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  • 1.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 6, p. 859-871Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 2. Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    Examining perceptions of teammates’ burnout and training hours in athlete burnout2018In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 316-332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perceptions of teammates and training load have been shown to influence athletes' physical and psychological health; however, limited research has investigated these factors in relation to burnout. Athletes (N = 140) from a variety of competitive team sports, ranging in level from regional to professional, completed questionnaires measuring individual burnout, perceptions of teammates' burnout, and training hours perweek on two occasions separated by threemonths. After controlling for burnout at time one, training hours were associated with athletes' burnout and perceptions of teammates' burnout at time two. Multilevel modeling indicated actual team burnout (i.e., the average burnout score of the individual athletes in a team) and perceived team burnout were associated with individual's own burnout. The findings highlight that burnout is dynamic and relates to physiological stressors associated with training and psychological perceptions of teammates' burnout. Future research directions exploring potential social influences on athlete burnout are presented.

  • 3.
    Appleby, Ralph
    et al.
    The Talented Athlete Scholarship Scheme (TASS), Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vickery, Will
    Coaching and Officiating, Sport Australia, Canberra, ACT, Australia.
    Preliminary Psychometric Validation of the Teammate Burnout Questionnaire2022In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 13, article id 894308Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to provide support for the validation of the Teammate Burnout Questionnaire (TBQ). Athletes from a variety of team sports (N = 290) completed the TBQ and the Athlete Burnout Questionnaire (ABQ). Confirmatory factor analysis revealed acceptable fit indexes for the three-dimensional models (i.e., physical and emotional exhaustion, sport devaluation, reduced accomplishment) of the TBQ and the ABQ. Multi-trait multi-method analysis revealed that the TBQ and ABQ showed acceptable convergent and discriminant validity. The preliminary validation of the TBQ indicates the utility of the scale to reflect athletes' perceptions of their teammates' burnout and offers researchers the opportunity to quantitatively assess an important aspect of the social environment in the development of athlete burnout.

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  • 4.
    Axelsson, Susanne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Kihlberg, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus B. T.
    Department of Health, Education and Technology, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Psychotherapy students' experiences of supervisee-centred supervision based on deliberate practice, feedback-informed treatment and self-compassion2024In: Counselling and Psychotherapy Research, ISSN 1473-3145, E-ISSN 1746-1405, Vol. 24, no 2, p. 719-733Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: There are few methods that focus on therapists' experiences of supervision. To facilitate the development of psychologist students, a supervisee-centred supervision, based on deliberate practice, feedback informed treatment and self-compassion, was introduced.

    Methods: This study examines six supervisees’ experiences of a supervisee-centred supervision. A semi- structured interview was used for the collection of the data, which identified two main themes: Learning and Development and five associated sub-themes: structure and purposesfulness, prerequisites, experience-based learning, therapeutic skills and personal development.

    Conclusion: The experience- and feedback-based approach was perceived as efficient, structured and goal oriented. This created high-focused activity and participation, a strong group dynamic and a good alliance with the supervisors, providing a good climate for learning and development. Focusing on performance and feedback was perceived as a potential obstacle that could create stress and anxiety.

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  • 5.
    Bastos, Vasco
    et al.
    Faculty of Physical Education and Sport (ULHT), Lusófona University, Lisbon, Portugal; Research Center in Sport, Physical Education, Exercise and Health (CIDEFES), Lisbon, Portugal.
    Rodrigues, Filipe
    Quality of Life Research Center (CIEQV), Santarém, Portugal.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Teixeira, Diogo Santos
    Faculty of Physical Education and Sport (ULHT), Lusófona University, Lisbon, Portugal; Research Center in Sport, Physical Education, Exercise and Health (CIDEFES), Lisbon, Portugal.
    Assessing affective valence and activation in resistance training with the feeling scale and the felt arousal scale: a systematic review2023In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 18, no 11, article id e0294529Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence suggests affective responses to exercise can influence exercise adherence. However, there is a limited understanding of how and when to measure core affect in resistance training. As such, the objective of this systematic review was to analyze how the Feeling Scale and/or the Felt Arousal Scale have been used in resistance training to assess core affect. Focus was given to the contextual feasibility, timing, and frequency of assessment. A search in PubMed, SPORTDiscus, and PsycINFO databases was conducted (last search date July, 2022) with the purpose of including experimental and non-experimental studies, utilizing the Feeling Scale and/or the Felt Arousal Scale in resistance training, and focused on apparently healthy individuals of any age. Twenty-seven studies (N = 718 participants) published between 2009-2022 were qualitatively analyzed. Both scales appeared to be able to detect core affect within a wide array of intensities, ages, and equipment. As for the timing and frequency of measurement, no apparent standardization was evident. The use of the Feeling Scale, the Felt Arousal Scale, or both, to measure core affect appears to be feasible in resistance training practices. However, a lack of methodological background raises concerns regarding the quality of previous studies' assessments and comparisons of results across studies.

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  • 6. Börjesson, Marcus
    et al.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Flotation REST as a Stress Reduction Method: The Effects on Anxiety, Muscle Tension, and Performance2018In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 12, no 3, p. 333-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the influence of flotation REST upon skilled and less skilled golfers' anxiety in terms of physiological indicators of stress, self-rated anxiety scores, muscle tension, and the effect on golf putting. Prior to performing the putting task participants underwent a treatment of flotation REST or a period of resting in an armchair. Participants completed both treatments in a randomized order with a two-week interval. The results showed that both flotation REST and the armchair treatment reduced systolic blood pressure and heart rate, with no differences between treatments or athlete skill levels. No significant differences between treatments were revealed regarding self-ratings, level of muscle tension or putting precision. The results indicate that flotation REST may be useful for reducing negative symptoms related to stress and anxiety in general; however, no support for direct positive effects on golf performance were found.

