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  • 1.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 451-461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 2. Aazh, Hashir
    et al.
    Knipper, Marlies
    Danesh, Ali A.
    Cavanna, Andrea E.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schecklmann, Martin
    Heinonen-Guzejev, Marja
    Moore, Brian C. J.
    Insights from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis: Causes, Evaluation, Diagnosis, and Treatment2018In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 20, no 95, p. 162-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hyperacusis is intolerance of certain everyday sounds that causes significant distress and impairment in social, occupational, recreational, and other day-to-day activities. Objective: The aim of this report is to summarize the key findings and conclusions from the Third International Conference on Hyperacusis. Topics covered: The main topics discussed comprise (1) diagnosis of hyperacusis and audiological evaluations, (2) neurobiological aspect of hyperacusis, (3) misophonia, (4) hyperacusis in autism spectrum disorder, (5) noise sensitivity, (6) hyperacusis-related distress and comorbid psychiatric illness, and (7) audiologist-delivered cognitive behavioral therapy for hyperacusis. Conclusions: Implications for research and clinical practice are summarised.

  • 3.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Musikens positiva kraft2011In: Svensk Idrottsforskning: Organ för Centrum för Idrottsforskning, ISSN 1103-4629, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 46-49Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ratings of speed in real music as a function of both original and manipulated tempo2010In: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, ISSN 0001-4966, E-ISSN 1520-8524, Vol. 128, no 5, p. 3032-3040Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an apparent contradiction between the narrow range of tempi optimal for perceptualjudgment and motor synchronization and the wide range of beat tempi found in real music. Therelation between listeners’ perception of speed and beat tempo was therefore investigated, both forreal music excerpts (ME) and metronome sequences. Tempi ranged from 42 to 200 beats per minute (BPM), and some excerpts were further tempo manipulated in four levels from from ±5 to ±20%. Regression analyses showed that speed was a shallower function of original tempo for fast (> 150 BPM) and slow (< 95 BPM) MEs than for MEs with intermediate tempi, describing anon-linear, sigmoid function. Manipulated tempo had twice as large an effect on speed as hadoriginal tempo. In contrast, speed was an almost linear function of tempo for metronome sequences.Taken together, these results show that the non-linearity stems from properties of the musical signal,rather than being a subjective perceptual effect. They indicate an inverse relation between tempo andrelative event density in real music, and demonstrate that the perception of periodic signals isaffected not only by the beat level, but also by faster and slower levels.© 2010 Acoustical Society of America.

  • 5.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Physical and psychological effects from supervised aerobic music exercise2013In: American Journal of Health Behavior, ISSN 1087-3244, E-ISSN 1945-7359, Vol. 37, no 6, p. 780-793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the physical and psychological effects across 11 weeks of music-exercise sessions, the participants' training experience, and attitudes towards physical activity. The effect of different music information was also investigated.

    METHODS: Overall, 146 sedentary volunteers were randomized into 4 exercise groups and each group received different music information. Physical capacity and psychological measures were obtained.

    RESULTS: Increased performance in oxygen uptake and flexibility and decreased blood pressure was found. Participants reported increased wellbeing and body-awareness, and an intention to remain physically active. No differences between groups were found.

    CONCLUSION: Music-exercise can be recommended to promote physical activity among sedentary individuals. The amount of musical information in synchronous music seems not to have any effects on self-selected intensity or physiological benefits.

  • 6.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Sound intolerance: characteristics, psychosocial work factors and reactions to exposure2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sound intolerance refers to an adverse reaction to sounds at sound pressure levels most people do not find bothersome. It is sometimes associated with hearing loss and tinnitus, but neither conditions are a prerequisite for being intolerant to sounds. The processes underlying the heightened reactions to sound, or how sound intolerance is related to other afflictions is not fully known, and research in this area can still be described as being in an early stage. This thesis aims to broaden the knowledge about sound intolerance and the sub-category of hyperacusis by using cross-sectional epidemiological and quasi-experimental methods of inquiry.

    The thesis consists of three studies, each approaching the subject from a different perspective with the aim to better understand various characteristics of sound intolerance in general, its relation to psychosocial factors in the work environment, and its effects during noise exposure. Studies I & II are cross-sectional studies using two different data sets with similar design. Study I was based on data from a stratified sample in the Västerbotten Environmental Health Study. It examined the characteristics, background descriptions and comorbidities of self-reported and physician diagnosed individuals with hyperacusis, and compared them to a healthy referent group. Analyses revealed that a majority of both hyperacusis groups actively tried to avoid sound sources, and experienced that they for the most part could affect the environment to make it less noisy. There were significantly increased risks for other diagnosed illnesses in the hyperacusis groups compared to the healthy referent group, with large odds ratios (ORs) for the psychiatric illnesses anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and exhaustion syndrome. Other common illnesses were tinnitus, hearing impairment and musculoskeletal disorders. Study II used data from the Österbotten Environmental Health Study and focused on the psychosocial work environment for people with hyperacusis. Working participants with hyperacusis who were employed/on leave of absence/paternal leave/long-term sick listed were compared to a working sample without hyperacusis on measures of effort-reward imbalance, work over commitment, emotional and social support and worry at work. The hyperacusis group scored significantly higher on worry, social support, and reward, whereas the groups did not differ significantly with respect to emotional support, over commitment or effort. In the final study, a quasi-experimental design was employed to investigate how individuals with sound intolerance react to noise exposure over time, in terms of perceived sound intensity, unpleasantness, rated distractibility, symptoms, heart rate variability and cognitive performance. Participants were divided into three groups of equal size based on their self-rated sound intolerance, which resulted in low, medium, and high sound intolerance groups. Results revealed large variations across individuals in several outcome variables. Compared to the other two groups, the high sound intolerance group perceived the noise as more unpleasant, stronger, and more distracting. They further rated the symptoms as higher in intensity, showed deviations in heart rate variability, and performed poorer on a cognitive task selected to measure inhibition.

