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  • 1. Alberto Diaz-Sanchez, Adrian
    et al.
    Corona-Gonzalez, Belkis
    Meli, Marina L.
    Obregon Alvarez, Dasiel
    Vega Canizares, Ernesto
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Lobo Rivero, Evelyn
    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
    First molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species (Mycoplasma spp.) in water buffalo and dairy cattle herds in Cuba2019In: Parasites & Vectors, ISSN 1756-3305, E-ISSN 1756-3305, Vol. 12, article id 78Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Hemotropic mycoplasmas (aka hemoplasmas) are small bacteria which cause infectious anemia in several mammalian species including humans. Information on hemoplasma infections in Cuban bovines remains scarce and no studies applying molecular methods have been performed so far. The aim of the present study was to utilize real-time PCR and sequence analysis to investigate dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba for the presence of bovine hemoplasma species.

    Results: A total of 80 blood samples from 39 buffalo and 41 dairy cattle were investigated for the presence of Mycoplasma wenyonii and Candidatus Mycoplasma haemobos using two species-specific real-time TaqMan PCR assays. PCR results revealed overall 53 (66.2%; 95% CI: 55.3-75.7%) positive animals for M. wenyonii and 33 (41.2%; 95% CI: 31.1-52.2%) for Ca. M. haemobos; the latter were all co-infections with M. wenyonii. The sample prevalences were similar in cattle and buffalo. Based on the sequence analysis of the nearly full-length 16S rRNA gene from two cattle and two buffalo, the presence of M. wenyonii and Ca. M. haemobos was confirmed. Statistical analysis revealed that buffalo and cattle one year of age or older were more frequently infected with M. wenyonii or Ca. M. haemobos than younger animals. PCR-positivity was not associated with anemia; however, the infection stage was unknown (acute infection versus chronic carriers).

    Conclusions: The high occurrence of bovine hemoplasma infections in buffalo and dairy cattle may have a significant impact on Cuban livestock production. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first molecular evidence of bovine hemoplasma species infection in dairy cattle and buffalo from Cuba and the Caribbean.

  • 2.
    Burgos Macías, D. I.
    et al.
    Technical University of Manabí (UTM), Av. Urbina y Che Guevara, EC 130103, Portoviejo, Ecuador.
    Pérez Ruano, Miguel
    Agricultural University of Havana (UNAH), Carretera de Jamaica y Autopista Nacional, Apartado 18, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Bulnes Goicochea, Carlos A.
    Technical University of Manabí (UTM), Av. Urbina y Che Guevara, EC 130103, Portoviejo, Ecuador.
    Zambrano Aguayo, M.D.
    Technical University of Manabí (UTM), Av. Urbina y Che Guevara, EC 130103, Portoviejo, Ecuador.
    Sandoval Valencia, H.P.
    Laboratories of the Animal Diagnostics Directorate, Av. Interoceánica Km 14 1/2 y González Suárez, Sector La Granja, Tumbaco, Quito, Ecuador.
    Falconí Flores, M.A.
    Laboratories of the Animal Diagnostics Directorate, Av. Interoceánica Km 14 1/2 y González Suárez, Sector La Granja, Tumbaco, Quito, Ecuador.
    Vera Loor, L.
    Ecuadorian Agency for Agriculture Quality Assurance (AGROCALIDAD), Manabí, Ecuador.
    Revelo Ruales, A.P.
    National Institute of Public Health Research (INSPI), Av. Huayna Capac 1–212 and Pisar Capac, Cuenca 010104, Ecuador.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Determination of the seroprevalence of Leptospira spp. and the main serovars circulating in cattle in the province of Manabí, Ecuador2019In: Revue scientifique et technique (International Office of Epizootics), ISSN 0253-1933, Vol. 38, no 3, article id 14032019-00143-ESArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 3.
    Coronado, Liani
    et al.
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Bohórquez, José Alejandro
    OIE Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, IRTA-CReSA, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Muñoz-González, Sara
    OIE Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, IRTA-CReSA, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Pérez, Lester Josue
    University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, Illinois, 61802, United States.
    Rosell, Rosa
    OIE Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, IRTA-CReSA, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Delgado, Laiyen
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Perera, Carmen Laura
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Frías, María Teresa
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Ganges, Llilianne
    OIE Reference Laboratory for Classical Swine Fever, IRTA-CReSA, Campus de la Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain.
    Investigation of chronic and persistent classical swine fever infections under field conditions and their impact on vaccine efficacy2019In: BMC Veterinary Research, ISSN 1746-6148, E-ISSN 1746-6148, Vol. 15, no 1, article id 247Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Recent studies have hypothesized that circulation of classical swine fever virus (CSFV) variants when the immunity induced by the vaccine is not sterilizing might favour viral persistence. Likewise, in addition to congenital viral persistence, CSFV has also been proven to generate postnatal viral persistence. Under experimental conditions, postnatal persistently infected pigs were unable to elicit a specific immune response to a CSFV live attenuated vaccine via the mechanism known as superinfection exclusion (SIE). Here, we study whether subclinical forms of classical swine fever (CSF) may be present in a conventional farm in an endemic country and evaluate vaccine efficacy under these types of infections in field conditions.

