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  • 1. Allard, Christina
    et al.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Cocq, Coppélie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Hjortfors, Lis-Mari
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Jacobsson, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Johansson Lönn, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Moen, Jon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lena Maria
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordin, Gabriella
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Nordlund, Christer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Norlin, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Outakoski, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Reimerson, Elsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin MacNeil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Stoor, Krister
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Svonni, Charlotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Vinka, Mikael
    Össbo, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Rasbiologiskt språkbruk i statens rättsprocess mot sameby2015In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Statens hantering av forskningsresultat i rättsprocessen med Girjas sameby utgör ett hot mot Sverige som rättsstat och kunskapsnation. Åratal av svensk och internationell forskning underkänns och man använder ett språkbruk som skulle kunna vara hämtat från rasbiologins tid. Nu måste staten ta sitt ansvar och börja agera som en demokratisk rättsstat, skriver 59 forskare.

  • 2. Anderson, Ian
    et al.
    Robson, Bridget
    Connolly, Michele
    Al-Yaman, Fadwa
    Bjertness, Espen
    King, Alexandra
    Tynan, Michael
    Madden, Richard
    Bang, Abhay
    Coimbra, Carlos E. A., Jr.
    Pesantes, Maria Amalia
    Amigo, Hugo
    Andronov, Sergei
    Armien, Blas
    Obando, Daniel Ayala
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Bhatti, Zaid Shakoor
    Bhutta, Zulfi Qar Ahmed
    Bjerregaard, Peter
    Bjertness, Marius B.
    Briceno-Leon, Roberto
    Broderstad, Ann Ragnhild
    Bustos, Patricia
    Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi
    Chu, Jiayou
    Deji, .
    Gouda, Jitendra
    Harikumar, Rachakulla
    Htay, Thein Thein
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Izugbara, Chimaraoke
    Kamaka, Martina
    King, Malcolm
    Kodavanti, Mallikharjuna Rao
    Lara, Macarena
    Laxmaiah, Avula
    Lema, Claudia
    Taborda, Ana Maria Leon
    Liabsuetrakul, Tippawan
    Lobanov, Andrey
    Melhus, Marita
    Meshram, Indrapal
    Miranda, J. Jaime
    Mu, Thet Thet
    Nagalla, Balkrishna
    Nimmathota, Arlappa
    Popov, Andrey Ivanovich
    Poveda, Ana Maria Penuela
    Ram, Faujdar
    Reich, Hannah
    Santos, Ricardo V.
    Sein, Aye Aye
    Shekhar, Chander
    Sherpa, Lhamo Y.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Tanywe, Asahngwa
    Ugwu, Chidi
    Ugwu, Fabian
    Vapattanawong, Patama
    Wan, Xia
    Welch, James R.
    Yang, Gonghuan
    Yang, Zhaoqing
    Yap, Leslie
    Indigenous and tribal peoples' health (The Lancet-Lowitja Institute Global Collaboration): a population study2016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10040, p. 131-157Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: International studies of the health of Indigenous and tribal peoples provide important public health insights. Reliable data are required for the development of policy and health services. Previous studies document poorer outcomes for Indigenous peoples compared with benchmark populations, but have been restricted in their coverage of countries or the range of health indicators. Our objective is to describe the health and social status of Indigenous and tribal peoples relative to benchmark populations from a sample of countries.

    Methods: Collaborators with expertise in Indigenous health data systems were identified for each country. Data were obtained for population, life expectancy at birth, infant mortality, low and high birthweight, maternal mortality, nutritional status, educational attainment, and economic status. Data sources consisted of governmental data, data from non-governmental organisations such as UNICEF, and other research. Absolute and relative differences were calculated.

    Findings: Our data (23 countries, 28 populations) provide evidence of poorer health and social outcomes for Indigenous peoples than for non-Indigenous populations. However, this is not uniformly the case, and the size of the rate difference varies. We document poorer outcomes for Indigenous populations for: life expectancy at birth for 16 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1 year in 15 populations; infant mortality rate for 18 of 19 populations with a rate difference greater than one per 1000 livebirths in 16 populations; maternal mortality in ten populations; low birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in three populations; high birthweight with the rate difference greater than 2% in one population; child malnutrition for ten of 16 populations with a difference greater than 10% in five populations; child obesity for eight of 12 populations with a difference greater than 5% in four populations; adult obesity for seven of 13 populations with a difference greater than 10% in four populations; educational attainment for 26 of 27 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 24 populations; and economic status for 15 of 18 populations with a difference greater than 1% in 14 populations.

