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  • 1.
    Backman, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Is there a Nordic Model for the treatment of introduced tree species?: A comparison of the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the Nordic countries2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 222-232Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article compares the use, policy, and debate concerning introduced tree species in the five Nordic countries (Finland, Sweden, Norway, Denmark, and Iceland). These countries have a long common history and are culturally similar. They are often framed under the benchmark of the Nordic Model or even the Nordic Forestry Model. Therefore, we hypothesize that the Nordic countries' treatment of introduced tree species share common aspects, and that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy have reinforced these similarities. The comparison shows that globalization is strong and it seems, at least at a first glimpse, that the Nordic countries follow a kind of Nordic Model in their approach to introduced tree species. However, the history and importance of forestry, ecological conditions, afforestation campaigns, traditions of using introduced trees, understandings, and stakeholder positions have shaped different national and even regional path dependencies and circumstances. This, in turn, has transmuted international policy-making, regulations, and discussions into different specific ways to interpret, control, and implement the use of introduced trees in practice. This article concludes that global environmental agreements and international currents in science and policy adapt to diverse national contexts.

  • 2.
    Egan Sjölander, Annika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Ekerholm, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Eklöf, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lång, Henrik
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sundin, Bosse
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Motorspriten kommer!: en historia om etanol och andra alternativa drivmedel2014Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Motorspriten kommer! löd budskapet i början av 1900-talet. Liknande utfästelser om alternativa drivmedel har gång på gång hörts genom historien. Men de oljebaserade bränslena har behållit sitt grepp om transportsystemet, trots att de alltid ansetts problematiska. Varför?

    Den här boken handlar om olika försök att utveckla och förverkliga alternativ till oljebaserade drivmedel i Sverige. Den spänner över ett drygt sekel, från slutet av 1800-talet och framåt, och behandlar bland annat sulfitsprit, syntetisk bensin, gengas, metanol och den första och andra generationens etanol. I fokus står motiven bakom dessa alternativ varför de har ansetts angelägna och önskvärda liksom de problem och strukturella hinder som de har mött och alltjämt fortsätter att möta. Boken ger historiska och medievetenskapliga perspektiv på de pågående försöken till en omställning på drivmedelsområdet och bidrar till kunskap av värde för såväl beslutsfattare som allmänhet.

    Boken bygger på forskning som utfördes inom det tvärvetenskapliga projektet Framtidens drivmedel? Biobränslen i historisk och kulturell belysning. Den är skriven av samtliga forskare i projektet Annika Egan Sjölander, Helena Ekerholm, Jenny Eklöf, Erland Mårald, Christer Nordlund och Bosse Sundin i samarbete med Henrik Lång.

  • 3.
    Eklöf, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ekerholm, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Promoting ethanol in the shadow of oil dependence: 100 years of arguments and frictions in Swedish politics2012In: Scandinavian Journal of History, ISSN 0346-8755, E-ISSN 1502-7716, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 621-645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On a political level, Swedish transport ethanol has always been embedded in visions of an alternative, brighter future. Arguments in support of ethanol have been reiterated throughout the 20th and 21st century, exhibiting a striking stability over time. At the same time, the contexts in which arguments for ethanol have been raised have undergone dramatic shifts. This article investigates the historical contingencies of three empirical cases, covering the interwar years, the aftermath of the oil crises of the 1970s and the 21st century's concerns over global warming. It concludes with the observation that despite political convictions about ethanol's commercial, military and environmental potential, domestic production has not managed to take off on its own. It has relied on state support such as tax exemptions, it has been dependent on other industries for feedstock provision and its technical superiority is still waiting for market confirmation.

