge needs to be safe from possible contaminants which can cause acute and long-term health and environmental problems. Residual pharmaceuticals and organic contaminants are mentioned as emerging threats since wastewater treatment plants are not designed to degrade these substances. The aim of this study was to screen and evaluate the presence, and reduction, of pharmaceuticals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during anaerobic digestion of mixed primary and waste-activated sludge at 35, 55 and 60 degrees C and during pasteurization at 70 degrees C. The study showed the difficulty of analysing pharmaceutical compounds in low concentrations in the sludge matrix. No general reduction of these compounds was seen during treatment, but for individual substances some reduction occured. The PAHs were generally not reduced during digestion or pasteurization, but for three substances (indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyreneand dibenzo[a,h] anthracene (analysed together) and benzo [g,h,i] perylene) reduction (up to 60%) during digestion was seen. Digestion at 35 and 55 degrees C resulted in about the same order of reduction of the three individual PAHs, which was higher than for digestion at 60 degrees C.

  • 26.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Nordlund, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History, Economic and social geography, Transportation Research Unit (TRUM).
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Jansson, Stina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The multiple meanings of water: wastewater treatment and reuse seen from a communication perspective2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 27.
    Fahlman, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Wildlife, Fish, and Environmental Studies, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Using laboratory incubations to predict the fate of pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems2018In: Environmental Chemistry, ISSN 1448-2517, E-ISSN 1449-8979, Vol. 15, no 8, p. 463-471Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Environmental contextEnvironmental persistence of excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems is usually predicted using small-scale laboratory experiments assumed to simulate natural conditions. We studied five pharmaceuticals comparing their removal rates from water under laboratory conditions and under natural environmental conditions existing in a large pond. We found that the laboratory conditions did not fully capture the complexity within the pond, which led to different removal rates in the two systems. AbstractEnvironmental persistence is a key property when evaluating risks with excreted pharmaceuticals in aquatic ecosystems. Such persistence is typically predicted using small-scale laboratory incubations, but the variation in aquatic environments and scarcity of field studies to verify laboratory-based persistence estimates create uncertainties around the predictive power of these incubations. In this study we: (1) assess the persistence of five pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, diphenhydramine, hydroxyzine, trimethoprim and oxazepam) in laboratory experiments under different environmental conditions; and (2) use a three-month-long field study in an aquatic ecosystem to verify the laboratory-based persistence estimates. In our laboratory assays, we found that water temperature (TEMP), concentrations of organic solutes (TOC), presence of sediment (SED), and solar radiation (SOL) individually affected dissipation rates. Moreover, we identified rarely studied interaction effects between the treatments (i.e. SOLxSED and TEMPxSOL), which affected the persistence of the studied drugs. Half-lives obtained from the laboratory assays largely explained the dissipation rates during the first week of the field study. However, none of the applied models could accurately predict the long-term dissipation rates (month time-scale) from the water column. For example, the studied antibioticum (trimethoprim) and the anti-anxiety drug (oxazepam) remained at detectable levels in the aquatic environment long after (similar to 150 days) our laboratory based models predicted complete dissipation. We conclude that small-scale laboratory incubations seem sufficient to approximate the short-term (i.e. within a week) dissipation rate of drugs in aquatic ecosystems. However, this simplistic approach does not capture interacting environmental processes that preserve a fraction of the dissolved pharmaceuticals for months in natural water bodies.