    Results: Six litters born from CSF-vaccinated gilts were randomly chosen from a commercial Cuban farm at 33 days of age (weaning). At this time, the piglets were vaccinated with a lapinized live attenuated CSFV C-strain vaccine. Virological and immunological analyses were performed before and after vaccination. The piglets were clinically healthy at weaning; however, 82% were viraemic, and the rectal swabs in most of the remaining 18% were positive. Only five piglets from one litter showed a specific antibody response. The tonsils and rectal swabs of five sows were CSFV positive, and only one of the sows showed an antibody response. After vaccination, 98% of the piglets were unable to clear the virus and to seroconvert, and some of the piglets showed polyarthritis and wasting after 36 days post vaccination. The CSFV E2 glycoprotein sequences recovered from one pig per litter were the same. The amino acid positions 72(R), 20(L) and 195(N) of E2 were identified in silico as positions associated with adaptive advantage.

    Conclusions: Circulation of chronic and persistent CSF infections was demonstrated in field conditions under a vaccination programme. Persistent infection was predominant. Here, we provide evidence that, in field conditions, subclinical infections are not detected by clinical diagnosis and, despite being infected with CSFV, the animals are vaccinated, rather than diagnosed and eliminated. These animals are refractory to vaccination, likely due to the SIE phenomenon. Improvement of vaccination strategies and diagnosis of subclinical forms of CSF is imperative for CSF eradication.

  • 4.
    Coronado, Liani
    et al.
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Rios, Liliam
    University of New Brunswick, Reiman Cancer Research Laboratory, Faculty of Medicine, Saint John, NB, E2L 4L5 Canada.
    Frías, María Teresa
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Amarán, Laymara
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Naranjo, Paula
    Veterinary Medicine Institute, Havana, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Perera, Carmen Laura
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Prieto, Felix
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Perez, Lester J
    University of Illinois, College of Veterinary Science, Department of Clinical Veterinary Medicine, Urbana, Illinois, 61802 United States.
    Positive selection pressure on E2 protein of classical swine fever virus drives variations in virulence, pathogenesis and antigenicity: implication for epidemiological surveillance in endemic areas2019In: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, ISSN 1865-1674, E-ISSN 1865-1682, Vol. 66, no 6, p. 2362-2382Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical swine fever (CSF), caused by CSF virus (CSFV), is considered one of the most important infectious diseases with devasting consequences for the pig industry. Recent reports describe the emergence of new CSFV-strains resulting from the action of positive selection pressure, due mainly to the bottleneck effect generated by ineffective vaccination. Even though a decrease in the genetic diversity of the positive selected CSFV-strains has been observed by several research groups, there is little information about the effect of this selective force on the virulence degree, antigenicity and pathogenicity of this type of strains. Hence, the aim of the current study was to determine the effect of the positive selection pressure on these three parameters of CSFV-strains, emerged as result of the bottleneck effects induced by unproper vaccination in a CSF-endemic area. Moreover, the effect of the positive selected strains on the epidemiological surveillance system was assessed. By the combination of in vitro, in vivo and immunoinformatic approaches we revealed that the action of the positive selection pressure induces a decrease in virulence and alteration in pathogenicity and antigenicity. However, we also noted that the evolutionary process of CSFV, especially in segregated microenvironments, could contribute to the gain-fitness event, restoring the highly virulent pattern of the circulating strains. Besides, we denoted that the presence of low virulent strains selected by bottleneck effect after inefficient vaccination can lead to a relevant challenge for the epidemiological surveillance of CSF, contributing to under-reports of the disease, favoring the perpetuation of the virus in the field. In this study B-cell and CTL epitopes on the E2 3D-structure model were also identified. Thus, the current study provides novel and significant insights into variation in virulence, pathogenesis and antigenicity experienced by CSFV strains after the positive selection pressure effect.

