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  • 1. Allan, Mohammed
    et al.
    Le Roux, Gael
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Piotrowska, Natalia
    Sikorski, Jaroslaw
    Fagel, Nathalie
    High-resolution reconstruction of atmospheric deposition of trace metals and metalloids since AD 1400 recorded by ombrotrophic peat cores in Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium2013In: Environmental Pollution, ISSN 0269-7491, E-ISSN 1873-6424, Vol. 178, p. 381-394Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of our study was to determine the trace metal accumulation rates in the Misten bog, Hautes-Fagnes, Belgium, and assess these in relation to established histories of atmospheric emissions from anthropogenic sources. To address these aims we analyzed trace metals and metalloids (Pb, Cu, Ni, As, Sb, Cr, Co, V, Cd and Zn), as well as Pb isotopes, using XRF, Q-ICP-MS and MC-ICP-MS, respectively in two 40-cm peat sections, spanning the last 600 yr. The temporal increase of metal fluxes from the inception of the Industrial Revolution to the present varies by a factor of 5-50, with peak values found between AD 1930 and 1990. A cluster analysis combined with Pb isotopic composition allows the identification of the main sources of Pb and by inference of the other metals, which indicates that coal consumption and metallurgical activities were the predominant sources of pollution during the last 600 years.

    (c) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Anderson, N. John
    et al.
    Saros, Jasmine E.
    Bullard, Joanna E.
    Cahoon, Sean M. P.
    Mcgowan, Suzanne
    Bagshaw, Elizabeth A.
    Barry, Christopher D.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Burpee, Benjamin T.
    Carrivick, Jonathan L.
    Fowler, Rachel A.
    Fox, Anthony D.
    Fritz, Sherilyn C.
    Giles, Madeleine E.
    Hamerlik, Ladislav
    Ingeman-Nielsen, Thomas
    Law, Antonia C.
    Mernild, Sebastian H.
    Northington, Robert M.
    Osburn, Christopher L.
    Pla-Rabes, Sergi
    Post, Eric
    Telling, Jon
    Stroud, David A.
    Whiteford, Erika J.
    Yallop, Marian L.
    Yde, Jacob C.
    The Arctic in the Twenty-First Century: Changing Biogeochemical Linkages across a Paraglacial Landscape of Greenland2017In: BioScience, ISSN 0006-3568, E-ISSN 1525-3244, Vol. 67, no 2, p. 118-133Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Kangerlussuaq area of southwest Greenland encompasses diverse ecological, geomorphic, and climate gradients that function over a range of spatial and temporal scales. Ecosystems range from the microbial communities on the ice sheet and moisture-stressed terrestrial vegetation (and their associated herbivores) to freshwater and oligosaline lakes. These ecosystems are linked by a dynamic glacio-fluvial-aeolian geomorphic system that transports water, geological material, organic carbon and nutrients from the glacier surface to adjacent terrestrial and aquatic systems. This paraglacial system is now subject to substantial change because of rapid regional warming since 2000. Here, we describe changes in the eco-and geomorphic systems at a range of timescales and explore rapid future change in the links that integrate these systems. We highlight the importance of cross-system subsidies at the landscape scale and, importantly, how these might change in the near future as the Arctic is expected to continue to warm.

  • 3. Biester, Harald
    et al.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Martinez Cortizas, Antonio
    Mercury in mires2006In: Peatlands: Evolution and Records of Environmental and Climate Changes / [ed] Mike J. Smith, Paolo Paron and James S. Griffiths, Elsevier, 2006, p. 465-478Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter illustrates that a better understanding of the behavior of mercury in the environment is needed for a number of reasons. For example, increased biomagnification of mercury in aquatic food chains, especially in fish, and enhanced accumulation in remote areas such as the Arctic have been observed in the last few decades. Mercury toxicity in aquatic ecosystems is of particular concern, with the role of methylmercury (MeHg) being critical. This compound can be concentrated by more than a million times in the aquatic food chain. Biogeochemical studies and monitoring programs that include direct measurements of wet deposition or indirect measurements based on biomonitoring of forest mosses, have established that anthropogenic activities have affected the global cycling of mercury. Although a precise link has yet to be made between the increased content of mercury in biota and the increased accumulation rates observed in natural environmental archives, such as peat, lake sediments, and glacial ice, there is broad consensus that these archives provide a means to reconstruct atmospheric deposition trends at local, regional, and global scales.

  • 4. Biester, Harald
    et al.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Martinez-Cortizas, Antonio
    Engström, daniel R
    Modeling the Past Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury Using Natural Archives2007In: Environ. Sci. Technol., Vol. 41, no 14, p. 4851-4860Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical records of mercury (Hg) accumulation in lake sediments and peat bogs are often used to estimate human impacts on the biogeochemical cycling of mercury. On the basis of studies of lake sediments, modern atmospheric mercury deposition rates are estimated to have increased by a factor of 3-5 compared to background values: i.e., from about 3-3.5 g Hg m-2 yr-1 to 10-20 g Hg m-2 yr-1. However, recent studies of the historical mercury record in peat bogs suggest significantly higher increases (9-400 fold, median 40×), i.e., from about 0.6-1.7 g Hg m-2 yr -1 to 8-184 g Hg m-2 yr -1. We compared published data of background and modern mercury accumulation rates derived from globally distributed lake sediments and peat bogs and discuss reasons for the differences observed in absolute values and in the relative increase in the industrial age. Direct measurements of modern wet mercury deposition rates in remote areas are presently about 1-4 g m-2 yr -1, but were possibly as high as 20 g Hg m-2 yr -1 during the 1980s. These values are closer to the estimates of past deposition determined from lake sediments, which suggests that modern mercury accumulation rates derived from peat bogs tend to over-estimate deposition. We suggest that smearing of 210Pb in the uppermost peat sections contributes to an underestimation of peat ages, which is the most important reason for the overestimation of mercury accumulation rates in many bogs. The lower background mercury accumulation rates in peat as compared to lake sediments we believe is the result of nonquantitative retention and loss of mercury during peat diagenesis. As many processes controlling time-resolved mercury accumulation in mires are still poorly understood, lake sediments appear to be the more reliable archive for estimating historical mercury accumulation rates.

  • 5.
    Bindler , Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Renberg , Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Rydberg , Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Andrén , T
    Widespread waterborne pollution in central Swedish lakes and the Baltic Sea from pre-industrial mining and metallurgy2009Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Metal pollution is viewed as a modern problem that began in the 19th century and accelerated through the 20th century; however, in many parts of the globe this view is wrong. Here, we studied past waterborne metal pollution in lake sediments from the Bergslagen region in central Sweden, one of many historically important mining regions in Europe. With a focus on lead (including isotopes), we trace mining impacts from a local scale, through a 120-km-long river system draining into Mälaren ­ Sweden's third largest lake, and finally also the Baltic Sea. Comparison of sediment and peat records shows that pollution from Swedish mining was largely waterborne and that atmospheric deposition was dominated by long-range transport from other regions. Swedish ore lead is detectable from the 10th century, but the greatest impact occurred during the 16th­18th centuries with improvements occurring over recent centuries, i.e., historical pollution > modern industrial pollution.