  • 4.
    Jørgensen, Finn Arne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Karlsdóttir, Unnur Birna
    East Island Heritage Museum.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Poulsen, Bo
    Aalborg University.
    Räsänen, Tuomas
    University of Helsinki.
    Entangled Environments: Historians and Nature in the Nordic Countries2013In: Historisk Tidsskrift, ISSN 0018-263X, E-ISSN 1504-2944, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 9-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article discusses recent developments in Nordic environmental history scholarship in light of the concept of the Anthropocene. Taking nature and culture as entangled with each other, the article explores questions of definitions, disciplinary knowledge and the need for interdisciplinarity, and the problem of national, spatial and temporal boundaries in environmental history. Both natural spaces and the scientific knowledge we have about nature need to be historicized. The article concludes with a look to the future of Nordic environmental history.

  • 5. Klapwijk, M. J.
    et al.
    Boberg, J.
    Bergh, J.
    Bishop, K.
    Björkman, C.
    Ellison, D.
    Felton, A.
    Lidskog, R.
    Lundmark, T.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Sonesson, J.
    Nordin, A.
    Nordström, E.-M.
    Stenlid, J.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Capturing complexity: Forests, decision-making and climate change mitigation action2018In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 52, p. 238-247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Managed forests can play an important role in climate change mitigation due to their capacity to sequester carbon. However, it has proven difficult to harness their full potential for climate change mitigation. Managed forests are often referred to as socio-ecological systems as the human dimension is an integral part of the system. When attempting to change systems that are influenced by factors such as collective knowledge, social organization, understanding of the situation and values represented in society, initial intentions often shift due to the complexity of political, social and scientific interactions. Currently, the scientific literature is dispersed over the differentfactorsrelated tothe socio-ecological system. Toexamine thelevelofdispersion andtoobtainaholistic view, we review climate change mitigation in the context of Swedish forest research. We introduce a heuristic framework to understand decision-making connected to climate change mitigation. We apply our framework to two themes which span different dimensions in the socio-ecological system: carbon accounting and bioenergy. A key finding in the literature was the perception that current uncertainties regarding the reliability of different methods of carbon accounting inhibits international agreement on the use of forests for climate change mitigation. This feeds into a strategic obstacle affecting the willingness of individual countries to implement forestrelated carbon emission reduction policies. Decisions on the utilization of forests for bioenergy are impeded by a lack of knowledge regarding the resultant biophysical and social consequences. This interacts negatively with the development of institutional incentives regarding the production of bioenergy using forest products. Normative disagreement about acceptable forest use further affects these scientific discussions and therefore is an over-arching influence on decision-making. With our framework, we capture this complexity and make obstacles to decision-making more transparent to enable their more effective resolution. We have identified the main research areas concerned with the use of managed forest in climate change mitigation and the obstacles that are connected to decision making.

  • 6.
    Lång, Henrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Making Wilderness: An inquiry into Stig Wesslén's Documentation and Representation of the Northern Swedish Landscape2015In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 9-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present article explores images of the Northern Swedish landscape, produced and mediated by Stig Wesslén (1902–1987) in the 1930s and 1940s. Trained as a forester, Wesslén gradually turned into a documentarist, focusing on the wilderness, notably big birds, predators and the mountain range in Lapland. Along with making a number of ambitious movies and embarking on intensive lecture tours, he was an active debater and writer and published six, richly illustrated books. These careers were interwoven, partly for practical reasons; income from lecturing and journalism financed his filmmaking and gave him time to write his books. It is argued in the article that Wesslén was driven by a strong feeling for wilderness and that he was against the way modern civilization exploited nature. The goal of his documentary work was ultimately to raise public awareness regarding the state of nature and he may thus be seen as a link between the preservationists of the early twentieth century and the environmentalists of the 1960s. In order to reveal the true essence of nature, Wesslén developed a “scientific” documentary technique, which he named “camera hunting.” The idea was to use the best camera equipment possible that would allow him to observe nature at a distance, not disturb the natural order of things, and present authentic images. Yet, as the article shows, Wesslén sometimes anthropomorphized the animals and also dramatized nature in many of his works.

