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  • 1.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Organizational dimensions of e-maintenance: a multi-contextual perspective2011Ingår i: International Journal of Systems Assurance Engineering and Management, ISSN 0975-6809, E-ISSN 0976-4348, Vol. 1, nr 3, s. 210-218Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A key objective for e-maintenance efforts is to align maintenance processes with business- and operational processes in order to reach organizational objectives. In the context of the process- and manufacturing industry a key objective for firms is to avoid downtime and to make sure all critical production equipment is up and running. To this end, e-maintenance has become increasingly important for the process- and manufacturing industry. Successful e-maintenance is realized by the organizational use of advanced information technology-solutions which aims at moving maintenance work from being primarily reactive (e.g. to react and respond to equipment breakdowns) to predictive (e.g. to predict when equipment are in need of maintenance before it breaks down). Building on a collaborative project with industrial organizations in the pulp and paper and the mining industry this paper explores organizational opportunities and challenges associated with the design and implementation of IT-based services for remote diagnostics of industrial equipment. We observe opportunities and challenges related to organizational innovation and learning. The paper introduces a multi-contextual perspective to better understand the opportunities and challenges associated with organizational learning and innovation. We argue that in order for e-maintenance services to be successful it must not only build on leading-edge technological solutions but also be built on an explicit model for how the maintenance work is organized and how e-maintenance efforts are aligned with overall organizational objectives.

  • 2.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    A Relevant Issue: Establishing Collaborations with Multiple Practitioners2012Ingår i: Systems, Signs & Actions, ISSN 1652-8719, E-ISSN 1652-8719, Vol. 6, nr 1, s. 6-21Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Practice research involves many different stakeholders who contribute to and derive benefit from the research in different ways. While current practice research has already begun to ex-plore practitioner-researcher collaboration we need to further expand our understanding of how this relationship can be established and be made relevant for multiple practitioners. Against this backdrop, the research question addressed in this paper is: how are practice re-search collaborations established so as to be relevant to a multitude of practitioners with dif-ferent motivations and goals? To address this issue, this paper examines practitioner-researcher collaborations in a large-scale regional innovation network, ProcessIT Innovations. Practice research provides good opportunities for fruitful collaborations between practitioners and researchers; however, the approach requires a dedicated effort to ensure engagement and relevance in the long-term. In practice projects it is necessary to expend a great deal of effort on facilitating practitioner-researcher collaboration and on managing the diverse set of agen-das involved. Our results show that in order to make the collaborations relevant to practition-ers it is important to develop the sensing capacity to detect problems and issues in the local practices. In order to enable this capacity in ProcessIT, former practitioners were hired. More-over, our results show that contributions to local as well as general practices can be organised within an innovation system by forming branch clusters and by involving end-user and suppli-er companies in the projects.

  • 3.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    A Relevant Issue: Six Years’ Experience of Organizing Practice - Research Collaborations in Process IT Innovations2012Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Practice research involves many different actors that contribute to and gain benefit of the research in different ways. While current practice research has started to explore practitioner - researcher collaboration we need to deepen our understanding of how this relation can be established and be relevant for multiple stakeholders. Against this backdrop, the objectives of this paper are 1) to provide new insights into how practitioner - researcher collaborations can be established within a regional innovation network persisting of a multitude of actors with different motives and goals; and 2) to explore how such a practitioner - researcher collaboration can pursue to be relevant for all actors. To address these objectives, this paper examine practitioner - researcher collaborations in a large-scale regional innovation network, ProcessIT Innovations. Practice research provides good opportunities to fruitful collaborations between practitioners and researchers. But the approach requires a dedicated effort to ensure engagement and relevance in the long run. In practice projects it is necessary to spend major efforts on facilitating practitioner- researcher collaboration and on managing the diverse set of agendas involved. Three lessons from ProcessIT, organize arenas for contributions, implement sense capacity and implement procedures for diagnosing relevance, present our approach of how to balance these interests by ensuring relevance – a relevant issue for all practice research efforts.