  • 6.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Comment on "The biosphere: A homogeniser of Pb-isotope signals" by C. Reimann, B. Flem, A. Arnoldussen, P. Englmaier, T.E. Finne, F. Koller and Ø. Nordgulen2008In: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 23, no 8, p. 2519-2526Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper by Reimann et al. (2008) is an echo of the debate carried out mainly by Clair Patterson and Robert Kehoe in the 1960s to 1980s about whether the enrichment of Pb in the biosphere and humans was a result of the global Pb contamination or due to natural causes and what impacts on human health were entailed ([Needleman, 1998] and [Nriagu, 1998]). Reimann et al. are also re-awakening the idea that the ‘plant pump’ is the reason for the surface enrichment of Pb in the soil (Goldschmidt, 1937). So is it time to revive this debate again? Are there reasons to expect that the enrichment of Pb and the change in Pb isotopic composition in surface soils is due to natural plant cycling and not due to the 1000-fold enrichment of Pb in the environment and humans since pristine times as originally suggested by Clair Patterson ([Patterson, 1965] and Settle and Patterson, 1980 D. Settle and C.C. Patterson, Lead in Albacore: guide to lead pollution in Americans, Science 207 (1980), pp. 1167–1176. View Record in Scopus | Cited By in Scopus (97)[Settle and Patterson, 1980])? Is it so that a changed plant uptake can explain the >90% reduction of Pb in mosses seen all over Europe since the 1970s, which co-occurs with reduced atmospheric emissions (e.g., [Berg and Steinnes, 1997a] and [Rühling and Tyler, 2001])? Is there a reason to believe that plants, independent of the geological matrix below choose to take up Pb with an isotopic composition that causes the surface organic layer all over Europe to have lower (i.e., heavier) 206Pb/207Pb ratios that are coincidentally similar to anthropogenic Pb sources? No, of course not. In this comment the author explains why he thinks future studies should not adopt the conclusions of Reimann et al.

  • 7.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Contaminated lead environments of man: reviewing the lead isotopic evidence in sediments, peat, and soils for the temporal and spatial patterns of atmospheric lead pollution in Sweden.2011In: Environmental Geochemistry and Health, ISSN 0269-4042, E-ISSN 1573-2983, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 311-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Clair Patterson and colleagues demonstrated already four decades ago that the lead cycle was greatly altered on a global scale by humans. Moreover, this change occurred long before the implementation of monitoring programs designed to study lead and other trace metals. Patterson and colleagues also developed stable lead isotope analyses as a tool to differentiate between natural and pollution-derived lead. Since then, stable isotope analyses of sediment, peat, herbaria collections, soils, and forest plants have given us new insights into lead biogeochemical cycling in space and time. Three important conclusions from our studies of lead in the Swedish environment conducted over the past 15 years, which are well supported by extensive results from elsewhere in Europe and in North America, are: (1) lead deposition rates at sites removed from major point sources during the twentieth century were about 1,000 times higher than natural background deposition rates a few thousand years ago (~10 mg Pb m(-2) year(-1) vs. 0.01 mg Pb m(-2) year(-1)), and even today (~1 mg Pb m(-2) year(-1)) are still almost 100 times greater than natural rates. This increase from natural background to maximum fluxes is similar to estimated changes in body burdens of lead from ancient times to the twentieth century. (2) Stable lead isotopes ((206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios shown in this paper) are an effective tool to distinguish anthropogenic lead from the natural lead present in sediments, peat, and soils for both the majority of sites receiving diffuse inputs from long range and regional sources and for sites in close proximity to point sources. In sediments >3,500 years and in the parent soil material of the C-horizon, (206)Pb/(207)Pb ratios are higher, 1.3 to >2.0, whereas pollution sources and surface soils and peat have lower ratios that have been in the range 1.14-1.18. (3) Using stable lead isotopes, we have estimated that in southern Sweden the cumulative anthropogenic burden of atmospherically deposited lead is ~2-5 g Pb m(-2) and ~1 g Pb m(-2) in the "pristine" north. Half of this cumulative total was deposited before industrialization. (4) In the vicinity of the Rönnskär smelter in northern Sweden, a major point source during the twentieth century, there is an isotopic pattern that deviates from the general trends elsewhere, reflecting the particular history of ore usage at Rönnskär, which further demonstrates the chronological record of lead loading recorded in peat and in soil mor horizons.

  • 8.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Cortizas, Antonio Martínez
    Blaauw, Maarten
    Comment on "Atmospheric mercury accumulation rates between 5900 and 800 calibrated years BP in the high arctic of Canada recorded by peat hummocks" (multiple letters)2005In: Environ Sci Technol, ISSN 0013-936X, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 908-9; author reply 910Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Björn
    Berg Nilsson, Lena
    Biester, Harald
    Segerström, Ulf
    Copper-ore mining in Sweden since the pre-Roman Iron Age: lake-sediment evidence of human activities at the Garpenberg ore field since 375 BCE2017In: Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports, ISSN 2352-409X, E-ISSN 2001-1199, Vol. 12, p. 99-108Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Historical documents, archaeological evidence and lake-sediment records indicate thus far that significant mining of iron and copper ores in the Berglsagen mining region in central Sweden did not begin until the late 12th century -first with iron in Norberg - and thereafter spreading rapidly throughout the region during the 13th century when also copper was included (e.g. Falun). Prior to this, iron was produced domestically from secondary sources such as bog iron, while geochemical analyses of bronze artefacts indicate copper was imported. The parish of Garpenberg was at the intersection between historical iron-and copper-mining districts, and consequently we expected our sediment record from the lake Gruvsjon ('mine lake') to follow the established 13th century development. However, a 2-3-fold enrichment in copper and lead occurred already during 375-175 BCE (pre-Roman Iron Age), together with small increases in zinc, magnesium and charcoal particles, and changes in pollen. Together these indicate a clear pattern of human disturbance connected with the ore body bordering the lake. A second distinct phase occurred 115-275 CE, but with an 8-9-fold increase in copper and lead along with other indicators. From 400 CE a permanent increase in copper and lead occurred, which then accelerated from the 13th century as seen elsewhere in the region. Our results push back the evidence for early ore mining in Sweden from the Middle Ages to the pre-Roman Iron Age. 

  • 10.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Beyond the peat: synthesizing peat, lake sediments and soils in studies of the Swedish environment2006In: Peatlands: basin evolution and depository of records on global environmental and climatic changes / [ed] I.P. Martini, A. Martínez Cortizas and W. Chesworth, Elsevier, 2006, p. 431-448Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter illustrates on comparing peat and lake sediment records and linking the quantitative record of metals in peat to contemporary environmental problems. Quantifying metal records in peat has been an important step, but new research needs to move beyond this and consider how to apply these data. Lead analyses, including stable isotopes, are now fairly routine and based on these analyses the historical trends of lead deposition are now well established in peat, lake sediments and even glacial ice. The biogeochemical cycling of lead has also been well researched, which allows making this link between the historical lead record and soil biogeochemistry. Because peat and lake sediments seem to record the same changes in mercury deposition, there is similar promise in linking the long-term peat record of mercury and other metals with biogeochemical cycling of mercury and other important metals in forests and soils.

  • 11.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Reply to comment by William Shotyk on "Does within-bog spatial variability of mercury and lead constrain reconstructions of absolute deposition rates from single peat records? The example of Store Mosse, Sweden"2006In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 20Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klarqvist, M
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Förster, J
    Does within-bog spatial variability of mercury and lead constrain reconstructions of absolute deposition rates from single peat records? The example of Store Mosse, Sweden2004In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 18Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Myrstener, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Liu, Enfeng
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hansson, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meyer-Jacob, Carsten
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mighall, Tim
    Ninnes, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Reshaping the landscape: mining, metallurgy and a millennium of environmental changes in south-central SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Before the recognition of emerging environmental issues during the 20th century such as acid rain, mercury pollution, climate change and biodiversity loss, human activities had already significantly altered landscapes around the globe. As elsewhere in Europe, the introduction of agriculture into Sweden during the Bronze and Iron Ages led to changes in forest cover, especially in southern areas, but also more limited impacts in central and northern Sweden along river valleys and coastal areas. In central Sweden the rise and rapid spread of ore mining and metallurgy from the 12th and especially 13th century initiated a widespread reshaping of the landscape named after its mining heritage –Bergslagen (mining laws). This mineral rich 89,000 km2 region encompasses ~5000 metallurgical sites (furnaces, smelters, foundries, forges) and ~10000 mines registered in the Swedish National Antiquities Board’s database.

