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  • 1. Alm, Göran
    et al.
    Houltz, Anders
    Johansson, Björn Axel
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Stendahl, Jenny
    I världsutställningarnas tid: kungahus, näringsliv & medier2017Book (Other academic)
  • 2. Attemark-Gillgren, Jenny
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Teknikhistoria och digitaliseringens specificitet: en inledning2019In: Digitala modeller: teknikhistoria och digitaliseringens specificitet / [ed] Jenny Attemark-Gillgren & Pelle Snickars, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 11-41Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 3. Borg, Alexandra
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Bokmediets omvandling: en lägesrapport2016In: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 1-23Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapport från ett nyligen avslutat forsknings- och samtalsprojekt: "Kod[ex]. Bokmediets omvandling".

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  • 4. Cronqvist, Marie
    et al.
    Lundell, Patrik
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Inledning2014In: Återkopplingar / [ed] Marie Cronqvist, Patrik Lundell & Pelle Snickars, Lund: Lunds universitet , 2014, p. 9-28Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 5. Degerstedt, Lars
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    More Media, More People—On Social & Multimodal Media Intelligence2017In: Human IT, ISSN 1402-1501, E-ISSN 1402-151X, Vol. 13, no 3, p. 54-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this article is to address some challenges facing media intelligence in general, and competitive intelligence in particular within an altered information landscape. To understand this new situation, the notion of social and multimodal media intelligence are introduced. With cases taken primarily from the Swedish media intelligence sector, we argue that data driven media intelligence today needs to pay increasing attention to new forms of (A.) crowd-oriented and (B.) multimedia-saturated information. As a subcategory of media intelligence, competitive intelligence refers to the gathering of publicly available information about an organisation or a company’s competitors—using it to gain business advantages. Traditionally such intelligence has implied a set of techniques and tools that transforms numerical or textual data into useful information for business analysis. Today, however, we argue that such techniques need to consider media alterations in both a social and multimodal direction. Our analysis hence offers a conceptual understanding of a rapidly evolving field, were methods used within media intelligence need to change as well. By presenting some findings from the so called CIBAS-project, we describe how Swedish organisations and companies rely on social networking structures and individual decision making as a means to increase rapid response and agile creativity. If competitive intelligence was traditionally based on insights gleaned from statistical methods, contemporary media analytics are currently faced with audiovisual data streams (sound, video, image)—often with a slant of sociality. Yet, machine learning of other media modalities than text poses a number of technical hurdles. In this article we use fashion analytics as a final case in point, taken from a commercial sector where visual big data is presently in vogue.

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  • 6.
    Eriksson, Maria
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Fleischer, Rasmus
    Stockholms Universitet, Institutionen för Ekonomisk historia och Internationella relationer.
    Johansson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Vonderau, Patrick
    Department of Media and Communication Studies, Martin Luther University Halle, Germany..
    Spotify teardown: inside the black box of streaming music2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An innovative investigation of the inner workings of Spotify that traces the transformation of audio files into streamed experience. Spotify provides a streaming service that has been welcomed as disrupting the world of music. Yet such disruption always comes at a price. Spotify Teardown contests the tired claim that digital culture thrives on disruption. Borrowing the notion of "teardown" from reverse-engineering processes, in this book a team of five researchers have playfully disassembled Spotify's product and the way it is commonly understood. Spotify has been hailed as the solution to illicit downloading, but it began as a partly illicit enterprise that grew out of the Swedish file-sharing community. Spotify was originally praised as an innovative digital platform but increasingly resembles a media company in need of regulation, raising questions about the ways in which such cultural content as songs, books, and films are now typically made available online. Spotify Teardown combines interviews, participant observations, and other analyses of Spotify's "front end" with experimental, covert investigations of its "back end." The authors engaged in a series of interventions, which include establishing a record label for research purposes, intercepting network traffic with packet sniffers, and web-scraping corporate materials. The authors' innovative digital methods earned them a stern letter from Spotify accusing them of violating its terms of use; the company later threatened their research funding. Thus, the book itself became an intervention into the ethics and legal frameworks of corporate behavior.