  • 5. Díaz-Sánchez, Adrian Alberto
    et al.
    Meli, Marina L.
    Obregón Álvarez, Dasiel
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Cabezas-Cruz, Alejandro
    Hofmann-Lehmann, Regina
    Corona-González, Belkis
    Development and application of a multiplex TaqMan® real-time qPCR assay for the simultaneous detection of anaplasma marginale and theileria annulata and molecular characterization of anaplasma marginale from cattle in Western Cuba."/>2020In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 101356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anaplasmosis and theileriosis are considered the most important tick-borne diseases for livestock production worldwide, causing significant economic losses in tropical and subtropical regions. The present study was aimed to develop a multiplex TaqMan® qPCR assay to simultaneously detect Anaplasma marginale and Theileria annulata and to applied it to investigate naturally infected cattle in Cuba. The assay was highly specific, sensible, and efficient; it was more sensitive than a well-established nested PCR and detected 1 DNA copy of each target. Consistent repeatability and reproducibility within and between multiplex qPCR runs was shown. A total of 223 blood samples collected in western Cuba were analyzed for haemoparasites infection in cattle. The multiplex qPCR assay detected A. marginale in 213 samples (95.5%; CI: 95%; 91.9%–97.5%), but all samples were negative for T. annulata. Additionally, the genetic diversity of A. marginale was assessed using 16S rRNA, MSP1a and MSP4 nucleotide and protein sequences. The MSP1a tandem repeats ranged from three to five, and twelve different MSP1a tandem repeats of A. marginale were found, which presented genotypes C, E, and G in the 5ʹUTR microsatellite region. Phylogenetic analysis using the msp4 gene showed that Cuban strains were closely related to others previously reported in Mexico, Brazil and Asian countries. The multiplex qPCR described here proved to be a rapid, specific and cost-effective mean for the simultaneous detection of A. marginale and T. annulata. Further epidemiological studies using this assay will improve the surveillance of the associated diseases in regions where they are endemic.

  • 6.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. National Center for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Center for Reduction of the Risk of Disasters in Animal Health, Carretera de Jamaica y Autopista Nacional, San José de las Lajas, Cuba.
    Centelles Garcia, Yosdany
    Alfonso Zamora, Pastor
    Ferrer-Miranda, Edyniesky
    Nieves Montano, Damarys de las
    Blanco, Miriam
    Gutierrez, Yobani
    Calistri, Paolo
    Regis Santoro, Kleber
    Irian Percedo, Maria
    Classical Swine Fever in a Cuban Zone Intended for Eradication: Spatiotemporal Clustering and Risk Factors2020In: Frontiers in Veterinary Science, ISSN 2297-1769, Vol. 7, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in Cuba, and an eradication strategy by zones is planned by the Official Veterinary Service. The aim of this study was to identify high-risk areas of CSF and the risk factors associated with the disease occurrence in the Pinar del Rio province, one of the prioritized areas in the eradication strategy. The outbreak occurrence at district level was analyzed through a 7-year period (2009 to 2015). A high-risk cluster (RR = 5.13, 95% CI 3.49-7.56) was detected during the last 2 years of the study period in the eastern half of the province, with 38 out of 97 districts included. The rate of CSF-affected holdings had a significant increase during 2014-2015 and seems to have occurred mainly in the high-risk cluster area. Swine population density by district (heads/km(2)) and road length (km) by district were associated with the disease outbreak occurrence. These results provide new insights into the knowledge of the epidemiology of the disease in Cuban endemic conditions and can contribute to improving the control and the eradication strategy in this situation.

