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  • 1.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Thorgren, Sara
    Department of Business Administration & Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Entrepreneurial initiatives as threats: how seasoned industry actors hinder regional restructuring2009In: 54th International Council for Small Business World Conference, Seoul, Korea: ICSB , 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper was to further understanding of regional restructuring and revitalisation by illustrating how opportunities for regional renewal may be reduced by rigid threat responses by a region’s established actors within declining industries. In an inductive case study of new biorefinery industry initiatives in a region where traditional forestry industries were in decline, we outline how new industry players that created new ways of using existing resources sparked rigid threat responses among established actors. When seasoned industry actors framed new industry initiatives as threats, they responded by (a) reducing new industry actors’ possibilities for new business development, (b) engaging in entrenched resistance, (c) creating collaborative illusions, and (d) undermining the fundamentals of the new industry. Our study contributes to literature by applying the threat-rigidity thesis on a regional level and by illustrating that conflicting behaviours between new and established industry actors can make restructuring and revitalisation problematic.

  • 2.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Reduced opportunities for regional renewal: The role of rigid threat responses among a region's established firms2011In: Entrepreneurship and Regional Development, ISSN 0898-5626, E-ISSN 1464-5114, Vol. 23, no 7-8, p. 603-635Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article illustrates how opportunities for regional renewal in a peripheral region may be reduced by rigid threat responses undertaken by established firms operating within traditional regional industry. In an inductive case study of new biorefinery industry initiatives in a region where traditional pulp-and-paper and forestry industry was in decline, we used primary and secondary data to outline how a set of new industry players who created innovative ways of using existing regional infrastructures and resources sparked rigid threat responses among established firms from the struggling traditional industry. Established industry firms framed new industry initiatives as threats, and responded by (1) reducing new industry actors' possibilities for new business development, (2) engaging in entrenched resistance, (3) creating collaborative illusions and (4) undermining the fundamentals of the new industry. Consequently, this study contributes to existing literature by proposing the potential of applying the threat-rigidity thesis on a regional level. This is achieved by illustrating that conflicting behaviours between new and established regional industry actors constrain opportunities for regional renewal in a peripheral region. As such, relevant directions for future research and policy implications are outlined.

  • 3.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    When a new industry meets traditional and declining ones: An integrative approach towards dialectics and social movement theory in a model of regional industry emergence processes2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 290-308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper takes an integrative approach towards dialectics and social movement theories in a model of regional industry emergence processes. Based on an inductive qualitative investigation we describe how a new industry emerges in a declining and peripheral region dominated by struggling and traditional local industry. The emanating model of regional industry emergence is based on four main processes; framing processes, movement mobilisation processes,inter-industry relational processes and dialectical processes, which together shape the emerging regional industry. This exemplifies how new regional industry mobilisation efforts provide an ‘anti-thesis’ to traditional industry, and how established industry actors respond with contestation to protect their business concepts. Furthermore we illustrate how new industry actors reframe their concepts to complement dominating traditional industry and to overcome tensions and conflicts. Following dialectic interaction between new and traditional industry wenoticed signs of acceptance and synthesis between the newly formed and old industry actors; ultimately resulting in a revitalisation of the region’s traditional industry. As such, this article makes a point of accounting for agency and productive conflict when understanding regional industry renewal and emergence.

  • 4.
    Arbuthnott, Andrew
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    A study of establishment processes and entrepreneurial industry emergence in a Swedish region facing difficulties2008In: 53rd International Council for Small Business World Conference, Halifax, Canada: ICSB , 2008Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores establishment processes of a new industry located in a peripheral region of Sweden that is based upon old traditional industries in decline. Based on a qualitativestudy, we identify how actors within the new industry interact and intervene with the existing infrastructures and institutions that support the old local industry while trying to build new infrastructures. We identify key restricting and supporting mechanisms for theestablishment processes, with implications for policy and regional and entrepreneurship research.

