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  • 1. Cameron, Erin K.
    et al.
    Sundqvist, Maja K.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. The Center for Macroecology, Evolution and Climate, The Natural History Museum of Denmark, University of Copenhagen,Universitetsparken 15, 2100 Copenhagen Ø, Denmark.
    Keith, Sally A.
    CaraDonna, Paul J.
    Mousing, Erik A.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Metcalfe, Daniel B.
    Classen, Aimee T.
    Uneven global distribution of food web studies under climate change2019In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 10, no 3, article id e02645Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trophic interactions within food webs affect species distributions, coexistence, and provision of ecosystem services but can be strongly impacted by climatic changes. Understanding these impacts is therefore essential for managing ecosystems and sustaining human well-being. Here, we conducted a global synthesis of terrestrial, marine, and freshwater studies to identify key gaps in our knowledge of climate change impacts on food webs and determine whether the areas currently studied are those most likely to be impacted by climate change. We found research suffers from a strong geographic bias, with only 3.5% of studies occurring in the tropics. Importantly, the distribution of sites sampled under projected climate changes was biased-areas with decreases or large increases in precipitation and areas with low magnitudes of temperature change were under-represented. Our results suggest that understanding of climate change impacts on food webs could be broadened by considering more than two trophic levels, responses in addition to species abundance and biomass, impacts of a wider suite of climatic variables, and tropical ecosystems. Most importantly, to enable better forecasts of biodiversity responses to dimate change, we identify critically under-represented geographic regions and climatic conditions which should be prioritized in future research.

  • 2.
    Huss, Magnus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Experimental evidence for emergent facilitation: promoting the existence of an invertebrate predator by killing its prey2011In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 80, no 3, p. 615-621Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent theoretical insights have shown that predator species may help each other to persist by size-selective foraging on a shared prey. By feeding on a certain prey stage, a predator may induce a compensatory response in another stage of the same prey species, thereby favouring other predators; a phenomenon referred to as emergent facilitation.

    2. To test whether emergent facilitation may occur in a natural system, we performed an enclosure experiment where we mimicked fish predation by selectively removing large zooplankton and subsequently following the response of the invertebrate predator Bythotrephes longimanus.

    3. Positive responses to harvest were observed in the biomass of juvenile individuals of the dominant zooplankton Holopedium gibberum and in Bythotrephes densities. Hence, by removing large prey, we increased the biomass of small prey, i.e. stage-specific biomass overcompensation was present in the juvenile stage of Holopedium. This favoured Bythotrephes, which preferentially feed on small Holopedium.

    4. We argue that the stage-specific overcompensation occurred as a result of increased per capita fecundity of adult Holopedium and as a result of competitive release following harvest. If shown to be common, emergent facilitation may be a major mechanism behind observed predator extinctions and patterns of predator invasions.

  • 3. MacDougall, Andrew S.
    et al.
    Harvey, Eric
    McCune, Jenny L.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Integrative Biology, University Of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada N1G 2W1.
    Bennett, Joseph
    Firn, Jennifer
    Bartley, Timothy
    Grace, James B.
    Kelly, Jocelyn
    Tunney, Tyler D.
    McMeans, Bailey
    Matsuzaki, Shin-Ichiro S.
    Kadoya, Taku
    Esch, Ellen
    Cazelles, Kevin
    Lester, Nigel
    McCann, Kevin S.
    Context-dependent interactions and the regulation of species richness in freshwater fish2018In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 9, article id 973Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Species richness is regulated by a complex network of scale-dependent processes. This complexity can obscure the influence of limiting species interactions, making it difficult to determine if abiotic or biotic drivers are more predominant regulators of richness. Using integrative modeling of freshwater fish richness from 721 lakes along an 11 degrees latitudinal gradient, we find negative interactions to be a relatively minor independent predictor of species richness in lakes despite the widespread presence of predators. Instead, interaction effects, when detectable among major functional groups and 231 species pairs, were strong, often positive, but contextually dependent on environment. These results are consistent with the idea that negative interactions internally structure lake communities but do not consistently 'scale-up' to regulate richness independently of the environment. The importance of environment for interaction outcomes and its role in the regulation of species richness highlights the potential sensitivity of fish communities to the environmental changes affecting lakes globally.

  • 4.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Effects of size-dependent predation and competition on population and community dynamics2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Most animals grow substantially during their lifetime and change in competitive ability, predatory capacity and their susceptibility to predation as they grow. This thesis addresses the implications of this on regulation and dynamics within populations as well as between population interactions.