  • 7. Calverley, Hannah
    et al.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Harvey, Jack
    Mesagno, Christopher
    Examining Group Differences in Emotion Regulation Strategies and the State and Trait Anxiety of Lifeguards and Non-Lifeguards in a Real-World Precompetitive Situation2020In: International Journal of Aquatic Research and Education, ISSN 1932-9997, E-ISSN 1932-9253, Vol. 12, no 2, article id 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to investigate differences, between swimmer-lifeguards and swimmer-non-lifeguards, in trait and state anxiety and emotion regulation techniques in a real-life precompetitive situation with a secondary focus on gender differences. The Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, Sport Anxiety Scale – 2 and the Mental Readiness Form – 3 were distributed to 100 participants at university swimming competitions in the United Kingdom. Swimmer-lifeguards displayed significantly lower cognitive (p=.03) and somatic state (p=.05) anxiety and cognitive trait anxiety (p=.02) than swimmer-non-lifeguards. Males reported significantly lower levels of cognitive and somatic trait anxiety (p<.01) than females. There was also a gender-group interaction, with male swimmer-lifeguards showing significantly lower somatic trait anxiety than the other groups (p<.03). Males indicated significantly greater use of reappraisal than females (p=.01); no other effects were observed. These results support previous research regarding lifeguard characteristics, however the nature of these qualities and how they originate require further exploration.

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  • 8.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wetherell, Mark
    Gustafsson, Henrick
    The role of coach-athlete relationship quality in team sport athletes’ psychophysiological exhaustion: implications for physical and cognitive performance2018In: Journal of Sports Sciences, ISSN 0264-0414, E-ISSN 1466-447X, Vol. 36, no 17, p. 1985-1992Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study aimed to examine associations between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and athlete exhaustion by assessing physiological and cognitive consequences. Male and female athletes (N = 82) representing seven teams across four different sports, participated in a quasi-experi- mental study measuring physical performance on a 5-meter multiple shuttle test, followed by a Stroop test to assess cognitive performance. Participants provided saliva samples measuring cortisol as a biomarker of acute stress response and completed questionnaires measuring exhaustion, and coach- athlete relationship quality. Structural equation modelling revealed a positive relationship between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and Stroop performance, and negative relationships between the quality of the coach-athlete relationship and cortisol responses to high-intensity exercise, cognitive testing, and exhaustion. The study supports previous research on socio-cognitive correlates of athlete exhaustion by highlighting associations with the quality of the coach-athlete relationship. 

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  • 9.
    Davis, Louise
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Psychology, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Appleby, Ralph
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reducing the risk of athlete burnout: Psychosocial, sociocultural, and individual considerations for coaches2019In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 444-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past research suggests that athletes' relationships with their coach can act as a risk factor in the development of burnout. Coaching practice may be enhanced through understanding the multidimensional factors that can augment the associations between coach-athlete relationship quality and athlete burnout. The present study explored both individual difference characteristics (gender, age, and sport level) and sociocultural factors (sport type) as moderators of this relationship. Our findings show statistically significant interaction effects for gender and age. Coaches and practitioners working with younger athletes and male performers in particular, are advised to work with strategies aiming to build relationships and reduce the risk of burnout.

  • 10.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Angry athletes: psychological, physiological and performance implications2011In: Psychology of anger: symptoms, causes and coping / [ed] James P. Welty, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2011, p. 197-212Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Feelings of anger are widely reported by athletes participating in sport. Frequent and intense displays of anger, including verbal and physical assaults, have been observed in a number of sports. Mismanaged anger has lead to fatalities and can have catastrophic consequences for performance. Until recently, limited research has explored the angerperformance relationship. The present chapter reviews the findings arising from recent research that has attempted to identify the performance implications of anger. The influence of anger on physical and cognitive subcomponents of performance is discussed and a variety of psychophysiological methodologies used to investigate the angerperformance relationship are outlined. The role of moderating variables such as individual difference variables including personality and anger specific coping styles are presented. Limitations of previous research are highlighted and recommendations for future studies are proposed. Using an emotion regulation framework, considerations for optimizing the influence of anger on performance are offered. Finally, suggestions for athletes, coaches, and applied sport psychology consultants are put forward with the aim of minimizing the potential negative effects of anger on interpersonal relationships and subsequent performance.

  • 11.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Current perspectives on psychological aspects associated with the development, and practice of effective coaching and management2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Davis, Paul A., New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 1-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    The psychology of effective coaching and management2016Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Psychology of Effective Coaching and Management is a valuable resource for students, researchers, practitioners, educators, and administrators that want to increase their knowledge of psychological aspects associated with the development and practice of coaching and management. The reader is guided through models of the coaching process, approaches to coach learning, context specific education, and tools for observing coaching behaviors. Additionally, considerations for enhancing positive youth development, motivational climate, group dynamics, self-regulation, emotions, and mental toughness are outlined. The application of mental skills such as self-talk, the consideration of an athlete’s personality in coaching practice, and leadership theories in management are also reviewed. Examples of highly effective sport organizations and approaches to optimizing relationships with support staff are presented, as well as research and implications of coach burnout. The book is written by world leading scholars, sport psychologists, coaches, and managers from the USA, Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Sweden, Spain, Greece, Croatia and the UK. Each chapter presents current research and offers suggestions for optimizing effective coaching and management. The chapters are written to be accessible to a wide range of readers, and each chapter offers a set of key considerations for enhancing practice. The aim of the book is to present up-to-date knowledge of the theories and research undertaken in sport coaching and management, with a particular focus upon applying understanding to maximize effective practice. This book will serve as essential reading for scholars and students; it can be used as a key text in sports coaching or coach education programs. Furthermore, coaches as well as their athletes will benefit from the recommendations for practice presented in the book.