  • 5.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Co-opetition dynamics – an outline for further inquiry2010In: Competitiveness Review: An International Journal, ISSN 1059-5422, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 194-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to conceptually develop the understanding of co-opetitiondynamics and to enhance the conceptual clarity of co-opetition by developing a definition based onprevious research efforts.Design/methodology/approach – This conceptual paper integrates various approaches to theconcept co-opetition into a definition that holds for co-opetitive interactions across multiple levels.Different co-opetitive interactions and the resulting dynamics are discussed by drawing uponcompetition and cooperation theories. The paper concludes with an agenda for further research onco-opetition dynamics.Findings – The paper outlines how different types of co-opetitive interactions result in archetypicalsituations where the dynamics of co-opetition are present as well as where the dynamics of co-opetitionare missing due to a lack of balance between cooperation and competition. It notes four co-opetitiveforces: over-embedding, distancing, confronting, and colluding. These four forces drive developmenttowards situations without dynamics.Originality/value – This paper provides a conceptual understanding of co-opetition dynamics andwill reveal that in order to adequately account for co-opetition dynamics, a definition of co-opetitionmust analytically separate the cooperative and the competitive interaction inherent in co-opetition.

  • 6.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Coopetition: New ideas for a new paradigm2010In: Coopetition: Winning strategies for the 21st century / [ed] Yami, Said et.al., CHELTENHAM: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2010, p. 19-39Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    La coopétition: Un nouveau monde2010In: Stratégies de coopétition: Rivaliser et coopérer simultanément / [ed] Saïd Yami, Frédéric le Roy, de boeck , 2010, 1, p. 29-46Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Kock, Sören
    Handelshögskolan i Vasa, Finland .
    Role conflicts in co-opetitive relationships2009In: EIASM Co-opetition and Entrepreneurship, 2009Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Thorgren, Sara
    Department of Business Administration and Social Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Department of Business Administration and Social Science, Luleå University of Technology.
    Entrepreneurs learning together: the importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunities2011In: The International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 17-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunities. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 10.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Entrepreneurs learning together: The importance of building trust for learning and exploiting business opportunitiesManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    This longitudinal, qualitative case study examines trust-building processes and learning outcomes among entrepreneurs who participated in formal networks designed to develop competence and knowledge. This study is built on rich data collected through observation and video recordings made during network meetings and get-togethers. Additional data was gleaned from personal interviews with participating entrepreneurs. All data sources reveal on how trust develops and how entrepreneurs can use networks to learn and improve their capacity to exploit business opportunities. Studying how trust is built over time among entrepreneurs who demonstrate a low level of trust when they join the network, this study provides insights into micro-processes and important components of building trust. Findings suggest three processes that build commitment, companionship, and competence trust. Moreover, acknowledging the notion of social learning, the findings suggest that when entrepreneurs build trust with one another they can experience cognitive, emotional, and social changes by participating in a network. This may bring potential consequences for their exploiting opportunies. Implications for academics and managers are discussed.

  • 11.
    Bergh, Pontus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Thorgren, Sara
    Luleå teknikska universitet.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Trust and self-efficacy in formal learning networks: the effects on entrepreneurs’ capacity to act upon business opportunities2012In: International Journal of Innovation and Learning, ISSN 1471-8197, E-ISSN 1741-8089, Vol. 12, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In efforts to promote better realization of business opportunities, government support of formal policy led learning networks among entrepreneurs has been a popular approach world-wide. This article uses survey data from 109 entrepreneurs who took part in formal learning networks to examine how trust in network partners influences the capacity to act upon business opportunities for entrepreneurs. Further, we examine how this influence is moderated by the entrepreneurs’ own self-efficacy. Our results support a positive relationship between developing trust in other networking entrepreneurs and the capacity to act upon business opportunities. Self-efficacy was found to moderate this relationship. For entrepreneurs with low self-efficacy, results support an inverted U-shaped relationship, with the greatest outcomes reached with an intermediate level of trust. For entrepreneurs with high self-efficacy, a positive linear relationship is supported. We discuss implications for further research on trust and realization of opportunities, and for learning network policy.