  • 7. Fickers, Andreas
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Williams, Mark J.
    Editorial Special Issue Audiovisual Data in Digital Humanities2018In: View : Journal of European Television History and Culture, E-ISSN 2213-0969, Vol. 7, no 14, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 8. Fleischer, Rasmus
    et al.
    Pelle, Snickars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Historien om Spotify2019Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [da]

    Svenske Spotify har grundlæggende ændret, hvordan mennesker over hele verden bruger og lytter til musik.Historien om Spotify fortæller historien, fra dengang stifterne Daniel Ek og Martin Lorentzon sad i bare underbukser og fandt på navnet, til det, som siden blev musik- og teknologiverdens absolutte midtpunkt. Den første version af Spotify var en slags pirattjeneste, siden har de største musikselskaber investeret milliarder i Spotify og styrer nu musikudbuddet gennem uigennemskuelige playlister. Dette er en fortælling om en virksomhed, som holder fast i en grundidé, gratis musik, men undervejs har begået fejl, brudt love, fået kritik, gået på retræte, kopieret andre, prøvet igen – og lykkedes. Trods Spotifys eventyrlige succes har virksomheden aldrig givet overskud. I stedet er stifterne blevet mere og mere afhængige af risikovillig kapital.

  • 9. Fleischer, Rasmus
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Den svenska enhörningen: storyn om Spotify2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Ett svenskt bolag har i grunden förändrat hur människor världen över lyssnar på musik. Att Spotify lyser som den svenska företagshimlens klaraste stjärna står bortom allt tvivel. Men Daniel Ek och Martin Lorentzons skapelse har gjort misstag och brutit mot lagen, fått kritik, backat tillbaka, tagit efter andra, försökt på nytt och lyckats. De sagolika framgångarna till trots har Spotify aldrig gjort en enda krona i vinst. I stället har bolaget ständigt behövt uppfinna sig själva på nytt för att säkra ett fortsatt inflöde av riskkapital. Den svenska enhörningen berättar om Spotifys krokiga resa till musik- och techvärldens absoluta mittpunkt.

  • 10. Fleischer, Rasmus
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Discovering Spotify – A Thematic Introduction2017In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 130-145Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 11. Hedling, Olof
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Film Studies anno 2013: A Bird’s Eye View2014In: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 4, no 1, p. 35-41Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short subject assessing the current state of the academic field of film studies as practiced at sites of higher learning in Sweden is based on experiences and knowledge the co-authors gained as members of a national committee to evaluate the ‘academic quality’ of programmes from a comparative point of view

  • 12. Houltz, Anders
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Modellers biografiska liv: om Tekniska museet och det mekaniska alfabetet2019In: Digitala modeller: teknikhistoria och digitaliseringens specificitet / [ed] Jenny Attemark-Gillgren & Pelle Snickars, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2019, p. 191-256Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 13. Hyvönen, Mats
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Vesterlund, Per
    Efterord2015In: Massmedieproblem. Mediestudiets formering / [ed] Mats Hyvönen, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund, Lund: Mediehistoriskt arkiv , 2015, p. 397-405Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 14.
    Hyvönen, Mats
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Vesterlund, Per
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Mediestudiets formering: en introduktion2015In: Massmedieproblem: mediestudiets formering / [ed] Mats Hyvönen, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund, Lund: Mediehistoriskt arkiv , 2015, p. 13-52Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 15. Hyvönen, Mats
    et al.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Vesterlund, Per
    The formation of Swedish media studies, 1960–19802018In: Media History, ISSN 1368-8804, E-ISSN 1469-9729, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 86-98Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Around 1960, the politics of the emerging media society in Sweden tended to fixate the formative functions of mass communication. The monopoly of public service broadcast media, press subsidies and new tendencies in film policy were some of the issues around which uncertainty prevailed. New methods to provide reliable data were sought by politicians, since empirical facts were required as arguments for an updated media policy. This article examines the different ways that the field of media studies was introduced in Sweden between 1960 and 1980. We argue that Swedish aca- demic media studies departed from, and emerged within, a rather diffuse borderland between industry, politics and academia. The formation of national media research in Sweden can partly be seen as an effect of politicians and the media industry wanting to be better informed on issues such as media influence, media ownership and the habits and composition of the media audience. 