    Interpretation: We systematically collated data across a broader sample of countries and indicators than done in previous studies. Taking into account the UN Sustainable Development Goals, we recommend that national governments develop targeted policy responses to Indigenous health, improving access to health services, and Indigenous data within national surveillance systems.

  • 3.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    A few remarks on identity, indigenous health and colonization2015In: Under the same sun: parallel issues and mutual challenges for San and Sami peoples and research / [ed] Peter Sköld, Moa Sandström and Maitseo Bolaane, Umeå: Vaartoe/Centre for Sami Research (CeSam), Umeå University , 2015, 1, p. 147-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Abandoning "the Other": Statistical Enumeration of Swedish Sami, 1700 to 1945 and Beyond2010In: Berichte zur Wissenschaftsgeschichte, ISSN 0170-6233, E-ISSN 1522-2365, Vol. 33, no 3, p. 263-279Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden has one of the world's most eminent and exhaustive records of statistical information on its population. As early as the eighteenth century, ethnic notations were being made in parish registers throughout the country, and by the early nineteenth century a specific category for the Sami population had been added to the forms used to collect data for the Tabellverket (National Population Statistics). Beginning in 1860, the Sami were also counted in the first official census of the Swedish state. Nonetheless – and in contrast to many other countries – Sweden today lacks separate statistical information not only about its sole recognized indigenous population but also about other ethnic groups. The present paper investigates Sweden's attempts to enumerate its indigenous Sami population prior to World War II and the cessation of ethnic enumeration after the war. How have the Sami been identified and enumerated? How have statistical categories been constructed, and how have they changed over time? The aim of this essay is not to assess the validity of the demographic sources. Instead the paper will explore the historical, social, and cultural factors that have had a bearing on how a dominant administrative structure has dealt with the statistical construct of an indigenous population.

  • 5.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Continuity or change?: science and Sami during the 20th century2006In: Minority policies, culture & science: papers I from the conference the use and abuse of history in the Barents region, Luleå: Luleå University of Technology , 2006, p. 113-123Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Den svenska poliohistorien2009In: Allt du behöver veta om postpolio: en guide för dig som själv har haft polio eller arbetar inom vården / [ed] Lena Udd, Sundbyberg: Riksförbundet för trafik-, olycksfalls- och polioskadade (RTP) , 2009, p. 10-14Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 7.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    ‘Do not eat those apples; they’ve been on the ground!’: – polio epidemics and preventive measures, Sweden 1880s-1940s2009In: Asclepio. Revista de Historia de la Medicina y de la Ciencia, ISSN 0210-4466, Vol. 51, no 1, p. 23-37Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses how Swedish scientists, physicians and public health officers tried to combat the polio epidemics in the pre-vaccine era. It shows that once polio was considered as an epidemic disease the preventive measures used were based on the hindrance of other infectious diseases. It also illustrates how epidemiological and laboratory studies to some degree affected the thoughts of how polio should be prevented, and that Swedish ideas and experiences differed fromthose put forward in the USA.

  • 8.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ethnicity, statistics and health in Sweden - ways forward2016In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 75, no 33200Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Från barnförlamade till polioskadade2004In: Befolkningshistoriska perspektiv: Festskrift till Lars-Göran Tedebrand, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2004, p. 279-292Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Förutfattade meningar: urfolk i polioforskningen2009In: Thule: Kungl. Skytteanska samfundets årsbok / [ed] Jacobsson, Roger, Umeå: Två Förläggare , 2009, p. 53-62Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Historien om polio i Sverige: från barnförlamning till poliovaccin2004In: Svensk Medicinhistorisk Tidskrift, Supplement, ISSN 1403-1035, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Historical Studies.
    Höstens spöke: de svenska polioepidemiernas historia2004Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Polio epidemics appeared in Sweden in 1881 and at the turn of the 20th century the disease became an annual feature in the epidemiological pattern. Due to vaccination starting in 1957 epidemics ceased to exist in Sweden around 1965. This thesis deals with the history polio epidemics in Sweden, 1880-1965 and studies the demographical influence of polio, how the medical authorities investigated and tried to combat it, and the care of those who contracted the disease.