  • 28. Faleye, A. C.
    et al.
    Adegoke, A. A.
    Ramluckan, K.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bux, F.
    Stenstrom, T. A.
    Concentration and reduction of antibiotic residues in selected wastewater treatment plants and receiving waterbodies in Durban, South Africa2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 678, p. 10-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the province of KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa the incidence of resistant tuberculosis, upper respiratory tract diseases as well as diarrhoeal and parasitic infections is high. Treatment of these diseases with antibiotics is partly reflected by the excretion of the respective antibiotics and their subsequent occurrence in wastewater. Their quantitative reduction in wastewater treatment reflects their potential environmental as well as human impact, the latter due to the use of the recipient water for domestic purposes and for irrigation. Information of the occurrence and reduction of different classes of antibiotics in wastewater treatment is sparse, especially the particle bound fraction of these. Due to this, analyses of aqueous and particle bound antibiotics in untreated wastewater of four selected wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and their receiving water bodies was carried out in Durban, South Africa. The treatment step especially considered was the biological one, represented by activated sludge and trickling filters. The treatment further included secondary clarifiers and final chlorine disinfection. Composite samples were collected during the period February 2017 to May 2017 and analysed with online solid phase extraction - high performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (SPE-HPLC-MS). For the 13 assessed antibiotics, the limit of detection (LOD) and the limit of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.07 to 0.33 ng L-1 and 0.23 to 1.09 ng L-1 respectively, while the total percentage recovery was in the range of 51 to 111%. The percentage of individual antibiotics bound to the particulate fraction normally lost by sample (influent) filtration, if not analysed in parallel, was in the range of 2.6%-97.3% (n = 32). In this fraction (sludge from centrifuge sample), the concentration of bound antibiotics of all the target antibiotics were detected in the influent of all WWTP in concentration ranges between 1.3 ng L-1 (Azithromycin; AZI) to 81,748 ng(-1) (Ciprofloxacin; CIP). The antibiotics with the highest median concentrations in receiving water bodies of the respective WWTP were: Sulfamethoxazole; SUL (239 ng L-1) WWTP "K", Ciprofloxacin; CIP (708 ng L-1) WWTP "S" and Albendazole; ALB (325 ng L-1 and 683 ng L-1) WWTP "P" and "I" respectively.

    The overall percentage removal efficiency for the four WWTPs ranged from 21% to 100%. The biological treatment steps, activated sludge and trickling filters, were effective in removing antibiotics especially with the trickling filter and the impact of the sedimentation stage after activated sludge treatment. (C) 2019 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 29.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    A search for 120 pharmaceuticals in wild fish from five European countries2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, p. S30-Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Chemical reactions in ventilation systems: Ozonolysis of monoterpenes2003Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Chemicals in indoor air, either emitted from a source or from a reaction, have been suggested to cause ill health in buildings. However, no clear correlations between exposure and health effects have been made.

    In this thesis we studied the reaction between monoterpenes, a group of biogenic unsaturated C10 hydrocarbons, and ozone. Ozonolysis of monoterpenes was used as model reactions for unsaturated compounds in ambient air. Also the products formed from these reactions have been suggested as important participants in the occurrence of discomfort and ill health in buildings.

    To enable a reliable and sensitive measurement of ppb-ppt levels of monoterpenes and the formed products in the presence of ozone an evaluation of available scrubber materials was made. Potassium iodide was shown to remove ambient levels of ozone and have a recovery of >95% for all monoterpenes and formed products included in the investigation.

    Experimental conditions showed to have a large impact on the initial steps of the ozonolysis, and also on the composition of the formed products. We showed that water plays an important and complex role both in the initial stage of ozonolysis of ∆3-carene and in the formation and composition of products from the ozonolysis of ∆-pinene. The use of experimental design facilitated the evaluation of the investigated reactions. We showed that the formation of OH radicals could be studied using multiple linear regression models and that the presence or absence of OH radicals had a profound impact on the formation of many of the formed products. We also made an observation of the lack of formed OH radicals in the ozonolysis of limonene and discussed probable causes of this observation.

    Despite the short reaction times and the ambient levels of ozone and monoterpenes used in our experiments we showed that a number of oxidation products were formed, and that the reaction rate is significantly increased in a ventilation system. This formation is underestimated by theoretical calculations and leads to high amounts of known irritants in the indoor air. We showed that theoretical calculations underestimate the formation of these oxidation products 3-13 times, depending on ventilation system and monoterpene.

  • 31.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Johansson, M
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Selection of antibiotics: A chemometric approach2004In: 4th International Conference on Pharmaceuticals and Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in Water, Minneapolis, USA, 2004, p. 143-50Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brodin, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Jonsson, Micael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Grabicova, Katerina
    Randak, Tomas
    Grabic, Roman
    Kodes, Vit
    Slobodnik, Jaroslav
    Sweetman, Andrew
    Earnshaw, Mark
    Caracciolo, Anna Barra
    Lettieri, Teresa
    Loos, Robert
    Screening of benzodiazepines in thirty European rivers2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, p. 324-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals as environmental contaminants have received a lot of interest over the past decade but, for several pharmaceuticals, relatively little is known about their occurrence in European surface waters. Benzodiazepines, a class of pharmaceuticals with anxiolytic properties, have received interest due to their behavioral modifying effect on exposed biota. In this study, our results show the presence of one or more benzodiazepine(s) in 86% of the analyzed surface water samples (n = 138) from 30 rivers, representing seven larger European catchments. Of the 13 benzodiazepines included in the study, we detected 9, which together showed median and mean concentrations (of the results above limit of quantification) of 5.4 and 9.6 ng L-1, respectively. Four benzodiazepines (oxazepam, temazepam, clobazam, and bromazepam) were the most commonly detected. In particular, oxazepam had the highest frequency of detection (85%) and a maximum concentration of 61 ng L-1. Temazepam and clobazam were found in 26% (maximum concentration of 39 ng L-1) and 14% (maximum concentration of 11 ng L-1) of the samples analyzed, respectively. Finally, bromazepam was found only in Germany and in 16 out of total 138 samples (12%), with a maximum concentration of 320 ng L-1. This study clearly shows that benzodiazepines are common micro-contaminants of the largest European river systems at ng L-1 levels. Although these concentrations are more than a magnitude lower than those reported to have effective effects on exposed biota, environmental effects cannot be excluded considering the possibility of additive and sub-lethal effects.