  • 12.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology .
    B2B brand equity: Analyzing the impact of customer-employee rapport and employee role behavior2011In: EMAC 40th Conference, University of Ljubljana, Faculty of Economics, Slovenia, 24-27 May 2011: Conference proceedings, Ljubljana: Faculty of Economics, University of Ljubljana , 2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of the study is to investigate the impact of customer-employee rapport and employee role behavior on the development of B2B brand equity. The process of brand equity development is captured in this study through the hierarchical effects between the dimensions of brand equity. The interaction between the customer and the employee is reflected by customer-employee rapport, employee role ambiguity and role overload. The results of the structural equation modeling show the positive effect of customer-employee rapport and the negative effects of role ambiguity and role overload on the development of B2B brand equity.

  • 13.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Brand equity in the professional service context: Analyzing the impact of employee role behavior and customer–employee rapport2011In: Industrial Marketing Management, ISSN 0019-8501, E-ISSN 1873-2062, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1093-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study examines whether factors related to customers' perception of employees' behavior in terms of customer perceived role ambiguity, role overload and customer–employee rapport influence the development of brand equity in the professional service context. 632 customers of one of the Big Four auditing companies participated in the study. The results of structural equation modeling show negative effects of role ambiguity and role overload on brand associations, perceived quality and brand loyalty, which constitute brand equity. The findings indicate a positive effect of customer–employee rapport on the enhancement of B2B brand equity. However, the negative influences of role ambiguity and role overload on customer–employee rapport transfer detrimental indirect effects on brand equity. The study contributes to an understanding of how the real interaction between service providers and customers can influence brand equity in the professional service setting.

  • 14.
    Biedenbach, Galina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Innovation och Design, Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Dynamics of B2B brand equity: the role of interdependencies in buyer-seller relationships2010In: Proceeding of the 39th EMAC Conference / [ed] Beckmann, S.C., Ringberg, T., and Ritter, T., European Marketing Academy , 2010Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of buyer-seller interdependencies on the formation of brand equity in the B2B context. The study demonstrates that a higher level of dependency, experienced by the multi-services buyers compared to the uni-service buyers, affects overall brand equity developed towards the seller. By considering the hierarchy of effects between the brand equity dimensions, the study shows that the factors capturing the interdependencies have a significant impact on brand loyalty of the multi- service buyers. The study contributes to branding research by evaluating the impact of buyer- seller dependency on B2B brand equity.

  • 15. Drnovsek, Mateja
    et al.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    The effectiveness of coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and their impact on personal well-being and venture performance2010In: Zbornik Radova Ekonomskog Fakulteta u Rijeci : ÄRasopis za Ekonomsku Teoriju i Praksu, ISSN 1331-8004, E-ISSN 1846-7520, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 193-220Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyzes effectiveness of coping strategies that entrepreneurs use to daily manage work related stress. Coping is the process of expending efforts to solve personal and interpersonal problems and reducing stress induced by unpleasant and stressful situations. Two broad strategies of coping are identified; problem-based coping refers to a cognitively-based response behavior that includes efforts to alleviate stressful circumstances while emotion-based coping involves behavioral responses to regulate the affective consequences of stressful events. The purpose of this research is to analyze relationships among the coping strategies used by entrepreneurs and a set of antecedents influencing the selection of coping strategies. The methodology used is based on structural equation modeling and empirical data of 469 entrepreneurs from two European countries. Our results show that problem-based coping facilitates well-being and venture performance. In addition, our findings also support interaction effects of founder centrality and contextual conditions of venturing on the extent entrepreneurs engage in coping. We believe that our insights can help in training entrepreneurs in the development of effective coping strategies that are context dependent. In specific, our results suggest entrepreneurs to engage in problem-focused strategies when they want to effectively address the economic aspects of their lives whereas when they engage in emotion-based strategies they seem to increase the self-knowledge they need to start subsequent ventures and facilitate learning from failure. Future studies on coping strategies could study the interplay of coping strategies used to resolve challenging social situations that various stakeholders of practicing entrepreneurs impose.

