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  • 1. Borekci, Gulay
    et al.
    Lee, Natuschka M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rapid Microscope Based Identification Method for Tuberculosis and Other Mycobacteria:: Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) - Current State of The Art and Future Research Needs2016In: Tuberculosis, 2016Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the major increasing causes of illness and death worldwide, especially in Asia and Africa. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of mycobacteria is important in the prevention and effective treatment of tuberculosis. Today, conventional culture methods are still accepted as the gold standard for the identification of mycobacteria in routine mycobacteriology laboratories. However, even if these methods are highly efficient and useful, these methods are time-consuming and labor-laborious. In recent years, several novel DNA-based and non-invasive techniques, such as RAMAN spectroscopy and microcalorimetry have been developed for a more rapid and reliable identification. Unfortunately, these methods are not capable of visualizing the cells in their natural environment such as in tissues. Visualization of cells may however provide fundamental, complementary information for the overall understanding of the molecular and microbial ecology of mycobacteria in disease processes. Here, we present a current state of the art review of the Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) methods which can be used to identify, visualize and quantify whole cells of different species of mycobacteria, especially the tuberculosis complex, and their associates in their natural environment without prior cultivation. Although this method also allows for an easy, rapid and cost-efficient identification (~1-3 hours) 2Tuberculosis | www.smgebooks.comCopyright  Borekci G.This book chapter is open access distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows users to download, copy and build upon published articles even for commercial purposes, as long as the author and publisher are properly credited. and simultaneous in situ visualization of different microbial species, it has so far only been used to a limited extent. Here, we will discuss both the potentials as well as limitations of FISH for the detection of mycobacteria and other relevant associates, and suggest some future research needs.

  • 2. de Vera, Jean-Pierre
    et al.
    Alawi, Mashal
    Backhaus, Theresa
    Baque, Mickael
    Billi, Daniela
    Boettger, Ute
    Berger, Thomas
    Bohmeier, Maria
    Cockell, Charles
    Demets, Rene
    de la Torre Noetzel, Rosa
    Edwards, Howell
    Elsaesser, Andreas
    Fagliarone, Claudia
    Fiedler, Annelie
    Foing, Bernard
    Foucher, Frederic
    Fritz, Joerg
    Hanke, Franziska
    Herzog, Thomas
    Horneck, Gerda
    Huebers, Heinz-Wilhelm
    Huwe, Bjoern
    Joshi, Jasmin
    Kozyrovska, Natalia
    Kruchten, Martha
    Lasch, Peter
    Lee, Natuschka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Leuko, Stefan
    Leya, Thomas
    Lorek, Andreas
    Martinez-Frias, Jesus
    Meessen, Joachim
    Moritz, Sophie
    Moeller, Ralf
    Olsson-Francis, Karen
    Onofri, Silvano
    Ott, Sieglinde
    Pacelli, Claudia
    Podolich, Olga
    Rabbow, Elke
    Reitz, Guenther
    Rettberg, Petra
    Reva, Oleg
    Rothschild, Lynn
    Garcia Sancho, Leo
    Schulze-Makuch, Dirk
    Selbmann, Laura
    Serrano, Paloma
    Szewzyk, Ulrich
    Verseux, Cyprien
    Wadsworth, Jennifer
    Wagner, Dirk
    Westall, Frances
    Wolter, David
    Zucconi, Laura
    Limits of Life and the Habitability of Mars: The ESA Space Experiment BIOMEX on the ISS2019In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 145-157Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    BIOMEX (BIOlogy and Mars EXperiment) is an ESA/Roscosmos space exposure experiment housed within the exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 outside the Zvezda module on the International Space Station (ISS). The design of the multiuser facility supports-among others-the BIOMEX investigations into the stability and level of degradation of space-exposed biosignatures such as pigments, secondary metabolites, and cell surfaces in contact with a terrestrial and Mars analog mineral environment. In parallel, analysis on the viability of the investigated organisms has provided relevant data for evaluation of the habitability of Mars, for the limits of life, and for the likelihood of an interplanetary transfer of life (theory of lithopanspermia). In this project, lichens, archaea, bacteria, cyanobacteria, snow/permafrost algae, meristematic black fungi, and bryophytes from alpine and polar habitats were embedded, grown, and cultured on a mixture of martian and lunar regolith analogs or other terrestrial minerals. The organisms and regolith analogs and terrestrial mineral mixtures were then exposed to space and to simulated Mars-like conditions by way of the EXPOSE-R2 facility. In this special issue, we present the first set of data obtained in reference to our investigation into the habitability of Mars and limits of life. This project was initiated and implemented by the BIOMEX group, an international and interdisciplinary consortium of 30 institutes in 12 countries on 3 continents. Preflight tests for sample selection, results from ground-based simulation experiments, and the space experiments themselves are presented and include a complete overview of the scientific processes required for this space experiment and postflight analysis. The presented BIOMEX concept could be scaled up to future exposure experiments on the Moon and will serve as a pretest in low Earth orbit.