    A study of polio mortality and incidence in Sweden at the national level during 1905-1962 reveals that the disease caused 6,000 deaths out of the 51,000 cases reported. At the beginning of the 20th century polio primarily attacked children up to 10 years of age. At the end of the period victims were represented in all age groups, but mainly in the ages 15-39. Moreover, a regional incidence study shows considerable regional differences.

    Sweden and the USA developed different ways of investigating and explaining the causes of polio thinking that led to diverse preventive measures. Moreover, in the 1950’s Sweden developed its own vaccine, different in choice of methods and materials from the widely used Salk-vaccine.

    When polio was classified as an epidemic in 1905, those infected by polio were usually taken to an isolation hospital. These hospitals were owned and financed by the state. The aftercare of polio victims was organized by philanthropist organizations.

    Polio was associated with dirt and unhygienic circumstances until the 1950’s when the theory of polio epidemics as a backlash of good hygiene and sanitary standards was established. The theory is built upon the correlation between neonatal mortality and polio incidence. However, correlation analysis at the regional level reveals no significant relationship between these variables. In Sweden, the hygienic movement had been very influential, and this study suggests that the theory quickly was accepted, because it explained why Sweden could be hit by epidemics and still be considered a welfare state with good hygienic and sanitary standards.

  • 13.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    'In the National Registry, all people are equal': Sami in Swedish statistical sources2011In: Indigenous peoples and demography: the complex relation between identity and statistics / [ed] Per Axelsson and Peter Sköld, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2011, 1, p. 117-133Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Indigenous identity in Demography2007Other (Other academic)
  • 15.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University.
    Internationell workshop: Indigenous Identity in Demographical Sources 29-30 september 20062006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts.
    Ivar Wickman akademiska motgång: om en tjänstetillsättning och en akademiskt defekt2003In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 100, no 3, p. 140-142Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kontinuitet eller förändring?: livsvetenskapernas undersökningar av befolkningen i Sápmi under andra hälften av 1900-talet2005In: Igår, idag, imorgon: samerna, politiken och vetenskapen, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2005, p. 63-77Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kyrkan, folkbokföringen och samerna2016In: De historiska relationerna mellan Svenska kyrkan och samerna: en vetenskaplig antologi, bd 2 / [ed] Daniel Lindmark och Olle Sundström, Skellefteå: Artos & Norma bokförlag, 2016, 1, p. 915-942Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kyrkans och statens kategoriseringar2016In: Samiska rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 19-27Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 20.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Patterns of Polio: Incidence and Mortality at the National Level in Sweden 1905-19602001In: Nordic Demography in History and Present-Day Society / [ed] Lars-Göran Tedebrand and Peter Sköld, Umeå: Umeå universitet , 2001, p. 309-326Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 21.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Polioepidemier och postpolio2012In: Utanförskapets historia: om funktionsnedsättning och funktionshinder / [ed] Kristina Engwall och Stig Larsson, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2012, 1, p. 73-82Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Preconceived opinions: Iñupiat and Swedish Sami populations in polio research2012In: Rivers to cross: Sami land use and the human dimension / [ed] Peter Sköld & Krister Stoor, Umeå: Vaartoe, Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2012, p. 169-177Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Recension av David Thorséns avhandling Aidsepidemin I Sverige2013In: Lychnos, ISSN 0076-1648Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    The Cutter Incident and the Development of a Swedish Polio Vaccine, 1952-19572012In: Dynamis. Acta Hispanica ad Medicinae Scientarumque Historiam Illustrandam, ISSN 0211-9536, E-ISSN 2340-7948, Vol. 32, no 2, p. 311-328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The creation of two different vaccines to eradicate polio stands out as one of modern science most important accomplishments. The current article examines Swedish polio vaccine research, the vaccination campaign and especially how the Cutter incident came to affect Swedish Science, scientists and society in the 1950s. Sweden is one of the few countries that came to produce its own inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) in the 1950s, a type of vaccine they never abandoned. This article highlights the sometimes conflicting approaches between medical science on one hand and media and public on the other. The Swedish researchers did not agree with Jonas Salk’s methods for producing a safe vaccine and had reserved attitudes when the Salk vaccine was announced, something that Swedish media disapproved of. After the Cutter incident media’s representation of Swedish polio scientists became far more positive. The article also shows the development and distribution of a Swedish IPV and that, contrary to some other countries, Sweden did not doubt all American manufacturers and imported Salk IPV for the first polio vaccination campaign.

