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  • 1.
    Ahlin, Karin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Exploiting Information: Seeking Long-term Preservation of organisational knowledge2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Long-term preservation of organisational knowledge gives the business opportunities to reusestored knowledge. This preservation of knowledge is present both in the organisation as such,found explicitly in the organisational stock, and also in the individual workers, implicit intheir flow of action. Theoretically have the reuse of knowledge been named organisationalmemory and also been addressed in knowledge management. In a single case-study of amanufacturing company, the authors study the utilisation of product configuration information(PCI) and its role in meeting requirements on long-time preservation of product-relatedknowledge. This structured and standardised information is used throughout the organisation,serving as a base for both organisational and individual knowledge for the entire company.Since the information has been used in the same way for decades it is a part of theorganisation´s culture and influences structures and procedures connected to the informationbase. The result of the study implies that usage of PCI grants the individual worker a highdegree of task-related freedom as well as intra-organisational mobility. The downside for theindividuals is the long time period it takes to get familiar with PCI due to its complexity. Forthe organisation as such, PCI provides a stable stock of knowledge which is available overextended periods of time, drastically reducing dependence upon individual workers.

  • 2.
    Pessi, Kalevi
    et al.
    Gothenburg University.
    Hadzic, Aida
    Gothenburg University.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Magoulas, Thanos
    Gothenburg University.
    Managing alignment in Enterprise Architecture: Four essential dimensions2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Facing the complexities of environmental contingencies and increasingly interdependent business relationships, more and more organisations look to Enterprise Architecture as a means to manage its resources. Yet the guidance offered by research as well as practice is insufficient as the tools presented are suitable for the homogeneous system rather than the heterogeneous enterprise. This is particularly true of alignment where research and practice seem preoccupied solely with aligning IT with business strategy rather than the enterprise as a whole. In an effort to develop the concept of architectural alignment, we draw upon a rich heritage of IS research in formulating and rationalising four essential dimensions of alignment. We perceive the relationship between the business architecture and IS-architecture as comprised of four dimensions: Functional alignment, structural alignment, socio-cultural alignment and infological alignment. While other dimensions may be justified, we emphasise that these four dimensions are essential to a sound, value-based architecture. This paper thereby contributes to establishing a more multidimensional view of alignment as applied to Enterprise Architecture.

  • 3.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    An inquiry into the nature and causes of digital platforms2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    While the shape and nature of platforms varies across different instances, they pursue common ambitions such as reduction of risk, complexity, or transaction costs. Although initially theorised in industrial contexts, subsequent theorising regarding platform development, platform ecosystems, and platform strategy has drawn upon studies of high-tech industries in general and IT-based platforms in particular. While the inherent malleability of digitised data and digital technology offers possibilities, they also make it difficult to pin down the locus of a low-variety platform core. As such, one of the fundamental properties of digital platforms is rather mundane: to provide stability. With that in mind, this thesis pursues the following research question: How can a digital platform maintain stability for its stakeholders in the face of constant technical change? This thesis utilises affordance theory as a means to operationalise a relational view of digital platform, where stability is assessed in relation to stakeholders rather than technical persistence. This dissertation is based on an interpretive case study, primarily using qualitative data in the form of interviews gathered as part of two separate projects that varied both in scope and orientation. The thesis offers two main contributions. First, the idea of platform stability as derived from low-variety components that are persistent over time is difficult to apply in relation to digital platforms. Rather, we need to approach stability as a composite property, based on the ability of the platform to satisfy technical-, informational-, and social expectations. Hence, stability should not be considered as a fixed or absolute property, but rather a moving target. Second, this thesis suggests that the existing notion of (technical) coring needs to be complemented with information coring and social coring when applied to digital platforms. The proposed concept of information coring expresses the ability to hide complexity and present bottom-line results to the user in a comprehensible manner. Social coring refers to the idea of aligning technical integration and social integration in a platform. A relational perspective applied to digital platforms offers a possible avenue for theorising digital platforms as information systems artefacts rather than the dichotomous relationship between platform-as-architecture and platform-as-marketplace found in extant literature.