    Analyses of >30 lake-sediment records using a combination of geochemical, diatom and pollen analyses, in combination with archaeological and historical records and toponyms, add important details to the early, poorly documented history of mining/metallurgy as well as provide insights into some of the environmental impacts across this large landscape. These impacts included damming of lakes and regulation of watercourses for waterpower, increase in erosion, emission of metals to surface waters and the atmosphere (and leaching from slag piles), decrease in forest cover and changes in water quality. The discontinuous appearance of pollen from cultivated plants (cereals) indicates some limited settlement before the 12th century, but the regular occurrence thereafter of cereal pollen together with a sharp increase in charcoal particles and geochemical evidence of mining/metallurgical activities, indicates mining/metallurgy was a driving force for settlement. Decline in forest cover was gradual from the 13th century, but was more significant from the late 16th century when iron and copper production increased exponentially. The increased demand for charcoal and increased agriculture, including an expansion of summer forest farms, contributed to a reduction in inferred forest cover to 40–80% – as compared to pre-anthropogenic (≤2000 BP) values of 84–95%. From the 16th century charcoal became the limiting resource within Bergslagen and metallurgy expanded to regions adjoining Bergslagen, contributing to a more widespread decline in forest cover also beyond the Bergslagen landscape.

    In association with the increase in land-use activities and resulting changes in vegetation cover, there was a decline (20–50%) in spectrally inferred lake-water total organic carbon, which we hypothesize resulted from a decreased pool of labile soil carbon. In some lakes closely connected with blast furnaces, where the peasant-miners also lived and farmed, there was an increase in diatom-inferred lake-water pH – as observed previously in SW Sweden in association with Iron Age land use. Only in a suite of lakes in close proximity to the smelting of copper sulfide ores in the surroundings of Falun was there evidence for pre-20th century acidification.

    While current rates of environmental change may be unprecedented, they build on an already modified landscape. Because pre-industrial conditions, i.e., pre-19th century, are often used as a reference level the scale of current changes may underestimate the full extent of ecosystem and environmental impacts.

  • 14.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bridging the gap between ancient metal pollution and contemporary biogeochemistry2008In: Journal of Paleolimnology, Vol. 40, no 3, p. 755-770Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Paleolimnology provides long-term data that are often essential for understanding the current state of the environment. Even though there is great potential, paleolimnology is rarely used together with process-related studies to solve issues regarding cycling of elements in the environment. Clearly, this is a drawback because the cycling of many elements, which cause great concern in the present-day environment, was altered long before the advent of monitoring programs. The pioneering work of C.C. Patterson and his colleagues emphasized the importance of a long-term perspective for understanding the current cycling of metals, with a focus on lead, and in particular for estimating background concentrations and human-related impacts in the environment. In Sweden the first traces of atmospheric lead pollution are found in lake sediments dated to about 3500 years ago. The long-term changes in the pollution lead record in lake sediments led us to consider how lead biogeochemistry has changed over time in response to this historical deposition‹where has this lead gone, and how much does this lead contribute to the present-day biogeochemical cycling of lead? How was lead distributed in Œpre-industrial¹ soils or more properly in natural soils not impacted by atmospheric pollution? There are many studies that have examined the effects of increased metal concentrations on soil biota, but what are the appropriate background conditions for comparison? Using lake sediments as our foundation we have analyzed lead, including its stable isotopes, in other environmental compartments, including peat, soil, and a range of boreal forest plant species, to develop a better understanding of the fate of lead derived from long-term pollution. Three important conclusions from our studies in Sweden are: (1) atmospheric lead deposition rates during the 20th century were 100 to as much as 1000 times higher than natural deposition rates a few thousand years ago. Even with stricter emission standards during the past three decades and the resultant reductions in deposition, lead deposition rates today are still 10­100 times greater than natural rates. This increase in deposition rates modeled from sediment and peat records is of a similar scale to estimated changes in body burdens of lead in modern versus ancient humans. (2) In Europe about half of the cumulative burden of atmospherically deposited lead was deposited before industrialization. In southern Sweden the cumulative burden of pollution lead during the past 3500 years is 2­5 g Pb m-2 and in the Œpristine¹ northern parts of the country there is about 1 g Pb m-2. (3) Predicted recovery rates for soils are slow; in the cold climate of Scandinavia, we find that the soil surface (O horizon), where most soil biota reside, retains lead deposited over the past 150­500 years. Therefore, although lead deposition rates in Europe, as well as N. America, are only 10% of those a few decades ago, it will take several decades or longer for lead concentrations in soils to respond appreciably. The slow turnover rates for lead in the environment and gradual immobilization of lead in deeper soil mineral horizons also inhibits a loss of lead to surface waters in areas removed from point sources.

  • 15.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Tree rings as Pb pollution archives? A comparison of 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in pine and other environmental media.2004In: Sci Total Environ, ISSN 0048-9697, Vol. 319, no 1-3, p. 173-83Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Revisiting Key Sedimentary Archives Yields Evidence Of A Rapid Onset Of Mining In The Mid-13th Century At The Great Copper Mountain, Falun, Sweden2016In: Archaeometry, ISSN 0003-813X, E-ISSN 1475-4754, Vol. 58, no 4, p. 642-658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mining in Falun, Sweden, was first mentioned in a deed from AD 1288, but previous studies of peat and lake sediments inferred that mining began during the fifth to eighth centuries. In order to reassess these findings, we performed new geochemical analyses on new samples from three key sites: Tisksjobergets myr, a buried mire alongside the mine; Tisken, a small lake in Falun; and Runn, the main recipient for waters draining through Falun. At Tisksjobergets myr, the peat contains up to 6% copper, giving it the characteristics of a cupriferous bog. Hence, this record is not useful for tracing early mining. The sediments of Tisken-upon which many of the old interpretations have relied-contain numerous cut wood fragments, and two of those gave young and reversed radiocarbon dates (19th and 16th centuries for 192 and 187 cm, respectively). This indicates that the sediment was derived from infilling and, thus, has little value as a historical record. Runn's sediment-the only reliable record-provides clear evidence of a rapid onset of large-scale mining from c. AD 1245, with abrupt increases in ore-related elements-for example, a 34-fold increase in copper-this increase is consistent with the mid-13th century burial of the mire at Tisksjoberget.