    In conclusion, the results suggest that persons with sound intolerance have relatively poor general health and hearing as well as high odds of comorbidity with various symptoms, including psychiatric diagnoses and functional somatic syndromes. In a working population, the sound intolerant show high odds for worrying about things at work, perceiving low social support at work and not feeling rewarded at work. Finally, the results suggest that persons with high sound intolerance have increased distractibility, sound unpleasantness, symptoms over time as well as lowered heart rate variability and cognitive performance when exposed to sounds.

  • 7.
    Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, University of Gävle, Gävle, Sweden.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Characteristics of hyperacusis in the general population2016In: Noise & Health, ISSN 1463-1741, E-ISSN 1998-4030, Vol. 18, no 83, p. 178-184Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a need for better understanding of various characteristics in hyperacusis in the general population. The objectives of the present study were to investigate individuals in the general population with hyperacusis regarding demographics, lifestyle, perceived general health and hearing ability, hyperacusis-specific characteristics and behavior, and comorbidity. Using data from a large-scale population-based questionnaire study, we investigated individuals with physician-diagnosed (n=66) and self-reported (n=313) hyperacusis in comparison to individuals without hyperacusis (n=2995). High age, female sex, and high education were associated with hyperacusis, and that trying to avoid sound sources, being able to affect the sound environment, and having sough medical attention were common reactions and behaviors. Posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic fatigue syndrome, generalized anxiety disorder, depression, exhaustion, fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome, migraine, hearing impairment, tinnitus, and back/joint/muscle disorders were comorbid with hyperacusis. The results provide ground for future study of these characteristic features being risk factors for development of hyperacusis and/or consequences of hyperacusis.

  • 8.
    Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nyback, Maj-Helen
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial work factors in the general population2019In: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, ISSN 0340-0131, E-ISSN 1432-1246, Vol. 92, no 1, p. 59-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: We investigated the association between hyperacusis and aspects of psychosocial work environment in a general population. The objectives were to investigate (1) prevalence and characteristics (among age, sex, access to social support at home, education, smoking, physical exercise, and perceived general health) of hyperacusis in a general working population and (2) associations between hyperacusis and psychosocial factors in the work environment. The psychosocial work aspects included effort, reward, overcommitment, worry, and social and emotional support.

    Methods: Using data from a sample stratified for age and sex from the Österbotten Environmental Health Study in Finland, currently employed participants with self-reported hyperacusis and referents were compared on questionnaire instruments quantifying six aspects of their psychosocial work environment.

    Results: Among 856 currently employed participants, 47 constituted a hyperacusis group and 809 a reference group. The hyperacusis group scored significantly higher than the referents on worry at work, social support at work, and reward at work, but not on emotional support at work, work overcommitment, or effort at work. About 40% of the hyperacusis group scored on the upper quartile of the three former work environment factors, with odds ratios ranging from 1.91 to 2.56.

    Conclusions: The results suggest that worrying about aspects at work, perceiving low social support, and not perceiving being rewarded at work are associated with hyperacusis.

  • 9.
    Paulin, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nordin, Steven
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Nilsson, Oskar
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Logan, Suthan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Reactions to white noise exposure in sound intolerance: Perception, symptoms, cognition and autonomic responses.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Ramji, Rathi
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Musical information increases physical performance for synchronous but not asynchronous running2016In: Psychology of Music, ISSN 0305-7356, E-ISSN 1741-3087, Vol. 44, no 5, p. 984-995Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Given that physical performance is enhanced by listening to music, what information in the music is the active ingredient? Here, we varied the amount of music information in an otherwise identical piece of music, from only the rhythm, through a synthesized and scaled down version, to the full original version. Twenty-two university students (11 males and 11 females) ran for 10 minutes to each of eight conditions, two with white noise, three with music that facilitated synchronization with the running pace, and three with tempi where synchronization was impossible. Dependent variables were distance run and the number of steps, from which stride length was computed. Heart rate and mood (PANAS) were also measured for control purposes. Participants tended to run a greater distance when there was more music information, which was mainly an effect of longer strides rather than a faster stride rate. This effect was stronger in the synchronous conditions. The results suggest that the motivational effects of music information during running is mostly related to richer temporal information conveyed by faster metrical levels, when attempting to synchronize with the beat in the music

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