  • 7.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    1900-talets skogshistoria påverkar synen på framtiden2016In: Skogshistoriska sällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 1650-0962, p. 22-31Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    A catalyst for modern agriculture?: The importance of peatland cultivation in adoption of inorganic fertilizers in Sweden, 1880-19202008In: The agricultural history review: A journal of agricultural and rural history, ISSN 0002-1490, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 48-65Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Agrar utbildning och forskning2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: En kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2011, p. 110-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Agrarian education and research2011In: Agriculture and forestry in Sweden since 1900: A cartographic description / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2011, p. 110-113Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Danandet af en efterverld: Pehr Hellzén som norrländsk upplysningsman2008In: Mångsysslare och gränsöverskridare: 13 uppsatser i idéhistoria / [ed] Bosse Sundin & Maria Göransdotter, Umeå: Institutionen för idé- och samhällsstudier , 2008, p. 56-72Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ekologiskt jordbruk som vetenskaplig kontrovers2010In: Jordbruk som håller i längden / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Formas , 2010, p. 441-456Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 13.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ekologiskt lantbruk2011In: Jordbruk och Skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: En kartografisk beskrivning / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2011, p. 96-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    En katalysator för det moderna jordbruket: mossodlingens betydelse för konstgödselns genombrott 1880-19202008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000 / [ed] Leif Runefelt, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2008, p. 129-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Environmental History of Artificial Fertilisers in the Baltic Sea Area: Learning from Environmental History in the Baltic Countries2004In: The Baltic Sea Project: Learners' guide. No 6, Learning from Environmental History in the Baltic Countries / [ed] Per Eliasson, Stockholm: Myndigheten för skolutveckling , 2004, 1, p. 63-68Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Far och son von Ferilitzen och svenska mosskulturföreningens gyllene år 1886-19212008In: Svensk mosskultur: Odling, torvanvändning och landskapets förändring 1750-2000 / [ed] Leif Runefelt, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbruksakademien, 2008, p. 97-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17. Mårald, Erland
    Framtidens skogsakademiker: Skogsakademisk utbildning i ett tidsöverskridande perspektiv2018Book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Hållbarhetsbegreppets intåg i skogen2014In: Som man ropar i skogen: Vägval som berör oss alla / [ed] Karin Branteström, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2014, p. 27-36Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 19.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    I Döda fallets efterdyningar2007In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok, ISSN 02808692, Vol. 20, p. 59-74Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Inledning2008In: När dalen var röd och kusten blev hög / [ed] Erland Mårald, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2008, p. 8-12Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 21.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Jordens kretslopp: lantbruket, staden och den kemiska vetenskapen 1840-19102000Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This study of the institutionalization and professionalization of agricultural chemistry during the second half of the nineteenth century analyses the relationship between chemical theories and social issues, ideas and experience of recycling, the development of fertilizers, and industrialization of agriculture. The study mainly takes a history of science and environmental history perspective with focus on the Swedish case. It does, however, address the international context offering a historical perspective of issues such as the relationship between population and natural resources, the sustainability of society and connections between science, technology and nature.

    The center of this study consists of an analysis of the work of the following agricultural chemists employed by the Swedish Royal Agricultural Society, enumerated in chronological order: Alexander Müller, Carl Erik Bergstrand, and Lars Fredrik Nilson. Other actors, such as agriculturists, administrators and politicians, were also important in the formation of agricultural chemistry in Sweden. Changes of aims and agricultural chemical ideals during the period of study reflect changes in society and shifting ideologies. During the second half of the nineteenth century a national "agricultural scientific infrastructure" was erected with experimental stations, agricultural schools,

    local experimental fields and agrarian experts. This network constituted a basis for agricultural science in society and functioned as an important channel for the modernization of agriculture and society.

    With agricultural chemistry as an empirical point of departure, this thesis also analyzes the transformations of agriculture with the establishment of cultural, economical and physical links between agriculture and the surrounding world. Theories about chemical cycles promoted recycling of nutrition and other materials between the city and the countryside, thereby connecting agriculture to the city. The development of new mineral and nitrogenous fertilizers gradually involved an increased use of inorganic raw materials and energy to manufacture nutrition. This process resulted in the intertwining of agriculture, science, mining, industry and energy production and the creation of an agro- industrial network, which was crucial for the development of agriculture during the twentieth century. In this context, agricultural science legitimized the development toward resource intensive farming methods.