  • 17.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Establishing natural sediment reference conditions for metals and the legacy of long-range and local pollution on lakes in Europe2011In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 45, no 4, p. 519-531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The intention of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the national guidelines that implement the WFD is that present-day conditions and future management strategies are to be based on an understanding of reference conditions for the particular water body of interest. In the context of non-synthetic pollutants such as lead, mercury and cadmium, the criteria for a high ecological status are that "concentrations [are] within the range normally associated with undisturbed conditions". How this normal range is to be defined is open to interpretation; for example, in Sweden reference conditions based on sediment records are defined as the conditions prior to modern industrialization, i.e. prior to the mid-1800's. These pre-industrial reference conditions would correspond to sediments 15-30 cm depth. However, 'reference conditions' are not always synonymous with 'natural background conditions'. Analyses of long sediment profiles from Swedish lakes and from a few other areas, however, have shown that pre-industrial pollution-at least with regard to lead-was extensive. Atmospheric lead pollution has its origin in antiquity, with a small, well-defined peak already during the Greek-Roman period 2,000 years ago. Sediments deposited 300-500 years in Sweden and Scotland, for example, show a dominance of pollution lead, and in some sediment records also cadmium and copper pollution was extensive. Thus, in order to characterize natural background concentrations of metals, long sediment profiles are needed to reach sediments unaffected by pollution (> 3,000 years BP); this can correspond to sediments below 50 cm in some lakes, but in others sediments below 300 cm or more.

  • 18.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Segerström, Ulf
    Pettersson-Jensen, Ing-Marie
    Berg, Anna
    Hansson, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Holmström, Harald
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Olsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Early medieval origins of iron mining and settlement in central Sweden: multiproxy analysis of sediment and peat records from the Norberg mining district2011In: Journal of Archaeological Science, ISSN 0305-4403, E-ISSN 1095-9238, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The historical Norberg mining district in central Sweden with its shallow, easily accessible iron ores figures prominently in the earliest documents from the 14th century concerning mining or metallurgy. This 1000-km2 district is considered to be one of the first areas in Sweden exploited for iron ores and, in fact, Europe’s oldest known blast furnace, Lapphyttan, is located in the Norberg district about 10 km from the mines in the village of Norberg (Norbergsby). Earlier archaeological excavations suggest the furnace was in operation as early as the 11th or 12th century (870 and 930 14C yr BP), and a number of other sites in the district have been dated to the 13th–15th centuries. Here, we have analyzed two lake sediment records (Kalven and Noren) from the village of Norberg and a peat record from Lapphyttan. The Lapphyttan peat record was radiocarbon dated, whereas the sediment from Kalven is annually laminated, which provides a fairly precise chronology. Our pollen data indicate that land use in the area began gradually as forest grazing by at least c. AD 1050, with indications of more widespread forest disturbance and cultivation from c. 1180 at Lapphyttan and 1250 at Kalven. Based on 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios in Kalven’s varved sediment record, there is an indication of mining or metallurgy in the area c. 960, but likely not in immediate connection to our sites. Evidence of mining and metallurgy increases gradually from c. 1180 when there is a decline in 206Pb/207Pb ratios and an increase in charcoal particles at Lapphyttan, followed by increasing inputs of lithogenic elements in Noren’s sediment record indicating soil disturbance, which we attribute to the onset of mining the iron ore bodies surrounding Noren. From AD 1295 onwards evidence of mining and metallurgy are ubiquitous, and activities accelerate especially during the late 15th century; the maximum influence of Bergslagen ore lead (i.e., the minimum in 206Pb/207Pb isotope ratios) in both Kalven and Noren occurs c. 1490–1500, when also varve properties change in Kalven and in Noren sharp increases occur in the concentrations of a range of other ore-related metals (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, copper, iron, lead, mercury and zinc). From the 15th century onwards mining and metallurgy are the dominant feature of the sediment records.

  • 19.
    Bindler, Richard
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Yu, Ruilian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. College of Chemical Engineering, Huaqiao University, Xiamen, Fujian 361021, P.R. China.
    Hansson, Sophia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Classen, Neele
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karlsson, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mining, Metallurgy and the Historical Origin of Mercury Pollution in Lakes and Watercourses in Central Sweden2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 15, p. 7984-7991Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Central Sweden an estimated 80% of the lakes contain fish exceeding health guidelines for mercury. This area overlaps extensively with the Bergslagen ore region, where intensive mining of iron ores and massive sulfide ores occurred over the past millennium. Although only a few mines still operate today, thousands of mineral occurrences and mining sites are documented in the region. Here, we present data on long-term mercury pollution in 16 sediment records from 15 lakes, which indicate that direct release of mercury to lakes and watercourses was already significant prior to industrialization (<AD 1800). Thirteen of our lakes show increases in mercury from 3-fold-equivalent to the enrichment factor in many remote lakes today-to as much as 60-fold already during the period AD 1500-1800, with the highest values in the three lakes most closely connected to major mines. Although the timing and magnitude of the historical increases in mercury are heterogeneous among lakes, the data provide unambiguous evidence for an incidental release of mercury along with other mining metals to lakes and watercourses, which suggests that the present-day problem of elevated mercury concentrations in the Bergslagen region can trace its roots back to historical mining.

  • 20.
    Boes, Xavier
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Martinez-Cortizas, A.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Evaluation of conservative lithogenic elements (Ti, Zr, Al, and Rb) to study anthropogenic element enrichments in lake sediments2011In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 75-87Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In lake sediment investigations of heavy metal pollution history, it has become a common approach to calculate enrichment factors (EFs) by normalizing elemental distributions to a reference lithogenic element. However, this approach requires that the reference element remains stable once it has been deposited to the sediment (it is not affected by diagenetic processes). This is rarely studied in well-controlled field experiments. Here, we test the commonly used reference elements titanium (Ti), zirconium (Zr), aluminum (Al), and rubidium (Rb). We use a unique series of freeze cores collected in different years since 1979 in Lake Nylandssjon in northern Sweden. This lake has sediment with distinct varves (annually laminated deposit). Element concentrations in individual varves were analyzed using X-ray fluorescence (XRF) spectroscopy. By tracking the newly formed surface varve from different cores across this core series, i.e., following the element concentration in a specific varve as it becomes progressively aged, it was possible to assess the potential impact of diagenetic processes on geochemical signatures. Results confirm the conservative character of the studied elements; there was neither an increasing nor a decreasing concentration trend with time during sediment ageing for any of these elements. Secondly, we addressed the question 'which of them is the most appropriate for EFs estimates with the aim of distinguishing anthropogenic from geogenic inputs, for example in pollution studies'. To assess the reliability of the EFs we used lead (Pb) as an example, because anthropogenic Pb in the sediment could be independently calculated using stable Pb isotopes. When anthropogenic Pb concentrations calculated with Pb-EFs were compared to the anthropogenic Pb concentrations derived from stable Pb isotopes, the differences found were 20% for Ti, 10% for Zr, 11% for Al, and 27% for Rb when upper continental crust concentrations were used for the background ratio. Based on the results from Nylandssjon our suggestions are that (1) when using EFs on a single core, which is the normal case in paleolimnology, multiple reference elements should be used together and (2) the results from those should be critically evaluated.

  • 21. Bohdalkova, Leona
    et al.
    Novak, Martin
    Buzek, Frantisek
    Kreisinger, Jakub
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Pazderu, Katerina
    Pacherova, Petra
    The response of a mid- and high latitude peat bog to predicted climate change: methane production in a 12-month peat incubation2014In: Mitigation and Adaptation Strategies for Global Change, ISSN 1381-2386, E-ISSN 1573-1596, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 997-1010Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are fears that global warming will lead to degradation of peatlands, higher emissions of greenhouse gases from peat, and accelerated warming. Anaerobic decomposition of organic soils produces methane (CH4), a potent greenhouse gas. Two peat bogs differing in mean annual temperature, Velke Darko (VD, Czech Republic, 7.2 A degrees C), and Stor myran (SA, Sweden, 4.0 A degrees C), were selected for a comparative study of how organic soils in different climatic zones will respond to warmer and drier conditions. Twenty peat cores from each bog were incubated in growth chambers. Under present-day summer conditions, VD produced 14 times more CH4 than SA. Two different warming scenarios were used. Peat-core replicates were kept at temperatures of 11 versus 16 A degrees C, and 11 versus 22 A degrees C. From 11 to 16 A degrees C, the CH4 production slightly decreased at SA, and slightly increased at VD. From 11 to 22 A degrees C, the CH4 production increased 9 times at SA, but slightly decreased at VD. After an 8-month incubation, peat cores under drying conditions (water table at -14 cm) were compared to samples with original water table (-2 cm). Drying conditions led to a steeper reduction in CH4 production at VD, compared to SA. The CH4 production decreased more than 100 times at VD. Then, the combined effect of simultaneous warming and drying at 11 and 22 A degrees C was studied. We did not find any significant effect of interactions between increasing temperature and decreasing water table level. Overall, the warmer site VD responded more strongly to the simulated climate change than the colder site SA.

