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  • 1.
    Jiang, Juan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Alstermark, Bror
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Dysfunctional cortico-reticulospinal and propriospinal systems may lead to impaired skilled forelimb reaching in EphA4-knockout mice2017In: Acta Physiologica, ISSN 1748-1708, E-ISSN 1748-1716, Vol. 219, p. 34-35Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Jiang, Juan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Alstermark, Bror
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB).
    Not GABA But Glycine Mediates Segmental, Propriospinal, and Bulbospinal Postsynaptic Inhibition in Adult Mouse Spinal Forelimb Motor Neurons2015In: Journal of Neuroscience, ISSN 0270-6474, E-ISSN 1529-2401, Vol. 35, no 5, p. 1991-1998Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The general view is that both glycine (Eccles, 1964) and GABA (Curtis and Felix, 1971) evoke postsynaptic inhibition in spinal motor neurons. In newborn or juvenile animals, there are conflicting results showing postsynaptic inhibition in motor neurons by corelease of GABA and glycine (Jonas et al., 1998) or by glycine alone (Bhumbra et al., 2012). To resolve the relative contributions of GABA and glycine to postsynaptic inhibition, we performed in vivo intracellular recordings from forelimb motor neurons in adult mice. Postsynaptic potentials evoked from segmental, propriospinal, and bulbospinal systems in motor neurons were compared across four different conditions: control, after gabazine, gabazine followed by strychnine, and strychnine alone. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of IPSPs and EPSPs between control and gabazine conditions. In contrast, EPSPs but not IPSPs were recorded after adding strychnine with gabazine or administering strychnine alone, suggesting an exclusive role for glycine in postsynaptic inhibition. To test whether the injected (intraperitoneal) dose of gabazine blocked GABAergic inhibitory transmission, we evoked GABA(A) receptor-mediated monosynaptic IPSPs in deep cerebellar nuclei neurons by stimulation of Purkinje cell fibers. No monosynaptic IPSPs could be recorded in the presence of gabazine, showing the efficacy of gabazine treatment. Our results demonstrate that, in the intact adult mouse, the postsynaptic inhibitory effects in spinal motor neurons exerted by three different systems, intrasegmental and intersegmental as well as supraspinal, are exclusively glycinergic. These findings emphasize the importance of glycinergic postsynaptic inhibition in motor neurons and challenge the view that GABA also contributes.

  • 3.
    Jiang, Juan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Azim, Eiman
    Ekerot, Carl-Fredrik
    Alstermark, Bror
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Integrative Medical Biology (IMB), Physiology.
    Direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways: shared ideas but different functions in motor control2015In: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5188, E-ISSN 1662-5188, Vol. 9, article id 75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The impressive precision of mammalian limb movements relies on internal feedback pathways that convey information about ongoing motor output to cerebellar circuits. The spino-cerebellar tracts (SCT) in the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord have long been considered canonical neural substrates for the conveyance of internal feedback signals. Here we consider the distinct features of an indirect spino-cerebellar route, via the brainstem lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), and the implications of this pre-cerebellar "detour" for the execution and evolution of limb motor control. Both direct and indirect spino-cerebellar pathways signal spinal interneuronal activity to the cerebellum during movements, but evidence suggests that direct SCT neurons are mainly modulated by rhythmic activity, whereas the LRN also receives information from systems active during postural adjustment, reaching and grasping. Thus, while direct and indirect spinocerebellar circuits can both be regarded as internal copy pathways, it seems likely that the direct system is principally dedicated to rhythmic motor acts like locomotion, while the indirect system also provides a means of pre-cerebellar integration relevant to the execution and coordination of dexterous limb movements.

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