  • 4.
    Jonsson, Katrin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    From reactive to predictive e-maintenance: Investigating opportunities and challanges associated with design and implementation of remote diagnostics services2010Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 5.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Från användning till handling: Om kvalitet i ett marknadsorienterat informationssystem1995Licentiatavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknadsorienterade informationssystem är en typ av informationssystem som är på stark frammarsch. Hos Volvo har man sedan ett par år tillbaka arbetat med ett system som ska fungera för och ha en yta mot både bilförsäljare och kund. På IKEA:s varuhus håller man på att införa "kundkiosker", informationssystem som kunder ska nyttja antingen själva eller tillsammans med varuhusets personal. Många andra företag står också i startgroparna för liknande försök. En del av dessa försök ser ut som en blandning av traditionell postorder och digitala kataloger, andra går ut på att göra produkter och tjänster tillgängliga via globala nät.

    Det dominerande sättet att betrakta informationsteknologi och IT-kvalitet av idag utgår från ett användningsperspektiv. Detta ger dock dåligt stöd för arbete som rör marknadsorienterade informationssystem. Marknadsorienterade informationssystem handlar i hög utsträckning om kunder och kundgränsytor. Ett användningsperspektiv behandlar användare och användargränsytor. I marknadsorienterade informationssystem är den intressanta interaktionen den som sker mellan en människa och människa-dator (M-(M-D)). Ett användningsperspektiv fokuserar interaktionen mellan människa och dator (M-D).

    Denna avhandling utgår från att ett informationssystem ska betraktas som en del i ändamålsenliga sammanhang och att dess kvalitet bestäms utifrån en situationsbunden och ordningsskapande rationalitet. Från denna utgångspunkt härleds en modell och ett kvalitetsmått tillämpbara på M-(M-D) sammanhang. Det centrala begreppet är actability vilket handlar om systemens prestationer.

    Med stöd i den modell och det kvalitetsmått som formuleras i denna avhandling blir det möjligt att se men också förklara en mängd iakttagelser som varken syns eller låter sig förklaras genom ett användningsperspektiv, exempelvis varför några av de mest framgångsrika IT-projekten någonsin blev så framgångsrika, varför ett projekt kan vara misslyckat trots att dess produkt har blivit accepterad av såväl kunder som personal, varför långa och tunga förhandlingar mellan personal och systemutvecklare kan vara nödvändiga för ett systems kvalitet, varför ett informationssystem kan förändra handlingsmöjligheter utan att förändra handlingsmönster, varför en förståelse av personalens och kunders föreställningar är så viktig, och sist, men inte minst, varför det är nödvändigt att lära sig att ta hänsyn till ett handlingssammanhangs inre.

    Ett användningsperspektiv kan grovt sett ge stöd för att se och förklara iakttagelser och samband inom ramen för ett användningssammanhang, men de iakttagelser och samband som presenteras ovan går utöver ett vanligt användningssammanhang. Det är samband som "går in i" ett handlingssammanhang.

    Hela denna avhandling kan betraktas som en enda lång argumentation för en tyngdpunktsförskjutning från användning till handling, från MDI till M-MD-I, från användargränssnitt till klientgränssnitt, från användare till klient, från användningskvalitet till tjänstekvalitet, och slutligen, från usability till actability.

  • 6.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Industrial informatics and the ecology of innovation: IS innovation processes2010Ingår i: Industrial informatics design, use and innovation: perspectives and services / [ed] Holmström, Jonny, Wiberg, Mikael & Lund, Andreas, IGI Global , 2010, s. 20-29Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an integrated view of value creation in the development of new products and services related to ICT. We argue that innovation ecologies are key aspects for enhanced innovation processes. Building on early experiences from a project focused on the innovation ecologies of its wide range of R&D projects we ask how such a focus can help organizations utilize important resources in an open innovation system and guide universities – as driving engines in R&D activity systems – to become key players in open innovation systems and simultaneusly radically improve milieus for research and education. Exploring the outcome from the project and how customers are integrated into value creation processes during the course of design and use, we argue that innovation systems management and customer integration are important assets not only to increased efficiency and quality, but also for enhanced innovation. We coin the term ʻecology of innovationʼ to sum up the potentials related to innovation and value creation.