  • 22.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kamerajakt: hur det egentligen gick till när Stig Wesslén filmade vilda björnar2010In: Kamerajägaren: Stig Wessléns skildringar av naturen och det samiska / [ed] Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2010, 1100, p. 95-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Knowledge in the service of agriculture: knowledge on the borderline between academe and farming2011In: Agriculture and forestry in Sweden since 1900: geographical and historical studies / [ed] Hans Antonson and Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: The Royal Swedish Academy of Agriculture and Forestry , 2011, p. 93-108Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kunskap i jordbrukets tjänst: vetenskap på gränsen mellan akademi och lantbruk2011In: Jordbruk och skogsbruk i Sverige sedan år 1900: studier i de areella näringarnas geografi och historia / [ed] Hans Antonsson och Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Kungl. Skogs- och Lantbrukaakademien , 2011, p. 88-102Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Maria Frisk: Sju miljarder för sju minuter: planering, politik och hybridgeografi i tunnalbygget genom Hallandsåsen2009In: Svenska geografisk årsbok, ISSN 0081-9808, Vol. 85, p. 117-120Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 26.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Methanol as future fuel: efforts to develope alternative fuls in Sweden after the oil crisis2010In: History & Technology, ISSN 0734-1512, E-ISSN 1477-2620, Vol. 26, no 4, p. 335-357Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The 1973 Oil Crisis was a wake‐up call for Sweden. Sweden’s high reliance on foreign energy supply and the lack of domestic fossil energy sources hit private motoring hard. In the aftermath of the crisis, methanol was seen as a promising alternative fuel. This article analyzes how, who, and for what reasons methanol fuel was promoted in Sweden in the 1970s and early 1980s. Furthermore, the study places the efforts to establish methanol as fuel in an international framework and in the broader context of the Energy Program and the government’s objective to plan for a new energy future for Sweden. This article especially examines forecasting motor fuels and automobiles and how foresight was used in relation to the methanol campaign. The article argues that in the case of the Swedish methanol campaign the upcoming development in the energy sector was mostly described as smooth and calculable. Both the state and the industry planned for a post‐petroleum era, in which methanol fuel played a vital role. However, they were unwilling to take any decisive step until circumstances were right, but since circumstances never seemed appropriate, methanol as a fuel was always deferred to a distant future.

  • 27.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Om olösliga problem och betydelsen av idéhistoria2013In: Thule - Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundets årsbok, ISSN 0280-8692, Vol. 26, p. 13-28Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Organic farming2011In: Agriculture and forestry in Sweden since 1900: A cartographic description / [ed] Ulf Jansson, Stockholm: Norstedts , 2011, p. 96-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Our Finest Gold: Agrarian perspectives on urban technology from the mid-19th century to present-day ecocyclical society.2006In: Progress in Industrial Ecology: An International Journal, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 393-407Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Romarrikets fall som en miljöhistorisk grundberättelse2012In: Fortid, ISSN 1504-1913, E-ISSN 1891-1668, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 27-30Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandslån: Mellan urskogen och världen2008In: När dalen var röd och kusten blev hög / [ed] Erland Mårald, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2008, p. 79-102Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Svenska miljöbrott och miljöskandaler 1960-20002007Book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Synen på natur och miljö under den högindustriella epoken2008In: Industriland: tolv forskare om när Sverige blev modert / [ed] Jan af Geijerstam, Stockholm: Premiss förlag , 2008, p. 221-246Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The agrarian history of Sweden: from 4000 BC to AD 20002012In: Agricultural History, ISSN 0002-1482, E-ISSN 1533-8290, Vol. 86, no 3, p. 140-141Article, book review (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    The Ambiguous Legacy of Agrarianism2013In: Philosophy & Technology, ISSN 2210-5433, E-ISSN 2210-5441, Vol. 26, no 3, p. 304-309Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vad är jord?: En relationshistoria2017In: Jord: mylla, mark och makt / [ed] Roland von Bothmer, Håkan Wallander och Sven-Olle R. Olsson, Lidingö: Fri tanke förlag , 2017, p. 13-43Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Langston, Nancy
    Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI, USA.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Changing ideas in forestry: A comparison of concepts in Swedish and American forestry journals during the early twentieth and twenty-first centuries2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 74-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By combining digital humanities text-mining tools and a qualitative approach, we examine changing concepts in forestry journals in Sweden and the United States (US) in the early twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. Our first hypothesis is that foresters at the beginning of the twentieth century were more concerned with production and less concerned with ecology than foresters at the beginning of the twenty-first century. Our second hypothesis is that US foresters in the early twentieth century were less concerned with local site conditions than Swedish foresters. We find that early foresters in both countries had broader—and often ecologically focused—concerns than hypothesized. Ecological concerns in the forestry literature have increased, but in the Nordic countries, production concerns have increased as well. In both regions and both time periods, timber management is closely connected to concerns about governance and state power, but the forms that governance takes have changed.