  • 25.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Urfolkshälsa: utmanande  och svårfångad2015In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, no 6, p. 726-735Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines Swedish health research regarding the Indigenous Sami people and the lack of epidemiological data. A historical overview underlines that Swedish research is hampered by Sami people having been the subject of studies by the National Institute of Racial Biology between 1920 and 1950. Public health research has mainly taken place during the last 20 years. There are no current epidemiological studies and this is linked to the fact that Swedish official statistics do not report on ethnic groups in the country. Ethnic statistics is a sensative issue and new ethical principles need to be worked out where the Sami, as constitutionally recognized indigenous people, are allowed to decide whether they want to be part of official statistics, and if so, what statistics would be relevant and how it should be collected.

  • 26.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Åldrande & livsvillkor: långsiktiga stöd till stark internationell forskningsmiljö vid Umeå Universitet2007Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Engberg, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Inledning2016In: Samiska Rötter: släktforska i svenska Sápmi / [ed] Per Axelsson, Elisabeth Engberg, Patrik Lantto & Maria J. Wisselgren, Solna: Sveriges släktforskarförbund , 2016, p. 5-7Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Kukutai, Tahu
    Kippen, Rebecca
    Indigenous Wellbeing and Colonisation: Editorial2016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 7-18Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kukutai, Tahu
    National Institute of Demographic and Economic Analysis, University of Waikato.
    Kippen, Rebecca
    School of Rural Health, Monash University, Bendigo, Australia.
    The field of Indigenous health and the role of colonisation and history2016In: Journal of Population Research, ISSN 1443-2447, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 1-7Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The workshop leading to this special issue is part of an international, interdisciplinary project 'Indigenous health in transition' led by Per Axelsson, Tahu Kukutai and Rebecca Kippen. We thank the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation and the Swedish Research Council for funding this project; and Vaartoe/Centre for Sami Research at Umeå University, the Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University, and the Royal Swedish Academy of Letters, History and Antiquities for providing additional support for the workshop. We also thank the workshop participants, article authors, article reviewers, and the Journal of Population Research.

  • 30.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Matos, Paulo
    Vos, Jelmer
    Introduction2017In: Anais de história de além‑mar, ISSN 0874‑9671, Vol. 15, p. 11-18Article, review/survey (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Indigenous populations and vulnerability.: Characterizing vulnerability in a Sami context2006In: Annales de Demographie Historique, Vol. 111, no 1, p. 115-132Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Among the most vulnerable populations of today are the indigenous peoples. They share the experience of colonization with severe implications. Historically thousands of indigenous cultures have ceased to exist. The current article outlines and discusses the conditions from the past to the present that make an indigenous people like the Swedish Sami vulnerable. Until the early twentieth century the Sami were in some respects a demographically vulnerable population. Infants and child mortality were dramatically high, yet the fear of extinction that prevailed among Swedish scientists until the 1940s were never realistic. The Swedish Sami population of today is not living on the brink of extinction but there are still circumstances that are the result of historical events contributing to them being more vulnerable than the majority population of Sweden. The Sami has been reduced due to demographic, socio-economic, cultural and political interference. We argue that the Sami vulnerability of the past, present and future involves changes in statistics, language, traditional economy, religion, relocation/reservation, cultural diversity, educational system, and denial of the right to cultural and political self-determination. These factors all play important roles for the contextualization of indigenous vulnerability and should be considered when studying vulnerability among all indigenous populations.

