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  • 1.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    A sense of belonging: Social integration among East European immigrants in SwedenManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study the focus is directed beyond the economic issues of integration. Instead, the emphasis is placed on migrants’ perceived sense of belonging in the receiving society. This is done by analysing the effect of socio-demographic characteristics, social networks and adaptation time, in terms of duration of stay, citizenship and language proficiency, on immigrants from Russia, the Baltic States and Poland in Sweden. Based on a representative questionnaire, the main finding is that there are significant gender differences in the immigrants’ sense of belonging. The analysis reveals that local ties are significant in women’s sense of belonging in Sweden, while men’s sense of belonging is mainly affected by how long the immigrant has lived in Sweden and language proficiency.

  • 2.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Regional Science (CERUM).
    Fritidsboendets betydelse för den lokala utvecklingen i Ljungdalen-området i Bergs kommun2005Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today tourism represents an important source of income and employment for many sparsely populated municipalities in Sweden. Tourism has become a way to survive when the traditional production system has changed and an another way of earn one's living is needed. When discussing tourism and the way it can develop a region, the impacts of second homes are important to take into consideration.

    This study concentrates on second home tourism in the area around Ljungdalen (Ljungdalen, Skärkdalen and Storsjö kapell) in the Swedish mountain range. The aim is to analyse the importance of second home tourism and the influence that second homes have on the local economy and environment in Ljungdalen. This study is mainly based on questionnaire that has been sent to 275 randomly selected second home owners in the area around Ljungdalen.

    The outcome of the questionnaire shows that the majority of the second home owners are retired and have owned their houses for a long time. The standard of the houses is varying, but most of the housing conditions are adequate. The respondents visit their second homes mainly during the summer, spring and autumn period and the most popular activities are hiking, skiing and recreation. The second home owners contribute to the local economy by making most of their purchases of local goods and services in the area during the visit in Ljungdalen. Impact on the environment is mostly caused by the second home owners activities (e.g. littering) and by the houses standards (e.g. sewerage). The opinions about how the environment has changed during the 1990s are both positive and negative. The same goes for thoughts about an possible expand of the second homes in the area. Nearly all of the respondents consider that a further tourism development is necessary for the areas survival, but that a development also can lead to an environmental deterioration.

  • 3.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Go West: East European migrants in Sweden2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many people have migrated between East and West Europe in recent decades. The daily life of these migrants is crucial not only for the migrants themselves but also for the development of future migration. The aim of this thesis is to explore the interaction between migration motives, integration, social networks and migration, and how this affects international migration processes in general. This is done using migration between Sweden on the one hand and Russia, Poland and the Baltic States on the other as a case study.

    The thesis consists of three empirical studies which derive from different sources of data: the first (Paper I) draws on individual Swedish register data while the second and third are based upon a questionnaire survey. Paper I explores aspects of transnational social spaces in the context of migration from the non-Baltic former Soviet republics to Sweden before and after the fall of the Iron Curtain in 1989. The results of this paper show rather limited migration and a lack of a more developed transnational social space. This is partly due to weak integration on the labour market, a high degree of intermarriage, no existing migrant community and limited return migration. The following two papers (II, III) focus on migrants from Russia, Poland and the Baltic States to Sweden after 1990. Paper II analyses migration motives and the outcome of the migration decision, and reveals significant gender differences in the motives for migrating and in how men and women adapt in their new country of living. While men mainly came for economic reasons, the majority of women came for intermarriage in Sweden; however, the migration motives have changed over time towards more economic ones. The final paper (III) shows significant gender differences in the migrants’ perceived sense of belonging in Sweden. Women report a stronger sense of belonging than their male counterparts, and while men’s sense of belonging is mainly affected by duration of stay in Sweden, language proficiency and citizenship, women’s sense of belonging is shown to be mostly affected by local social networks. In sum, the results in this thesis show that migration systems and transnational social spaces between Sweden and the respective countries have not yet emerged. This is partly due to the specific migrant composition and integration that characterize this migration process. The immigrants mainly function as weak bridgeheads, and do not facilitate the development of any further migration. However, with a changing migration flow, including migrants with different motives and migration agendas, future migrants can be stronger bridgeheads and facilitate further development of migration systems and transnational social spaces.

  • 4.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    When will the Russians come?: On Post-Soviet immigration and integration in Sweden2011In: International migration (Geneva. Print), ISSN 0020-7985, E-ISSN 1468-2435, Vol. 49, no 4, p. 93-117Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is one of the paradoxes of international migration: the unexpectedly low level of migration between neighbouring countries with large macro-economic differentials; in this case migration from the former Soviet republics to Sweden. In line with Faist (2000), one assumption in the study is that the dynamics of international migration are strongly influenced by the emergence of a transnational social space. Based on a database (ASTRID) containing individual information about all residents in Sweden for the period 1986–2003, the study includes an analysis of migration in relation to the transnational social space -- its bridging and adaptive functions -- including labour market integration, family situation, intermarriage, population circulation and the spatial clustering of immigrants.