  • 16.
    Jarlbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Lundell, Patrik
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Mediernas historia: från big bang till big data2019Book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Idag upplever många att medier genomsyrar allt fler delar av vardag och samhälle. Men vår samtid delar denna erfarenhet med människor som levt under tidigare perioder. För att hitta en tid då medier inte satte sin prägel på liv och samhälle måste vi gå mycket långt tillbaka i historien. Mediehistoriska perspektiv kan anläggas på de flesta historiska fenomen. Det förflutna är nämligen endast tillgängligt i medierad form – om det så gäller antikt klotter, runstenar, dammiga arkiv­ dokument, sönderfallande tidningslägg, muntliga berättelser eller förra årets Youtubeklipp. I Mediernas historia. Från big bang till big data skildras en mycket lång mediehistoria. Att mäta medievanor genom big data är idag vanligt – men även urknallen big bang är ett medialt fenomen vars kosmiska bakgrundsstrålning inte kan studeras utan att först registreras. Med en disposition i 44 avsnitt betonar boken olika mediekulturers särprägel, samtidigt som den lyfter fram hur ett myller av medier har interagerat – från beständiga lertavlor över predikstolar och tidigmodern visuell kommunikation till strömmande medier. Istället för att framhäva mediehistoriska brott och revolutioner synlig­ gör boken kontinuiteter ifråga om hur medier har etablerats, använts och förändrats fram till vår egen tid. Relationen mellan vår samtids sociala medier och traditionella mass­ medier utgör här endast ett exempel på den komplexa väv av sinsemellan hopflätade kommunikationsformer som historien består av.

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  • 17.
    Jarlbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Cultural heritage as digital noise: nineteenth century newspapers in the digital archive2017In: Journal of Documentation, ISSN 0022-0418, E-ISSN 1758-7379, Vol. 73, no 6, p. 1228-1243Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to explore and analyze the digitized newspaper collection at the National Library of Sweden, focusing on cultural heritage as digital noise. In what specific ways are newspapers transformed in the digitization process? If the digitized document is not the same as the source document – is it still a historical record, or is it transformed into something else?

    Design/methodology/approach

    The authors have analyzed the XML files from Aftonbladet 1830 to 1862. The most frequent newspaper words not matching a high-quality references corpus were selected to zoom in on the noisiest part of the paper. The variety of the interpretations generated by optical character recognition (OCR) was examined, as well as texts generated by auto-segmentation. The authors have made a limited ethnographic study of the digitization process.

    Findings

    The research shows that the digital collection of Aftonbladet contains extreme amounts of noise: millions of misinterpreted words generated by OCR, and millions of texts re-edited by the auto-segmentation tool. How the tools work is mostly unknown to the staff involved in the digitization process? Sticking to any idea of a provenance chain is hence impossible, since many steps have been outsourced to unknown factors affecting the source document.

    Originality/value

    The detail examination of digitally transformed newspapers is valuable to scholars depending on newspaper databases in their research. The paper also highlights the fact that libraries outsourcing digitization processes run the risk of losing control over the quality of their collections.

  • 18.
    Jarlbrink, Johan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Colliander, Cristian
    Umeå University, Umeå University Library. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Maskinläsning: om massdigitalisering, digitala metoder och svensk dagspress2016In: Nordicom Information, ISSN 0349-5949, Vol. 38, no 3, p. 27-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights the media historical possibilities to analyse linguistic patterns in massive amounts of texts using digital methods. Our starting point is the fact that The National Library of Sweden has made over 12 million newspaper pages available in digital format. An important question is how to research them. The article presents a media history of the Swedish newspaper digitisation, as well as new ways of conducting historical newspaper research using digital methods. A case study is presented where the conceptualisation of a new media technology (the internet) in newspapers from the 1990s is tracked with a digital tool searching for word co-occurrences. The possibilities of digital methods are often incredible, but we should not underestimate the problematic aspects of using digital tools to explore digitised newspapers. The poor quality of the OCR (Optical Character Recognition) is described as one of the major challenges facing historical newspaper research in a digital environment