  • 4.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Digital platform development: A service-oriented perspective. Complete Research2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The traditional view of value is largely rooted in the material properties of physical goods. However, service-dominant logic tells us that value is not imbued in goods, but derived in its judicious application. A contextually bounded nature of value is highly relevant for the study of digital platforms given the reprogrammable nature of digital technology coupled with a necessity to serve several different stake-holders and applications. This paper applies servitization as a theoretical framework for illustrating the subjective and transitory value propositions that influence platform development. Based on a case study of a firm that has transitioned from product supplier to provider of a platform for digital services, it is evident that value propositions are ambivalent, yet vital components in the evolution of platforms. Fur-thermore, we may discern that platform providers are faced with value propositions that are multidi-rectional, multidimensional, and offered from a variety of sources.

  • 5.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Digital Service Platforms: Considering Reciprocity in Value Propositions2014In: 30th EGOS Colloquium. Rotterdam, The Netherlands July 3–5, 2014.: Sub-theme 27: Business Models and Strategies: Organizations and Alternative Forms of Organizing, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital technologies have proliferated into virtually every aspect of our lives and business activities. However, IT is largely regarded as an operand resource that is manipulated upon in order to produce a desirable result. However, recent research has argued the potential for IT as an operant resource, i.e. a resource that operates upon other resources and acts as a trigger for innovation. Using a case study as illustration, this paper argues that IT can be leveraged digital service platforms that offer the potential to gather actors of platforms coupled with the customer-orientation found in services. Using servitization as a theoretical framework, it is evident that value propositions are a key component in the evolution of service platforms. Furthermore, we may discern that platform providers are faced with value-propositions that are bi-directional as well as multifaceted.

  • 6.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Here Today, Here Tomorrow: Considering Options Theory in Digital Platform Development2014In: Creating Value for All Through IT: IFIP WG 8.6 International Conference on Transfer and Diffusion of IT, TDIT 2014, Aalborg, Denmark, June 2-4, 2014. Proceedings / [ed] Birgitta Bergvall-Kåreborn, Peter Axel Nielsen, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2014, p. 243-260Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past decades have seen business platforms proliferate not only as a means to collaborate, but also decrease time-to-market and promote innovation. However, extant literature tends to dichotomise platforms, perceiving them as either strategic resources or technical systems. Applied to digital platforms, we argue that options theory offers a potential means to reconcile the operand and operant perspectives of platform artefacts. We illustrate our point via a case study of a firm that has gradually developed a product that enables mobile communication into a digital platform that provides a wide range of customers with services from several different suppliers. This study contributes to our understanding of digital platforms as it describes how design choices by a provider can affect flexibility and continued development of new services.

  • 7.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Platform Provider by Accident: A Case Study of Digital Platform Coring2016In: Business & Information Systems Engineering, ISSN 1867-0202, Vol. 58, no 3, p. 177-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent years have witnessed the rapid emergence of digital technology as not just an enabler, but indeed a material basis for platform development. However, extant platform literature does not adequately address strategies related to digital platforms. Specifically, the notion of platform coring does not consider how a core is to be identified or the nature of a core in relation to entangled physical and digital materiality. This paper presents a single-case study of a digital platform for business-to-business services. Results suggest that rather than a specific platform element, the core of a digital platform may be described as a capability to harness the potential of digital technology. Furthermore, platform coring may be aided by adopting value propositions as a means to conceptualize the process of negotiating mutual benefit among platform stakeholders. This study contributes to the understanding of digital platform establishment as it addresses the notion of coring and the emergent process related to the distributed ontology of digital technology and a situated perception of value.

  • 8.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Burström, Thommie
    Hanken School of Economics, Department of Entrepreneurship, Management and Organisation.
    Platform establishment: A case study of entrepreneurial alertnessManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Faced with an environment of technological uncertainties, software platforms have gained interest as an enabler of innovative businesses and development processes. Extant research is however largely limited to studies that explore the benefits of mature platforms. Considerably less is known regarding the establishment of platforms. Drawing inspiration from a life-cycle perspective, the purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual model for software platform establishment based on entrepreneurial alertness. We develop a framework based on entrepreneurial alertness that describes four types of awareness: market, resources, technology, and context. Based on a qualitative case study of an emerging platform, we contribute to literature on platform strategy by studying entrepreneurial behavior during the establishment of a software platform. Our study indicates that all four types of awareness are necessary in order to market a platform to customers and attract 3rd party interest.

