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  • 1. Dong, Bo
    et al.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Bao, Min
    Cortical mechanisms for afterimage formation: evidence from interocular grouping2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 41101Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whether the retinal process alone or retinal and cortical processes jointly determine afterimage (AI) formation has long been debated. Based on the retinal rebound responses, recent work proposes that afterimage signals are exclusively generated in the retina, although later modified by cortical mechanisms. We tested this notion with the method of "indirect proof". Each eye was presented with a 2-by-2 checkerboard of horizontal and vertical grating patches. Each corresponding patch of the two checkerboards was perpendicular to each other, which produces binocular rivalry, and can generate percepts ranging from complete interocular grouping to either monocular pattern. The monocular percepts became more frequent with higher contrast. Due to adaptation, the visual system is less sensitive during the AIs than during the inductions with AI-similar contrast. If the retina is the only origin of AIs, comparable contrast appearance would require stronger retinal signals in the AIs than in the inductions, thus leading to more frequent monocular percepts in the AIs than in the inductions. Surprisingly, subjects saw the fully coherent stripes significantly more often in AIs. Our results thus contradict the retinal generation notion, and suggest that in addition to the retina, cortex is directly involved in the generation of AI signals.

  • 2. Fast, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    McLoon, Linda
    Engel, Stephen
    Vergence is limited by adaptation2016In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 45, p. 99-100Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 3. Fast, Elizabeth
    et al.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    McLoon, Linda K.
    Engel, Stephen
    Eye vergence is limited by adaptation2016In: Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, ISSN 0146-0404, E-ISSN 1552-5783, Vol. 57, no 12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose : What limits vergence abilities? Current models propose that vergence movements are controlled by a phasic component, which responds to image disparities, and a slower tonic component that adapts based on the output of the phasic component. Adaptation in the tonic component frees the phasic component to compensate for further image disparities. Limits of vergence should arise when the tonic component can no longer adapt, but this failure has yet to be observed empirically. We tested the hypothesis that vergence limits would arise when there was evidence of a weakening adaptation in the tonic component.

    Methods : We adapted the vergence system of 6 subjects using a Wheatstone stereoscope. Binocular eye position was collected with an Eyelink 1000 eyetracker. Subjects binocularly viewed a detailed image of a natural scene. The image was initially presented at zero disparity, and moved laterally in one eye at a rate of 0.5°/s to reach 4° of eccentricity, where it remained for 5 m. Then the image moved in blocks, where each block comprised 1° of movement followed by 5 m of viewing at the new eccentricity. Blocks repeated until subjects experienced diplopia for 75% of a block. The eyetracker was used to calculate the angle between the eyes optical axes, which we term divergence. Phoria was measured every 30 s by calculating divergence when the image in one eye was replaced with a gray field for 5 s. As a control, subjects also viewed the display with one image moving continuously without the 5 m adaptation periods.

    Results : Subjects were able to fuse the images until eye divergence reached 7.14°, on average. We used phoria to estimate adaptation in the tonic component, with larger phorias indicating less adaptation. Adaptation, as measured by phoria, decreased over successive blocks (linear trend, p < 0.01). In addition, subjects reached a significantly greater divergence with adaptation than in the control condition (5.17°, p = 0.02).

    Conclusions : Our results support the hypothesis that the amount of vergence normal viewers can produce is limited by adaptation in the tonic component. In earlier blocks, when the tonic component adapted more fully, subjects were able to fuse the images, but in later blocks adaptation of the tonic component lagged behind, and diplopia was experienced. Future work can explore how the tonic component could adapt further, allowing the eyes to experience vergence angles unreachable in normal experience.