  • 33.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Grabic, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, Joakim D G
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Bioconcentration of Pharmaceuticals2010In: Towards Sustainable Pharmaceuticals in a Healthy Society: MistraPharma Research / [ed] Christina Rudén, Karin Liljelund, Helene Hagerman, Stockholm: Elander Sverige AB , 2010, 1, p. 36-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Residues of human pharmaceuticals have been widely detected in various parts of the environment and trace concentrations are often found in sewage effl uent and surface waters, typically ranging from low ng L-1 to low μg L-1 levels (Lindberg et al., 2005; Nikolaou et al., 2007; Loos et al., 2009). These concentrations, however, are orders of magnitude below the therapeutic concentrations reached in human blood plasma. Thus, the potential for a physiological impact of pharmaceuticals on water-living organisms (such as fi sh) have been questioned. On the other hand, the levels measured in surface waters do not simply mirror the levels encountered by the receptors or enzymes present inside the fi sh living in these waters. Indeed, levels of pharmaceutical in for example fi sh blood plasma is sometimes much higher than the levels in the surrounding water. This can be explained by the concepts of bioconcentration and bioaccumulation.

  • 34.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Parkkonen, Jari
    Arvidsson, Björn
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Therapeutic levels of levonorgestrel detected in blood plasma of fish: results from screening rainbow trout exposed to treated sewage effluents2010In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 44, no 7, p. 2661-2666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about effects on aquatic organisms. Analyses of pharmaceuticals in blood plasma of fish could provide means to assess risk for pharmacological effects, as these concentrations could be compared with available human therapeutic plasma levels. In this study we investigated if fish exposed to sewage effluents have plasma concentrations of pharmaceuticals that are approaching human therapeutic levels. We also evaluated how well the bioconcentration of pharmaceuticals into fish blood plasma can be predicted based on lipophilicity. Rainbow trout were exposed to undiluted, treated sewage effluents at three sites in Sweden for 14 days. Levels of 25 pharmaceuticals in blood plasma and effluents were analyzed with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry and gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. The progestin pharmaceutical levonorgestrel was detected in fish blood plasma at concentrations (8.5-12 ng mL(-1)), exceeding the human therapeutic plasma level. In total 16 pharmaceuticals were detected in fish plasma at concentrations higher than 1/1000 of the human therapeutic plasma concentration. Twenty-one pharmaceuticals were detected in either plasma or effluent, and 14 were detected in both compartments, allowing plasma bioconcentration factors to be determined. For 11 of these, theoretically calculated and experimentally measured values were in reasonably good agreement. However a few drugs, including levonorgestrel, did not bioconcentrate according to the screening model used. This study shows that rainbow trout exposed to sewage effluents have blood plasma levels of pharmaceuticals similar to human therapeutic concentrations, suggesting a risk for pharmacological effects in the fish. There is a particular concern about effects of progestin pharmaceuticals. For levonorgestrel, the measured effluent level (1 ng/L) was higher than water levels shown to reduce the fertility of fish.