  • 38.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Förord2006In: Topos: essäer om tänkvärda platser och platsbundna tankar / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Stockholm: Carlsson Bokförlag, 2006, p. 7-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    L'environnement nordique: du mythe à la réalité2010In: Artnord, ISSN 1950-8123, no 10, p. 6-17Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Modern nature for a modern nation: an intellectual history of environmental dissonances in the Swedish welfare state2019In: Environment and History, ISSN 0967-3407, E-ISSN 1752-7023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the mid-1990s, the concept ‘ecological modernisation’ was established to characterise the perception that environmental protection and economic growth are not mutually exclusive but rather comprise a solid foundation for sustainable development. We argue in this essay that believing that modernisation, economic growth and a healthy environment could go hand-in-hand was nothing new as far as Sweden was concerned. Rather, it is a belief that developed during the ‘folkhem era (1930s–1970s) due to an extensive dialogue about the proper relationship between nature and society in the construction of the welfare state. We highlight the idea of ‘dissonances’ as a salient metaphor describing the disharmonic relation between old and new and modern society and modern nature. According to advocates of modernisation, it was important to overcome dissonances – backwardness, inefficient use of natural resources and negative ‘side effects’ of societal progress such as pollution and environmental damage – between society and nature. Instead, by rational thinking and new technology it would be possible to make society and nature go hand-in-hand and thereby enhance human welfare. However, broadened knowledge and intellectual horizons and critiques of progress have brought new problem complexes and dissonances to light. Like the dream of Sweden the modern Model Nation, the definitive answer to the difficulties of the environmental issue has constantly been deferred.

  • 41.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Natur och miljö i nordisk kultur: några idéhistoriska nedslag2016In: RIG: Kulturhistorisk tidskrift, ISSN 0035-5267, E-ISSN 2002-3863, Vol. 99, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Do Swedes love and adore natural scenery, perhaps even more than other people do. In this essay, the authors argue that nature – and certain images of a typically Swedish nature – has indeed played a vital role in Swedish cultural history, especially since the end of the nineteenth century. However, this has not been the case due to some "inherent element" within the Swedish population but is rather a result of a "collective learning process" at the social level. According to the authors, this learning process was initially connected to nationalism, industrialisation and modernisation and has over time been driven, shaped and mediated by many different institutions and practices in society, such as natural science, landscape painting, wildlife tourism, winter sports, nature protection, literature, environmental politics and agencies, and eventually business and marketing. Furthermore, the authors discuss similarities as well as differences between the modern environmental history and view of nature in Sweden and the other Nordic countries. 