  • 4.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gaze control in episodic memory2004Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of gaze control in episodic recognition was investigated in two studies. In Study 1, participants encoded human faces inverted or upright, with or without eye movements (Experiment 1) and under sorting or rating tasks (Experiment 2) respectively. At test, participants indicated their recollective experience with R(emember) responses (explicit recollection) orK(now) responses (familiarity based recognition). Experiment 1 showed that face inversion and occlusion of eye movements reduced levels of explicit recollection as measured by R responses. In Experiment 2, the relation between recollective experience and perceptual reinstatement wasexamined. Whereas the study instructions produced no differences in terms of eye movements, R responses were associated with a higher proportion of refixations than K responses.In Study 2, perceptual consistency was investigated in two experiments. In Experiment 1, participants studied scenes under different concurrent tasks. Subsequently, their recognition memory was examined in a R / K test. Executive load produced parallel effects on eye movements and R responses. Furthermore, R responses were associated with a higher proportion ofrefixations than K responses. However, number of fixations was correlated with refixations.Experiment 2 corroborated these results and controlled for number of fixations.Together, these studies suggest that visual episodic representations are supported by perceptual detail, and that explicit recollection is a function of encoding and retrieving those details. To this end, active gaze control is an important factor in visual recognition.

  • 5.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Predictive eyes precede retrieval: visual recognition as hypothesis testing2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Does visual recognition entail verifying an idea about what is perceived? This question was addressed in the three studies of this thesis. The main hypothesis underlying the investigation was that visual recognition is an active process involving hypothesis testing. Recognition of faces (Study 1), scenes (Study 2) and objects (Study 3) was investigated using eye movement registration as a window on the recognition process. In Study 1, a functional relationship between eye movements and face recognition was established. Restricting the eye movements reduced recognition performance. In addition, perceptual reinstatement as indicated by eye movement consistency across study and test was related to recollective experience at test. Specifically, explicit recollection was related to higher eye movement consistency than familiarity-based recognition and false rejections (Studies 1-2). Furthermore, valid expectations about a forthcoming stimulus scene produced eye movements which were more similar to those of an earlier study episode, compared to invalid expectations (Study 2). In Study 3 participants recognized fragmented objects embedded in nonsense fragments. Around 8 seconds prior to explicit recognition, participants began to fixate the object region rather than a similar control region in the stimulus pictures. Before participants’ indicated awareness of the object, they fixated it with an average of 9 consecutive fixations. Hence, participants were looking at the object as if they had recognized it before they became aware of its identity. Furthermore, prior object information affected eye movement sampling of the stimulus, suggesting that semantic memory was involved in guiding the eyes during object recognition even before the participants were aware of its presence. Collectively, the studies support the view that gaze control is instrumental to visual recognition performance and that visual recognition is an interactive process between memory representation and information sampling.

  • 6.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Engel, Stephen
    Department of Psychology, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Schrater, Paul
    Department of Computer Science, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.
    Object learning improves feature extraction but does not improve feature selection2012In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 7, no 12, p. e51325-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A single glance at your crowded desk is enough to locate your favorite cup. But finding an unfamiliar object requires more effort. This superiority in recognition performance for learned objects has at least two possible sources. For familiar objects observers might: 1) select more informative image locations upon which to fixate their eyes, or 2) extract more information from a given eye fixation. To test these possibilities, we had observers localize fragmented objects embedded in dense displays of random contour fragments. Eight participants searched for objects in 600 images while their eye movements were recorded in three daily sessions. Performance improved as subjects trained with the objects: The number of fixations required to find an object decreased by 64% across the 3 sessions. An ideal observer model that included measures of fragment confusability was used to calculate the information available from a single fixation. Comparing human performance to the model suggested that across sessions information extraction at each eye fixation increased markedly, by an amount roughly equal to the extra information that would be extracted following a 100% increase in functional field of view. Selection of fixation locations, on the other hand, did not improve with practice.