  • 35.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim
    Predicted critical environmental concentrations for 500 pharmaceuticals2010In: Regulatory toxicology and pharmacology, ISSN 0273-2300, E-ISSN 1096-0295, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 516-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A growing number of pharmaceuticals are found in surface waters worldwide, raising concerns about their effects on aquatic organisms and it is a major challenge to develop a rational strategy for prioritizing drugs on which to focus the most extensive environmental research efforts. However, in contrast to most other chemicals, very good understanding of the human potency of pharmaceuticals has been obtained through efficacy and safety testing. Assuming that a drug acts primarily through the same target(s) also in a non-target species, it would be possible to predict the likelihood for pharmacological interactions in wildlife. Among aquatic organisms, fish most often share drug targets with humans. In this study, we have calculated the predicted critical environmental concentration (CECs), i.e. the surface water concentration expected to cause a pharmacological effect in fish, for 500 pharmaceuticals, assuming equivalent pharmacological activity. The CECs are based on literature data on human potencies together with a predicted bioconcentration factor in fish for each drug based on lipophilicity. We propose that CECs could be used as preliminary indicators of specific drugs' potential to cause adverse pharmacological effects at specific water concentrations, used when selecting pharmaceuticals to include in screening campaigns and for assessing relevant detection limits.

  • 36.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Haemig, Paul D
    Waldenström, Jonas
    Olsen, Björn
    Antiviral oseltamivir is not removed or degraded in normal sewage water treatment: implications for development of resistance by influenza A virus2007In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 2, no 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oseltamivir is the main antiviral for treatment and prevention of pandemic influenza. The increase in oseltamivir resistance reported recently has therefore sparked a debate on how to use oseltamivir in non pandemic influenza and the risks associated with wide spread use during a pandemic. Several questions have been asked about the fate of oseltamivir in the sewage treatment plants and in the environment. We have assessed the fate of oseltamivir and discuss the implications of environmental residues of oseltamivir regarding the occurrence of resistance. A series of batch experiments that simulated normal sewage treatment with oseltamivir present was conducted and the UV-spectra of oseltamivir were recorded. Findings: Our experiments show that the active moiety of oseltamivir is not removed in normal sewage water treatments and is not degraded substantially by UV light radiation, and that the active substance is released in waste water leaving the plant. Our conclusion is that a ubiquitous use of oseltamivir may result in selection pressures in the environment that favor development of drug-resistance.

  • 37.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Formation of oxidation products in a ventilation system2004In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, Vol. 38, no 35, p. 5895-9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have studied the formation of oxidation products from the ozonolysis of a monoterpene (α-pinene) in an authentic ventilation system. We observed ten products, norpinic acid, pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, norpinonic acid, pinonic acid, a C4 dicarbonyl (C4H6O2), a C5 dicarbonyl (C5H8O2), norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde. Experiments were conducted at a low (2.0 g m−3) and moderate (8 g m−3) humidity levels. All products but C4 dicarbonyl and norpinon aldehyde were detected at the low humidity level, but only glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, C4 dicarbonyl, norpinon aldehyde and pinon aldehyde were detected at a moderate humidity. Experiments were conducted at low ppb levels (75 ppb ozone and 4 and 10 ppb α-pinene) and with a short reaction time (75 s). Experiments showed that 5–6% of the α-pinene reacted, which was approximately 4–5 times more than predicted by theoretical calculations. This discrepancy suggests a significant contribution from heterogeneous reactions. These oxidation products were formed despite low reactant concentrations and a short reaction time, indicating that the formation of oxidation products likely occurs at ambient levels and in real settings.

  • 38.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics, Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Unit for Biomass Technology and Chemistry, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå.
    A study of the gas-phase ozonolysis of terpenes: the impact of radicals formed during the reaction2002In: Atmospheric Environment, ISSN 1352-2310, E-ISSN 1873-2844, Vol. 36, no 20, p. 3299-3308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene, Δ3-carene and limonene was investigated at ppb levels and the impact of the ozone, relative air humidity (RH), and time was studied using experimental design. The amounts of terpene reacted varied in the different settings and were as high as 8.1% for α-pinene, 10.9% forΔ3-carene and 23.4% for limonene. The designs were able to describe almost all the variation in the experimental data and were also successful in predicting omitted values. The results described the effects of time and ozone and also showed that RH did not have a statistically significant effect on the ozonolysis. The results also showed that all three terpenes were affected by an additional oxidation of OH radicals and/or other reactive species. The results from the designs states that this additional oxidation was responsible for 40% of the total amount of α-pinene reacted, 33% of the total amount of Δ3-carene reacted and 41% of the total amount of limonene reacted at the settings 20 ppb terpene, 75 ppb ozone, 20% RH and a reaction time of 213 s. Additional experiments with 2-butanol as OH radical scavenger showed that the reaction with OH radicals was responsible for 37% of the total α-pinene reacted and 39% of the total Δ3-carene reacted at the same settings. The scavenger experiments also showed that there were no significant amounts of OH radicals formed during the ozonolysis of limonene. The results from the designs were also compared to a mathematical model in order to evaluate further the data.