  • 3.
    Haas, Julia Christa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Street, Nathaniel R.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Sjödin, Andreas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Division of CBRN Security and Defence, FOI–Swedish Defence Research Agency, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lee, Natuschka M.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Högberg, Mona N.
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden.
    Näsholm, Torgny
    Department of Forest Ecology and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Umeå, Sweden; Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hurry, Vaughan
    Umeå Plant Science Centre, Department of Forest Genetics and Plant Physiology, SLU, Umeå, Sweden.
    Microbial community response to growing season and plant nutrient optimisation in a boreal Norway spruce forest2018In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 125, p. 197-209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interactions between Norway spruce trees and bacteria and fungi in nutrient limited boreal forests can be beneficial for tree growth and fitness. Tree-level effects of anthropogenic nutrient addition have been well studied, however understanding of the long-term effects on the associated microbiota is limited. Here, we report on the sensitivity of microbial community composition to the growing season and nutrient additions. Highthroughput sequencing of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and fungal ITS1 region was used to characterise changes in the microbial community after application of a complete mineral nutrient mixture for five and 25 years. The experiment was conducted using the Flakaliden forest research site in northern boreal Sweden and included naturally low nutrient control plots. Needle and fine root samples of Norway spruce were sampled in addition to bulk soil during one growing season to provide comprehensive insight into phyllosphere and belowground microbiota community changes. The phyllosphere microbiota was compositionally distinct from the belowground communities and phyllosphere diversity increased significantly over the growing season but was not influenced by the improved nutrient status of the trees. In both root and soil samples, alpha diversity of fungal, in particular ectomycorrhizal fungi (EMF), and bacterial communities increased after long-term nutrient optimisation, and with increasing years of treatment the composition of the fungal and bacterial communities changed toward a community with a higher relative abundance of nitrophilic EMF and bacterial species but did not cause complete loss of nitrophobic species from the ecosystem. From this, we conclude that 25 years of continuous nutrient addition to a boreal spruce stand increased phylotype richness and diversity of the microbiota in the soil, and at the root-soil interface, suggesting that long-term anthropogenic nutrient inputs can have positive effects on belowground biodiversity that may enhance ecosystem robustness. Future studies are needed to assess the impact of these changes to the microbiota on ecosystem carbon storage and nitrogen cycling in boreal forests.

  • 4. Horneck, Gerda
    et al.
    Walter, Nicolas
    Westall, Frances
    Grenfell, John Lee
    Martin, William F.
    Gomez, Felipe
    Leuko, Stefan
    Lee, Natuschka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Department of Microbiology, Technical University München, München, Germany.
    Onofri, Silvano
    Tsiganis, Kleomenis
    Saladino, Raffaele
    Pilat-Lohinger, Elke
    Palomba, Ernesto
    Harrison, Jesse
    Rull, Fernando
    Muller, Christian
    Strazzulla, Giovanni
    Brucato, John R.
    Rettberg, Petra
    Capria, Maria Teresa
    AstRoMap European Astrobiology Roadmap2016In: Astrobiology, ISSN 1531-1074, E-ISSN 1557-8070, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 201-243Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European AstRoMap project (supported by the European Commission Seventh Framework Programme) surveyed the state of the art of astrobiology in Europe and beyond and produced the first European roadmap for astrobiology research. In the context of this roadmap, astrobiology is understood as the study of the origin, evolution, and distribution of life in the context of cosmic evolution; this includes habitability in the Solar System and beyond. The AstRoMap Roadmap identifies five research topics, specifies several key scientific objectives for each topic, and suggests ways to achieve all the objectives. The five AstRoMap Research Topics are