  • 7.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Looking as if you know: Implicit identification guides the eyes in object recognitionArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Andersson, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Looking as if you know: Systematic object inspection precedes object recognition2008In: Journal of Vision, ISSN 1534-7362, E-ISSN 1534-7362, Vol. 8(4), no 14, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sometimes we seem to look at the very object we are searching for, without consciously seeing it. How do we select object relevant information before we become aware of the object? We addressed this question in two recognition experiments involving pictures of fragmented objects. In Experiment 1, participants preferred to look at the target object rather than a control region 25 fixations prior to explicit recognition. Furthermore, participants inspected the target as if they had identified it around 9 fixations prior to explicit recognition. In Experiment 2, we investigated the influence of semantic knowledge in guiding object inspection prior to explicit recognition. Consistently, more specific knowledge about target identity made participants scan the fragmented stimulus more efficiently. For instance, non-target regions were rejected faster when participants knew the target object's name. Both experiments showed that participants were looking at the objects as if they knew them before they became aware of their identity.

  • 9.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karampela, Olympia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Executive control and working memory are involved in sub-second repetitive motor timing2017In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 235, no 3, p. 787-798Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The nature of the relationship between timing and cognition remains poorly understood. Cognitive control is known to be involved in discrete timing tasks involving durations above 1 s, but has not yet been demonstrated for repetitive motor timing below 1 s. We examined the latter in two continuation tapping experiments, by varying the cognitive load in a concurrent task. In Experiment 1, participants repeated a fixed three finger sequence (low executive load) or a pseudorandom sequence (high load) with either 524-, 733-, 1024- or 1431-ms inter-onset intervals (IOIs). High load increased timing variability for 524 and 733-ms IOIs but not for the longer IOIs. Experiment 2 attempted to replicate this finding for a concurrent memory task. Participants retained three letters (low working memory load) or seven letters (high load) while producing intervals (524- and 733-ms IOIs) with a drum stick. High load increased timing variability for both IOIs. Taken together, the experiments demonstrate that cognitive control processes influence sub-second repetitive motor timing.

  • 10.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Whenever next: Hierarchical timing of perception and action2013In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 217-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The target article focuses on the predictive coding of "what" and "where" something happened and the "where" and "what" response to make. We extend that scope by addressing the "when" aspect of perception and action. Successful interaction with the environment requires predictions of everything from millisecond-accurate motor timing to far future events. The hierarchical framework seems appropriate for timing.

  • 11.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Memory for scenes: refixations reflect retrieval2007In: Memory & Cognition, ISSN 0090-502X, E-ISSN 1532-5946, ISSN 1532-5946 (electronic), Vol. 35, no 7, p. 1664-1674Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most conceptions of episodic memory hold that reinstatement of encoding operations is essential for retrieval success, but the specific mechanisms of retrieval reinstatement are not well understood. In three experiments, we used saccadic eye movements as a window for examining reinstatement in scene recognition. In Experiment 1, participants viewed complex scenes, while number of study fixations was controlled by using a gaze-contingent paradigm. In Experiment 2, effects of stimulus saliency were minimized by directing participants’ eye movements during study. At test, participants made remember/know judgments for each recognized stimulus scene. Both experiments showed that remember responses were associated with more consistent study-test fixations than false rejections (Experiments 1 and 2) and know responses (Experiment 2). In Experiment 3, we examined the causal role of gaze consistency on retrieval by manipulating participants’ expectations during recognition. After studying name and scene pairs, each test scene was preceded by the same or different name as during study. Participants made more consistent eye movements following a matching, rather than mismatching, scene name. Taken together, these findings suggest that explicit recollection is a function of perceptual reconstruction and that event memory influences gaze control in this active reconstruction process.