  • 13.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Weak with laughter2021In: New scientist (1971), ISSN 0262-4079, Vol. 249, no 3336, p. 54-54Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bränström, Axel
    Umeå University.
    Dahlberg, Marcus
    Umeå University.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining the influence of smartphone use on time perception during exercise2024In: Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology (JSEP), ISSN 0895-2779, E-ISSN 1543-2904, Vol. 46, no S1, p. S67-S67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to examine the influence of smartphone use on time perception during exercise. Twenty-four physically active participants (16 females, MVO2max = 43.0 ml/kg/min; 8 males, MVO2max = 56.9 ml/kg/min; Mage = 24.40, SD = 4.35) completed an experimental study comprised of randomized conditions alternating between cycling at a hard intensity and seated rest, whilst their smartphone was: a) used to view ‘Tik Tok’ videos; b) present but not viewed; or c) out of sight. In each condition participants were asked to verbally produce a target amount of time (i.e., 37s) during the trial and upon its completion estimate the duration of the trial (i.e., 330s). Repeated measures ANOVAs indicated smartphones significantly affected participants’ perception of time during and following intervals of cycling and rest. Bonferroni corrected post hoc tests showed that the time production during cycling viewing was significantly shorter when watching videos compared to when the phone was present but not viewed (Mdiff = −6.19, p = .012), 95% CI [−11.2, −1.17], as well as when the phone was out of sight (Mdiff = −4.65, p = .022), 95% CI, [−8.72, −.575]. Following each condition participants estimated the duration of the trial was less time than actual chronometric time, a significant effect of the smartphone conditions was observed F(2, 44) = 7.10, p = .002, ηp2 = .24, although not of physical activity F(1, 23) = 3.33, p = .08, ηp2 = .13. Participants were more accurate in estimating the duration of the trial when they viewed videos on their smartphone. The results of the present study suggest that viewing videos on a smartphone can induce participants to perceive time passing more quickly during exercise, and upon completion of the physical activity judge the duration of exercise to be less than reality.

  • 15.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Davis, Louise
    Northumbria University, UK.
    Emotions and emotion regulation in coaching2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York, NY: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 285-306Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Klara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wallberg, Agnes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Examining the Role of Instructor-Student Relationship Quality in Yoga: Implications for Participants’ Motives, Stress, Affect, and Mindfulness2022In: Psychological Topics, ISSN 1332-0742, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 77-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extensive research outlines a broad spectrum of physical and mental health benefits associated with participation in yoga. In particular, yoga can increase mindfulness as well as decrease anxiety, depression, and stress. However, knowledge of the underlying mechanisms and conditions for promoting positive outcomes requires further study. Limited research has examined how the quality of the relationship between the yoga student and instructor may influence potential health benefits derived from participation in yoga. The present study investigated associations between levels of stress, emotional well-being, motives for yoga, relationship quality, and mindfulness during yoga. Analysis of data collected from 219 adults indicated that higher levels of stress and negative emotional well-being increased the likelihood that yoga was practised to address psychological motives rather than perceived physical health benefits. Additionally, relationship quality with the instructor was found to predict greater state mindfulness during the yoga session. The present study highlights the importance of the relationship quality between instructor and student; future research investigating the efficacy of yoga in optimizing mental health should consider how health outcomes might be influenced by motives for participation and interpersonal relationships.

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  • 17.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wills, Samuel
    Appleby, Ralph
    Nieuwenhuys, Arnie
    Exploring "Sledging" and Interpersonal Emotion-Regulation Strategies in Professional Cricket2018In: The Sport psychologist, ISSN 0888-4781, E-ISSN 1543-2793, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examines cricketers’ perceptions of emotional interactions between competitors. Semistructured interviews with 12 male professional cricketers explored experiences (i.e., emotions, cognitions, behaviors) relating to incidents during competition where they or an opponent attempted to evoke an emotional reaction (e.g., sledging). Cricketers described their use of sledging as aggressive actions and verbal interactions with the aim of disrupting concentration and altering the emotional states of opponents. They described experiencing a variety of emotions (e.g., anxiety, anger) in response to opponents’ attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation; linguistic analyses indicated that both positive than negative emotions were experienced. A range of strategies in response to competitors’ deliberate attempts at interpersonal emotion regulation were outlined. The present study extends previous research investigating interpersonal emotion regulation within teams by indicating that professional cricketers are aware of the impact of cognitions and emotions on performance and attempt to negatively influence these factors in competitors

  • 18.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Didymus, Faye F.
    Carnegie School of Sport, Leeds Beckett University, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Barrass, Scott
    Department of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, United Kingdom.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bridging boundaries between life and sport: exploring sports coaches’ micro role transitions2024In: International Sport Coaching Journal, ISSN 2328-918X, E-ISSN 2328-9198, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coach education notes the importance of effective transitions between life and sport, yet research evidence supporting coaches to make such transitions is lacking. The present study used a mixed-methods design to explore 41 highly qualified coaches’ perceptions of how responsibilities in life beyond sport spill over to coaching practice. Additionally, we examined coaches’ transitions between roles in life and sport and the implications for their health and coaching practice. Coaches completed questionnaires measuring perceived stress and emotion regulation, and a writing task about how roles outside of sport impacted their coaching practice. Linguistic analyses using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count software revealed that coaches with lower levels of perceived stress expressed more positive emotions when writing about the influence of life commitments on their coaching practice. The findings also suggest that coaches’ perceptions of the coaching process can be both positively and negatively influenced by life commitments spilling over into sport. Further, coaches reported challenges with the process of undertaking micro role transitions and highlighted implications for their mental health, coaching effectiveness, and relationships in both sport and life. Integrating organizational and sport psychology research, we offer guidance to optimize coaches’ transitions between roles to promote health and optimal performance.