  • 9.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Burström, Thommie
    Hanken School of Economics, Helsinki, Finland.
    Towards an understanding of entrepreneurial alertness in the formation of platform ecosystems2014In: 22nd European Conference on Information Systems (ECIS), Tel Aviv, June 9-11,  2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In platform ecosystems, the platform provider seeks to derive increasing returns over time as the ecosystem of backing actors grows more numerous. While a growing body of research has addressed the ecosystem strategies of large enterprises, less attention has been paid to small firms in the role of platform providers. As small firms do not possess the resources of large enterprises, they are not in a position to ignore the importance of immediate returns needed for the viability of the firm. In a case study, we study the entrepreneurial alertness of a small technology-based firm in promoting a platform for machine-to-machine communication. Our results suggest that balancing increasing and immediate returns requires a variety of entrepreneurial activities that encompasses strategic foresight and systemic insight on one hand, and explorative and exploitative actions on the other. This paper contributes to our understanding of platform ecosystems by addressing the strategies of a small firm as an emerging platform provider.

  • 10.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Nuldén, Urban
    University of Gothenburg.
    Meiling, Pär
    University of Gothenburg.
    Pessi, Kalevi
    University of Gothenburg.
    Framing Crisis Information Systems: The case of WIS2020In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020: Digital Government > Disaster Information, Technology, and Resilience, HICSS , 2020, p. 2167-2176Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Relief efforts for natural and societal crisesrequire a multitude of agencies to effectively and efficiently share information and coordinate their efforts. In 2009, The Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency launched a Web-based Information System (WIS) for Information sharing in crisis management. The system has undergone two major revisions and isapplied nation-wide with the intent of aiding inter-agency coordination. The study draws upon Orlikowski and Gash’s notion of technological frames to contrast the perspectives of technology users and technology promoters. The study revealed that both stakeholder groups agree onthe potential benefits of the system, but differ in their view on the system itself as well as its application in practice. Furthermore, the study highlights the limitations of dedicated ICT for crisis management as users perceive WIS to be useful in coordinating slow-moving events that involve many different societal actors, yet unwieldy to deploy in a sudden crisis.

  • 11.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Digital Transformation: Five recommendations for the digitally conscious firm2020In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Digital transformation is one of the key challenges facing contemporary business organizations. The need to leverage digital technology to develop and implement new business models forces firms to re-evaluate existing capabilities, structures, and culture in order to identify what technologies are relevant and how they will be enacted in organizational processes and business offerings. More often than not, these profound changes require firms to revisit old truths as they develop strategies that thread the needle between beneficial innovation and harmful disruption. This paper utilizes the Internet of Things (IoT) as a backdrop to demonstrate the concerns associated with transformative technologies and offers five recommendations as to how firms can engage to develop the strategies needed for digital transformation and become digitally conscious. 1. Start small and build on first-hand benefits. 2. Team up and create competitive advantage from brand recognition. 3. Engage in standardization efforts. 4. Take responsibility for data ownership and ethics 5. Own the change and ensure organization-wide commitment. As such, this paper shows that digital transformation should be a top management priority and a defining trait of corporate business strategy, and that by becoming digitally conscious, firms may get a head start on their transformation journey.

  • 12.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Internet of Things: are you ready for what's coming?2017In: Business Horizons, ISSN 0007-6813, E-ISSN 1873-6068, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 667-676Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Are you ready for what’s coming? As senior managers look to connect products, processes, and services to the growing field of the Internet of Things (IoT), this is an important preliminary question. Leveraging the IoT for firm benefit involves revisiting certain ideas that may have gone unquestioned for a long time. In this article, we begin by reviewing the complexity of the IoT, the complexities of an increasingly interconnected environment, and the increasing need to develop partnerships in order to create innovative solutions. We then offer practical insights from a case in which three actors with reciprocal specialties cooperated to create an IoT solution in the form of a connected appliance. While a shared spirit of optimism prevailed throughout the endeavor, reaching the finish line meant jumping a few hurdles along the way. Finally, we describe a number of fundamental issues related to business models, partnership strategy, data ownership, and technology diffusion that every enterprise should address before diving headfirst into the Internet of Things.