  • 32.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Inledning2005In: Ett land, ett folk: Sápmi i historia och nutid, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2005, p. 7-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Introduction2011In: Indigenous peoples and demography: the complex relation between identity and statistics / [ed] Per Axelsson and Peter Sköld, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2011, p. 1-14Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 34.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Samisk forskning – eftersatt och efterfrågad2006In: Tvärsnitt: Humanistisk och samhällsvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-7997, Vol. 1, p. 18-22Article, review/survey (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 35.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Anderson, David, G.
    University of Tromsö.
    Ziker, John
    Boise State University.
    Epilogue: from indigenous demographics to an indigenous demography2011In: Indigenous peoples and demography: the complex relation between identity and statistics / [ed] Per Axelsson and Peter Sköld, Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2011, p. 295-308Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lena, Karlsson
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Len, Smith
    Australian National University, Canberra.
    Indigenous infant mortality in Sweden: the key to the health transition2009Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Sami of northern Scandinavia have experienced a positive health development that has brought them from a high-mortality situation two hundred years ago to their present-day low-mortality profile. Their experience is not shared by other indigenous peoples around the world. This study is concerned with infant mortality, a key issue in the health transition process. Long-term infant mortality trends are analyzed in order to compare Sami and non-Sami groups in the area. Data is obtained from the world-unique Northern Population Data Base at Umeå university, and consist of digitized 18th and 19th-century parish records. These complete life biographies include ethnic markers and enable longitudinal studies of causes of death, differences in sex, age-distribution, stillbirths and legitimacy status. The results are discussed from the perspective of the source quality, methodological considerations, the health transition generally in Sweden, and the overall Sami health transition

  • 37.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    Röver, Corinna
    KTH.
    Ethnic identity and resource rights in Sweden2019In: The politics of Arctic resources: change and continuity in the "Old North" of Northern Europe / [ed] E. Carina H. Keskitalo, London: Routledge, 2019, p. 119-139Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chapter 7 differs from the previous chapters, focusing on Sami issues as both an area of policy and as having implications for the reindeer husbandry sector (in Sweden pre-eminently and by regulation Sami-based). The chapter illustrates how changes from early Swedish policy respecting Sami rights shifted with external influences (or discourse) that aimed to separate the indigenous population from others. Concurrent policy changes since then have placed large groups outside the defined Sami group at each point in time, made the Sami out to be a more unitary and profession-based (reindeer husbandry) group than they actually are, and even prohibited the general population from taking part in reindeer herding (although this prohibition continues to be disregarded in some places to this day). Thereby, the chapter illustrates how present conflicts can be seen as resulting from policy legacies instituted based on assumptions made in the 1800s.

  • 38.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sköld, Peter
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Tano, Sofia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Business Administration.
    Sweden: the Sami2016In: A global snapshot of indigenous and tribal peoples' health: the Lancet–Lowitja Institute collaboration / [ed] Kate Silburn, Hannah Reich & Ian Anderson, Carlton South, Victoria, Australia: The Lowitja Institute , 2016, , p. 2p. 46-47Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Health and physical wellbeing of the Sámi people2019In: Routledge handbook of indigenous wellbeing / [ed] Christopher Fleming and Matthew Manning, Routledge, 2019, p. 13-22Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter describes the health and physical wellbeing of the Sámi people living in Norway, Sweden, Finland and on the Kola Peninsula in Russia. Drawing on a review of the literature, we note that cancer and cardiovascular diseases are examples of conditions that, hitherto, have been thoroughly studied in the Sámi population in relation to physical wellbeing. Generally, studies conclude that the health and living conditions of the Sámi people are good and close to the level of the non-Indigenous benchmark population. However, it is also obvious that knowledge of the Sámi health situation differs between countries, partly due to national laws and policies that circumscribe opportunities to conduct relevant research involving Sámi communities. To understand the current wellbeing of the Sámi people, it is crucial to understand the effects of colonization. As such, this chapter provides a historical background to the present situation. Finally, the chapter aims to identify future challenges that may affect the wellbeing of the Sámi people of northern Europe.

  • 40.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Demographic Data Base.
    Sweden in 1930 and the 1930 census2016In: The History of the Family, ISSN 1081-602X, E-ISSN 1873-5398, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 61-86Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of censuses has always been to collect reliable information on the state’s population and provide a basis for governmental decision-making. This study examines the categories used in the 1930 census and links them to the context in which they were generated. We treat the census as a tool of state power, which can be discerned from the definitions of its categories and the way in which statistics are collected and used. The guiding question of the study was “how does the 1930 census differ from previous censuses and how can these differences and changes be explained?” We find that as in earlier censuses, Statistics Sweden used extracts from the parish books on the individual level to collect information for the 1930 census, but also used diverse supplementary sources including tax registers, income tax returns and language surveys. Thus, unlike in most countries, Sweden did not send out census takers or questionnaires to the population. Many of the new or updated variables we see in the 1930 census such as income, wealth, and number of children born, can be related to the political and social debate concerning the poor working class and the establishment of the welfare state. The inclusion of categories such as ethnicity, religion, and foreign nationality can be seen as part of a normative approach wanting to control, monitor and correct deviant elements of the Swedish population. Sweden has several extraordinary longitudinal population databases built on the country’s excellent parish registers dating back to the 18th century. While the Swedish censuses have rarely been used as sources of data for historical analysis, this work demonstrates that the 1930 census has great potential to support new research.