  • 19.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Callow, Nichola
    Woodman, Tim
    Written Emotional Disclosure can Promote Athletes’ Mental Health and Performance Readiness during the COVID-19 Pandemic2020In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 11, article id 599925Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The widespread effects of the COVID-19 pandemic have negatively impacted upon many athletes’ mental health and increased reports of depression as well as symptoms of anxiety. Disruptions to training and competition schedules can induce athletes’ emotional distress, while concomitant government-imposed restrictions (e.g., social isolation, quarantines) reduce the availability of athletes’ social and emotional support. Written Emotional Disclosure has been used extensively in a variety of settings with diverse populations as a means to promote emotional processing. The expressive writing protocol has been used to a limited extent in the context of sport, and predominantly in support of athletes’ emotional processing during injury rehabilitation. We propose that Written Emotional Disclosure offers an evidence-based treatment that can promote athletes’ mental health and support their return to competition. Research exploring the efficacy of the expressive writing protocol highlights a number of theoretical models underpinning the positive effects of Written Emotional Disclosure; we outline how each of these potential mechanisms can address the multidimensional complexity of the challenging circumstances arising from the COVID-19 pandemic (e.g., loss of earnings, returning to training and competition). Considerations and strategies for using Written Emotional Disclosure to support athletes during the COVID-19 pandemic are presented.

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  • 20.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Halvarsson, Anton
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundstrom, Wictor
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    Alpine Ski Coaches' and Athletes' Perceptions of Factors Influencing Adaptation to Stress in the Classroom and on the Slopes2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, article id 1641Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research examining the student-athlete experience proposes a number of factors that can be both sources of stress and/or support. The dual career pathway offers a number of potential positive outcomes including psychological, social, and financial benefits; however, challenges including time management, fatigue, and restricted social activities are well documented. In consideration of the multidimensional student-athlete experience and the numerous factors that influence the complexity of potential stress, a mixed methods research study design was used in the study. First, data collected from surveys completed by 173 elite junior alpine skiers were analyzed to identify the degree to which athletes report experiencing stress associated with specific aspects pertaining to training, life, and organizational factors. These factors were then explored through semi-structured interviews with six coaches at the associated national elite sport schools. Taken collectively, athletes' reports of psychophysiological training stress on the Multidimensional Training Distress Scale were low. Scores on the college studentathletes' life stress scale revealed very low levels of general life stress; although the subscales associated with "performance demand" and "academic requirements" scored marginally higher. Scores on the Organizational Stressor Indicator for Sport Performers indicated low levels of organizational stress. The interviews with coaches elucidated the underlying factors potentially influencing athletes' positive adaptations to stress as they reported programming a number of strategies to reduce negative outcomes. Coaches aimed to teach athletes self-awareness and regulation strategies through the use of the training diaries and ongoing communication to promote positive adaptation to stress. A number of coaches also worked with sport psychology consultants to optimize athletes' training and study situations. Traditionally, research has noted high levels of stress in student-athletes due to co-occurring demands (school & sport); however, the data in the present study suggests that optimizing support mechanisms across domains can promote positive adaptations to potential sources of stress.

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  • 21.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Temporal aspects of affective states, physiological responses, and perceived exertion in competitive cycling time trials2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 30, no 10, p. 1859-1868Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Athletes' affective states can vary dramatically before, during, and after competition. Further, intense affect is associated with physiological responses that may amplify biological reactions manifested from the execution of physical tasks underlying performance. Fluctuations in perceptual cues (eg, perceived exertion) and physiological responses (eg, blood lactate, heart rate) can influence performance and vary dramatically in relation to competition. However, the pattern of these fluctuations and potential associations between perceptual cues and biological responses may also diverge during task execution with differential implications for performance. Data collected from highly trained athletes (N = 25;M-age = 25.4) during a competition (ie, maximum total distance) comprised of three 7-minute cycling time trials and were analyzed with longitudinal multilevel modeling. Results showed that affective states were negatively associated with perceived exertion at the within-person level and negatively associated with heart rate at the between-person level within each trial. Blood lactate and heart rate were positively associated at the between-person level, whereas heart rate was positively associated with perceived exertion at the within-person level. The anticipation of more pleasurable affective states predicted less decline in affective states, but not physiological responses, during each trial. Anticipated affective states prior to each trial were also associated with affective states upon its completion. These findings suggest associations among perceptual cues and physiological responses may differ depending on the level of analysis (between- vs. within-person level associations), and anticipated affective states prior to performance may influence affective states during and after task execution.

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  • 22.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Sörman, Daniel
    Department of Engineering Psychology, Luleå Technical University, Sweden.
    Carlberg, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rognsvåg, Elise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenling, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Norway.
    The psychophysiological influence of exertion and affect on sport-specific cognitive and physical performance2022In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 25, no 9, p. 764-769Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine differences in cognitive and physical performance, affective states, perceived exertion, and physiological responses between trials with cognitive, physical, or combined cognitive and physical load. Design: Randomised cross-over trial.

    Methods: Highly trained competitive orienteers (n = 15 men; n = 10 women) completed three randomised trials comprised of: (1) sport-specific cognitive tests; (2) 35-minute cycling time trial; and (3) combined sport-specific cognitive tests and 35-minute cycling time trial. Measures taken during the trials recorded affective states, perceived exertion, heart rate, blood lactate, cycling watts, as well as working memory, updating, planning and decision making.