  • 7.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Kontextuell IT-förståelse1997Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis it is argued that the use and design of computer artefacts can be fruitfully studied by focusing on use problems and design contradictions, defined as problems and contradictions in relation to organisational improvements planned by the IT-practitioner. The position taken in this thesis is that the important thing with computer artefacts and systems design is their contributions to human organisations at large. The purpose is to contribute to the design of contributing computer artefacts by studying, first, use problems and design contradictions, and second, the importance of IT-perspectives held by the practitioner. That is, the practitioner's tacit assumptions about what computers really are.

    Based on Action Science three case studies are made. What was found in these cases were use problems such as context dependency, discriminating information systems, misinterpretations and misuse. Among design contradictions were observed narrow design domains, unimaginative and pointless staff trainings, too fixed positions concerning goals and problems, and an assumption concerning relevant knowledge that effectively was excluding important knowledge related to the organisation at large. In all of these cases a tool perspective was interpreted as the dominating IT-perspective.

    In order to find out whether or not a tool perspective can be regarded as causing the use problems and design contradictions observed, the thesis examines this IT-perspective more closely. The conclusion made from this examination is that the tool perspective can be causing the problems and contradictions observed.

    In an attempt to formulate an alternative to this tool perspective theoretical studies into systems thinking and reflective practice were made, ending up in a framework labeled contextual IT-understanding. It is a framework built on principles such as a systems view, purposefulness, product-producer perspective, and constructivism. It is also built on assumptions such as that practitioners have a capacity to make sense out of a situation that initially makes no sense, that their actions are formed through a reflective conversation with the materials of the situation, that design is a matter of reflection, both in and on the actual action, and that in training it is important to make the trainee start to reflect on the tacit assumptions guiding her actions.

    According to a contextual IT-understanding an information system is a systemic and culturally dynamic artefact and as such, an artefact that will serve certain interests at the expense of others, will be ambiguous, will be misinterpreted, will be misused, etcetera. An information system should also be considered as part of a larger value creating process under the constant influence of a tacit dimension, implying that the relation between an information system and organisational improvements is not causal, that a lot of important design will take place in use, etcetera. More radically though, every information system can be seen as having a tacit dimension acting like an intellectual superstructure, and this tacit dimension can be fruitfully utilized in design.

    On the overall level a conclusion is drawn that both researchers and practitioners should emphasis the IT-perspectives held by IT-practitioners and the tacit dimensions influencing practice.

  • 8.
    Levén, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Consumer co-creation and the ecology of innovation: a living lab approach2008Ingår i: Public systems in the future: possibilities, challenges and pitfalls / [ed] Asproth, Viveca, Åre, Sweden, 2008Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The paper provides an integrated view of value creation in the development of new products and services related to ICT. We argue that customer integration into the development process as a whole is a key for enhanced innovation processes. Building on early experiences from two projects conducted with a living lab approach we ask how this approach can help organizations utilize important resources in an open innovation system and guide universities – as driving engines in R&D activity systems – to become key players in open innovation systems and to improve their environments for research and education. Exploring the outcome from the projects and how customers are integrated into value creation processes during the course of design and use, we argue that innovation systems management and customer integration are important assets not only to increased efficiency and quality, but also for enhanced innovation. We coin the term ‘ecology of innovation’ to sum up the potentials related to innovation and value creation.