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  • 19.
    Norén, Fredrik
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Distant reading the history of Swedish film politics in 4500 governmental SOU reports2017In: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 155-175Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using computational methods, digitized collections and archives can today be scrutinized in their entirety. By distant reading and topic modeling one particular collection – 4500 digitized Swedish Governmental Official Reports (SOU) from 1922 to 1991 – this article gives a new archival perspective of the history of Swedish film politics and policy-making. We examine different probabilistic topics related to film (and media) that the algorithm within the topic modeling software Mallet extracted from the immense text corpora of all these Official Reports. Topic modeling is a computational method to study themes in texts by accentuating words that tend to co-occur and together create different topics. Basically, it is a research tool for the discovery of hidden semantic structures, exploring a collection through the underlying topics that run through it. Hence, our article captures a number of film discourses and trends within the SOU material. In conclusion, we argue that topic modeling should be recognized as a method and research aid for gathering an overview of a major material; as a way to pose new and unforeseen research questions; and as a kind of computational support that makes it possible to apprehend major patterns more or less impossible to detect through a traditional archival investigation.

  • 20.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Swedish National Library, Sweden.
    Against Search: Towards A New Computational Logic of Media Accessibility2013In: A companion to new media dynamics / [ed] John Hartley, Jean Burgess & Axel Bruns, London: Wiley-Blackwell, 2013, p. 261-273Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Let's start off with one of the most compelling questions of our time: what does it mean to be human in the digital age? Well, one overwhelming challenge facing us all is having digital access to more information, data and knowledge than any previous generation of humankind. A burden perhaps—at least for some. But for the majority of us, a blessing. The often invoked libertarian information-wants-to-be-free paradigm not only insists on free flow of data. All these bits and bytes in the digital domain has to be organized and found, which needless to say is the underlying rationale for the most successful web behemoth of all. Suffice to say, we all live with an increased screen attention (of various sizes), and giving computers (and their mobile clones) textual and haptical commands has also become a ubiquous normality. Access to whatever we want literally lies at our fingertips; information is there somewhere waiting—and the question are always where to look. So, you search.

  • 21.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    All insamling av data är inte övervakning2016In: Respons : recensionstidskrift för humaniora & samhällsvetenskap, ISSN 2001-2292, no 3Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 22.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Archival Transitions: Some Digital Propositions2011In: Media, Popular Culture, and the American Century / [ed] Kingsley Bolton & Jan Olsson, London: John Libbey Publishing, 2011, p. 301-329Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mid-July 2009 Wikinews published an article claiming that the National Portrait Gallery in London threatened a U.S. citizen with legal action since he had allegedly breached the museum’s copyright of several thousands of photographs of works of art. Apparently, the young American Derrick Coetzee had come up with a program that automatically would download high resolution imagery from the National Portrait Gallery’s website, images that Coetzee as a regular contributor to Wikimedia Commons uploaded to the site. Wikimedia Commons is the database of free-to-use media that Wikipedia writers use for illustrations; today the database contains some five million photographs. The digital images that Coetzee uploaded were exact digitized reproductions of artworks, drawings and older photographs. Since the holdings of the National Portrait Gallery consisted of mostly older material, Coetzee considered the digital reproductions to belong to the public domain and thus free for public use under United States law (where he and Wikimedia Commons were based). The crux of the matter was that copyright to digital reproductions was claimed to exist in the U.K. where the museum was situated. Hence, in “a letter from [the museum’s] solicitors sent to Coetzee via electronic mail, the National Portrait Gallery asserted that it holds copyright in the photographs under U.K. law.” They demanded that Coetzee provided undertakings to remove all of the images from Wikimedia Commons.