    Results: No significant differences in cognitive performance accuracy were observed within or across trials although reaction times improved within trials and were fastest in the combined trial. Blood lactate, heart rate, perceived exertion, negative affective states, and watts were highest in the physical trial.

    Conclusions: The combined load of undertaking sport-specific cognitive tests and a cycling time trial did not influence cognitive performance accuracy. Athletes produced greater watts when completing the physical task independently compared with the combined trial, however psychophysiological responses were worse. Further investigation is warranted to determine whether athletes' attentional focus underpins psychophysiological responses to dual-task sport performance.

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  • 23.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trotter, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Balancing time for health behaviors: associations of time perspective with physical activity and weight management in older adults2024In: American Journal of Health Promotion, ISSN 0890-1171, E-ISSN 2168-6602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine associations between time perspective and health promotion behaviors of physical activity and weight management.

    Design: Quantitative cross-sectional.

    Setting: This study is part of the Betula project on aging, memory, and dementia in Northern Sweden.

    Subjects: 417 older adults aged between 55 and 85 years.

    Measures: Swedish-Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; Physical Activity in the past year, past week, and in comparison with others of similar age; Weight Management = Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2).

    Results: After controlling for age, sex, and years of education, hierarchical linear regression indicated a Balanced Time Perspective was significantly associated with more physical activity in the past year (P =.04), the past week (P <.001), and in comparison with others (P <.01). Past Negative time perspective was associated with less physical activity in the past year (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Present Fatalistic was associated with less physical activity during the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.01). Present Hedonistic was associated with more physical activity the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Past Negative was associated with higher BMI (P =.02), and Future Negative were associated with lower BMI (P =.01). Taken collectively, greater positivity and flexibility across time perspectives was associated with more physical activity, whereas negative oriented time perspectives related with less physical activity and poorer weight management.

    Conclusion: Time perspective can be associated with health behaviors in older adults and have implications for health across the lifespan. Health promotion interventions may target older adults’ enjoyment of exercise and weight management in the present, rather than highlight potential negative health outcomes in the future. 

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  • 24.
    Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Woodman, Tim
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Callow, Nichola
    School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, Bangor University, UK.
    Better out than in: The influence of anger regulation on physical performance2010In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 49, no 5, p. 457-460Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of individual differences in anger regulation as potential moderators of the anger–performance relationship. Extending Lazarus’s (1991, 2000a) cognitive–motivational–relational theory of emotion, we investigated the influence of trait anger and the anger regulation styles of anger-in and anger-out on the performance of a physical task. As hypothesized, trait anger and anger-out were positively associated with anger-derived performance enhancement on a peak force task; anger-in significantly inhibited the trait anger–performance relationship. Results are discussed in relation to Lazarus’s cognitive–motivational–relational theory and future research directions are offered.

  • 25.
    Ericsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öman Ekervhén, Lisa
    Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychological constructs in police investigative interview training2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As Swedish law enforcement embraces interviewing techniques that rely on psychological concepts and interpersonal skills, the teaching of these main ideas needs to be a central part of police education. This presentation willdiscuss how concepts familiar in psychology are understood and taught within Swedish police education today. Usingmaterials from the Swedish police authority, teaching resources, and the scientific literature, this presentation aimsto show how police education is adopting psychological perspectives and how psychological research and educationcan benefit in training police. We will also present future studies to further develop and incorporate psychologicalperspectives in educating law enforcement.

  • 26.
    Ericsson, Sarah
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stenlund, Tova
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Öman Ekervhén, Lisa
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för hälsa, lärande och teknik.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Unit of Police Work.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Studying rapport and empathy training for investigative interviewing2023In: Abstracts from the First European Conference on Law Enforcement and Public Health, Umea 2023, Umeå University, 2023, p. 36-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A crucial part of the crime investigation process is the investigative interview. Each interview is aninstance of law enforcement and the public meeting to exchange information. Interviews thus carry agreat deal of weight in both the investigation and public relations. Although the main goal ofinterviewing is often to get information related to an investigation, interviews are also anopportunity for law enforcement to offer support, give information, gain trust, and connect withindividuals in the community. Previous research has found that a humane interviewing style thatfocuses on building trust, good communication, and remaining objective while listening to the otherperson’s account has advantages such as eliciting more detailed accounts and more truthfulinformation. This style of interviewing has also been shown to be strategically beneficial regardless ofif the interviewee is a suspect, witness, or victim. However, researchers are still debating how toimplement empathy and rapport-building behaviors in interviews. There is a great need for researchon how police officers acquire the core skills needed for good communication, building rapport, andestablishing trust during interviews. The aim of this project is to better understand how humane andempathetic interviewing is implemented in Swedish police education in order to achieve a largeremphasis on building and maintaining rapport, empathy, and emotion regulation. This project willuse both quantitative and qualitative methods to approach the research questions. The goal is tohelp the police both in getting as much information as possible, as well as improve the experiences ofthe interview for both the police and the interviewee. Understanding and implementing a morehumane approach to interviewing could help individual officers de-escalate tense situations andnavigate their own stress responses, as well as help strengthen community trust in policing wheninteracting with interviewees.