  • 41.
    Axelsson, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Wisselgren, Maria J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR).
    Sweden in 1930 and the 1930 census2018In: Three centuries of northern population censuses / [ed] Gunnar Thorvaldsen, Abingdon: Routledge, 2018, p. 61-86Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of censuses has always been to collect reliable information on the state's population and provide a basis for governmental decision-making. This study examines the categories used in the 1930 census and links them to the context in which they were generated. We treat the census as a tool of state power, which can be discerned from the definitions of its categories and the way in which statistics are collected and used. The guiding question of the study was "how does the 1930 census differ from previous censuses and how can these differences and changes be explained?" We find that as in earlier censuses, Statistics Sweden used extracts from the parish books on the individual level to collect information for the 1930 census, but also used diverse supplementary sources including tax registers, income tax returns and language surveys. Thus, unlike in most countries, Sweden did not send out census takers or questionnaires to the population. Many of the new or updated variables we see in the 1930 census such as income, wealth, and number of children born, can be related to the political and social debate concerning the poor working class and the establishment of the welfare state. The inclusion of categories such as ethnicity, religion, and foreign nationality can be seen as part of a normative approach wanting to control, monitor and correct deviant elements of the Swedish population. Sweden has several extraordinary longitudinal population databases built on the country’s excellent parish registers dating back to the 18th century. While the Swedish censuses have rarely been used as sources of data for historical analysis, this work demonstrates that the 1930 census has great potential to support new research.

  • 42.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Family matters: representation of Swedish Sámi households at the turn of the nineteenth century2013In: About the hearth: perspectives on the home, hearth, and household in the circumpolar north / [ed] David G. Anderson, Robert P. Wishart, Virginie Vaté, Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2013, p. 103-122Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Population Studies (CPS).
    Reindeer management during the colonization of Sami lands: A long-term perspective of vulnerability and adaptation strategies2011In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 1095-1105Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reindeer husbandry’s strong connection to the land, together with the ongoing climate-change debate, has generated growing interest in its socio-ecological resilience and vulnerability. The ability of indigenous societies and their activities to respond to change is widely recognized to be dependent on several factors, such as socioeconomic forces and aspects of governance, all of which have long historical backgrounds. However, although historians constantly address questions about human societies, there have been very few historical studies on their resilience, vulnerability and adaptation strategies. Here, using historical so­urces, we analyze the vulnerability of reindeer husbandry (and the Sami societies that depended on it) in Sweden during the 19th century. We demonstrate that although reindeer management was a much more diverse enterprise at that time than it is now, the major adaptation strategy and constraining forces were similar to those of today. The foremost adaptation strategy was, and still is, the flexible use of pasture area, and the clearest constraints during the 19th century were the loss of authority over the land and the imposed regulation of reindeer management – both of which were strongly connected to the process of colonization.    

  • 44.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Social organization of reindeer husbandry: representations of household and siida structures in demographic material at the turn of the 20th centuryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 45.
    Haglund, Anders
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Demographic and Ageing Research (CEDAR). Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    The Invisible Sami Population: Regional Public Healthcare in Northern Sweden 1863–19502016In: Journal of Northern Studies, ISSN 1654-5915, Vol. 10, no 2, p. 123-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Medicine and public health provision have often been used as instruments of power that have shaped relations between the colonizer and the colonized. The county councils, established in 1862 as regional self-governing authorities, became (and have remained) the main architects of Swedish public healthcare services. In this paper, we investigate the political praxis in regional public healthcare development in the three northernmost counties of Sweden, during 1863–1950. Our study finds that the "Lapp shall remain Lapp" policy, which dominated Swedish Sami policy at the time, had little if any influence on regional public healthcare politics. During the focal period, there were no public healthcare facilities and virtually no specific policies or directives aimed at improving access to healthcare for the Sami population.