  • 16.
    Johansson, Marlene
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Bengtsson, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Business Administration.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Study on balancing cooperation and competition in coopetitive relationships through bridging and bondingManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Coopetitive relationships, with simultaneous cooperation and competition, are argued to be beneficial for the development of competitive advantage. To obtain and maintain such advantage over time the relationship however needs to be balanced. Through two longitudinal case studies we examine how bridging and bonding activities can facilitate and restrict the balancing of coopetitive relationships. Our findings illustrate changes in coopetitive relationships over time, focusing how these changes affect the coopetitive balance. We show how bridging and bonding possibilities arise in coopetitive relationships, how bridging and bonding are related and influence each other, and outline mechanisms in the different processes that facilitate and restrict firms’ ability to balance coopetitive relationships over time. The study offer implications for the literature on firms’ capabilities to manage coopetition as a strategy.

  • 17.
    Lindberg, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Goal Commitment and Performance: An Empirical Study Incorporating Role-Stress Literature to Reveal Functional and Dysfunctional Influences2011In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 41, no 11, p. 2634-2655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study integrates the goal-commitment and role-stress literatures in a model to reveal functional and dysfunctional influences of goal commitment on role performance. In a sample of headmasters, we found empirical support for a role-clarifying process suggesting that high commitment reduces role ambiguity and is ultimately positive for role performance. Our model also supports the dysfunctional effect of commitment through a role-complicating process in which commitment drives role overload, which is negative for role performance. By including self-efficacy in our model, we were better able to understand the positive and negative experiences of highly committed individuals. Contributing to the existing literature on role stressors, this study's results indicate that self-efficacy mediates the influences of role stressors on role performance.

  • 18.
    Lindberg, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Turning stressors into something productive: An empirical study revealing nonlinear influences of role stressors on self-efficacy2013In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 263-274Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study suggests that stressors can be productive for self-efficacy and that the influence of stressors on self-efficacy is nonlinear. Analyses were conducted with ordinary least squares regression on a dataset covering responses from 311 deans in Swedish secondary schools. Results support the hypothesized U-shape relationship between role conflict and self-efficacy and the inverted U-shape relationship between role ambiguity and self-efficacy. Thus, findings offer evidence for nonlinear effects of stressors on the level of incumbents' self-efficacy. This research has implications for further research focused on the association between role stressors and self-efficacy.

  • 19. Malmström, Malin
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Luleå Univ Technol, Luleå, Sweden.
    Johansson, Jeaneth
    Managing competence acquisition and financial performance: an empirical study of how small firms use competence acquisition strategies2013In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 30, no 4, p. 327-349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research has neglected how small firms manage competence acquisition. Based on transaction cost literature, this article identifies competence acquisition management strategies and their implications for performance. We explore this issue using survey data from 842 small, knowledge-intensive firms. The results outline four aspects of competence acquisition management: (1) competence absorbers, (2) social acquirers, (3) market acquirers, and (4) nonacquirers. Furthermore, we hypothesized and found that market acquirers score higher in terms of financial performance than firms following the other strategies. The market acquirer strategy proved particularly effective under conditions of high dynamism. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 20. Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Interorganizational Trust: Origins, Dysfunctions and Regulation of Rigidities2011In: British Journal of Management, ISSN 1045-3172, E-ISSN 1467-8551, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 21-41Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This conceptual paper extends research on the downsides of developing trust to partners in interorganizational relationships. The idea developed captures that, although interorganizational trust generates benefits, a parallel process also produces undesired rigidities. Firms' flexibility in meeting a changing environment may thus be hampered rather than enabled by the created interorganizational relationship. First, we theorize on the micro-processes of how and why such rigidities develop already at low levels of trust and accumulate in parallel to the positive trust effects as trust builds stronger over time. Second, we propose that the trust dysfunctions can be distinguished and moderated separately from trust benefits. In doing so, we identify and discuss the moderating potential of a set of handling tactics when trust develops rigidities in the relationship: competing, accommodating, avoiding, collaborating and compromising tactics. We discuss implications in relation to research on trust, inertia and interorganizational governance.