  • 7.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Coronado, Liani
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Amarán, Laymara
    National Laboratory for Veterinary Diagnostic (NLVD), Avenida 51 No. 33 222, Arroyo Arenas, La Lisa, La Habana, Cuba.
    Perera, Carmen Laura
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Centelles, Yosdany
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Montano, Damarys N.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Alfonso, Pastor
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Fernández, Octavio
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Santoro, Kleber R.
    Postgraduate Program in Biometrics and Applied Statistics (PPGBEA), Federal Rural University of Pernambuco (UFRPE). Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros s/n. Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900.
    Frías-Lepoureau, María Teresa
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Descriptive epidemiology of endemic Classical Swine Fever in Cuba2018In: Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, ISSN 1695-971X, E-ISSN 2171-9292, Vol. 16, no 2, article id e0506Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Cuba, Classical Swine Fever (CSF) has become an endemic disease since 1993 with several outbreaks each year despite the compulsory vaccination program implemented. To deepen the disease characterization is essential for improving the CSF control measures and to achieve its eradication. The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological characteristics of CSF occurrences in Cuba during a seven-year period within the endemic situation. Data on CSF occurrence from January 2010 to December 2016 were analyzed. The seven-year period shows a tendency of the number of affected premises to increase (r=0.31, p=0.005) over time (month). Directional distribution (1SD ellipse) indicated a great dispersion of affected premises by year across the country with a trend to a higher occurrence to the west. It was demonstrated by the negative correlation (r=-0.893, p=0.007) between the longitude of the mean center of the ellipses over the years. The Kernel density indicated that the disease was spatially distributed across the whole country, but four hot spots were found in the western (Pinar del Río and Artemisa) and eastern (Guantánamo and Holguín) regions. The clinical sign most frequently reported in affected premises was fever, followed by loss of appetite, conjunctivitis, and diarrhea. The most frequent observed clinical signs were non-specific, which complicates the disease recognition in the field. The obtained results have a practical importance for improving the efficiency of the CSF control program implemented in the country and contribute to enhance epidemiological surveillance taking into account the risk based principles.

  • 8.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Häggström Lundevaller, Erling
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sheridan, Scott C
    Department of Geography, Kent State University, Kent, OH 4242, USA.
    Schumann, Barbara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Association between Weather Types based on the Spatial Synoptic Classification and All-Cause Mortality in Sweden, 1991⁻20142019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 10, article id 1696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much is known about the adverse health impact of high and low temperatures. The Spatial Synoptic Classification is a useful tool for assessing weather effects on health because it considers the combined effect of meteorological factors rather than temperature only. The aim of this study was to assess the association between oppressive weather types and daily total mortality in Sweden. Time-series Poisson regression with distributed lags was used to assess the relationship between oppressive weather (Dry Polar, Dry Tropical, Moist Polar, and Moist Tropical) and daily deaths over 14 days in the extended summer (May to September), and 28 days during the extended winter (November to March), from 1991 to 2014. Days not classified as oppressive weather served as the reference category. We computed relative risks with 95% confidence intervals, adjusting for trends and seasonality. Results of the southern (Skåne and Stockholm) and northern (Jämtland and Västerbotten) locations were pooled using meta-analysis for regional-level estimates. Analyses were performed using the dlnm and mvmeta packages in R. During summer, in the South, the Moist Tropical and Dry Tropical weather types increased the mortality at lag 0 through lag 3 and lag 6, respectively. Moist Polar weather was associated with mortality at longer lags. In the North, Dry Tropical weather increased the mortality at shorter lags. During winter, in the South, Dry Polar and Moist Polar weather increased mortality from lag 6 to lag 10 and from lag 19 to lag 26, respectively. No effect of oppressive weather was found in the North. The effect of oppressive weather types in Sweden varies across seasons and regions. In the North, a small study sample reduces precision of estimates, while in the South, the effect of oppressive weather types is more evident in both seasons.