    In size-structured populations either reproduction or maturation may be more limiting. If juveniles are competitively superior, the competitive bottleneck will be in the adults and reproduction will be limiting. Mortality will in this case result in overcompensation in juvenile biomass through increased reproduction. Compensation in biomass was demonstrated in Daphnia pulex populations subjected to size-independent mortality, where juvenile biomass did not decrease when a substantial harvest was imposed due to increase per capita fecundity. This supported that juveniles were superior competitors and that population cycles seen in Daphnia are juvenile-driven.

    Compensatory responses in biomass may lead to that predators facilitate eachothers existence by feeding on a common prey, a phenomenon coined emergent facilitation. In an experimental test of the mechanism behind emergent facilitation it was demonstrated that the invertebrate predator Bythotrephes longimanus was favoured by thinning of its prey Holopedium gibberum. The thinning mimicked fish predation and targeted large individuals while Bythotrephes preferrs small prey.

    Size dependent predation also occurs within populations, i.e. cannibalism, were large individuals feed on smaller conspecifics. Two populations of the common guppy (Poecilia reticulata) originating from different environments were demonstrated to differ in cannibalistic degree. Cannibalism was also affected by the presence of refuges and females and juveniles from one population were better adapted to structural complexity than the other.

    The effects of these differences in cannibalism on population regulation and dynamics were studied in long term population experiments. Both populations were regulated by cannibalism in the absence of refuges, and displayed cannibal-driven cycles with suppression of recruitment and high population variability. The presence of refuges decreased density dependence and population variability and harvesting of large females in the absence of refuges led to population extinctions in the more cannibalistic population. The less cannibalistic population had higher population biomass and stronger density-dependence in the presence of refuges. When refuges were present, cohort competition increased and cycles with short periodicity were seen.

    Large individuals were not only cannibals, but could successfully prey on other species. Small and large guppies were allowed to invade resident populations of Heterandria formosa. Small invaders failed while large invaders succeeded as predation from large invaders broke up the competitive bottleneck that the resident population imposed on juveniles of the invader. 

  • 5.
    Nilsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Refuge availability and within-species differencesin cannibalism determine population variability and dynamics2013In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 4, no 100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical studies show that both cannibalism and intraspecific resource competition canhave major effects on population dynamics. Cannibalistic intensity, offspring size, harvesting and refugeavailability are important factors affecting the interplay between cannibalism and competition. We studiedtwo populations of the common guppy (Poecilia reticulata) that differed in their cannibalistic voracity aswell as offspring size. We manipulated the availability of refuges for juveniles and harvesting intensity oflarge adults to investigate how these factors influenced the dynamics of the two populations.Overall population dynamics was mainly affected by the origin of the founder populations and thepresence of refuges. The population with a higher cannibalistic propensity and smaller offspring exhibitedhigher population variability, and the presence of refuges reduced cannibalism and stabilised the dynamicsin both populations. Harvest of large cannibalistic females destabilised the dynamics and causedextinctions of several populations without refuges. Both populations displayed cannibal-driven cycles withrepression of recruitment when no refuges were present. Cycle periods were shorter with refuges presentand the dynamics were more cohort like with synchronised peaks in density of vulnerable juveniles andcannibals. We suggest that increased number of refuging juveniles led to intensified resource competitionin the population. The harvest yield was low in the refuge treatments as few females grew large due toresource competition, leading to a small impact of harvesting in these treatments.

  • 6.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundback, Sow
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Postavnicheva-Harri, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Guppy populations differ in cannibalistic degree and adaptation to structural environments2011In: Oecologia, ISSN 0029-8549, E-ISSN 1432-1939, Vol. 167, no 2, p. 391-400Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is considerable variation in cannibalism between different species and also between individuals of different species, although relatively little is known about what creates this variation. We investigated the degree of cannibalism in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations originating from high and low predation environments in Trinidad, and also how cannibalism was affected by the presence of refuges. Females from two populations were allowed to feed on juveniles from two populations in aquaria trials. The cannibalism was size-dependent and varied depending on both juvenile and female origin. Low predation females were more efficient cannibals and low predation juveniles were better at avoiding cannibalism compared to high predation guppies when no refuges were present. The high predation females were superior cannibals and the high predation juveniles were better at escaping cannibalism than the low predation guppies when refuges were present. We discuss whether the differences in cannibalism and response to refuge addition relate to predation-induced habitat shifts and differences in the guppies' natural environment.

  • 7.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Lundbäck, Sofi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Postavnicheva-Harri, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Guppy populations differ in cannibalistic degree and adaption to structural environmentsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the degree of cannibalism in guppy (Poecilia reticulata) populations originating from high and low predation environments in Trinidad and how cannibalism was affected by the presence of refuges. Females from two populations were allowed to feed on juveniles from two populations in aquaria trials. The cannibalism was size-dependent and varied depending on both juvenile and female origin. Low predation females were more efficient cannibals and low predation juveniles were better at avoiding cannibalism compared to high predation guppies when no refuges were present. The addition of refuges decreased cannibalism when females from the low predation population were feeding on juveniles from the high predation population. In contrast, cannibalism increased with the addition of refuges for all other combinations. The high predation females were also superior cannibals and the high predation juveniles were better at escaping cannibalism than the low predation guppies with refuges present. We discuss whether the differences in cannibalism and response to refuge addition relate to predation induced habitat shifts and differences in the guppies’ natural environment.