  • 12.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullen, Fredrik
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motor and Executive Control in Repetitive Timing of Brief Intervals2013In: Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, ISSN 0096-1523, E-ISSN 1939-1277, Vol. 39, no 2, p. 365-380Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigated the causal role of executive control functions in the production of brief time intervals by means of a concurrent task paradigm. To isolate the influence of executive functions on timing from motor coordination effects, we dissociated executive load from the number of effectors used in the dual task situation. In 3 experiments, participants produced isochronous intervals ranging from 524 to 2,000 ms with either the left or the right hand. The concurrent task consisted of the production of either a pseudorandom (high cognitive load) or a simple repeated (low cognitive load) spatial sequence of key presses, while also maintaining a regular temporal sequence. This task was performed with either a single hand (unimanual) or with both hands simultaneously (bimanual). Interference in terms of increased timing variability caused by the concurrent task was observed only in the bimanual condition. We verified that motor coordination in bimanual tasks alone could not account for the interference. Timing interference only appeared when (a) more than 1 effector was involved and (b) there were simultaneous task demands that recruited executive functions. Task interference was not seen if only 1 of these 2 conditions was met. Thus, our results suggest that executive functions are not directly involved in motor timing, but can indirectly affect timing performance when they are required to schedule complex motor coordination.

  • 13.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Karolinska institutet, Institutionen för kvinnor och barns hälsa, Stockholm Brain Institute.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Intelligence and temporal accuracy of behaviour: unique and shared associations with reaction time and motor timing2011In: Experimental Brain Research, ISSN 0014-4819, E-ISSN 1432-1106, Vol. 214, no 2, p. 175-183Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligence is associated with accuracy in a wide range of timing tasks. One source of such associations is likely to be individual differences in top-down control, e.g. sustained attention, that influence performance in both temporal tasks and other cognitively controlled behaviors. In addition, we have studied relations between intelligence and a simple rhythmic motor task, isochronous serial interval production (ISIP), and found a substantial component of that relation, which is independent of fluctuations in top-down control. The main purpose of the present study was to investigate whether such bottom-up mechanisms are involved also in the relation between intelligence and reaction time (RT) tasks. We thus investigated if common variance between the ISIP and RT tasks underlies their respective associations with intelligence. 112 participants performed a simple RT task, a choice RT task and the ISIP task. Intelligence was assessed with the Raven SPM Plus. The analysed timing variables included mean and variability in the RT tasks and two variance components in the ISIP task. As predicted, RT and ISIP variables were associated with intelligence. The timing variables were positively intercorrelated and a principal component analysis revealed a substantial first principal component that was strongly related to all timing variables, and positively correlated with intelligence. Furthermore, a commonality analysis demonstrated that the relations between intelligence and the timing variables involved a commonality between the timing variables as well as unique contributions from choice RT and ISIP. We discuss possible implications of these findings, and argue that they support our main hypothesis, i.e. that relations between intelligence and RT tasks have a bottom-up component.

  • 14.
    Holm, Linus
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Wadenholt, Gustaf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Schrater, Paul
    Episodic curiosity for avoiding asteroids: Per-trial information gain for choice outcomes drive information seeking2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 11265Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humans often appear to desire information for its own sake, but it is presently unclear what drives this desire. The important role that resolving uncertainty plays in stimulating information seeking has suggested a tight coupling between the intrinsic motivation to gather information and performance gains, construed as a drive for long-term learning. Using an asteroid-avoidance game that allows us to study learning and information seeking at an experimental time-scale, we show that the incentive for information-seeking can be separated from a long-term learning outcome, with information-seeking best predicted by per-trial outcome uncertainty. Specifically, participants were more willing to take time penalties to receive feedback on trials with increasing uncertainty in the outcome of their choices. We found strong group and individual level support for a linear relationship between feedback request rate and information gain as determined by per-trial outcome uncertainty. This information better reflects filling in the gaps of the episodic record of choice outcomes than long-term skill acquisition or assessment. Our results suggest that this easy to compute quantity can drive information-seeking, potentially allowing simple organisms to intelligently gather information for a diverse episodic record of the environment without having to anticipate the impact on future performance.