  • 46.
    Kukutai, Tahu
    et al.
    University of Waikato.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Making visible the big C: bringing colonisation into the frame of indigenous population research2013In: TASA Conference 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite a growing recognition of the need to account for the profound effects of colonisation in contemporary explanations of Indigenous health and wellbeing (Durie, 2003; Gracey & King, 2009), explanatory approaches that actually do so are relatively rare. Focusing on North America, Australasia and Scandinavia, this paper provides a comprehensive critical review of how the relationship between colonization, health and wellbeing has been framed in population and health research. Particular attention is given to the theorised mechanisms, both implicit and explicit, linking colonisation to Indigenous outcomes at specific historical junctures. The review is part of a pioneering international, interdisciplinary project that seeks to understand the drivers and mechanisms linking colonisation and health for Australian Aborigines, Māori and Swedish Sami. The three case studies offer a fruitful basis for comparison. Sami have among the best health outcomes in the world, with no discernable difference with the non-Sami population. By contrast, Australian Aboriginals have health outcomes that rank among the worst in the developed world, while Māori appear to occupy an intermediate position. In addition to variation in health outcomes (both in an absolute sense and vis-à-vis the settler majority), all three peoples have had quite different experiences of colonisation with respect to the loss of political authority, industrialization, land alienation, language suppression, cultural assimilation, racialization and so forth. A key question animating this study is the extent to which differences in the colonisation experience can explain differences in the health outcomes of Indigenous peoples in those countries.

    Durie, M. (2003). The health of Indigenous peoples: Depends on genetics, politics, and socioeconomic factors, BMJ: British Medical Journal, 326(7388), 510-511.

    Gracey, M. & King, M. (2009). Indigenous health part I: Determinants and disease patterns, Lancet, 374, 64-75.

  • 47.
    Ledman, Anna-Lill
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Brännlund, Isabelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Löf, Annette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Political Science. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Sandström, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of language studies.
    Sehlin Macneil, Kristina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Åsa, Össbo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Lantto, Patrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Vänd på perspektiven Umeå20142013In: Västerbottens Kuriren, ISSN 1104-0246Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 48. Madden, Richard
    et al.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Kukutai, Tahu
    Griffiths, Kalinda
    Storm Mienna, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology.
    Brown, Ngiare
    Coleman, Claire
    Ring, Ian
    Statistics on Indigenous Peoples: International effort needed2016In: Statistical Journal of the IAOS, ISSN 1874-7655, E-ISSN 1875-9254, Vol. 32, no 1, p. 37-41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2007, the UN General Assembly endorsed the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. In the following years, there has been a strong call from a range United Nations agencies and spokespersons for countries to act to improve their statistics relating to Indigenous peoples as part of their response to the Declaration. These calls have emphasised the need for a holistic approach, describing strengths and resilience of Indigenous peoples and not just a focus on gaps and disadvantage. National responses have been mixed and overall statistics remain inadequate. Significantly, there has been no international statistical effort through the United Nations statistical structures to respond to the Declaration and the increasing array of calls for improved statistics. The United Nations Statistical Commission in particular has an array of mechanisms to study statistical needs and develop solutions across a broad international statistical agenda. It is time for countries to make a concerted effort to improve their own statistics on Indigenous peoples, and to insist that the Statistical Commission work in partnership with the Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues and other stakeholders to lead a major international drive to improve statistics on and for Indigenous peoples.

  • 49. Raine, Stephanie C.
    et al.
    Kukutai, Tahu
    Walter, Maggie
    Figueroa-Rodrigues, Oscar Luis
    Walker, Jennifer
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Indigenous data sovereignty2019In: The State of Open Data: Histories and Horizons / [ed] Davies, T., Walker, S., Rubinstein, M., & Perini, F., Cape Town: African Minds, 2019, p. 300-319Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Sköld, Peter
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Axelsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Sami Research.
    Inledning2005In: Igår, idag, imorgon: Samerna, politiken och vetenskapen, Umeå: Centrum för samisk forskning, Umeå universitet , 2005, p. 7-12Chapter in book (Other academic)
12 1 - 50 of 57
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