  • 27.
    Gomes, Lúcia
    et al.
    CIDEFES, Universidade Lusófona, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Teixeira, Diogo
    CIDEFES, Universidade Lusófona, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Slawinska, Malgorzata
    Institute of Sport – National Research Institute, Poland.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    López-Flores, Marcos
    European Network for Innovation and Knowledge, Spain.
    Nyström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Silva, Marlene
    CIDEFES, Universidade Lusófona, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Palmeira, António
    CIDEFES, Universidade Lusófona, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Pereira, Hugo
    CIDEFES, Universidade Lusófona, Lisbon, Portugal.
    Adolescents' perspectives on smartphone applications for physical activity promotion: insights from focus group discussions: [Perspectivas de los adolescentes sobre las aplicaciones de teléfonos inteligentes para la promoción de la actividad física: perspectivas de los grupos de discusión]2024In: Retos: Nuevas Perspectivas de Educación Física, Deporte y Recreación, ISSN 1579-1726, E-ISSN 1988-2041, Vol. 56, p. 85-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study explores how children and adolescents perceive physical activity (PA) and PA apps. We aim to understand their perceptions, past experiences, and expectations of PA and PA apps.

    Methods: Participants (N=39) aged 11-15 from five European countries: Netherlands (NL), Poland (PL), Portugal (PT), Spain (ES), and Sweden (SWE) participated in the study. They provided insight regarding Behaviour Chance Techniques (BCTs) that enhance app engagement.

    Results: The results offer valuable insights for creating fun and engaging adolescent PA apps that meet diverse user preferences. They also provide invaluable guidance for designing PA apps that boost adolescents' enjoyment, fun, and engagement while considering a broad spectrum of user preferences. Key BCTs identified as significantly impacting app engagement included self-monitoring, rewards, feedback, social support, action planning, and reminders - preferences and suggestions varied by gender, age, and PA levels.

    Conclusions: Findings in the present study inform the MOVE4FUN project that contributes to understanding how BCTs promote sustained PA in adolescents. It underscores the pivotal role of personalised app design and a supportive climate in fulfilling individual needs and intrinsic goals. These insights contribute significantly to developing educational tools that encourage regular PA and nurture the holistic development of physically educated citizens.

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  • 28.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Karlsad, Sweden; Norwegian School of Sport Science in Oslo, Norway.
    Davis, Paul
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Fear of failure in athletes: fanning the fire of sport desire or burning out?2022In: Routledge international handbook of failure / [ed] Adriana Mica; Mikołaj Pawlak; Anna Horolets; Paweł Kubicki, Abingdon: Routledge, 2022, 1, p. 53-66Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In sport, athletes commonly describe fear of failure in relation to the experience of stress and anxiety. Athletes’ attempts to avoid failure can manifest serious behavioural consequences that impact upon both health and performance. One potential outcome is burnout. This chapter outlines how fear of failure can be linked to burnout in athletes by providing a brief background of research examining fear of failure in sport and related studies of athlete burnout. The current research and associations between fear of failure and burnout are presented in an integrated model to identify and stimulate further lines of research inquiry. The role of significant others (e.g. coaches, parents) is also discussed to outline their potential influence on athletes’ fear of failure. Advice on how athletes can be assisted in handling their fear of failure as well as applied implications and interventions targeting fear of failure and burnout are presented. Finally, this chapter offers guidance for future research and suggestions for practitioners in order to optimise athletes’ health and maximise performance.

  • 29.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    et al.
    The Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University.
    Skoog, Therése
    The School of Law, Psychology and Social Work Örebro University.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle Upon Tyne NE1 8ST, Tyne & Wear, England.
    Kenttä, Göran
    Unit of Performance and Training, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Haberl, Peter
    United States Olympic Committee.
    Mindfulness and Its Relationship With Perceived Stress, Affect, and Burnout in Elite Junior Athletes2015In: Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, ISSN 1932-9261, E-ISSN 1932-927X, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 263-281Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between dispositional mindfulness and burnout and whether this relationship is mediated by perceived stress, negative affect, and positive affect in elite junior athletes. Participants were 233 (123 males and 107 females) adolescent athletes, ranging in age from 15–19 years (M = 17.50; SD = 1.08). Bivariate correlations revealed that mindfulness had a significant negative relationship with both perceived stress and burnout. To investigate mediation, we employed nonparametric bootstrapping analyses. These analyses indicated that positive affect fully mediated links between mindfulness and sport devaluation. Further, positive affect and negative affect partially mediated the relationships between mindfulness and physical/emotional exhaustion, as well as between mindfulness and reduced sense of accomplishment. The results point toward mindfulness being negatively related to burnout in athletes and highlight the role of positive affect. Future research should investigate the longitudinal effect of dispositional mindfulness on stress and burnout.

  • 30.
    Hall, Eric E.
    et al.
    Department of Exercise Science, Elon University, NC, Elon, United States.
    Davis, Paul Anthony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Durand-Bush, Natalie
    School of Human Kinetics, University of Ottawa, ON, Ottawa, Canada.
    Salim, Jade
    Department of Sport and Exercise Science, St Mary's University, Twickenham, United Kingdom.
    Editorial: Innovative approaches to foster healthy cultures and mental health in sport2023In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, E-ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 5, article id 1209370Article in journal (Other academic)
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  • 31.
    Hickey, A
    et al.
    University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, UK.
    Newham, J
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    Slawinska, MM
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 8ST, UK.
    Kwasnicka, D
    School of Psychology and Speech Pathology, Curtin University, Bentley, Australia.
    McDonald, S
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    Del Din, S
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, UK.
    Sniehotta, FF
    Institute of Health and Society, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne NE2 4AX, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Department of Sport, Exercise and Rehabilitation, Northumbria University, UK.
    Godfrey, Alan
    Institute of Neuroscience, Newcastle University Institute for Ageing, Newcastle University, UK.
    Estimating cut points: a simple method for new wearables2016In: Maturitas, ISSN 0378-5122, E-ISSN 1873-4111, Vol. 83, p. 78-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wearable technology is readily available for continuous assessment due to a growing number of commercial devices with increased data capture capabilities. However, many commercial devices fail to support suitable parameters (cut points) derived from the literature to help quantify physical activity (PA) due to differences in manufacturing. A simple metric to estimate cut points for new wearables is needed to aid data analysis.