  • 9.
    Levén, Per
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Mathiassen, Lars
    Managing research and innovation networks: evidence from a government sponsored cross-industry program2014Ingår i: Research Policy, ISSN 0048-7333, E-ISSN 1873-7625, Vol. 43, nr 1, s. 156-168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Important innovations are increasingly produced based on research engagement and fertilization across industries. However, we know little about the challenges associated with managing innovation networks in specific contexts that involves researchers in cross-industry collaboration. Against this backdrop, we draw on theory on design and orchestration of innovation networks to analyze a large-scale government sponsored program, "ProcessIT Innovations" that was designed to increase competitiveness and accelerate economic growth in Northern Sweden. The program was initiated and led by firms from the traditionally strong local process industry and engaged local researchers and firms from the emerging IT industry. Based on our analyses, we offer two contributions. First, we provide a detailed analysis of the challenges related to configuration of the network, orchestration of partnerships between participants, and facilitation of innovation in dedicated development projects. Second, we propose a model of managing research and innovation networks through fertilization across industries and between firms and research institutions. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 10.
    Nylén, Daniel
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Digital convergence or digital clash?: Exploring organizational adoption of social media in the newspaper industry2011Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
  • 11.
    Sandberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Informatik.
    Holmström, Jonny
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Informatik.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskaplig fakultet, Informatik.
    Overcoming the alliance/innovation paradox: enacting fractionated trading zones in academy/industry collaboration2009Ingår i: Proceedings of the 32nd Information Systems Research Seminar in Scandinavia: IRIS 32 Inclusive Design, Molde University College, Molde, Norway / [ed] Molka-Danielsen, J., 2009Konferensbidrag (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative forms of innovation between heterogeneous actors have lately attracted much attention from scholars and practitioners alike. While there is a growing interest from industrial actors to make use of academic knowledge, universities are facing increased incentives and pressure to contribute to economic growth. Despite these efforts, effects of academy/industry collaboration are hard to trace. Except from problems of measuring effects contradictions between stability desired in alliances and the flexibility often advocated in alliances in combination with heterogeneous understandings of cooperation can offer some explanation on this issue. Based on a qualitative case study this paper examines collaborative efforts between twelve IT research centers and industrial actors. The notion of Trading Zones is used as a lens through which negotiation of understandings and efforts are analyzed. More specifically we suggest that collaboration often takes place in fractioned trading zones with heterogeneous cultures. Reducing heterogeneity, creating boundary objects and interactional expertise are found to be strategies used by actors in order to coordinate efforts.

  • 12.
    Sandberg, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Jonny, Holmström
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Napier, Nannette
    School of Science and Technology, Georgia Gwinnett College,.
    Levén, Per
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för informatik.
    Balancing diversity in innovation networks: Trading zones in university-industry R&D collaboration2015Ingår i: European Journal of Innovation Management, ISSN 1460-1060, E-ISSN 1758-7115, Vol. 18, nr 1, s. 44-69Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    – Although the potential of innovation networks that involve both university and industry actors is great variances in cultures, goals and knowledge poses significant challenges. To better understand management of such innovation networks, the authors investigate different strategies for balancing diversity. The paper aims to discuss these issues.

    Design/methodology/approach– In this multiple case study, the authors draw on network and trading zone theory to examine the strategies of four research centers that govern university-industry innovation networks.

    Findings

    – The authors provide empirically grounded descriptions of strategies for balancing diversity in innovation processes, extend previous theorizations by suggesting two types of trading zones (transformative and performative), and identify four strategy configuration dimensions (means of knowledge trade, tie configuration, knowledge mobility mechanisms and types of trust).

    Research limitations/implications

    – Further research is needed on transferability of results when, e.g. cultural collaboration and communication patterns change, and performance implications of different configurations. The research provides conceptual tools for future research on the impact of different diversity strategies.

    Practical implications

    – The findings point to the importance of identifying desired types of innovation outcomes and designing the appropriate level of diversity. To implement the selected strategy, managers need to configure communication channels and strength of relationships, establish associated capacity for knowledge transfer and build appropriate levels of trust.

    Originality/value

    – While extant research has provided a solid understanding of benefits from diversity in boundary spanning innovation processes, this paper outlines strategies for managing associated challenges.

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