    The study reveals an over-representation of female immigrants and a high frequency of intermarriage among women migrants. Moreover, a changing migrant composition over the past decades was found, including a growing number of students, whereas the empirical analyses indicate a rather weak labour market position among immigrants from former Soviet republics. However, the position of recently arrived migrants has been enhanced over time, and migrants who stay for longer periods attain a stronger position on the labour market. The analyses also show an increasing number of highly educated persons among immigrants from the former Soviet republics. Furthermore, migrants from the former Soviet republics who move to Sweden tend to remain rather than return. In addition, the empirical analysis shows only minor tendencies of spatial clustering among the migrants. In sum, the study indicates that the lack of a more developed transnational social space may explain the rather low level of migration but also that the changing mobility patterns could represent an initial phase of a denser transnational social space that may trigger higher migration rates between the former Soviet republics and Sweden in the near future.

  • 5.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Äldre europeérs sociala nätverk2016In: Utblick: Sverige i en internationell jämförelse / [ed] Filip fors och Jenny Olofsson, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2016, 1, p. 63-78Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    En fråga som hamnat i debattens fokus berör äldres sociala nätverk och hur familjebaserat stöd och omsorg fungerar i olika länder. Måste familj och informella nätverk ta större ansvar när de äldre blir fler och försörjningsbördan i Europa blir allt tyngre? Eller är dagens sociala nätverk för glesa och för geografiskt spridda för att fungera som stöd till de äldre? Har kanske nätverk av vänner och släktingar tappat en del av sin roll när offentliga institutioner tagit över ansvar för de äldres försörjning och omsorg? Fungerar de sociala nätverken möjligen bättre för de äldre i samhällen där familjen ännu har huvudansvaret?

  • 6.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Müller, Dieter K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Social and Economic Geography.
    Användning av naturskyddade områden i Kvarken2006Report (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Padyab, Mojgan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Health disparities in Europe’s ageing population: the role of social network2018In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 1445498Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous research suggests that the social network may play very different roles in relation to health in countries with differing welfare regimes. 

    Objective: The study aimed to assess the interplay between social network, socioeconomic position, and self-rated health (SRH) in European countries. 

    Methods: The study used cross-sectional data on individuals aged 50+ from the fourth wave of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) and includes data from 16 countries. The outcome is poor SRH. All analyses are adjusted for age and stratified by gender. 

    Results: Low satisfaction with the social network was associated with poor SRH among women in all country groups, but predicted poor SRH among males in West/Central and Eastern Europe only. The results from the multivariable analysis showed an increased likelihood of poor SRH among those with relatively lower education, as well as among those with low satisfaction with the social network (women from all country groups and men from Western/Central and Eastern Europe). However, the results from interaction analysis show that poor SRH for those with lower relative position in educational level was greater among those with higher satisfaction with the social network among male and female participants from Northern Europe. The health of individuals who are highly satisfied with their social network is more associated with socioeconomic status in Northern Europe. 

    Conclusions: This study highlights the significance of social network and socioeconomic gradients in health among the elderly in Europe.

  • 8.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sandow, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Findlay, Allan
    Department of Geography and Sustainable Development, University of St Andrews, UK.
    Malmberg, Gunnar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    The importance of geographical scale in explaining the return migration of young adults to the parental home and to the parental neighbourhood2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper makes two original contributions to research on the return migration of young adults to the parental home. First it argues that the numerical significance and complexity of return moves by young people to their parental home (boomeranging) is greater than has previously been recognised. Secondly we show that the determinants and associates of return migration vary significantly when analysed at two different geographical scales – the parental home and the parental neighbourhood area. We compare boomerang mobility behaviour in Sweden to work undertaken previously in the United Kingdom. By using longitudinal data (1986 to 2009) on four cohorts of young adults we find that boomeranging to parents’ home is an increasing mobility behaviour in Sweden associated with economic vulnerability, such as leaving higher education or entering unemployment, and partnership dissolution. While returning to parents’ home can offer financial support in times of life course reversal, we found gender differences indicating a larger independence among young women than men. Returning to the parental neighbourhood is found to be a much wider phenomenon than return to co-residence with parents, involving migration decisions of more economically independent young adults. 

  • 9.
    Olofsson, Jenny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Westin, Kerstin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social and Economic Geography.
    East-Central European migrants in Sweden: migration motives and migration outcome2011In: Social Space, ISSN 2084-1558, Vol. 2, p. 75-103Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The disintegration of the Soviet Union in 1989 and the European Union enlargement in 2004 and 2007 respectively have changed the preconditions of east-west migration. However, the geopolitical changes have not resulted in the ‘mass migration’ that was initially expected from the EU15. Sweden is one of the countries to which migration from East-Central Europe has been modest, although it has increased. Reasons why this migration is still limited in Sweden are not only connected to political structures; occupation, family situation, and social networks are additional issues that matter in the migration decision-making process. This paper explores migration motives and the outcome of the migration in terms of employment, family status and satisfaction with the migration decision for people moving to Sweden from Russia and the East-Central European countries, Poland, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania.The study is based on a questionnaire survey and reveals significant gender differences when it comes to migration motives, and women tend to state social reasons to a higher degree than men. Although social motives predominate among the migrants, economic reasons tend to become more important over time, particularly after the year 2000. Moreover, the majority of the respondents report that to migrate was a fairly easy decision to make. However, some differences exist depending on country and gender, whereby the decision is perceived as less easy for migrants from Russia and Poland and for women who stated social and economic motives. There is also evidence that motives are of importance for labour market success among respondents.

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