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  • 1. Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Eriksson, Charli
    Evaluating the effectiveness of the SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of Swedish Adolescents’ substance use and problem behaviors2016Ingår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In 2013, around 40 % of the schools in Sweden had structured programs to prevent tobacco and alcohol debut in compulsory school. There has unfortunately been a lack of scientific evidence to support most of the prevention methods focusing on primary prevention in schools in Sweden. The aim and purpose of the present study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the Non-Governmental Organization SMART contract-signing strategy in reducing the growth of youth substance use and other problem behaviors amongst Swedish adolescents. Methods: Students from five schools in a medium-sized Swedish municipality were surveyed in three waves from 7th to 9th grade of compulsory school. We used General Linear Model (GLM) repeated-measures ANOVA to test if the outcome measures smoking, use of snus and alcohol, drunkenness, delinquency, and bullying significantly changed different amounts over time in groups that had participated in the SMART program for long time, a short time, sporadically- or not at all. Groups were compared on demographic background variables, and outcome measures were assessed on all measurement occasions by a one-way ANOVA. The magnitude of group differences at the end of the study was estimated according to Cohen’s d. Results: Number of years with a contract has an effect on the levels of self-reported youth problems in 9th grade. We found small to medium-sized differences in measured outcomes between students who participated in the program for the longest period of time, 5 years, and who participated for the shortest time, 0–2 years. Conclusion: Findings suggests that the SMART program has preventive effects on adolescent substance use.

  • 2.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Geidne, Susanna
    Eriksson, Charli
    Preventing Alcohol Consumption during Pregnancy: A Randomized Controlled Trial2015Ingår i: Health, ISSN 1949-4998, E-ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 7, nr 3, s. 289-299Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to report on a brief alcohol intervention for preventing drinking during pregnancy. The Women’s Organizations Committee on Alcohol and Drug Issues (WOCAD) in Swe-den developed an informational brochure about alcohol during pregnancy, intended to reach pregnant women before their first visit at a prenatal clinic. A randomized controlled trial was conducted between 2004 and 2005 to measure whether the brochure had any effect. A total of 564 pregnant women between 17 and 46 years of age are included in the study. Differences between the intervention and control groups were analyzed with cross-tabulations and chi-squared tests. A multiple logistic regression analysis was also conducted to determine predictors of abstention from alcohol at the first prenatal visit. Findings show that significantly more of the women who received the brochure abstained completely from alcohol then of those who did not receive it (92% vs. 82%, p= 0.005). It was 2.6 times more likely that those who received the brochure had abstained completely from alcohol since pregnancy recognition at their first prenatal visit com-pared with those who did not receive it (OR = 2.6, CI 1.3 - 5.1, p = 0.005). We conclude that the in-formational brochure developed by WOCAD can be used in prenatal care to get more women to abstain from alcohol during pregnancy.

  • 3.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Karlstad, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Health problems during childhood and school achievement: Exploring associations between hospitalization exposures, gender, timing, and compulsory school grades2018Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, nr 12, s. 1-14, artikel-id e0208116Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS:

    To investigate while accounting for health at birth 1) associations between health problems during childhood, measured as hospitalizations, and school achievement in the final year of compulsory school, measured as overall grade points and eligibility for upper secondary education, 2) if and how gender moderates the association between health problems and school achievement, 3) if and how the timing of a health problem during childhood is associated with later school achievement.

    METHODS:

    Analyzes were performed on a population-based cohort (n = 115 196) born in 1990 in Sweden (51.3% boys, 48.7% girls) using data from several national registries. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression were used to analyze associations between study variables.

    RESULTS:

    Overall grade points and eligibility for continuation to upper secondary school were lower for individuals exposed to hospitalizations. Only the association between hospitalizations and overall grade points was moderated by gender and only for ages 13-16 years. Exposure close to actual grading had worst outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Health problems, measured through hospitalizations, was significantly associated with lower school achievements among Swedish children. Girls exposed to health problems requiring hospitalizations had relatively poorer school achievements as compared to boys. Health problems requiring hospitalization during junior high school had the greatest negative association with final achievement at compulsory school.

  • 4.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete. Centre for Research on Child and Adolescent Mental Health, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Is the effect of ill health on school achievement among Swedish adolescents gendered?2019Ingår i: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 8, artikel-id 100408Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    This study investigates why the relationship between health problems requiring hospitalization between the ages of 13 and 16 and school achievement (school grades in 9th grade) in Sweden was stronger for girls than for boys. We reviewed previous research on gender differences in subjective health, health care utilization and medical drug treatment to identify mechanisms responsible for this gendered effect. The relationship was analysed using retrospective observational data from several national full-population registers of individuals born in 1990 in Sweden (n = 115 196), and ordinary least squares techniques were used to test hypotheses. We found that girls had longer stays when hospitalized, which mediated 15% of the interaction effect. Variability in drug treatment between boys and girls did not explain the gendered effect of hospitalization. The main mediator of the gendered effect was instead differences in diagnoses between boys and girls. Girls’ hospitalizations were more commonly related to mental and behavioural diagnoses, which have particularly detrimental effects on school achievement.

  • 5.
    Bortes, Cristian
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Strandh, Mattias
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete.
    Nilsson, Karina
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Sibling Ill-Health and Children's Educational Outcomes2020Ingår i: Journal of School Health, ISSN 0022-4391, E-ISSN 1746-1561Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: The presence of health problems in a child is known to be negatively associated with later academic achievement, but less is known about the educational outcomes for siblings of children in poor health. The study investigated how having a sibling with health problems affects a healthy sibling’s academic achievement.

    METHODS: We utilized medical and social microdata from Swedish administrative population registers. Our sample consisted of N = 115 106 individuals (51.3% boys) born in 1990 in Sweden. We compared children with ill siblings to children whose siblings did not have poor health. Siblings’ hospital admissions and the academic achievements of the healthy sibling during their final year of compulsory education (at the age of 15-16) were analyzed using linear and logistic regression in relation to individual health- and family-related confounders.

    RESULTS: Sibling hospitalization was significantly associated with lower overall grade points (b = –10.73, p < .001) and an increased odds ratio (OR) of ineligibility for upper secondary education (OR = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.31-1.52, p < .001).

    CONCLUSIONS: School and health personnel should also consider the needs of healthy siblings during their work with children in poor health, because they too can be disadvantaged.

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