  • 21.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Entrepreneurship and Innovation.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Entrepreneurship and Innovation.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Small firms in multipartner R&D alliances: Gaining benefits by acquiescing2012In: Journal of engineering and technology management, ISSN 0923-4748, E-ISSN 1879-1719, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 453-467Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study highlights how smaller firms gain advantages through exchange strategies in alliances. Based on a sample of 141 firms involved in multipartner alliances governed by cooperative exchange norms, our findings support the hypothesis that smaller firms are more likely than larger firms to comply with cooperative exchange norms. This finding is especially valid for firms in manufacturing industries and can positively influence new product development. This study is a starting point for additional research investigating how, when, and why firms can benefit from engaging in multipartner alliances, even if they are a relatively small player.

  • 22.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Too small or too large to trust your partners in multipartner alliances?: The role of effort in initiating generalized exchanges2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Management, ISSN 0956-5221, E-ISSN 1873-3387, Vol. 27, no 1, p. 99-112Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article describes how smaller and larger firms face difficulties in establishing trust in multipartner alliances. Using survey data from a sample of 141 firms engaged in such alliances, we examine a curvilinear relationship between firm size and trust. Our results suggest an inverted U-shaped relationship between firm size and the degree to which a firm develops trust in partners. We also establish that effort to establish generalized exchanges is important for trust building. Specifically, we notice the inverted U-shape to be particularly prominent among firms that do not make the effort to establish generalized exchanges, which implies that smaller and larger firms depend upon concerted effort to establish generalized exchanges in developing high levels of trust in alliance partners. This has implications for explaining important influences on trust building in social exchange systems.

  • 23.
    Thorgren, Sara
    et al.
    Department of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology .
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Department of Business Administration and Social Sciences, Luleå University of Technology .
    A cause-effect study of inter-firm networking and corporate entrepreneurship: Initial evidence of self-enforcing spirals2009In: Journal of Developmental Entrepreneurship, ISSN 1084-9467, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Participating in inter-firm networks has become increasingly popular to enhance corporate entrepreneurship. Trust, relationship diversity and knowledge transfer are considered some of the prominent cornerstones of well-functioning networks. Using longitudinal survey data covering a population of 41 firms operating in two SME networks, we examine cause–effect relationships between interorganizational trust, relationship diversity and knowledge transfer, and corporate entrepreneurship among networking firms. We found a causal influence of knowledge transfer and relational diversity on corporate entrepreneurship. Our approach also identified self-enforcing spirals between network constructs and corporate entrepreneurship. Firms displaying high corporate entrepreneurship may stimulate the creation of relationships such as those characterized by high knowledge transfer that, in turn, are relationship characteristics that stimulate corporate entrepreneurship.

  • 24.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE). Luleå University of Technology, Sweden .
    An exchange approach on firm cooperative orientation and outcomes of strategic multilateral network participants2008In: Group & Organization Management, ISSN 1059-6011, E-ISSN 1552-3993, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 303-329Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on exchange theory, this study develops and tests a model that explores the associations among strategic multilateral network participants' cooperative orientations (contributions to and benefits from network partners) and network connectedness, entrepreneurial behavior, and firm performance. Empirical analyses of 54 firms in two strategic multilateral networks show that the two firm orientations of benefiting from and contributing to the network are positively related to each other. Results substantiate the expected association between benefiting orientations and firm performance and confirm the nonsignificant relationship between contributing orientations and firm performance. The indirect performance path, where cooperative orientations were proposed to influence performance via network connectedness and entrepreneurial behavior, was not supported. Implications and suggestions for future research on firm cooperative orientations are presented.