  • 22.
    Capo, Eric
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland.
    Domaizon, Isabelle
    Debroas, Didier
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    How Does Environmental Inter-annual Variability Shape Aquatic Microbial Communities?: A 40-Year Annual Record of Sedimentary DNA From a Boreal Lake (Nylandssjon, Sweden)2019In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, article id 245Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To assess the sensitivity of lakes to anthropogenically-driven environmental changes (e.g., nutrient supply, climate change), it is necessary to first isolate the effects of between-year variability in weather conditions. This variability can strongly impact a lake's biological community especially in boreal and arctic areas where snow phenology play an important role in controlling the input of terrestrial matter to the lake. Identifying the importance of this inherent variability is difficult without time series that span at least several decades. Here, we applied a molecular approach (metabarcoding on eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes and qPCR on cyanobacterial 16S rRNA genes) to sedimentary DNA (sed-DNA) to unravel the annual variability of microbial community in 40 years' sediment record from the boreal lake Nylandssjon which preserve annually-laminated sediments. Our comparison between seasonal meteorological data, sediment inorganic geochemistry (X-ray fluorescence analyses) and organic biomarkers (pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analyses), demonstrated that inter-annual variability strongly influence the sediment composition in Nylandssjon. Spring temperature, snow and ice phenology (e.g., the percentage of snow loss in spring, the timing of lake ice-off) were identified as important drivers for the inputs of terrestrial material to the lake, and were therefore also important for shaping the aquatic biological community. Main changes were detected in the late-80s/mid-90s and mid-2000s associated with increases in algal productivity, in total richness of the protistan community and in relative abundances of Chlorophyta, Dinophyceae as well as Cyanobacteria abundance. These changes could be linked to a decline in terrestrial inputs to the lake during the snow melt and run-off period, which in turn was driven by warmer winter temperatures. Even if our data shows that meteorological factors do affect the sediment composition and microbial communities, they only explain part of the variability. This is most likely a consequence of the high inter-annual variability in abiotic and biotic parameters highlighting the difficulty to draw firm conclusions concerning drivers of biological changes at an annual or sub-annual resolution even with the 40-year varved sediment record from Nylandssjon. Hence, it is necessary to have an even longer time perspective in order to reveal the full implications of climate change.

  • 23. De Laender, F.
    et al.
    Verschuren, D.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Thas, O.
    Janssen, C. R.
    Biodiversity of Freshwater Diatom Communities during 1000 Years of Metal Mining, Land Use, and Climate Change in Central Sweden2012In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 46, no 16, p. 9097-9105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We subjected a unique set of high-quality paleoecological data to statistical modeling to examine if the biological richness and evenness of freshwater diatom communities in the Falun area, a historical copper (Cu) mining region in central Sweden, was negatively influenced by 1000 years of metal exposure. Contrary to ecotoxicological predictions, we found no negative relation between biodiversity and the sedimentary concentrations of eight metals. Strikingly, our analysis listed metals (Co, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb) or the fractional land cover of cultivated crops, meadow, and herbs indicating land disturbance as potentially promoting biodiversity. However, correlation between metal-and land-cover trends prevented concluding which of these two covariate types positively affected biodiversity. Because historical aqueous metal concentrations-inferred from solid-water partitioning-approached experimental toxicity thresholds for freshwater algae, positive effects of metal mining on biodiversity are unlikely. Instead, the positive relationship between biodiversity and historical land-cover change can be explained by the increasing proportion of opportunistic species when anthropogenic disturbance intensifies. Our analysis illustrates that focusing on the direct toxic effects of metals alone may yield inaccurate environmental assessments on time scales relevant for biodiversity conservation.

  • 24. De Laender, Frederik
    et al.
    Melian, Carlos J.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Van den Brink, Paul J.
    Daam, Michiel
    Roussel, Helene
    Juselius, Jonas
    Verschuren, Dirk
    Janssen, Colin R.
    The contribution of intra- and interspecific tolerance variability to biodiversity changes along toxicity gradients2014In: Ecology Letters, ISSN 1461-023X, E-ISSN 1461-0248, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide distribution of toxicants is an important yet understudied driver of biodiversity, and the mechanisms relating toxicity to diversity have not been adequately explored. Here, we present a community model integrating demography, dispersal and toxicant-induced effects on reproduction driven by intraspecific and interspecific variability in toxicity tolerance. We compare model predictions to 458 species abundance distributions (SADs) observed along concentration gradients of toxicants to show that the best predictions occur when intraspecific variability is five and ten times higher than interspecific variability. At high concentrations, lower settings of intraspecific variability resulted in predictions of community extinction that were not supported by the observed SADs. Subtle but significant species losses at low concentrations were predicted only when intraspecific variability dominated over interspecific variability. Our results propose intraspecific variability as a key driver for biodiversity sustenance in ecosystems challenged by environmental change.

  • 25.
    De Vleeschouwer, Francois
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renson, Virginie
    Claeys, Philippe
    Nys, Karin
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Quantitative WD-XRF calibration for small ceramic samples and their source material2011In: Geoarchaeology, ISSN 0883-6353, E-ISSN 1520-6548, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 440-450Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) calibration is developed for small powdered samples (300 mg) with the purpose of analyzing ceramic artifacts that might be available only in limited quantity. This is compared to a conventional calibration using a larger sample mass (2 g). The comparison of elemental intensities obtained in both calibrations shows that the decrease in analyzed sample mass results in a linear decrease in measured intensity for the analyzed elements. This indicates that the small-and large-sample calibrations are comparable. Moreover, the elemental contents of four ceramic sherds and two potential clay sources fall well within the range of the certified reference materials that are the basis of the calibration curves. The advantage with the analytical method presented here is that it is rapid and requires only a small amount of sample that can easily be re-used for further analyses. This method has great potential in ceramic provenance studies. (C) 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 26.
    Giesler, Reiner
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Karina, E. Clemmensen
    Wardle, David A.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Boreal Forests Sequester Large Amounts of Mercury over Millennial Time Scales in the Absence of Wildfire2017In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 51, no 5, p. 2621-2627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alterations in fire activity due to climate change and fire suppression may have profound effects on the balance between storage and release of carbon (C) and associated volatile elements. Stored soil mercury (Hg) is known to volatilize due to wildfires and this could substantially affect the land air exchange of Hg; conversely the absence of fires and human disturbance may increase the time period over which Hg is sequestered. Here we show for a wildfire chronosequence spanning over more than 5000 years in boreal forest in northern Sweden that belowground inventories of total Hg are strongly related to soil humus C accumulation (R-2 = 0.94, p < 0.001). Our data clearly show that northern boreal forest soils have a strong sink capacity for Hg, and indicate that the sequestered Hg is bound in soil organic matter pools accumulating over millennia. Our results also suggest that more than half of the Hg stock in the sites with the longest time since fire originates from deposition predating the onset of large-scale anthropogenic emissions. This study emphasizes the importance of boreal forest humus soils for Hg storage and reveals that this pool is likely to persist over millennial time scales in the prolonged absence of fire.