  • 15.
    Karampela, Olympia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Shared timing variability in eye and finger movements increases with interval duration: support for a distributed timing system below and above one second2015In: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology, ISSN 1747-0218, E-ISSN 1747-0226, Vol. 68, no 10, p. 1965-1980Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The origins of the ability to produce action at will at the hundreds of millisecond to second range remain poorly understood. A central issue is whether such timing is governed by one mechanism or by several different mechanisms, possibly invoked by different effectors used to perform the timing task. If two effectors invoke similar timing mechanisms, then they should both produce similar variability increase with interval duration (interonset interval) and thus adhere to Weber's law (increasing linearly with the duration of the interval to be timed). Additionally, if both effectors invoke the same timing mechanism, the variability of the effectors should be highly correlated across participants. To test these possibilities, we assessed the behavioural characteristics across fingers and eyes as effectors and compared the timing variability between and within them as a function of the interval to be produced (interresponse interval). Sixty participants produced isochronous intervals from 524 to 1431 ms with their fingers and their eyes. High correlations within each effector indicated consistent performance within participants. Consistent with a single mechanism, temporal variability in both fingers and eyes followed Weber's law, and significant correlations between eye and finger variability were found for several intervals. These results can support neither the single clock nor the multiple clock hypotheses but instead suggest a partially overlapping distributed timing system.

  • 16.
    Karampela, Olympia
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motor timing training improves sustained attention performanceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Madison, Guy
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Karampela, Olympia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Effects of practice on variability in an isochronous serial interval production task: asymptotical levels of tapping variability after training are similar to those of musicians2013In: Acta Psychologica, ISSN 0001-6918, E-ISSN 1873-6297, Vol. 143, no 1, p. 119-128Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Timing permeates everyday activities such as walking, dancing and music, yet the effect of short-term practicein this ubiquitous activity is largely unknown. In two training experiments involving sessions spreadacross several days, we examined short-term practice effects on timing variability in a sequential intervalproduction task. In Experiment 1, we varied the mode of response (e.g., drumstick and finger tapping) andthe level of sensory feedback. In Experiment 2 we varied the interval in 18 levels ranging from 500 ms to1624 ms. Both experiments showed a substantial decrease in variability within the first hour of practice,but little thereafter. This effect was similar across mode of response, amount of feedback, and interval duration,and was manifested as a reduction in both local variability (between neighboring intervals) and drift(fluctuation across multiple intervals). The results suggest mainly effects on motor implementation ratherthan on cognitive timing processes, and have methodological implications for timing studies that have notcontrolled for practice.

  • 18.
    Mäntylä, Timo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Gaze control and recollective experience in face recognition2006In: Visual cognition (Print), ISSN 1350-6285, E-ISSN 1464-0716, Vol. 14, no 3, p. 365-386Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In two experiments, we examined the relation between gaze control and recollective experience in the context of face recognition. In Experiment 1, participants studied a series of faces, while their eye movements were eliminated either during study or test, or both. Subsequently, they made remember/know judgements for each recognized test face. The preclusion of eye movements impaired explicit recollection without affecting familiarity-based recognition. In Experiment 2, participants examined unfamiliar faces under two study conditions (similarity vs. difference judgements), while their eye movements were registered. Similarity vs. difference judgements produced the opposite effects on remember/know responses, with no systematic effects on eye movements. However, face recollection was related to eye movements, so that remember responses were associated with more frequent refixations than know responses. These findings suggest that saccadic eye movements mediate the nature of recollective experience, and that explicit recollection reflects a greater consistency between study and test fixations than familiarity-based face recognition.

  • 19.
    Norqvist, Mathias
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC). Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education.
    Jonsson, Bert
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lithner, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Science and Mathematics Education. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Mathematics Education Research Centre (UMERC).
    Qwillbard, Tony
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Investigating algorithmic and creative reasoning strategies by eye tracking2019In: Journal of Mathematical Behavior, ISSN 0732-3123, E-ISSN 1873-8028, Vol. 55, article id 100701Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Imitative teaching and learning approaches have been dominating in mathematics education. Although more creative approaches (e.g. problem-based learning) have been proposed and implemented, a main challenge of mathematics education research is to document robust links between teaching, tasks, student activities and learning. This study investigates one aspect of such links, by contrasting tasks providing algorithmic solution templates with tasks requiring students’ constructions of solutions and relating this to students’ learning processes and outcomes. Information about students’ task solving strategies are gathered by corneal eye-tracking, which is related to subsequent post-test performances and individual variation in cognitive proficiency. Results show that students practicing by creative tasks outperform students practicing by imitative algorithmic tasks in the post-test, but also that students that perform less well on creative tasks tend to try ineffective imitative strategies.