  • 25.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, SE-971 87 Luleå, Sweden.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Graduate School of Management, Kent State University, Kent, OH 44242-0001, USA.
    Boter, Håkan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE).
    Network board continuity and effectiveness of open innovation in Swedish strategic small-firm networks2009In: R & D Management, ISSN 0033-6807, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 55-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing adoption of open innovation as an alternative route to research and development necessitates the development of new ways to organize innovation, as well as reassessment of existing ways. Much like traditional corporations that subscribe to the closed innovation paradigm, novel organizational arrangements targeting open innovation, such as small-firm networks, employ boards to effectively manage joint research-and-development activities. These boards are similar yet different from traditional corporate boards; as such, they may have different requirements for proper functioning. We use 5-year longitudinal data on 53 Swedish strategic small-firm networks to investigate how the boards should be organized to help improve the innovative status of network participants. We expand the set of tools available for effective organization of the boards' operations and emphasize the effects of network board continuity (rates of renewal) on network members' innovative performance. We argue that the relationship is curvilinear (U-shaped) and demonstrate that it is more pronounced in larger networks.

  • 26.
    Wincent, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Anokhin, Sergey
    Kent State University.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    Luleå University of Technology.
    Autio, Erkko
    Imperial College Business School .
    Quality meets structure: Generalized reciprocity and firm-level advantage in strategic networks2010In: Journal of Management Studies, ISSN 0022-2380, E-ISSN 1467-6486, Vol. 47, no 4, p. 597-624Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we extend previous research by combining network structural and network process approaches. Specifically, in a six-year, three-wave study of 41 firms in two strategic networks, we found that the interaction between generalized reciprocity among a focal firm's partners and network tie intensity and betweenness centrality improved firm performance. No influences were observed for the interaction involving degree centrality and generalized reciprocity. Our research suggests that managers in strategic networks may need to consider the balance between relationship-extensive and relationship-intensive strategies.

  • 27. Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration. Luleå University of Technology.
    Role Stress, Exhaustion, and Satisfaction: A Cross-Lagged Structural Equation Modeling Approach Supporting Hobfoll's Loss Spirals2010In: Journal of Applied Social Psychology, ISSN 0021-9029, E-ISSN 1559-1816, Vol. 40, no 6, p. 1357-1384Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study applies Hobfoll's notion of loss spirals to argue for a reciprocal relationship between role stress and 2 of its most commonly studied consequences: exhaustion and satisfaction. By means of structural equation modeling and a cross-lagged design of 116 business managers, the researchers found support for a relationship between role stress and exhaustion. They also found that satisfaction influences role stress, a relationship that the existing literature has not examined. The study contributes a more complex understanding of the relationship between role stress and its modeled outcomes than has been achieved previously.

  • 28.
    Örtqvist, Daniel
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå.
    Wincent, Joakim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Ericsson, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business.
    Autio, Erkko
    Imperial College Business School, UK.
    The more the merrier?: The effect of group size on effectiveness in SMEfunding campaigns2010In: Strategic Organization, ISSN 1476-1270, E-ISSN 1741-315X, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 43-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To overcome resource shortages, companies can subscribe to groups that, in competition with other groups,seek to obtain external funding for the joint development of innovations. In this context, the authors argue smaller groups are better equipped to be successful in external funding campaigns. Based on five-year panel data from a sample of 53 Swedish groups of small and medium-sized companies, the authors find support for a claim suggesting that due to the adverse effect of group size on governance and internal cohesion, the costs associated with group size will outweigh benefits, which reduce the ability to compete for external funding. Consistent with their expectations, the authors find that the adverse effect of group size on fundraising effectiveness is mitigated by internal and external governance devices including the presence of external directors on the group board and interlocking board memberships, and by a bottom-up group formation process.

1 - 28 of 28
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