  • 27. Guedron, S.
    et al.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Eawag, Swiss Federal Institute of Aquatic Science and Technology, Dübendorf, Switzerland; ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Brisset, E.
    Sabatier, P.
    Perrot, V.
    Bouchet, S.
    Develle, A. L.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cossa, D.
    Fritz, S. C.
    Baker, P. A.
    Late Holocene volcanic and anthropogenic mercury deposition in the western Central Andes (Lake Chungará, Chile)2019In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 662, p. 903-914Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Volcanismis one of the major natural processes emitting mercury (Hg) to the atmosphere, representing a significant component of the global Hg budget. The importance of volcanic eruptions for local-scale Hg deposition was investigated using analyses of Hg, inorganic elemental tracers, and organic biomarkers in a sediment sequence from Lake Chungara (4520 m a.s.l.). Environmental change and Hg deposition in the immediate vicinity of the Parinacota volcano were reconstructed over the last 2700 years, encompassing the pre-anthropogenic and anthropogenic periods. Twenty eruptions delivering large amounts of Hg (1 to 457 mu g Hg m(-2) yr(-1) deposited at the timescale of the event) were locally recorded. Peaks of Hg concentration recorded after most of the eruptions were attributed to a decrease in sedimentation rate together with the rapid re-oxidation of gaseous elemental Hg and deposition with fine particles and incorporation into lake primary producers. Over the study period, the contribution of volcanic emissions has been estimated as 32% of the total Hg input to the lake. Sharp depletions in primary production occurred at each eruption, likely resulting from massive volcaniclastic inputs and changes in the lake-water physico-chemistry. Excluding the volcanic deposition periods, Hg accumulation rates rose from natural background values (1.9 +/- 0.5 mu g m(-2) yr(-1)) by a factor of 2.3 during the pre-colonial mining period (1400-900 yr cal. BP), and by a factor of 6 and 7.6, respectively, during the Hispanic colonial epoch (400-150 yr cal. BP) and the industrial era (similar to 140 yr cal. BP to present). Altogether, the dataset indicates that lake primary production has been the main, but not limiting, carrier for Hg to the sediment. Volcanic activity and climate change are only secondary drivers of local Hg deposition relative to the magnitude of regional and global anthropogenic emissions.

  • 28.
    Gälman, Veronika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Sjöberg, Staffan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Martínez-Cortizas, A
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The role of iron and sulfur in the visual appearance of lake sediment varves2009In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 141-153Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Easily discernible sediment varves (annual laminations) may be formed in temperate zone lakes, and reflect seasonal changes in the composition of the accumulating material derived from the lake and its catchment (minerogenic and organic material). The appearance of varves may also be influenced by chemical processes. We assessed the role of iron (Fe) and sulfur (S) in the appearance of varves in sediments from Lake Nylandssjön in northern Sweden. We surveyed Fe in the lake water and established whether there is internal transport of Fe within the sediment. We used a unique collection of seven stored freeze cores of varved sediment from the lake, collected from 1979 to 2004. This suite of cores made it possible to follow long-term changes in Fe and S in the sediment caused by processes that occur in the lake bottom when the sediment is ageing. We compared Fe and S concentrations using X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) in specific years in the different cores. No diagenetic front was found in the sediment and the data do not suggest that there is substantial vertical transport of Fe and S in the sediment. We also modeled Fe and S based on thermodynamic, limnological, and sediment data from the lake. The model was limited to the five components H+, e-, Fe3+, SO42-, H2CO3 and included the formation of solid phases such as Fe(OH)3 (amorphous), FeOOH (aged, microcrystalline), FeS and FeCO3. Modeling showed that there are pe (redox) ranges within which either FeS or Fe(OH)3/FeOOH is the only solid phase present and there are pe ranges within which the two solid phases co-exist, which supports the hypothesis that blackish and grey-brownish layers that occur in the varves were formed at the time of deposition. This creates new possibilities for deciphering high-temporal-resolution environmental information from varves.

  • 29.
    Gälman, Veronika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Sjöstedt-de Luna, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Mathematics and Mathematical Statistics.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Carbon and nitrogen loss rates during aging of lake sediment: Changes over 27 years studied in varved lake sediment2008In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 53, no 3, p. 1076-1082Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We used a collection of ten freeze cores of annually laminated (varved) lake sediment from Nylandssjön in northern Sweden collected from 1979 to 2007 to follow the long-term loss of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) due to processes that occur in the lake bottom as sediment ages. We compared specific years in the different cores. For example, the loss of C from the surface varve of the 1979 core (sediment deposited during 1978) was followed in the cores from 1980, 1985, 1989, and so on until 2006. The C concentration of the sediment decreased by 20% and N decreased by 30% within the first five years after deposition, and after 27 yr in the sediment, there was a 23% loss of C and 35% loss of N. Because the relative loss of C with time was smaller than loss of N, the C:N ratio increased with increasing age of the sediment; the surface varves start with a ratio of ~10, which then increases to ~12.

  • 30.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kaste, James M.
    College of William & Mary.
    Chen, Keyao
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Beryllium-7 as a natural tracer for short-term downwash in peat2014In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 119, no 1-3, p. 329-339Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several factors can affect the integrity of natural archives such as peat records, e.g., decomposition and nutrient cycling, and it has also been hypothesized that some rapid downward transport of atmospherically derived elements may occur. We test this hypothesis by analyzing the short-lived, natural tracer beryllium-7 (tA1/2A = 53.4 days) in five cores from two peatlands. In triplicate hummock cores from a raised bog in southern Sweden, Be-7 could be measured to 20, 18 and 8 cm depth, and in a nutrient-poor mire in northern Sweden to a depth of 16 cm in a Sphagnum lawn core, but only 4 cm in the dominant, more-decomposed fen peat, indicating some spatial variability both within and between sites. Total Be-7 inventories were 320-450 Bq m(-2) in the bog, and 150 Bq m(-2) (lawn) and 240 Bq m(-2) (fen peat) in the mire. 25-79 % of the total inventory of Be-7 was located in the upper 2-cm layer. To further test downwashing, in the laboratory we applied a CuBr-solution to two cores and a Cu-solution to one core taken from the mire Sphagnum lawn, all with low water table conditions. About 50 % of the added Cu and similar to 35 % of the added Br were retained in the surface (2 cm) layer; 1-3 % of the Cu was found at 8-12 cm depth and similar to 1 % of the Br was measured in the lowest level (20-22 cm). Based on our novel approach using Be-7 and experimental work we show that short-term downwashing can occur in peatlands and we suggest the depth of this will depend on the properties of the peat, e.g., bulk density and decomposition, as well as hydrology.