    Objective

    The purpose of this pilot study was to investigate a simple methodology to determine cut points based on ratios between sedentary behaviour (SB) and PA intensities for a new wrist worn device (PRO-Diary™) by comparing its output to a validated and well characterised ‘gold standard’ (ActiGraph™).

    Study design

    Twelve participants completed a semi-structured (four-phase) treadmill protocol encompassing SB and three PA intensity levels (light, moderate, vigorous). The outputs of the devices were compared accounting for relative intensity.

    Results

    Count ratios (6.31, 7.68, 4.63, 3.96) were calculated to successfully determine cut-points for the new wrist worn wearable technology during SB (0–426) as well as light (427–803), moderate (804–2085) and vigorous (≥2086) activities, respectively.

    Conclusion

    Our findings should be utilised as a primary reference for investigations seeking to use new (wrist worn) wearable technology similar to that used here (i.e., PRO-Diary™) for the purposes of quantifying SB and PA intensities. The utility of count ratios may be useful in comparing devices or SB/PA values estimated across different studies. However, a more robust examination is required for different devices, attachment locations and on larger/diverse cohorts.

  • 32.
    Hill, Andrew P.
    et al.
    Faculty of Biological Sciences, University of Leeds, Leeds, UK.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.
    Perfectionism and emotion regulation in coaches: a test of the 2 × 2 model of dispositional perfectionism2014In: Motivation and Emotion, ISSN 0146-7239, E-ISSN 1573-6644, Vol. 38, no 5, p. 715-726Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The manner in which coaches regulate their emotions has implications for their performance and well-being. Drawing on research that has found perfectionism to predict emotion regulation in other settings, this study adopted the 2 × 2 model of perfectionism to examine whether subtypes of perfectionism among coaches were associated with variation in the use of emotion regulation strategies. Coaches (N = 238, M age = 23.92, SD = 10.32) from various sports completed measures of perfectionism (personal standards and evaluative concerns) and emotion regulation strategies (expressive suppression, cognitive reappraisal, and control of anger directed inwards and outwards). Moderated hierarchical regression provided mixed support for the 2 × 2 model. As expected, pure personal standards perfectionism (high standards/low concerns) was generally associated with the highest capacity for emotion regulation and pure evaluative concerns perfectionism (low standards/high concerns) with the lowest. Unexpectedly, mixed perfectionism (high standards/high concerns) was associated with the highest level of expressive suppression, suggesting that in some instances standards might exacerbate rather than attenuate concerns.

  • 33.
    Jonsson, Gustav
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Franzén, Lisa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyström, Markus B.T.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Integrating yoga with psychological group-treatment for mixed depression and anxiety in primary healthcare: An explorative pilot study2020In: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, ISSN 1744-3881, E-ISSN 1873-6947, Vol. 41, article id 101250Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose: Yoga has shown promise as a treatment for depression and anxiety. The present pilot study investigated the feasibility of an eight-week grouptreatment integrating emotion-focused psychoeducation, compassion-focused therapy, and Virya yoga for depression and anxiety in primary healthcare.

    Materials and methods: Patients seeking treatment for depression and anxiety in a primary healthcare centre completed either an integrative group-treatment (N = 14) or treatment as usual (TAU, N = 17). Outcome measures were analysed pre- and posttreatment. Correlations in the intervention group were investigated between treatment outcomes and amount of yoga practice between sessions.

    Results: Large within-group effect sizes on all outcome measures were found at posttreatment. Symptom reduction did not differ between groups (p = 0.155). Improvement in alexithymia correlated significantly (p < 0.05) with amount of yoga practice between sessions.

    Conclusion: Integrating yoga with a psychological group-treatment is a somewhat feasible approach to treatment for depression and anxiety in primary healthcare.

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  • 34.
    Klockare, Ellinor
    et al.
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Faculty of Health, Science and Technology, Karlstad University.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Lundqvist, Carolina
    The Research Unit for Movement, Health and Environment, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Sweden.
    Track and field athletes’ experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST: An interpretative phenomenological analysis2015In: International Journal of Sport Psychology, ISSN 0047-0767, Vol. 46, no 5, p. 409-428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has highlighted flotation-REST as a promising method for relaxation and performance enhancement in sport; however, to further evaluate the use of flotation-REST in an athletic environment, additional research is warranted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with six elite track and field athletes about their experiences and perceived effects of flotation-REST. Athletes were interviewed twice; once for their immediate response and again to explore their perceptions of flotation-REST over time. The data was analyzed using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Flotation-REST was perceived as pleasant and relaxing. Five athletes reported less stress and an overall increase in well-being for one or two days afterwards, although they felt physically tired during training sessions. Being in a better mood, placing fewer demands on themselves, and feeling more optimistic and present were also perceived effects. This study shows the potential of flotation-REST as a technique for health promotion, stress management, and a means to practise mindfulness.

