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  • 1.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Religious Studies.
    Andlig omvårdnad: definition av begreppet och svårigheter med att ge sådan enligt svensk vårdpersonal2005In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, Vol. 25, no 4, p. 30-36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study aims at investigating how nursing staff on a Swedish oncology clinic describes the concept spiritual care and finding out which difficulties they see in providing spiritual care. A definition of the concept is constructed from the result of an earlier study by Strang, Strang & Ternestedt (2002). This definition, together with a questionnaire comprising the operationalization of the aims was handed out to nursing staff at a Swedish oncology clinic. Data was obtained from 46 staff members and analyzed with content analyze. The result shows a broad spectrum of problems associated with giving spiritual care, for example the nursing staff’s own relationship to religion, lack of education, bad organisation or other practical problems.

     

    The definition is complemented by the result of this study giving a more precise definition:

     

    Spiritual care means making possible/facilitating for the patient, with help of suitable nursing interventions, to express and discuss existential questions and to practise his/her spirituality (which may be done through the practising of a specific religion but also through activities which do not need to be of religious nature). Such suitable nursing interventions are characterized by an ambition to create space for spirituality and/or an atmosphere of humanity and security.

     

  • 2.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Religious Studies.
    Attitudes to spiritual care among nursing staff in a Swedish oncology clinic2006In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 15, no 7, p. 863-874Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives: To identify factors which may influence attitudes to spiritual care, test the relevance of these identified influencing factors in a Swedish nursing context, and replicate a part of a previous study by Strang et al. ( Journal of Clinical Nursing 2002; 11:48-57) dealing with attitudes to spiritual care in a holistic perspective. A questionnaire was handed out to all nursing staff at a Swedish oncology clinic ( n = 93) excluding the radiation therapy ward. Data were obtained from 68 nurses or nursing auxiliaries.

    Design and methods: (i) Literature review of international research reports concerning spiritual care in a nursing context. (ii) Construction of a questionnaire comprising 17 questions with given alternatives based on the previous literature study. (iii) Operationalization of the concept 'attitudes to spiritual care' into some more easily measurable questions through identification in earlier research reports of conceivable indicators of attitudes to spiritual care. (iv) Construction of a suggestion for a definition of the concept 'spiritual care' from the results of Strang et al. (2002) to be used in the questionnaire. (v) Statistical analysis of the data from the questionnaire and a comparison with previous studies.

    Results and conclusions: The replicating part of the study are mainly in accordance with Strang et al. (2002) and lead to the conclusions that holistic care (i) is desirable, (ii) should include spiritual needs of the patients and (iii) is not yet realized in Swedish health care. The identified influencing factors are relevant in a Swedish nursing context. The factors influencing the largest number of indicators of attitudes to spiritual care are 'non-organized religiousness' and 'degree of comfort while providing spiritual care'. Other influencing factors are:'belief in God', 'belief in life after death', 'organized religiousness', 'profession', and 'the perceived degree of education in spiritual care'. Relevance to clinical practice.Knowledge of attitudes towards spiritual care among nursing staff and factors influencing these attitudes will improve the possibilities of meeting the spiritual needs of patients.

  • 3. Lundmark, Mikael
    Församlingen och rollerna. Rollteoretiska och ecklesiologiska aspekter på själavård och församling2018In: Att öppna ett slutet rum. Självård och ecklesiologi / [ed] Jonas Ideström och Gunilla Löf Edberg, Stockholm: Verbum Forlag, 2018, p. 169-194Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 4.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Religiositet och coping: religionspsykologiska studier av kristna med cancer2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates the interdependence of religiosity and a life situation changed by cancer, focusing especially on the coping process. This implies analyses of a number of identified expressions of religiosity regarding prerequisites and functions in the coping process. In order to synthesize the results from the studies, the aim has been operationalized into three comprehensive research questions that were posed to each of the empirical studies of the thesis: 1) What are the functions of the analysed expressions of religiosity during the coping process? 2) What prerequisites for the influence of religiosity on the coping process can be identified?  3) How is religiosity influenced by a life situation changed by cancer? The empirical studies are presented in four separate articles. Each of the studies has its own specific research questions that are related to the comprehensive research questions. The method was qualitative and explorative. The research material was gathered with qualitative interviews of 20 Swedish informants of varying gender, age, congregational affiliation and diagnosis. The informants defined themselves as Christians and practised their Christian faith and had or had had a cancer disease. There is longitudinal data from half of the group. The theoretical framework was based on the coping theories developed by Kenneth Pargament and Ruard Ganzevoort and complemented by, among other things, the object-relations theoretical concept of transitional objects.

    The results show that most of the analysed expressions of religiosity function as a preserving coping method but some of them also function as a reconstructing coping method. In some cases, the expressions of religiosity also function as methods of attributing control, either to God or to the individual. Two main groups of prerequisites for the expressions of religiosity were identified in conjunction with the coping process: contextual and psychological. The former could in turn be divided into religious and medical contexts; the latter into several different kinds, such as perceptual psychological factors, the need to create and use transitional objects, locus of control, and personality traits. Reconstructing coping methods imply varying degrees of changes in the informants’ religiosity, both regarding the analysed expression of religiosity and other expressions of religiosity. In addition to gaining insights into the interdependence of religion and coping for Christians living with cancer, the study contributes to the development of the psychology of religion coping theory by adding to the theory: 1) suggested specifications to the current concepts of Pargament’s coping theory; 2) the concept coping tool; 3) the distinction between functional and relational regarding the concepts of coping mechanism and coping method; 4) the coping mechanism attributing, and 5) the distinction between unilateral and bilateral deferring coping styles. The results indicate that the coping process can include a creative element in the form of a search for, or creation of, functional coping methods and/or coping tools which enhance the functionality of the coping process.