  • 31.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kaste, James M.
    College of William & Mary.
    Olid, Carolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Incorporation of radiometric tracers in peat and implications for estimating accumulation rates2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 493, p. 170-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate dating of peat accumulation is essential for quantitatively reconstructing past changes in atmospheric metal deposition and carbon burial. By analyzing fallout radionuclides Pb-210, Cs-137, Am-241, and Be-7, and total Pb and Hg in 5 cores from two Swedish peatlands we addressed the consequence of estimating accumulation rates due to downwashing of atmospherically supplied elements within peat. The detection of Be-7 down to 18-20 cm for some cores, and the broad vertical distribution of Am-241 without a well-defined peak, suggest some downward transport by percolating rainwater and smearing of atmospherically deposited elements in the uppermost peat layers. Application of the CRS age-depth model leads to unrealistic peat mass accumulation rates (400-600 g m(-2) yr(-1)), and inaccurate estimates of past Pb and Hg deposition rates and trends, based on comparisons to deposition monitoring data (forest moss biomonitoring and wet deposition). After applying a newly proposed IP-CRS model that assumes a potential downward transport of Pb-210 through the uppermost peat layers, recent peat accumulation rates (200-300 g m(-2) yr(-1)) comparable to published values were obtained. Furthermore, the rates and temporal trends in Pb and Hg accumulation correspond more closely to monitoring data, although some off-set is still evident. We suggest that downwashing can be successfully traced using Be-7, and if this information is incorporated into age-depth models, better calibration of peat records with monitoring data and better quantitative estimates of peat accumulation and past deposition are possible, although more work is needed to characterize how downwashing may vary between seasons or years.

  • 32.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kylander, Malin
    Gallagher, Kerry
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Evaluating paleoproxies for peat decomposition and their relationship to peat geochemistry2013In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 23, no 12, p. 1666-1667Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decade has seen a rapid increase in interest in the biogeochemical record preserved in peat, particularly as it relates to carbon dynamics and environmental change. Importantly, recent studies show that carbon dynamics, that is, organic matter decomposition, can influence the record of atmospherically derived elements such as halogens and mercury. Most commonly, bulk density, light transmission, or carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratios are used as a proxy to qualitatively infer the degree of decomposition in peat, but do these three proxies reflect the same patterns? Furthermore, how do each of these proxies relate to other geochemical data? To address these questions, we analyzed bulk density, light transmission, and C/N ratios, as well as multielement geochemistry (wavelength-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF)), in three hummock cores (70 cm in length, c. 500 years) from an ombrotrophic Swedish bog. To compare the proxies, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) to identify how the proxies relate to and interact with the geochemical matrix. This was coupled with changepoint modeling to identify and compare statistically significant changes for each proxy. Our results show differences between the proxies within and between cores, indicating each responds to a different part of the decomposition process. This is supported by the PCA, where the three proxies fall on different principal components. Changepoint analysis also showed that the inferred number of changepoints and their depths vary for each proxy and core. This suggests that decomposition is not fully captured by any one of these commonly used proxies, and thus, more than one proxy should be included.

  • 33.
    Hansson, Sophia V.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tolu, Julie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Downwash of atmospherically deposited trace metals in peat and the influence of rainfall intensity: An experimental test2015In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 506, p. 95-101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accumulation records of pollutant metals in peat have been frequently used to reconstruct past atmospheric deposition rates. While there is good support for peat as a record of relative changes in metal deposition over time, questions remain whether peat archives represent a quantitative or a qualitative record. Several processes can potentially influence the quantitative record of which downwashing is particularly pertinent as it would have a direct influence on how and where atmospherically deposited metals are accumulated in peat. The aim of our study was two-fold: first, to compare and contrast the retention of dissolved Pb, Cu, Zn and Ni in peat cores; and second, to test the influence of different precipitation intensities on the potential downwashing of metals. We applied four 'rainfall' treatments to 13 peat cores over a 3-week period, including both daily (2 or 5.3 mm day(-1)) and event-based additions (37 mm day(-1), added over 1 h or over a 10 h rain event). Two main trends were apparent: 1) there was a difference in retention of the added dissolved metals in the surface layer (0-2 cm): 21-85% for Pb, 18-63% for Cu, 10-25% for Zn and 10-20% for Ni. 2) For all metals and both peat types (sphagnum lawn and fen), the addition treatments resulted in different downwashing depths, i.e., as the precipitation-addition increased so did the depth at which added metals could be detected. Although the largest fraction of Pb and Cu was retained in the surface layer and the remainder effectively immobilized in the upper peat (<= 10 cm), there was a smearing effect on the overall retention, where precipitation intensity exerts an influence on the vertical distribution of added trace metals. These results indicate that the relative position of a deposition signal in peat records would be preserved, but it would be quantitatively attenuated. 

  • 34.
    Karlsson, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Segerström, Ulf
    Nordström, Eva-Maria
    Thöle, Philine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biester, Harald
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tracing a bog-iron bloomery furnace in an adjacent lake-sediment record in Ängersjö, central Sweden, using pollen and geochemical signals2016In: Vegetation History and Archaeobotany, ISSN 0939-6314, E-ISSN 1617-6278, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 569-581Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies of bloomery sites in Sweden indicate the amount of iron produced with this early low-technology smelter was greater than previously thought, which implies greater economic importance. Little is known about the history of bloomery technology, not least the timeframe over which individual bloomeries were operated, as well as their impact on the landscape because of resource consumption and pollution. In this study we performed pollen and geochemical analyses of the lake-sediment record from Rortjarnen, which is 120 m from the remains of a documented bloomery [one radiocarbon date: ad 1300-1435 (1 sigma)], in A"ngersjo, Halsingland. A surface-soil transect shows a limited geochemical signal only within 20 m of the bloomery, and the sediment pollen record provides little direct evidence of an active bloomery and is consistent with other studied sites in the area linked to forest grazing or cultivation. Instead, we find major changes in sediment geochemistry during ad 800-1200, centered on a unique peak in Pb at ad 1030-1060. These changes include, e.g., Si (biogenic) and P, together with changes in pollen (e.g., Betula, Picea, Cyperaceae), which together indicate disturbance in the forest and especially the adjoining fen. We attribute these changes to a period of bloomery-related activities predating the radiocarbon date of the charcoal from the bloomery, and suggest that date represents a late phase for the site.

  • 35.
    Karlsson, Jon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Segerström, Ulf
    Berg, Anna
    Mattielli, Nadine
    Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Tracing modern environmental conditions to their roots in early mining, metallurgy, and settlement in Gladhammar, southeast Sweden: Vegetation and pollution history outside the traditional Bergslagen mining region2015In: The Holocene, ISSN 0959-6836, E-ISSN 1477-0911, Vol. 25, no 6, p. 944-955Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from a multidisciplinary project using lake sediment as a natural archive in combination with archaeology to investigate the earliest history of the Gladhammar mining area, southeastern Sweden. The aim was to identify and trace human impacts on the landscape, specifically in connection with settlement and metal production. Sediment records from two lakes linked to different processes in metal production were analyzed; Tjursbosjon down-slope of the mining area and Hyttegol situated downstream of an excavated blast furnace, 1.8km from the mines. The sediment analyses included multi-element geochemistry (WD-XRF), stable lead isotopes, pollen, and charcoal. Although historical documents record activities beginning in AD 1526, the archaeological study found indications that mining and metal production likely predated this period. The known historical period is well reflected in the sediment records, such as a 500-fold increase in copper, stream erosion, loss of forest cover and an expansion in agriculture. More importantly, already in the 12th-13th centuries, there was a 2- to 10-fold increase in lead, copper, and charcoal particles and evidence of erosion linked to the establishment of a blast furnace. Lead isotopes reveal a change from natural conditions to an input of lead from regional ores as early as the 9th-10th centuries. Settlement in the form of agriculture can be seen from 2000 BP. This sediment evidence of early mining or metallurgy during the 9th-15th centuries is supported by a few radiocarbon dates from the excavated mining fields, which on their own were considered as vague or improbable outliers by archaeologists.