  • 20.
    Ullén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Mosing, Miriam A.
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Eriksson, Helene
    Dept. of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psychometric properties and heritability of a new online testfor musicality, the Swedish Musical Discrimination Test2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 63, p. 87-93Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine, in 6881 twin individuals, the psychometric properties of a new test (the Swedish Musical Discrimination Test, SMDT) that was developed to tap auditory discrimination of musical stimuli. The SMDT consists of three subtests measuring discrimination of melodies, rhythms, and single pitches, respectively. Mean test taking times for the subtests were 3.0–4.6 min. Reliability and internal consistency were good with Cronbach’s alpha values and Spearman–Brown split-half reliabilities between .79 and .89. Subtests correlated positively (r values .27–.41). Criterion validity was demonstrated in three ways: individuals that had played a musical instrument scored higher than individuals that had not (Cohen’s d .38–.63); individuals that had taken music lessons scored higher than individuals that had not (Cohen’s d .35–.60); finally, total hours of musical training and SMDT scores correlated (r values .14–.28) among those participants that had played an instrument. Lastly, twin modelling revealed moderate heritability estimates for the three sub-scales. We conclude that the SMDT has good psychometric characteristics, short test taking time, and may serve as a useful complement to existing tests of musical ability.

  • 21. Yang, Junkai
    et al.
    Ouyang, Feiyi
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Yingyu
    Gan, Lingyu
    Zhou, Liang
    Chao, Huizhen
    Wang, Mengxue
    Zhang, Sheng
    Yang, Bo
    Wu, Xiang
    A mechanism of timing variability underlying the association between the mean and SD of asynchrony2019In: Human Movement Science, ISSN 0167-9457, E-ISSN 1872-7646, Vol. 67, article id 102500Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sensorimotor timing behaviors typically exhibit an elusive phenomenon known as the negative asynchrony. When synchronizing movements (e.g. finger taps) with an external sequence (e.g. a metronome), people’s taps precede event onsets by a few tens of milliseconds. We recently reported that asynchrony is less negative in participants with lower asynchrony variability. This indicates an association between negative asynchrony and variability of timing. Here, in 24 metronome-synchronization data sets, we modeled asynchrony series using a sensorimotor synchronization model that accounts for serial dependence of asynchronies. The results showed that the modeling well captured the negative correlation between the mean and SD of asynchrony. The finding suggests that serial dependence in asynchronies is an essential mechanism of timing variability underlying the association between the mean and SD of asynchrony.

  • 22. Yang, Junkai
    et al.
    Ouyang, Feiyi
    Holm, Linus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Huang, Yingyu
    Gan, Lingyu
    Zhou, Liang
    Chao, Huizhen
    Wang, Mengye
    He, Mengxue
    Zhang, Sheng
    Yang, Bo
    Pan, Junhao
    Wu, Xiang
    Tapping ahead of time: its association with timing variability2018In: Psychological Research, ISSN 0340-0727, E-ISSN 1430-2772Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Researchers have puzzled over the phenomenon in sensorimotor timing that people tend to tap ahead of time. When synchronizing movements (e.g., finger taps) with an external sequence (e.g., a metronome), humans typically tap tens of milliseconds before event onsets, producing the elusive negative asynchrony. Here, we present 24 metronome-tapping data sets from 8 experiments with different experimental settings, showing that less negative asynchrony is associated with lower tapping variability. Further analyses reveal that this negative mean-SD correlation of asynchrony is likely to be observed for sequence types appropriate for synchronization, as indicated by the statistically negative lag 1 autocorrelation of inter-response intervals. The reported findings indicate an association between negative asynchrony and timing variability.

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