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  • 1.
    Lantto, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Torp, EivindBlind, EllacarinDrugge, Anna-LillUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.Stoor, KristerUmeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.Lindblad, MichaelUmeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Banbrytande ledare och forskare: vänbok till Lars Thomasson2018Collection (editor) (Other academic)
  • 2.
    Lantto, Patrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Torp, Eivind
    Blind, Ellacarin
    Drugge, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Stoor, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Förord2018In: Banbrytande ledare och forskare: vänbok till Lars Thomasson / [ed] Patrik Lantto, Eivind Torp, Ellacarin Blind, Anna-Lill Drugge, Krister Stoor, Michael Lindblad, Umeå: Vaartoe - Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2018, p. i-viChapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 3.
    Lidström, Lena
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Lovén, Anders
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Disqualified in school and beyond? School-to-work experiences among young adults without upper secondary qualificationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    "De förstod aldrig min historia": unga vuxna med migrationsbakgrund om skolmisslyckande och övergångar mellan skola och arbete2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to deepen knowledge of young people with a migration background in Sweden, particularly those with non-European backgrounds, and their transitions from school to work. The focus is on young people with uncompleted upper secondary education (USE), drawing on their life stories, and exploring their perceptions and experiences around school failure, entering the labour market, and/or not being in education, employment or training (NEET).

    Theoretically the study analyses individuals’ career decisions from an agency-structure perspective, drawing on careership theory, in particular the notions of pragmatic-rational choices, routines, turning-points and horizons of action (Hodkinson & Sparkes 1997), combined with theories on ‘otherness’ (Hall 1990; 1999, Anthias 2002, Balibar 2004, Trondman 2007), and the notion of socio-geographic space (Bourdieu 1986a; Bourdieu 1999, Bourdieu & Wacquant, 1996).

    Methodologically, the thesis is based on narrative research, and the empirical material comprise life stories of twenty young people (men and women) about their lives, school experiences and time after leaving school. The careers of the young people were developed in fields where they had subordinate positions, based on their family’s mostly limited social, economic and cultural capital, their own short education and limited experience, and the otherness they encoun­tered. Against this background, their educational and labour market career choices are under­stood as pragmatic-rational, enabled and limited by the resulting horizons of action. However, the collected nar­ra­tives suggest that their horizons of action developed from the time they left school when they made different pragmatic-rational choices that changed their posi­tions. Nevertheless, career choices were often made within a bounded agency and reduced op­por­tunities as a consequence of school failure and their own scarce resources. The learning and interaction taking place within the routine periods are both crucial for understanding processes that result in school failure and the subsequent extend­ed period of establishment in working and adult life, and change of horizons of action and habitus.

    The narratives of the young people showed that school failures and dropout are com­plex and extended processes that are related to education and family, as well as access to power and capital. They also encountered difference-making through the predominant images and discourses of 'immigration' as a social problem and by being located in a specific socio-geo­graphic space that limited their possibilities for action. The family was highly significant and, in most cases, represented security and continuity. The family’s present situation and future was crucial to the young adults, which affected their choices. Hence, their own horizon of action also included the family’s opportunities and horizon of action. The study indicates that there is sometimes reason to speak of a collective horizon of action rather than just an individual one. Institutional and informal support together with young people’s agency may enable positive career development in spite of a lack of resources provided to the young, particularly if schools and other institu­tions would provide more professional and timely support. The overall conclusion is that it would not have taken much investment of resources and effort to have prevented school failure for a large proportion of the twenty young adults in this study. That is the good news.