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  • 23. Snickars, Pelle
    Boken som medium2012In: Läsarnas marknad, marknadens läsare: en forskningsantologi / [ed] Ulla Carlsson & Jenny Johanisson, Stockholm: Fritzes, 2012, p. 247-259Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    I slutet av september 2011 presenterade Amazon ett ny slags surfplatta, Kindle Fire. Till skillnad från företagets tidigare läsplattor, som (nästan) enbart handlat om läsning på skärm, var detta en Kindle som behärskade hela det samtidsmediala spektrat. Under ledning av Amazons VD Jeff Bezos var själva lanseringen av Kindle Fire visserligen en ganska platt historia. Bezos är ingen estradör och en föga karismatisk företagsledare med än mindre publikreaktioner gör inte någon succé – eller som en kommentator av inspelningen på YouTube uttryckte det: ”good product, bad introduction”. Amazon kan trösta sig med att den amerikanska tv-reklamen för Kindle Fire varit desto snyggare. Ett (översatt) Voltaire-citat med orden ”fire” och ”kindle” iscensätts i ett snabbt mediehistoriskt montage, där Gutenbergs lösa typer tonas över i surfplattans medialt tilltalande gränssnitt: ”a Kindle for movies, music, web, games and reading.”

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  • 24.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Debunking public service?: Meta-academic and personal reflections from inside the Swedish Public Service Broadcasting Commission2016In: MedieKultur: Journal of Media and Communication Research, ISSN 0900-9671, E-ISSN 1901-9726, Vol. 32, no 61, p. 162-177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last half of 2015, a number of Swedish publishing and broadcasting companies—Bonnier, Schibsted Sweden, Mittmedia, Bauer Group—agreed to fund and establish a national Public Service Broadcasting Commission. The purpose was to initiate a public debate about the behaviour and operation of Swedish public service broadcasters—in particular, how they affected the commercial media market, and generally, to discuss the role of national public service broadcasting in a networked media environment. I was a Commission member, and this article describes the background, debates and proposals put forward by the Commission. On one hand, it focuses the work of the Commission with an emphasis on the different public debates the Commission stirred. On the other hand, the article will in a meta-scholarly fashion elaborate on the academic tradition of doing scholarly work focused on public service in Sweden. A recurrent notion in the article is hence meta-academic. Importantly, the article stresses the scholarly bias in favour of public service that is usually present within this tradition (primarily emanating from the field of political communication). Thus, the article is devoted to various debates surrounding the work of the Commission and the role of academics within these discussions (including myself). Finally, the article presents a few thoughts about what it might mean for academics to be (or become) lobbyists.

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  • 25.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Digital humaniora – En lägesrapport2016In: Tidskriften Respons, Vol. 2016, no 4Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 26.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Digitaliseringen. Förståelsen för vad internet gör med samhället är för grund2016In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 27.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Digitalism: när allting är internet2014Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt som kan digitaliseras kommer att digitaliseras. Allt, från hur vi roar oss på fritiden till hur vi löser komplexa samhällsproblem, kan reduceras till ettor och nollor. Internet är lösningen på, ja, allt. Eller? För samtidigt krisar mediehusen, vi har fått en digital underklass, skolan blir sämre och Facebook gör oss möjligen olyckliga. Alla är uppenbarligen inte digitala vinnare. Den samtida digitalismen påverkar oss alla oavsett om man är vinnare eller förlorare. Det är egentligen bara boktryckarkonsten som kan mäta sig med digitaliseringens mediala och kulturella genomslag. Vad är det egentligen som han hänt? Hur har det påverkat oss människor, när började det och vart leder det oss? Att vi lever i en revolutionerande tid är kanske en floskel men vår samtid är faktiskt annorlunda. Väldigt annorlunda.

  • 28.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Google Docs, digital humaniora & akademiskt samarbete2017In: Digital humaniora. Humaniora i en digital tid / [ed] Per-Olof Erixon & Julia Pennlert, Göteborg: Daidalos, 2017, p. 121-145Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Centralt för forskningsfältet digital humaniora är föreställningen om att digital teknik främjar samarbete; texter kan exempelvis numera enkelt skrivas fram tillsammans. En av den humanistiska forskningens kanske största utmaningar är därför uppgörelsen med det romantiska (och manliga) forskargeniet som i ensamhet läser, tänker, forskar – och själv skriver ner sina tankar. Att i nätverkens tidsålder bedriva humanvetenskapligt forskning i enskildhet framstår helt enkelt som något av en anomali. Programvaran Google Docs är idag förmodligen den tydligaste symbolen för denna utveckling. Syftet med detta kapitel är dels att historisera och skissera framväxten av denna vardagliga mjukvara, dels att försöka få korn på några av de sätt som textuellt samarbete kan utveckla humaniora. Med utgångspunkt i personliga erfarenheter av att använda Google Docs i forskningsprojekt, artikel- och ansökningsskrivande, resonerar kapitlet därför om de sätt som denna mjukvara förändrat det humanvetenskapliga (sam)arbetet.