  • 39.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Ozone Removal in the Sampling of Parts per Billion Levels of Terpenoid Compounds: An Evaluation of Different Scrubber Materials2001In: Environmental Science & Technology, Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1458-62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Some reactive volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are prone to degradation during sampling in an ozone-rich environment. A wide variety of different chemicals have been used to remove the ozone prior to sampling, but the possibility of interference by such chemicals with the sampled VOCs has not been thoroughly examined. In the present investigation, the retention/degradation of four terpenes (-pinene, -pinene, 3-carene, and limonene) and isoprene together with some of their oxidation products (-pinene oxide, nopinone, 4-acetyl-1-methylcyclohexene (AMCH), methylglyoxal, and methacrolein) has been studied, using various ozone-removing chemicals in an attempt to evaluate their potential as ozone scrubbers in the sampling of ambient air. The chemicals included in this first screening and their ozone-removing capacity are as follows: KI, MnO2, and Na2SO3 removed ozone for more than 24 h when exposed to 73-78 ppb (150-160 g/m3) at a sampling flow rate of 500 mL/min. Silanized poly(1,4-phenylene sulfide) (PFS) removed ozone for 5 h, unsilanized PFS removed ozone for 1 h and 50 min, and Na2S2O3 removed ozone for 20 min. The recovery of the selected compounds with the different scrubbers was >95% for all compounds for KI; >95% for the terpenes oxidation products; >90% for the terpenes and isoprene for PFS; >90% for the terpenes and isoprene for MnO2 on copper nets, Na2SO3, and Na2S2O3; and <90% for the terpenes and isoprene for carulite (a commercial mixture between MnO2, CuO, and Al2O3), CuO, and indigo carmine.

  • 40.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Effect of OH radicals, relative humidity, and time on the composition of the products formed in the ozonolysis of α-pinene2003In: Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 37, no 29, p. 4087-96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The gas-phase ozonolysis of α-pinene at ppb levels were studied and the effects of OH radicals formed in the reaction, the relative humidity (RH), and time on the products formed were investigated. Identified products were pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, norpinonic acid and a norpinonic acid isomer, pinonic acid, a C4 dicarbonyl, a C5 dicarbonyl, norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde. The different parameters effect on the formation of these products were evaluated using experimental design and multivariate modeling. Pinonic acid, norpinonic acid and its isomer, were not detected in the absence of OH radicals. The amounts of pinic acid, norpinon aldehyde, and pinon aldehyde all decreased in the absence of OH radicals. Glyoxal and methyl glyoxal were not affected.

    The formation of pinonic acid decreased when the RH was increased. The formation of pinic acid, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, and pinon aldehyde increased with increasing RH, while norpinon aldehyde was not affected. The implications of these observations and additional interaction effects are discussed, and a novel route of the formation of pinic acid is presented.

  • 41.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Åstrand, Anders
    Östin, Ronny
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Chemistry.
    Ozonolysis of monoterpenes in mechanical ventilation systems2005In: ATMOSPHERIC ENVIRONMENT, Vol. 39, no 34, p. 6315-25Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this investigation the ozonolysis of of three monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, Delta(3)-carene and limonene) was studied was studied in authentic mechanical ventilation systems, that included either a cross flow or a rotary heat exchanger. The effects of varying three experimental parameters were investigated: the level of ozone (25 and 75 ppb), the reaction time (25 and 75s), and the surface area in the ventilation duct (14.8 and 29.5 m(2)). The initial concentration of each of the monoterpenes was 20 ppb in every experiment, and 1-16% of the alpha-pinene, < 0.5-13% of the Delta(3)-carene, and < 0.5-16% of the limonene reacted. The effects of humidity (g m(-3)) and temperature of the outdoor and supply air, and water losses in the ventilation duct, were also evaluated. Experiments were based on a chemometric statistical design. Comparison of the results to theoretically calculated values showed that theoretical calculations underestimated the amounts that reacted in the ventilation systems by factors of 2-13, depending on the monoterpene and experimental settings.

  • 42.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Pommer, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Åstrand, Anders
    Östin, Ronny
    Nilsson, Calle
    Andersson, Barbro
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    The effect of mechanical ventilation systems on the chemistry in the supply airArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Fick, Jerker
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Söderström, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Lindberg, Richard H
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Phan, Chau
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Larsson, D G Joakim