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  • 5.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Studie-och yrkesvägledning som kunskapsområde: En nordisk jämförelse2011Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 6.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Unga vuxna med migrationsbakgrund om skolmisslyckande och övergångar mellan skola och arbete2018In: Barn och migration / [ed] André Asplund, Sara Thalberg och Caroline Tovatt, Stockholm: Delegationen för migrationsstudier , 2018, p. 61-73Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Kapitlet undersöker situationen för unga med utländsk bakgrund, specifikt unga med utomeuropeisk bakgrund som har misslyckats i skolan, och deras ansträngningar att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden. Mot bakgrunden av att en fullbordad gymnasieutbildning kan ses som en nödvändig förutsättning för att ta sig in på den svenska arbetsmarknaden undersöks varför elever med migrationsbakgrund är överrepresenterade bland de som inte har behörighet att söka till gymnasieskolans nationella program. Studien bygger på ungas berättelser om skoltiden, deras beskrivningar av varför de inte lyckats slutföra sina studier och om deras planer för framtiden. Studien landar i att faktorer som engagemang från lärare och kvalitet på skolor samt stödjande nätverk, inkluderat föräldrar, får större betydelse för skolframgång för unga med migrationsbakgrund än för elever födda i Sverige.  En annan aspekt som studien aktualiserar är ungas boendeplats för betydelsen för skolframgång eller skolmisslyckande. Koncentration av fattigdom, arbetslöshet och låg utbildningsnivå i bostadsområden ökar risken för klassbaserad och etnisk "ghettofiering", som i sin tur skapar skolsegregation och ökar risken för avhopp, medan en ökad andel av universitetsutbildade i området tydligt ökar andelen som fullföljer gymnasieutbildning. I de ungas beskrivningar av sina försök att etablera sig på arbetsmarknaden efter skolmisslyckandet framkommer vikten av flexibelt institutionellt stöd i form av vuxenutbildning, riktade arbetsmarknadsprojekt och anställningsstöd. De ungas erfarenheter av svårigheter att få ett arbete och/eller av arbeten i vad som riskerar bli karriärmässiga återvändsgränder ger dem motivation till förändring och att återvända till utbildning, både till yrkesutbildningar och behörighetsgivande studier för högre studier. Genomgående är ett erkännande av de unga som individer och att inte ses som "de andra" avgörande för både skolframgång och etablering på arbetsmarknaden.

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  • 7.
    Lindblad, Michael
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Winding Paths through School and After: Young Swedes of Migrant Origin Who Failed in Upper Secondary School2020In: Youth on the Move: Tendencies and Tensions in Youth Policies and Practices / [ed] Kristiina Brunila, Lisbeth Lundahl, Helsinki: Helsinki University Press, 2020, p. 79-99Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Departing from careership theory, this chapter aims to add to knowledge about school careers and school-to-work transitions of young people with a migrant background, here referring to individuals born outside or in Sweden whose parents are first-generation immigrants. More specifically, we want to increase the understanding of the processes resulting in a school failure, and the subsequent process when the young person tries to enter the labour market and/or strengthen his/her educational qualifications. The analysis is based on life-history interviews with 27 Swedish young adults (21–23 years old), most of them from refugee families of non-European origins. All of the respondents left school without completing upper secondary education. Few previous studies have focused on both the school years ending in dropout and subsequent careers of early school leavers, as reported by the young adults themselves (for exceptions, see e.g. Henderson et al., 2007). As discussed in the following section, political discourses, official statistics and research often portray gloomy prospects for young early school leavers generally, and those of migrant origin particularly. However, our research provides more nuanced indications, as the young adults interviewed described not only difficulties in school and later life but also factors that could facilitate their careers, particularly if schools and other institutions provided more professional and timely support.

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  • 8.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lidström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lovén, Anders
    Olofsson, Jonas
    Östh, John
    Osäkra övergångar2015In: Resultatdialog 2015, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2015, Vol. 1, p. 107-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Var fjärde ung svensk (20-24 år) har saknar hel gymnasieutbildning. Projektet Osäkra övergångar handlar om karriärer i och efter ungdomsskolan för denna grupp unga och om lokala strategier och åtgärder för att förebygga skolmisslyckanden och underlätta övergångar till arbete och fortsatt utbildning. Det bygger på intervjuer med 100 unga vuxna och 45 kommunföreträdare i 20 kommuner, på enkäter och databasmaterial. Några slutsatser: Skolmisslyckandet är oftast en långvarig process där många faktorer bidrar. Skolan brister i att tidigt upptäcka och ge stöd för den unges inlärning, och att hantera mobbning och skolk, även om enskilda vuxna kan ha stöttat. På kommunnivå ses specialpedagogik och vägledning som prioriterade insatser, men man vet föga om deras omfattning och kvalitet. Lokala åtgärder för att underlätta ungas etablering uppvisar alltför stora skillnader. Särskilt i mindre kommuner är styrningen svag och resurserna små, även om ungdomsrelaterade problem kan vara betydande,