  • 35.
    Lane, Andrew M.
    Faculty of Education, Health and Well-being, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS13BD, UK.
    Stanley, Damian M. (Contributor)
    Psychology and Behavioural Science, Coventry University, UK.
    Do Emotion Regulation Intentions and StrategiesDiffer Between Situations?2014In: Current Advances in Psychology, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 26-32Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined relationships between actual and desired emotional states, meta-beliefs concerning the utility of distinct emotions, and emotion regulation strategies used by individuals in a sport situation as well as an emotion-eliciting situation from a different aspect of their lives. Participants (N = 924) reported their emotions, meta-beliefs for optimal emotional states, and their use of emotion regulation strategies across two broad categories of situations: Before sports competition, and a situation from daily life. Results indicated that prior to competition, high activation emotions such as anger, anxiety and excitement were preferred. In terms of strategy use, analyses revealed greater intention to use of strategies intended to increase pleasant and unpleasant emotions were associated with daily life. In conclusion, results indicated that meta-beliefs for optimal emotional states, and strategies used to regulate emotions vary between situations. We suggest that the ability to regulate emotions in a flexible manner to suit the specific dynamics of various situations is proposed to be helpful in the pursuit of personally meaningful goals and that training of a variety of emotion regulation skills could be beneficial.

  • 36.
    Lane, Andrew M.
    et al.
    Faculty of Education, Health and Well-being, University of Wolverhampton, Gorway Road, Walsall, WS13BD, UK.
    Bucknall, Gordon
    Davis, Paul A.
    Department of Sport Development, University of Northumbria, UK.
    Beedie, Christopher J.
    Emotions and emotion regulation among novice military parachutists2012In: Military Psychology, ISSN 0899-5605, E-ISSN 1532-7876, Vol. 24, no 3, p. 331-345Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soldiers (N = 95) reported emotions and emotion regulation strategies experienced in their first parachute jump and other challenging situations. Results indicated an emotional profile characterized by feeling anxious, energetic, and happy before parachuting and playing sport. However, this pattern was not similar to the emotional responses experienced at work or in life in general. Participants reported greater use of strategies to increase unpleasant emotions an hour before parachuting than in other situations. Findings suggest that developing training protocols to increase the flexibility and versatility of emotion regulation skills might enhance the preparation of novice soldiers for military duties.

  • 37.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Department of Child- and Youth Studies, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, UK; Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, H.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holmström, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lemyre, N.
    Ivarsson, A.
    The temporal relations across burnout dimensions in athletes2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 1215-1226Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Burnout is a construct that has garnered considerable attention in sport psychology within recent years. Several hypothesized models regarding how the three dimensions (exhaustion, devaluation, and reduced sense of accomplishment) temporally relate to each other have been advanced. One proposal outlined by Maslach and Leiter suggests that exhaustion predicts devaluation which predicts reduced sense of accomplishment. However, there is no consensus among researchers as it has been argued that exhaustion predicts devaluation and reduced accomplishment separately. The aim of this study was to test multiple alternative hypotheses regarding the relationships of the burnout dimensions in athletes. Two samples of Swedish youth elite athletes with differing time spans between measurements were used. Specifically, one sample involved time-intensive measures collected every week over an eight-week period, and the other sample included four measurement points across an 18-month period. Results showed that none of the previously proposed models outlining the temporal relations of burnout dimensions were supported. Statistical analysis of the models including the cross-lagged predictions of dimensions did not have any statistically significant impact except when exhaustion negatively predicted devaluation between time 1 (month 0) and time 2 (month 6) in the 18-month sample; this relation faded in the following time points. Further, issues regarding the stability of devaluation and reduced sense of accomplishment emerged as their autocorrelation were very weak in the time-intensive sample. These findings raise a number of points for further theoretical and practical discussions about the athlete burnout construct.

  • 38.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Department of Educational Studies, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Björklund, Gunilla
    Physical Activity and Health Unit, Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden; Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ivarsson, Andreas
    Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport, Halmstad University, Halmstad, Sweden.
    Relating Competitive Golfers’ Perceived Emotions and Performance2021In: Perceptual and Motor Skills, ISSN 0031-5125, E-ISSN 1558-688X, Vol. 128, no 4, p. 1549-1568Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study examined relationships between golfers’ self-perceived emotions (e.g., irritability, nervousness, tension), task-oriented coping, perceived control, and performance during a golf competition. We implemented a process-oriented golf analysis in which competitors rated these variables hole-by-hole in a competitive golf round. Within a two-level Bayesian multivariate autoregressive model, we showed that (a) within persons, emotions and task-oriented coping were reactions that stemmed from performance on the previous hole; and (b) between persons, player skill level predicted both better scores and the ability to limit the influence of negative affect on performance. These findings highlight the complex nature of the relationship between emotions and performance. Future studies might use a similarly ecologically valid research design to more precisely measure aspects of time and potentially moderating effects of player skill level and personality. An increased understanding of the dynamic relationship between emotions and performance can promote the development of effective psychological interventions for optimal performance outcomes.

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  • 39.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gustafsson, Henrik
    Karlstads Universitet.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Northumbria University, UK.
    What is missing and why it is missing from coach burnout research2016In: The psychology of effective coaching and management / [ed] Paul A. Davis, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2016, p. 407-428Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of burnout in sports has been the focus of research attention for several decades, although research has largely centered on the antecedents and consequences associated with athlete burnout. Currently, a limited number of studies have examined coach burnout and the implications it can have on the coaching process, social interactions, and general wellbeing. The professionalization of coaching has promoted the development of effective coaching yet it has also increased job demands and the potential for work-family conflict. In this chapter we provide a brief introduction to the burnout construct as well as a short review of the coach burnout research to date. Further, suggestions are outlined for how the authors foresee that research in the area will evolve in the future. Specifically, the use of theoretical frameworks that advance knowledge of burnout and promote diverse lines of inquiry are forwarded. Additionally, the use of more idiocratic quantitative designs with more frequent measurement across multiple time points are proposed in an effort to advance knowledge of coach burnout. Finally, we offer applied suggestions for burnout prevention and optimization of the wellbeing of coaches.

  • 40.
    Lundkvist, Erik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Geography and Sustainable development, University of St Andrews, United Kingdom .