  • 5.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Religious objects and the coping process: case studies on prayer cloths as transitional objects in religious coping2015In: Archive for the Psychology of Religion/ Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ISSN 0084-6724, E-ISSN 1573-6121, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 54-83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study addresses the psychological functions of physical religious objects in religious coping by presenting case studies on the use of prayer cloths. The cases are selected from a qualitative, in-depth interview study among Swedish practising Christians suffering from cancer, on religious experiences and expressions that serve in the process of coping with a life situation changed by the disease. It is argued that current psychological theories on coping and religion lack tools for understanding the role of physical religious objects in the process of religious coping. A theoretical framework that remedies this problem is suggested and applied to the case studies. The key feature of the theoretical framework is that it modifies and extends the coping theory of Kenneth Pargament by drawing on resources from object relations theory, especially the concept of "transitional object". The results suggests that the creation and/or handling of transitional objects is a reconstructing or preserving coping method, and that prayer cloths function as transitional objects when they (a) facilitate transition/movement between the inner subjective world and the outer objective world by being charged with significance, and (b) function as a coping tool for conserving this significance.

  • 6. Lundmark, Mikael
    Religiös och icke-religiös andlighet2014In: Omvårdnadens grunder. Perspektiv och förhållningssätt. Andra upplagan. / [ed] F. Friberg & J. Öhlen, Studentlitteratur AB, 2014, 2, p. 237-266Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Religiös och icke-religiös andlighet2019In: Omvårdnadens grunder – Perspektiv och förhållningssätt. Tredje upplagan / [ed] F. Friberg & J. Öhlen, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2019, 3, p. 509-537Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Religious Studies.
    Reply on Linda Ross’ Commentary on Lundmark M (2006) Attitudes to spiritual care among nursing staff in a Swedish oncology clinic2006In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, 15(7), p. 931-932Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 9.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sanctification of health care interventions as a coping method2016In: Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion: Volume 27 / [ed] Andrew Village, Ralph Hood, Brill Academic Publishers, 2016, Vol. 27, p. 1-23Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Suffering for others as religious meaning-making: varieties, prerequisites, and functions in the coping process of a sample of practising Christians living with cancer2016In: Mental Health, Religion & Culture, ISSN 1367-4676, E-ISSN 1469-9737, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 522-537Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The coping method suffering for others as religious meaning-making (SORM) is analysed regarding its varieties, prerequisites, and functions in a group (n = 10) of practising Christians living with cancer. In-depth interviews are featured in this qualitative, longitudinal study of the interdependence of religiosity and coping. A common feature of the analysed narratives is the idea that the informant's suffering would have – or at least had the potential to have – a positive effect on other individuals. This idea is identified as the "coping tool" of the coping method. Three different variants of SORM are identified, with a variety of prerequisites. The function in all cases is to conserve the significant object sense of meaning and, in some cases: survival. A case study is presented that shows how the coping method can be maintained over time by changing the coping tools of the method when they lose their efficacy in the coping process.

  • 11.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Religious Studies.
    Vocation in Theology-Based Nursing Theories2007In: Nursing Ethics, ISSN 0969-7330, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 767-780Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Lundmark, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    When Mrs B met Jesus during radiotherapy: a single case study of a christic vision : psychological prerequisites and functions and considerations on narrative methodology2010In: Archive for the Psychology of Religion/ Archiv für Religionspsychologie, ISSN 0084-6724, E-ISSN 1573-6121, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 27-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses a Christic vision, perceived by a woman during a radiotherapy session against  her cervix cancer. A detailed description of the vision is presented based on a photographic documentation of the radiotherapy room, a painting of the vision made by the visionary herself and narratives, retold two weeks after the vision, and again, one year later. Perceptual, social, and psychodynamic psychological theories are used to analyze the psychological prerequisites of the vision. It is shown that the vision is, in psychological terms, an illusion rather than a hallucination. Different possible origin mechanisms to the vision are discussed as well as why the vision is attributed to Jesus. The psychological function of the vision is analyzed with regard to the visionary's religious behavior and the role of this experience in coping with the cancer disease. It is argued that the visionary's religious commitment is being strengthened and that the vision functions as a catalyst for already formed religious coping mechanisms. It also initiates at least one new kind of religious coping mechanism in the visionary's coping system. A critical discussion of methods in research concerning narratives of religious experiences is done in the light of the results of the analyses undertaken in this paper where some problems with deep interviews conducted at one point in time is highlighted. This kind of data collection appears more fragile when attempting to explain a phenomenon in terms of cause and events (in this case: the psychological prerequisites of the vision) than when trying to understand a phenomenon (in this case: the psychological function of the vision).

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