  • 29.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Himalaya of Data2014In: International Journal of Communication, ISSN 1932-8036, E-ISSN 1932-8036, no 8, p. 2666-2678Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    On January 17, 2007, the Wayback Machine’s software crawler captured wikileaks.org for the first time. The crawler’s act of harvesting and documenting the Web meta-stored a developing site for “untraceable mass document leaking”—all in the form of an “anonymous global avenue for disseminating documents,” to quote the archived representational image of the site (Wayback Machine, 2007, para. 6). The initial WikiLeaks captures, and there were additional sweeps stored during the following months, vividly illustrate how WikiLeaks gradually developed into a site of global attention. The WikiLeaks logo, with its blue-green hourglass, was, for example, graphically present from the start, and later headings at the right were “news,” “FAQ,” “support,” “press,” and “links”—the latter directing users to various network services for anonymous data publication as i2P.net or Tor. Interestingly, links to the initial press coverage on Wikileaks are kept—which is not always the case at Wayback Machine—and can still be accessed. Apparently, one of the first online articles to mention what the site was about stated: “a new internet initiative called WikiLeaks seeks to promote good government and democratization by enabling anonymous disclosure and publication of confidential government records”.

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  • 30. Snickars, Pelle
    Hårddisken och samtiden2010In: The story of storage I / [ed] Lars Björk, Jānis Krēslin̦š & Matts Lindström, Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket , 2010, p. 44-51Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår samtids mest centrala redskap, lika diskret som elementärt för det moderna samhällets uppbyggnad, är hårddisken. Som den digitala lagringskulturens materiella bas reglerar den på många sätt informationssamhällets överbyggnad. Under de senaste femtio åren har hårddisken som teknisk innovation radikalt förändrat lagrandets villkor. Men den kan också betraktas som ett slags metafor för vår binära samtid.

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  • 31.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    I den digitala bildningen kan framtiden ersätta historien2015In: Dagens NyheterArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 32.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    I mediernas tid2015In: I utkanter och marginaler: 31 texter om kulturhistoria / [ed] Marianne Larsson, Anneli Palmsköld, Helena Hörnfeldt & Lars-Eric Jönsson, Nordiska museets förlag, 2015, p. 299-306Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Snickars, Pelle
    National Library of Sweden.
    If Content Is King, Context Is Its Crown2012In: View : Journal of European Television History and Culture, ISSN 2213-0969, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 34-39Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The future of television—if former Google CEO Eric Schmidt has his way—will use computational modes to attract viewers, structure results, contextual queries and/or evolving viewing patterns within an emerging televisual datascape. Departing from Schmidt's recent MacTaggart lecture this article tries to track the coded consequences of TV as data, not the least from an audiovisual heritage perspective. 

  • 34.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Information overload2014In: Information som problem: Medieanalytiska texter från medeltid till framtid / [ed] Otfried Czaika, Jonas Nordin & Pelle Snickars, Stockholm: Kungliga biblioteket , 2014, p. 278-320Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns en utbredd uppfattning att vi lever i en tid av informationsöverflöd. Detta överflöd sägs inte sällan vara utan motsvarighet i historien. Modern informationsteknologi har, påpekas det, gjort att vi inte längre med våra sinnen kan ta in och bearbeta all den mängd information som omger oss; det finns mer information tillgänglig än någon- sin, bruset är konstant. ”Aldrig förr”, hävdar till exempel Framtidskommissionens huvudsekreterare, ”har informationsöverskottet varit lika omfattande som nu.” Men, påpekas det något förnumstigt: ”att det finns mer information tillgänglig än någonsin är inte liktydigt med att det finns mer sann och relevant information tillgänglig. Det är inte bara mängden sann och relevant information som har ökat, utan också desinformation.”1 Boven i dramat sägs ofta vara den pågående revolutionen av medielandskapet och de nya digitala mediernas genomslag. Lägg där- till maskinärt producerad spam, ett ubikvitärt nät, sociala medieformer och allt mer integrerad informationshantering via mobil hårdvara – där mer än hälften av den svenska befolkningen dagligen använder internet i mobiltelefonen – så framträder bilden av en ny sorts samhällelig informationstäthet.