  • 9.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Moya, Vilmaris Matos
    Centro de Desarrollo de la Montaña (CDM), Limonar de Monte Ruz, Km 1, El Salvador, Guantánamo, Cuba.
    Montano, Damarys N.
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Centelles, Yosdany
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Percedo, María Irian
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Diagnosis and Risk Analysis of the Caribbean Region, La Habana 32700, Cuba.
    Alfonso, Pastor
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Spatial modeling of oestrosis in sheep in Guantánamo province, Cuba2018In: Small Ruminant Research, ISSN 0921-4488, E-ISSN 1879-0941, Vol. 164, p. 32-38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oestrosis is a myiasis caused by larvae of the fly Oestrus ovis (Linné 1761, Diptera: Oestridae) that occurs worldwide. Oestrosis was first reported in Cuba in the middle of the 1990s in the municipality of Imías, Guantánamo province. Determining the spatial pattern and risk factors for the disease might be useful to help explain the disease occurrence and select options for disease surveillance and control. In the present study, the number and distribution of affected premises was shown to have been similar throughout the period studied (2006–2010). The disease was found to occur mostly in the southern and western parts of the province with high dispersion in an east-west direction over the period of study. Three “hotspots” (Getis-Ord Gi*) were identified in the province in which there was an increased risk of disease occurrence. Geographically Weighted Logistic Regression was used to test associations between environmental variables and disease occurrence. Results demonstrated that areas with lower mean annual rainfall, higher mean temperature, and higher sheep density had the highest risk of disease occurrence. High risk areas are mostly located in the western zone (El Salvador, Niceto Pérez and Guantánamo municipalities) and also in the central zone (coast of San Antonio del Sur and Imías). The associations between oestrosis cases and local environmental characteristics varied geographically within the study area. These results might be useful to improve disease surveillance and control. Treatment of animals in these “hotspots”, as well as in other places where the risk is higher should be prioritized to more efficiently reduce the harmful impact of this disease.

  • 10.
    Fonseca-Rodríguez, Osvaldo
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Pinheiro Júnior, José Wilton
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Aparecido Mota, Rinaldo
    Department of Veterinary Medicine, Federal Rural University of Pernambuco, Recife, PE, Brazil.
    Spatiotemporal Analysis of Glanders in Brazil2019In: Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, ISSN 0737-0806, E-ISSN 1542-7412, Vol. 78, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Brazil, glanders remains a serious problem, with the obligatory sacrifice of disease-positive animals without compensation. Each year, glanders cases are reported in several regions of the country, causing severe economic losses and trade restrictions. The present study describes and discusses the occurrence of glanders foci in Brazil during a 12-year period from 2005 to 2016. The highest frequency of reported affected holdings during the study period was in the northeast region. Moreover, during this period, the disease incidence in Brazil showed an overall increasing tendency. The number of affected holdings significantly increased during the last four years of the period, and more cases were noted during the months of May and June. Spatiotemporally, there are four high-risk glanders clusters: (1) cluster A (relative risk [RR = 6.51, P < .0001) involved the northeast region from March 2008 to February 2014; (2) cluster B (RR = 17.37, P < .0001) involved a southeast region state from March 2013 to June 2015; (3) cluster C (RR = 6.92, P < .0001) involved the states in the midwest, southeast, and south regions of Brazil from March 2015 to May 2016; and (4) cluster D (RR = 19.07, P < .0001) involved a north region state from October 2015 to April 2016. Only two states of the north region (Acre and Amapá) did not experience glanders during the study period.