  • 36.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Appleby, Peter
    Grip, Harald
    Estimating the mean residence time of lead in the organic horizon of boreal forest soils using 210-lead, stable lead and a soil chronosequence2006In: Biogeochemistry, ISSN 0168-2563, E-ISSN 1573-515X, Vol. 78, no 1, p. 31-49Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge about the residence time of lead in the organic horizon (mor layer; O-horizon) overlaying forest mineral soils is important for the prediction of past and future lead levels in the boreal environment. To estimate the mean residence time (MRT) of lead in the mor layer, we use in this study from Northern Sweden three different approaches: (1) lead-210 is applied as a tracer of lead migration; (2) estimations of loss rates of stable lead (concentrations and 206Pb/207Pb ratios) from the mor layer at an undisturbed forest setting, and (3) a study of lead in a soil series with sites of different age (a chronosequence of 20–220 years). In the last two approaches we compared measured inventories in the soil with estimated inventories derived using analyses of lake sediments. The results suggested a MRT of about 250 years in the mor layer in the mature forest and in the older parts of the chronosequence it was at least >170 years. The agreement between the three different approaches gives good credibility to this estimate. It is also supported by a modeling of trends in the 206Pb/207Pb ratio both between single cores and with depth in the mor layer. Our results suggest that it will take centuries for the deeper parts of the mor layer of undisturbed boreal forest soils to fully respond to decreased atmospheric lead pollution. However, data from the chronosequence indicate that the response could be much faster (MRT<50 years) in the mor layer at early stages of forest succession where graminoid and broadleaved litter fall dominates over conifer litter.

  • 37.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Uptake and recycling of lead by boreal forest plants: Quantitative estimates from a site in northern Sweden2005In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 69, p. 2485-2496Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Emteryd, Ove
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Flux rates of atmospheric lead pollution within soils of a small catchment in northern Sweden and their implications for future stream water quality2006In: Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 0013-936X, E-ISSN 1520-5851, Vol. 40, no 15, p. 4639-45Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not well-known how the accumulated pool of atmospheric lead pollution in the boreal forest soil will affect the groundwater and surface water chemistry in the future as this lead migrates through the soil profile. This study uses stable lead isotopes (206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/ 207Pb ratios) to trace the transport of atmospheric lead pollution within the soil of a small catchment and predict future lead level changes in a stream draining the catchment. Low 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb ratios for the lead in the soil water (1.16 ± 0.02; 2.43 ± 0.03) and streamwater (1.18 ± 0.03; 2.42 ± 0.03) in comparison to that of the mineral soil (>1.4; >2.5) suggest that atmospheric pollution contributes by about 90% (65−100%) to the lead pool found in these matrixes. Calculated transport rates of atmospheric lead along a soil transect indicate that the mean residence time of lead in organic and mineral soil layers is at a centennial to millennial time scale. A maximum release of the present pool of lead pollution in the soil to the stream is predicted to occur within 200−800 years. Even though the uncertainty of the prediction is large, it emphasizes the magnitude of the time lag between the accumulation of atmospheric lead pollution in soils and the subsequent response in streamwater quality.

  • 39.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    The biogeochemistry of atmospherically derived Pb in the boreal forest of Sweden2008In: Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 23, no 10, p. 2922-2931Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of stable Pb isotopes for tracing Pb contamination within the environment has strongly increased our understanding of the fate of airborne Ph contaminants within the boreal forest. This paper presents new stable Pb isotope (Pb-206/Pb-207 ratio) measurements of solid soil samples, stream water (from a mire outlet and a stream draining a forest dominated catchment) and components of Picea abies (roots, needles and stemwood), and synthesizes some of the authors' recent findings regarding the biogeochemistry of Ph within the boreal forest. The data clearly indicate that the biogeochemical cycling of Pb in the present-day boreal forest ecosystem is dominated by pollution Pb from atmospheric deposition. The Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of the mor layer (O-horizon), forest plants and stream water (mainly between 1.14 and 1.20) are similar to atmospheric Pb pollution (1.14-1.19), while the local geogenic Pb of the mineral soil (C-horizon) has high ratios (>1.30). Roots and basal stemwood of the analyzed forest trees have higher Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios (1.15-1.30) than needles and apical stemwood (1.14-1.18), which indicate that the latter components are more dominated by pollution derived Pb. The low Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios of the mor layer suggest that the upward transport of Ph as a result of plant uptake is small (<0.04 mg m(-2) a(-1)) in comparison to atmospheric inputs (similar to 0.5 mg m(-2) a(-1)) and annual losses with percolating soil-water (similar to 2 mg m(-2) a(-1)); consequently, the Ph levels in the mor layer are now decreasing while the pool of Pb in the mineral soil is increasing. Streams draining mires appear more strongly affected by pollution Ph than streams from forested catchments, as indicated by Pb concentrations about three times higher and lower Pb-206/Pb-207 ratios (1.16 +/- 0.01 in comparison to 1.18 +/- 0.02). To what extent stream water Pb levels will respond to the build-up of Ph in deeper mineral soil layers remains uncertain. (c) 2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 40.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Rydberg, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Is there a chronological record of atmospheric mercury and lead deposition preserved in the mor layer (O-horizon) of boreal forest soils2008In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, Vol. 72, p. 703-712Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The organic horizon (the mor layer) of podzolized boreal forest soils has accumulated atmospheric fallout of mercury and lead over centuries, resulting in current concentrations close to levels where negative effects on soil biota are thought to occur. To what extent the pollution history is preserved in the stratigraphy of this horizon is not well known. In this study we asses whether the chronology of a large historic pulse of atmospheric pollution emitted from the Ronnskar smelter in northern Sweden, particularly between 1950 and 1980, is preserved within the stratigraphy of the mor layer, which is typically 5-cm thick. Vertical sub-sampling (<= 5 mm) of five mor profiles sampled along a 100-km pollution gradient away from the smelter are analyzed for mercury and lead concentrations, spheroidal carbonaceous particles from fossil fuel combustion (SCPs) and stable lead isotopes (Pb-206/Pb-207 and Pb-208/Pb-207). Their vertical distribution is compared with the temporal variations in atmospheric inputs reconstructed for the last similar to 100 years from analyses of an ombrotrophic peat core and a varved take sediment core sampled within a distance of 50 km of the smelter. The mor profiles situated <= 12 km from the smelter record the pollution history of the smelter. There is a 20 to 40-times enrichment of Hg, Pb and SCP at the transition in the O-horizon from the F- to H-layer compared to the basal part and a distinct peak in the Pb-206/Pb-207 ratio (similar to 1.22) in the F-layer. The mor profiles situated outside the historical contamination range of the smelter (80 and 100 km away) record no obvious influence from the Ronnskar smelter, instead their vertical Pb-206/Pb-207 profiles follow the general regional pollution history in northern Sweden. We conclude that the mor layer preserves a record of atmospheric Hg, Pb and SCP inputs and due to low leaching rates this organic horizon serves as a semi-archive of atmospheric Hg and Pb pollution. We stress the need of including this property in the existing 'black-box' models predicting the fate of Hg and Pb within contaminated boreal forest soils.

  • 41.
    Klaminder, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Renberg, Ingemar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Ecology and Environmental Science.
    Emteryd, Ove
    Isotopic trends and background fluxes of atmospheric lead in northern Europe: Analyses of three ombrotrophic bogs from south Sweden2003In: Global Biogeochemical Cycles, Vol. 17, p. Art. No. 1019-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 42. Kylander, Malin E.
    et al.
    Bindler, Richard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cortizas, Antonio Martinez
    Gallagher, Kerry
    Morth, Carl-Magnus
    Rauch, Sebastien
    A novel geochemical approach to paleor