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  • 9.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Migrant student achievement and education policy in Sweden2018In: Immigrant student achievement and education policy: cross-cultural approaches / [ed] Louis Volante, Don Klinger, Ozge Bilgili, Cham: Springer, 2018, p. 69-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As a result of extensive immigration, consisting largely of refugees, Sweden has undergone a fast demographic change during the last 25 years. In 2016, approximately 17% of Sweden’s inhabitants were born outside of the country. Sweden was the country in the European Union granting most refugees asylum in proportion to its population, and the EU country that had most asylum-seeking unaccompanied minors, in absolute numbers. The Swedish education system has had obvious difficulties to cope with the situation, inter alia reflected in considerable gaps in non-immigrant versus immigrant student achievement results and completion rates, which are above average when compared to other Western nations. This chapter provides a brief overview of the cultural composition of the student population within Sweden, including its evolution over time. The trajectory of achievement results on national and international large-scale assessment measures are examined in relation to non-immigrant and immigrant student groups. The authors discuss the range of policy approaches at national and local levels that have been adopted in Sweden to close these achievement gaps and reduce the levels of school dropout and non-completion.

  • 10.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Winding paths through school and after: Careers of young Swedes of Non-European origin2016In: NERA 2016 Social Justice, Equality and Solidarity in Education, 2016, p. 280-280Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Lundahl, Lisbeth
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Lovén, Anders
    Malmö Högskola.
    Mårald, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science.
    No particular way to go: careers of young adults lacking upper secondary qualifications2017In: Journal of Education and Work, ISSN 1363-9080, E-ISSN 1469-9435, Vol. 30, no 1, p. 39-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article aims to deepen understanding of the trajectories through school and into adulthood of people who did not attain valued qualifications from upper secondary school ('non-completers'), and explore the fruitfulness of careership theory for such analysis. It is based on interviews with 100 young Swedes: 81 non-completers and 19 who had attended special upper secondary schools catering for young people with mild cognitive disability. Their narratives portray sparse socio-economic resources and difficult family situations, learning problems and marginalisation processes in school. They commonly learned to perceive themselves as failures and 'different'. Framed by narrow horizons of action, these young people's careers were mostly characterised by enforced rather than self-initiated turning points. Often leading to unemployment and economic problems, leaving secondary school was less of a turning point than a continuation of failure, even if completing adult education and getting a job were regarded as self-initiated, positive shifts. We conclude that careership theory was useful for analysing and understanding the careers of the young people concerned. However, distinguishing between 'routines' and 'turning points' became especially difficult when studying lives of these young people hemmed in by sparser resources, fewer choices and less stable career trajectories than their peers.

  • 12.
    Svedberg, Gudrun
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lindblad, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Lovén, Anders
    Lidström, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of applied educational science, Child and Youth education, Special Education and Counselling.
    Disqualified in school and beyond? School-to-work experiences of young adults without upper secondary status.2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the European countries, upper secondary qualification is identified as critical for individuals’ career development as well as a key to the progress of communities and society at large. In an European perspective, Sweden today has relatively high proportion of young people without upper secondary status when leaving upper secondary school as well as high youth unemployment rates. The restructuring of the public sector, the reduction of the Swedish welfare system and the development of the school system towards increased deregulation, decentralization and market release seems to have had a particularly negative effect on young people at risk.  In this paper the intention is to give voice to young adults without upper secondary qualifications, some of them with different kinds of disabilities, some with non-Swedish background and most of them unemployed. How do they describe their pathways in school and school-to-work (STW)-transitions? How do they describe measures intended to promote completion of school and getting a foothold in the labour market? What characterizes their horizons of action? The aim of this study is to increase the knowledge about biographical experiences of STW- transitions among young adults in their twenties without upper secondary status, focusing on their understanding of institutional processes, their experiences and individual strategies. The study is part of the research project - Troublesome transitions: School-to-work transitions of young people at risk in a longitudinal perspective - funded by the Swedish Research Council.  To analyse the young adults’ narratives about their STW-transitions a careership theory is applied, outlined by Hodkinson and Sparkes.  The theory considers the agency-structure interrelationship, and is connected to Bourdieu’s concepts of habitus, field and capital. Key concepts are routines, turning-points, field and horizon of action.