  • 8.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Integrative Biology, Science Complex, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, Canada.
    McCann, Kevin S.
    Interaction strength revisited-clarifying the role of energy flux for food web stability2016In: Theoretical Ecology, ISSN 1874-1738, E-ISSN 1874-1746, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 59-71Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction strength (IS) has been theoretically shown to play a major role in governing the stability and dynamics of food webs. Nonetheless, its definition has been varied and problematic, including a range of recent definitions based on biological rates associated with model parameters (e.g., attack rate). Results from food web theory have been used to argue that IS metrics based on energy flux ought to have a clear relationship with stability. Here, we use simple models to elucidate the actual relationship between local stability and a number of common IS metrics (total flux and per capita fluxes) as well as a more recently suggested metric. We find that the classical IS metrics map to stability in a more complex way than suggested by existing food web theory and that the new IS metric has a much clearer, and biologically interpretable, relationship with local stability. The total energy flux metric falls off existing theoretical predictions when the total resource productivity available to the consumer is reduced despite increased consumer attack rates. The density of a consumer can hence decrease when its attack rate increases. This effect, called the paradox of attack rate, is similar to the well-known hydra effect and can even cascade up a food chain to exclude a predator when consumer attack rate is increased.

  • 9.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Dept of Integrative Biology, Univ. of Guelph, Canada.
    McCann, Kevin S.
    Caskenette, Amanda L.
    Interaction strength and stability in stage‐structured food web modules2018In: Oikos, ISSN 0030-1299, E-ISSN 1600-0706, Vol. 127, no 10, p. 1494-1505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a long‐standing debate on what creates stability in food webs. One major finding is that weak interactions can mute the destabilizing potential of strong interactions. Considering that stage structure is common in nature, that existing studies on stability that include population stage structure point in different directions, and the recent theoretical developments in the area of stage structure, there is a need to address the effects of population stage structure in this context. Using simple food web modules, with stage structure in an intermediate consumer, we here begin to theoretically investigate the effects of stage structure on food web stability. We found a general correspondence to previous results such that strong interactions had destabilizing effects and weak interactions that result in decreased energy flux had stabilizing effects. However, we also found a number of novel results connected to stage structure. Interestingly, weak interactions can be destabilizing when they excite other interactions. We also found that cohort cycles and predator–prey cycles did not respond in the same way to increasing interactions strength. We found that the combined effects of two predators feeding on the same prey can strongly destabilize a system. Consistent with previous studies, we also found that stage‐specific feeding can create a refuge effect that leads to a lack of strong destabilization at high interaction strength. Overall, stage structure had both stabilizing and destabilizing aspects. Some effects could be explained by our current understanding of energetic processes; others need additional consideration. Additional aspects such as shunting of energy between stages, control of biomass fluxes, and interactions between lags and energy flux, should be considered.

  • 10.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Cannibalism and resource competition determine population structure and regulation in experimental guppy populationsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Cannibalism and intraspecific resource competition, separately or in combination, can be important factors in regulating populations. Cannibalistic voracity and size of offspring have been shown to be two important factors in determining the extent to which cannibalism can regulate a population. We investigated guppy populations originating from two different environments and that differ in cannibalistic voracity and size of offspring. We investigated mechanisms behind density independent and density dependent relationships by varying the availability of juvenile refuges and harvesting of large females.  One population (Turure) had a lower total biomass than the other population (Quare) and showed stronger density dependence in the treatments without refuges. In contrast, the Quare population showed a stronger density dependence when refuges were present. We suggest that the presence of refuges decreased cannibalism and increased competition leading to stronger density dependence through decreased fecundity of females and juvenile growth and survival. Harvest of large females decreased cannibalism but decreased reproductive output even more which led to extinctions of the Turure populations when no refuges were present. When refuges were present harvesting had only a small effect related to that few females grew large enough to be harvested.