    1. • Research Topic 1: Origin and Evolution of Planetary Systems

    2. • Research Topic 2: Origins of Organic Compounds in Space

    3. • Research Topic 3: Rock-Water-Carbon Interactions, Organic Synthesis on Earth, and Steps to Life

    4. • Research Topic 4: Life and Habitability

    5. • Research Topic 5: Biosignatures as Facilitating Life Detection

    It is strongly recommended that steps be taken towards the definition and implementation of a European Astrobiology Platform (or Institute) to streamline and optimize the scientific return by using a coordinated infrastructure and funding system.

  • 5.
    Lee, Natuschka N
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Fritz, Jörg
    Fries, Marc D
    Gil, Jose F
    Beck, Andreas
    Pellinen-Wannberg, Asta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Schmitz, Birger
    Steele, Andrew
    Hofmann, Beda A
    The extreme biology of meteorites: their role in understanding the origin and distribution of life on earth and in the Universe2017In: Adaption of microbial life to environmental extremes: novel research results and application / [ed] Helga Stan-Lotter, Sergiu Fendrihan, Cham: Springer Publishing Company, 2017, 2, p. 283-325Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meteorites have captured our fascination since our early history – they have evoked awe, fear, an irresistible curiosity, and numerous lively debates. Former historians have indicated that many of the ancient cultures and civilizations in Europe, Africa, Asia, the Inuit, and the native Indians in America regarded both the meteorite and the location of their fall as sacred. Thus, they used the meteorites as religious objects or for craft design like jewelry, weapons, or even practical things like tools and horse shoes. Today, meteorites continue to capture our fascination through popular cultural formats such as science fiction and also as a scientific window that reveals the secrets of the Solar System formation. Within academia, meteorites have always fomented keen scientific debate. It was not until the early nineteenth century that the cosmic origin of meteorites, i.e., being truly not tellurian, was approved by the scientific community after the late eighteenth-century work of Ernst F. Chladni (1794). This implied for the first time that there are other smaller bodies in the sky besides the Moon. After this, several other lively debates followed on controversial findings and hypotheses around the role of meteorites in the universe and for the evolutionary course of life on Earth, often in connection with the profound difficulties to approach this subject in an adequate scientific way. Principally the different types of meteorites (asteroids, meteors, etc.) can be viewed as a most extreme or exotic substrate, habitat, and transport mode of chemicals and possibly even of cell-based life forms for several reasons:

    1. (i)

      They have experienced a remarkable history since their origin as condensates from the Solar Nebula, more or less metamorphosed or molten fragments of asteroids, or rocks from Mars or our Moon.

    2. (ii)

      The meteorites have been exposed to multiple extreme conditions ranging from milliseconds to billions of years duration when traveling through the interplanetary space, until they fell down on an astronomical body like Earth.

    3. (iii)

      Once on Earth, the meteorites get exposed to different weathering conditions, which often makes it a challenge to retrieve their former history in an unambiguous way.

  • 6. Lehto, Kirsi
    et al.
    Kauko, Anni
    Nurmi, Pasi
    Lee, Natuschka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Chatzitheodoridis, Elias
    Lehto, Harry
    eTimeTrek: digital deep history of the Universe2019In: EPJ Web of Conferences: The International Symposium on Education in Astronomy and Astrobiology (ISE2A 2017) / [ed] Deustua, S Eastwood, K TenKate, IL, EDP Sciences, 2019, Vol. 200, article id 01020Conference paper (Refereed)
1 - 6 of 6
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