  • 42.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Annika, Nordin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Beland Lindahl, Karin (Contributor)
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Carlsson-Kanyama, Annika (Contributor)
    Kungl. Tekniska Högskolan, KTH.
    Johansson, Johanna (Contributor)
    Södertörns högskola.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H. (Contributor)
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Laudon, Hjalmar (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lidskog, Rolf (Contributor)
    Örebro universitet.
    Lämås, Tomas (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Lundmark, Tomas (Contributor)
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU).
    Nilsson, Urban (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Nordström, Eva-Maria (Contributor)
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Roberge, Jean-Michel (Contributor)
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sonesson, Johan (Contributor)
    Skogforsk.
    Forest governance and management across time: developing a new forest social contract2017Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of the past, and of the future on current-time tradeoffs in the forest arena are particularly relevant given the long-term successions in forest landscapes and the hundred years' rotations in forestry. Historically established path dependencies and conflicts determine our present situation and delimit what is possible to achieve. Similarly, future trends and desires have a large influence on decision making. Nevertheless, decisions about forest governance and management are always made in the present – in the present-time appraisal of the developed situation, future alternatives and in negotiation between different perspectives, interests, and actors.

    This book explores historic and future outlooks as well as current tradeoffs and methods in forest governance and management. It emphasizes the generality and complexity with empirical data from Sweden and internationally. It first investigates, from a historical perspective, how previous forest policies and discourses have influenced current forest governance and management. Second, it considers methods to explore alternative forest futures and how the results from such investigations may influence the present. Third, it examines current methods of balancing tradeoffs in decision-making among ecosystem services. Based on the findings the authors develop an integrated approach – Reflexive Forestry – to support exchange of knowledge and understandings to enable capacity building and the establishment of common ground. Such societal agreements, or what the authors elaborate as forest social contracts, are sets of relational commitment between involved actors that may generate mutual action and a common directionality to meet contemporary challenges.

  • 43.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Rist, Lucy
    Rosvall, Ola
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Idenfors, Annika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Exploring the use of a dialogue process to tackle a complex and controversial issue in forest management2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, E-ISSN 1651-1891, Vol. 30, no 8, p. 749-756Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the use of a dialogue process to approach complex issues related to forest management. Aninterdisciplinary research team set up an experimental dialogue process concerning the use of introduced tree speciesin Southern Sweden for the purposes of climate change adaptation. The process involved stakeholders at a regionallevel, including those with divergent opinions regarding introduced tree species and their use in forestry. Through aprocess of repeated meetings and exchanges with researchers, the participant’s knowledge was deepened and grouprelationships developed such that the group was able to jointly formulate a set of policy recommendations. Theinvestigation revealed that dialogue processes may improve decision-making by identifying priorities for action orfurther research. However, when a collaborative process targets complex environmental issues on larger geographicaland temporal scales, as matters about forests typically do, a collaborative process must be integrated with externalactors and institutions in order to attain tangible outcomes. Consequently, to fully access the benefits of usingcollaborative processes to handle complex challenges in forest policy and management, the connections betweenpolitical sphere, the private sector, authorities and research institutions must be concretely established.

  • 44.
    Mårald, Erland
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Westholm, Erik
    Changing Approaches to the Future in Swedish Forestry, 1850–20102016In: Nature and Culture, ISSN 1558-6073, E-ISSN 1558-5468, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 1-21Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores the changing construction of the future in Swedish forestry since 1850. The framework is based on three concepts: (1) knowability, addressing changing views of knowledge; (2) governability, addressing changing views of the ability to steer the future; and (3) temporality, referring to varying ways of relating to time. The results reveal that until the 1980s, trust in science-based forestry triggered other knowledge-based activities, such as education, surveys, and field trials. The future was seen as predictable and forecasts were expected to support increased forest production. In the 1970s, the environmental debate about the forest incorporated a pluralistic futures agenda. High-production forestry using intensive management methods was questioned. Futures studies shifted focus from predictions to scenarios, highlighting a less predictable future open to human agency. Paradoxically, with increased knowledge of forest ecology and forest markets with improved modeling techniques, the future horizon shifted to one of risks and uncertainties.