    Method The study is based on interviews with 111young adults, from twenty selected Swedish municipalities (of 290). The municipalities were selected according to different types, such as urban, suburban and industrial areas, and according to more or less successful communities when it comes to the percentage of young people who have completed upper secondary school, rates of employment and proportion dependent on social welfare. Aiming at reaching a diverse group of young people at risk we did guide our gatekeepers to mediate contact in respect to: a gender mix, age around 20 and without upper secondary qualifications. Beside these general criteria, which all respondents share, we ensured that young people with non-Swedish background and young people with disabilities that participated in ordinary schools as well as special schools were included. A thematic interview guide was employed and besides these themes there was space for the young adults’ narratives and digressions. The interviews were conducted in the respondents’ hometowns in 2011 or 2012 and took around one hour to carry out. The interviews were recorded, transcribed and analyzed based on emerging themes.

    Expected Outcomes The young adults display fragmentized paths, both during education and after,with many shifts and a majority seem to have experienced more turning-points than peers of the same age. Some of these turning-points can be described as forced, others as structural and yet others as self-initiated.  Many experience a turbulent time and unsafe conditions after leaving school. The most common explanation to their situation is school-failure  – something they blame themselves. The study shows in the group of young adults lacking upper secondary qualification, the type of municipality they live in has a smaller significance to their STW-transition. The patterns – troublesome education-background with lack of (proper) support at school, fragmentized transition patterns, lack of influence, alienation, absence of measures entering the labor market  and  temporary low-qualified employment – is recurring and their experiences and their horizon of action can to a larger extent be linked to background-variables such as gender, dis/ability and the accumulated capital of the family than to geographical location. By numbers, young men are more exposed. However it is the young women who express greater distress about the future. Young adults with disabilities is collectively the group that faces the greatest challenges during the establishing-phase.

    References Bradley, Harriet & Devadason, Ranji (2008). Fractured transitions: Young adults' pathways into contemporary labour markets. Sociology, 42(1) 119-136. Enguita, Mariano Fernández, Luis Mena Martínez, and Jaime Riviere Gómez (2010). School Failure and Dropouts in Spain." Social Studies Collection. Retrieved from http://multimedia. lacaixa. es/lacaixa/ondemand/obrasocial/pdf/estudiossociales/vol29_en. p df  Fenton, Steve, & Dermott, Esther (2006). Fragmented careers? Winners and losers in young adult labour markets. Work, Employment & Society, 20(2) 205-221. Furlong, Andy (2006). Not a very NEET solution: representing problematic labour market transitions among early school leavers. Work, employment & society, 20 (3) 553-569. Hattam, Robert & Smyth, John (2003). ‘Not Everyone Has a Perfect Life’: becoming somebody without school. Pedagogy, Culture & Society. 11 (3), 379-398.  Hodkinson, Phil & Sparkes, Andrew C. (1997). Careership: A Sociological Theory of Career Decision Making. British Journal of Sociology of Education 18 (1), 29–44. McGrath, Brian (2009). School disengagement and ‘structural options’ Narrative illustrations on an analytical approach. Young, 17(1), 81-101. Sappa, Viviana & Bonica, Laura (2011). School-to-work transitional outcomes of a group of Italian school dropouts: Challenges for promoting social inclusion. Education + Training, 53 (7) 625-637.  Stauber, Barbara & Walther, Andreas (2006). De-standardised pathways to adulthood: European perspectives on informal learning in informal networks. Papers: Revista de sociologia, (79), 241-262. Thomson, Rachel, Holland, Janeth, Sharpe, Sue, McGrellis, Sheena, & Henderson, Sheila. (2006). Inventing adulthoods: a biographical approach to youth transitions. Sage Publications Limited. 

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