  • 13.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The Inter-organizational Dynamics of a Platform Ecosystem: Exploring Stakeholder Boundaries2016In: 2016 49th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS 2016) / [ed] Bui, TX; Sprague, RH, IEEE Computer Society, 2016, p. 5167-5176Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) creates a myriad of new business opportunities that focus on collecting, transmitting, and analyzing product data. IoT collaborations bring together diverse firms with separate skill-sets that both produce and utilize digitized data to co-create value. While previous research has explored the technical implications of IoT in great detail, it has largely ignored the business implications of such endeavors. In this paper, we focus on the early stages of the emerging inter-organizational relationships that IoT enables and ask the question: How can the inter-organizational dynamics between disparate actors in an IoT ecosystem be perceived and understood? By conducting a qualitative case study and tracing four types of organizational boundaries: efficiency, power, competence and identity, we show how firm boundaries are emergent, dynamic, and constantly negotiated between firms. Allowing for and understanding this relational interplay is crucial in order for IoT ecosystems to thrive and grow.

  • 14.
    Saarikko, Ted
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics. Swedish Center for Digital Innovation.
    Here, there, but not everywhere: Adoption and diffusion of IoT in Swedish municipalities2020In: Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences 2020: Digital Government > Digital Government and the Internet of Things (IoT), HICSS , 2020, p. 2030-2039Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet of Things (IoT) brings with it promises of smart cities with improved efficiency, increased transparency, and enhanced public services. However, few studies have empirically and systematically investigated the reasoning behind the decision to adopt IoT within municipal organizations. In this paper we study the adoption and diffusion of IoT in Swedish municipalities. We outline areas of application and perceived value creation and conclude that the main reasons for adoption and diffusion can be traced back to 1) the simplicity of the IoT solution, and 2) clear incentives. Among the municipalities that have not embraced IoT, commonly cited barriers are economic factors and that other, more politically charged, issues take priority. This paper extends our understanding of public sector perception of IoT, as well as provides a comprehensive outlook on drivers for IoT-adoption.

  • 15.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    IoTguiden2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    IoTguiden kommer ur ett Vinnovaprojekt som har skapat kunskap kring övergången från produkt till tjänst med Sakernas Internet (eng. Internet of Things, IoT) genom att 1) studera befintliga framgångsrika IoT- satsningar hos ett antal svenska företag inom olika branscher och 2) göra en bredare omvärldsanalys och benchmarking. Därigenom har projektet synliggjort möjligheter med IoT och vilka strategier, värdeskapande och roller som återfinns hos företag inom IoT- ekosystemet.

    Genom att studera IoT-satsningar vid ett 20-tal svenska företag inom olika branscher har projektet genererat resultat som är generellt applicerbara på alla företag som står inför en transformation baserat på de specifika möjligheter IoT skapar. Resultaten har sammanställts i en skrift, IoTguiden, som innehåller konkreta råd och praktiker. IoTguiden distribueras fritt, både digitalt och som trycksak. Projektet har letts av Umeå universitet med stor vana av liknande utredningsarbete och genom de andra projektaktörerna, Fältcom och Telia Company har god tillgång till fallföretag tryggats. Det här har gjorts för att visa på mångfald och potential för processförbättring, effektivisering och nytt värdeskapande, men också för att lyfta fram vad som är gemensamma nämnare för samtliga som satsar på IoT, oavsett branschtillhörighet. 

  • 16.
    Westergren, Ulrika H.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Saarikko, Ted
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Blomquist, Tomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    The IoTguide: a business guide to the Internet of Things2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This research compiles relevant experiences and knowledge about the Internet of Things (ioT) in a clear and concrete guide. It is primarily based on interviews conducted between 2015 and 2017 with firms operating in different industries. While all firms featured in this guide are based in Sweden, we believe that their actions and strategies carry relevevance far beyond the context of any one nation or market. Furthermore, most of the firms that are featured in this guide have a strong international presence, further strengthening their ability to illustrate strategies for creating value by using IoT.  

    By highlighting best practices and showing how firms can apply IoT in dfferent ways while devel- oping new products, services, and business models we show the multiple ways in which IoT can be incorporated into organizational life. Our aim is to inspire firms to draw upon the experience of others and learn from the different cases and insights, starting a discussion on key strategic choices, so that they are better prepared when launching their own IoT venture. 

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