  • 11.
    Navarrete, Maylin G.
    et al.
    Department of Animal Prevention, Veterinary Medicine College, Agrarian University of Habana, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Cordeiro, Matheus D.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Silva, Claudia B.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Massard, Carlos Luiz
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    López, Eugenio R.
    Department of Animal Prevention, Veterinary Medicine College, Agrarian University of Habana, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Rodríguez, Julio César A.
    Department of Animal Prevention, Veterinary Medicine College, Agrarian University of Habana, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Ribeiro, Carla C.D.U.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Fonseca, Adivaldo H.
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Veterinary Institute, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, Br 465, km 7, Seropedica, Rio de Janeiro 23897-000, Brazil.
    Serological and molecular diagnosis of Ehrlichia canis and associated risk factors in dogs domiciled in western Cuba2018In: Veterinary Parasitology: Regional Studies and Reports, ISSN 2405-9390, Vol. 14, p. 170-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ehrlichia canis is a rickettsia transmitted by the tick, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and is the causative agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME). In Cuba, the first diagnosis of CME was made in 2001, but few studies have since investigated this disease locally. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence of E. canis in dogs domiciled in four municipalities within the western region of Cuba and determine the associated risk factors. Blood was drawn from 378 selected dogs living in four municipalities in two provinces of western Cuba. From the total number of samples, 206 plasma samples were selected to perform an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect antibodies against E. canis. Using the original 378 samples of extracted DNA, a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) was performed to amplify a specific fragment of the 16S rRNA gene of E. canis. Analysis of the 206 plasma samples revealed a total of 162 animals that were seropositive for E. canis (78.64%) with a density index between 109.5 and 970.7. In contrast, 179 samples were positive based on the nPCR assay (47.35%). As well, there was a high concordance (kappa = 0.7), calculated through the Kappa index, between the animals found to be positive based on nPCR and those determined based on ELISA. The analysis of risk factors showed that residing in the municipality of Boyeros in addition to having a history of infestation by ticks increases the probability of having a positive result based on nPCR.

  • 12.
    Sosa, Dayana
    et al.
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Cuba.
    Hilber, Isabel
    Agroscope, Environmental Analytics, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Faure, Roberto
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Cuba.
    Bartolomé, Nora
    Agroscope, Environmental Analytics, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Fonseca Rodriguez, Osvaldo
    National Centre for Animal and Plant Health (CENSA), OIE Collaborating Centre for Disaster Risk Reduction in Animal Health, San José de las Lajas, Mayabeque, Cuba.
    Keller, Armin
    Swiss Soil Monitoring Network NABO, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Bucheli, Thomas D.
    Agroscope, Environmental Analytics, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Escobar, Arturo
    Centro Nacional de Sanidad Agropecuaria (CENSA), San José de las Lajas, Cuba.
    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and polychlorinated biphenyls in urban and semi-urban soils of Havana, Cuba2019In: Journal of Soils and Sediments, ISSN 1439-0108, E-ISSN 1614-7480, Vol. 19, no 3, p. 1328-1341Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in Havana were quantified and analyzed in relation to possible emission sources to assess metropolitan soil contaminations in a highly dynamic, urban environment. The results of this study will serve Cuban legislators as a basis to develop environmental quality standards for organic pollutants in soils.

    Materials and methods: Possible emission sources as, e.g., the vicinity to roads or industrial plants and the influence of the land use were related to the organic contaminants concentrations. Therefore, 28 topsoils in the Havana urban and semi-urban area were sampled at agricultural (n = 12), organoponic (urban gardens in the capital, n = 8), public park (n = 7), and remediation (on-site bioremediation of an oil refinery, n = 1) sites. Their PAH and PCB concentrations were measured with gas chromatography mass spectroscopy and the total organic carbon (TOC) and black carbon (BC) concentrations with the chemo-thermal oxidation.

    Results and discussion: The sum of the 16 PAH concentrations ranged from 0.04 mg/kg in agricultural and organoponic soils to up to 72 mg/kg in a public park at about 1.5 km distance from an oil refinery. The lowest sum of the seven PCB congener concentrations was also measured in organoponic soils (0.002 mg/kg) and the highest in an arable patch of land between the rail roads and a main road (0.1 mg/kg). Both, PAH as well as PCB soil concentrations in Havana were almost up to two orders of magnitudes higher compared to a soil monitoring in the neighboring province of Mayabeque, but overall in the typical range of urban soils reported by other studies. The pollutants showed no relationship between TOC and BC except for PAHs with BC. For PAHs, combustion was the main source.

    Conclusions: A comparison of the pollutant concentrations with regulatory guidance values (RGV) of other countries revealed PCB concentrations in Havana soils far below these RGV. In contrast, some concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene, the most carcinogenic PAH, in agricultural and park soils in Havana exceeded some RGV. Thus, some public parks pose a risk according to the Canadian quality guidelines when people have direct contact with these soils but not if they were consuming products thereof.

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