  • 45.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Förord2010In: Kamerajägaren: Stig Wessléns skildringar av naturen och det samiska / [ed] Erland Mårald & Christer Nordlund, Umeå: Kungl. Skytteanska Samfundet , 2010, 1, p. 7-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Inledning2005In: Polhem: teknikhistorisk årsbok, Tema: Teknik och miljö / [ed] Anders Lundgren, Erland Mårald och Christer Nordlund, Uppsala: Svenska nationalkommittén för teknikhistoria , 2005, p. 5-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Nordlund, Christer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Rosvall, Ola
    Forests, technoscience and the future: some thoughts about visions and challanges2012In: Being and acting in times of (un)certainty / [ed] Markus Nyström, Uppsala: Cemus , 2012, p. 85-96Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Ranius, Thomas
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Rudolphi, Jörgen
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet, SLU.
    Sténs, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Erland, Mårald
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Conflicting demands and shifts between policy and intra-scientific orientation during conservation research programmes2017In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 621-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Conservation scientists must meet the sometimes conflicting demands of policy and science, but not necessarily at the same time. We analysed the policy and intra-scientific orientations of research projects on effects of stump extraction on biodiversity, and found shifts over time associated with these demands. Our results indicate that uncertainties related to both factual issues and human decisions are often ignored in policy-oriented reports and syntheses, which could give misleading indications of the reliability or feasibility of any conclusions. The policy versus intra-scientific orientation of the scientific papers generated from the surveyed projects varied substantially, although we argue that in applied research, societal relevance is generally more important than intra-scientific relevance. To make conservation science more socially relevant, there is a need for giving societal relevance higher priority, paying attention to uncertainties and increasing the awareness of the value of cross-disciplinary research considering human decisions and values.

  • 49. Rist, Lucy
    et al.
    Felton, Adam
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Samuelsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Lundmark, Tomas
    Rosvall, Ola
    Avoiding the pitfalls of adaptive management implementation in Swedish silviculture2016In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 45, p. 140-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing demand for alternatives to Sweden’s current dominant silvicultural system, driven by a desire to raise biomass production, meet environmental goals and mitigate climate change. However, moving towards diversified forest management that deviates from well established silvicultural practices carries many uncertainties and risks. Adaptive management is often suggested as an effective means of managing in the context of such complexities. Yet there has been scepticism over its appropriateness in cases characterised by large spatial extents, extended temporal scales and complex land ownership—characteristics typical of Swedish forestry. Drawing on published research, including a new paradigm for adaptive management, we indicate how common pitfalls can be avoided during implementation. We indicate the investment, infrastructure, and considerations necessary to benefit from adaptive management. In doing so, we show how this approach could offer a pragmatic operational model for managing the uncertainties, risks and obstacles associated with new silvicultural systems and the challenges facing Swedish forestry.

  • 50.
    Sténs, Anna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Mårald, Erland
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Managing forest aesthetics in the boreal fringe2014In: International forestry review, ISSN 1465-5489, E-ISSN 2053-7778, Vol. 16, no 5, p. 52-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The value and management of forest aesthetics have been heavily studied since the early 1970s. However, studies moving outsideof urban areas are less frequent. This also holds for Sweden. Previous research has focused on the southern, urban parts of thecountry rather than the sparsely populated, forest dependent, northern interior. However, to increase the quality of livelihood inthese areas, an aesthetically attractive environment is an important component. This paper discusses the attitudes to aestheticalconsiderations among forest owners and consultants in the northern parts of Sweden. It raises questions such as: Whichconsiderations have been taken to aesthetical values in boreal forests? What policies lay behind and what was gained from theseconsiderations? What are the attitudes to forest aesthetics today and who will be responsible for the preservation and creationof aesthetical values in the future? The study has been conducted through a qualitative literary review of previous research andinterviews with present stakeholders. Preliminary results show that the societal interest in forest aesthetics is high, but policiesregulating these values have become more vague. There also seem to be a discrepancy between forest owner’s and consultant’sattitudes when discussing aesthetical considerations in boreal productive forests.

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