  • 11.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Refuge availability and within-species differences in cannibalism determine population variability and dynamics2013In: Ecosphere, ISSN 2150-8925, E-ISSN 2150-8925, Vol. 4, no 8, p. 100-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Theoretical studies show that both cannibalism and intraspecific resource competition can have major effects on population dynamics. Cannibalistic intensity, offspring size, harvesting and refuge availability are important factors affecting the interplay between cannibalism and competition. We studied two populations of the common guppy (Poecilia reticulata) that differed in their cannibalistic voracity as well as offspring size. We manipulated the availability of refuges for juveniles and harvesting intensity of large adults to investigate how these factors influenced the dynamics of the two populations. Overall population dynamics was mainly affected by the origin of the founder populations and the presence of refuges. The population with a higher cannibalistic propensity and smaller offspring exhibited higher population variability, and the presence of refuges reduced cannibalism and stabilised the dynamics in both populations. Harvest of large cannibalistic females destabilised the dynamics and caused extinctions of several populations without refuges. Both populations displayed cannibal-driven cycles with repression of recruitment when no refuges were present. Cycle periods were shorter with refuges present and the dynamics were more cohort like with synchronised peaks in density of vulnerable juveniles and cannibals. We suggest that increased number of refuging juveniles led to intensified resource competition in the population. The harvest yield was low in the refuge treatments as few females grew large due to resource competition, leading to a small impact of harvesting in these treatments.

  • 12.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    van Kooten, Tobias
    Wageningen IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB IJmuiden, the Netherlands.
    Complete compensation in Daphnia fecundity and stage-specific biomass in response to size-independent mortality2010In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 871-878Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Recent theory suggests that compensation or even overcompensation in stage-specific biomass can arise in response to increased mortality. Which stage that will show compensation depends on whether maturation or reproduction is the more limiting process in the population. Size-structured theory also provides a strong link between the type of regulation and the expected population dynamics as both depend on size/stage specific competitive ability.

    2. We imposed a size-independent mortality on a consumer-resource system with Daphnia pulex feeding on Scenedesmus obtusiusculus to asses the compensatory responses in Daphnia populations. We also extended an existing stage-structured biomass model by including several juvenile stages to test whether this extension affected the qualitative results of the existing model.

    3. We found complete compensation in juvenile biomass and total population fecundity in response to harvesting. The compensation in fecundity was caused by both a higher proportion of fecund females and a larger clutch size under increased mortality. We did not detect any difference in resource levels between treatments.

    4. The model results showed that both stages of juveniles have to be superior to adults in terms of resource competition for the compensatory response to take place in juvenile biomass.

    5. The results are all in correspondence with that the regulating process within the population was reproduction. From this we also conclude that juveniles were superior competitors to adults, which has implications for population dynamics and the kind of cohort cycles seen in Daphnia populations.

    6. The compensatory responses demonstrated in this experiment have major implications for community dynamics and are potentially present in any organisms with food-dependent growth or development.

  • 13.
    Schröder, Arne
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Lennart
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    van Kooten, Tobias
    Wageningen IMARES, PO Box 68, 1970 AB Ijmuiden, The Netherlands.
    Reichstein, Birte
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Invasion success depends on invader body size in a size-structured mixed predation-competition system2009In: Journal of Animal Ecology, ISSN 0021-8790, E-ISSN 1365-2656, Vol. 78, no 6, p. 1152-1162Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. The size of an individual is an important determinant of its trophic position and the type of interactions it engages in with other heterospecific and conspecific individuals. Consequently an individual's ecological role in a community changes with its body size over ontogeny, leading to that trophic interactions between individuals are a size-dependent and ontogenetically variable mixture of competition and predation.

    2. Because differently sized individuals thus experience different biotic environments, invasion success may be determined by the body size of the invaders. Invasion outcome may also depend on the productivity of the system as productivity influences the biotic environment.

    3. In a laboratory experiment with two poeciliid fishes the body size of the invading individuals and the daily amount of food supplied were manipulated.

    4. Large invaders established persistent populations and drove the resident population to extinction in 10 out of 12 cases, while small invaders failed in 10 out of 12 trials. Stable coexistence was virtually absent. Invasion outcome was independent of productivity.

    5. Further analyses suggest that small invaders experienced a competitive recruitment bottleneck imposed on them by the resident population. In contrast, large invaders preyed on the juveniles of the resident population. This predation allowed the large invaders to establish successfully by decreasing the resident population densities and thus breaking the bottleneck.

    6. The results strongly suggest that the size distribution of invaders affects their ability to invade, an implication so far neglected in life-history omnivory systems. The findings are further in agreement with predictions of life-history omnivory theory, that size-structured interactions demote coexistence along a productivity gradient.

  • 14.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bodin, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Mobley, Kenyon B.
    Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology, D-24302 Plön, Germany.
    Öhlund, Sven-Ola
    Peedu, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Predation drives rapid and repeated sympatric divergence in European whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Öhlund, Gunnar
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Peedu, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Karin A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fallgren, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Magnusson, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Öhlund, Sven-Ola
    Bartels, Pia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Hein, Catherine L.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bodin, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Englund, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    The chronology of incipient speciation in whitefishManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
1 - 15 of 15
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