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  • 35.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Mediestudiets infrastruktur: om etableringen av Arkivet för ljud och bild2015In: Massmedieproblem: mediestudiets formering / [ed] Mats Hyvönen, Pelle Snickars & Per Vesterlund, Lund: Mediehistoriskt arkiv , 2015, p. 55-103Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 36.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Medieutredningens censur av min artikel är besynnerlig2015In: Dagens NyheterArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 37.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Metamodeling: 3D-(re)designing Polhem’s Laboratorium mechanicumn2019In: Der Modelle Tugend 2.0: Digitale 3D-Rekonstruktion als virtueller Raum der architekturhistorischen Forschung / [ed] Piotr Kuroczyński, Mieke Pfarr-Harfst und Sander Münster, Heidelberg: arthistoricum.net , 2019, p. 509-528Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Based on selected parts of the collections at the Swedish National Museum of Science and Technology, the aim of the research project, Digital Models, is to explore the potential of digital technologies to reframe Swedish industrialisation and its stories about society, people and environments. This book chapter presents the work done with one model, the Swedish 18th century inventor Christopher Polhem's so called mechanical alphabet. His small wooden models were once built to pedogogically illustrate different mechanical principles. At a time when heritage institutions are exploring how new digital technologies can broaden access to their collections, the chapter recounts the ways in which our project has tried to metamodel Polhem's alphabet in different digital formats, especially in 3D. Which attributes of the models that are transferred and displayed is not an imperative trait of digitisation per se — only of one particular process. The chapter discusses three forms of 3D visualisations of Polhem's alphabet executed in altered media modalities — provoking a confrontation between stupid scanning versus intelligent simulation. Situated at the intersection between digitising archives and visualising history, the chapter interrogates the specificity of digitisation, with the ultimate goal of developing a 3D methodology of relevance for the cultural heritage domain. Authority and material authenticity are its trademarks. Yet, as this chapter will show, 3D visualisations will always cater (in one way or the other) to interpretation of museological objects selected for (re) presentation — even if institutions are totally explicit and open about their digital practises.

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  • 38.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    More music is better music2016In: Business Innovation and Disruption in the Music Industry / [ed] Patrik Wikström, Robert DeFillippi, London: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2016, p. 191-210Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    More of the Same – On Spotify Radio2017In: Culture Unbound. Journal of Current Cultural Research, ISSN 2000-1525, E-ISSN 2000-1525, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 184-211Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spotify Radio allows users to find new music within Spotify’s vast back-catalogue, offering a potential infinite avenue of discovery. Nevertheless, the radio service has also been disliked and accused of playing the same artists over and over. We decided to set up an experiment with the purpose to explore the possible limitations found within "infinite archives" of music streaming services. Our hypothesis was that Spotify Radio appears to consist of an infinite series of songs. It claims to be personalised and never-ending, yet music seems to be delivered in limited loop patterns. What would such loop patterns look like? Are Spotify Radio’s music loops finite or infinite? How many tracks (or steps) does a normal loop consist of? To answer these research questions, at Umeå University’s digital humanities hub, Humlab, we set up an intervention using 160 bot listeners. Our bots were all Spotify Free users. They literally had no track record and were programmed to listen to different Swedish music from the 1970s. All bots were to document all subsequent tracks played in the radio loop and (inter)act within the Spotify Web client as an obedient bot listener, a liker, a disliker, and a skipper. The article describes different research strategies when dealing with proprietary data. Foremost, however, it empirically recounts the radio looping interventions set up at Humlab. Essentially, the article suggests a set of methodologies for performing humanist inquiry on big data and black-boxed media services that increasingly provide key delivery mechanisms for cultural materials. Spotify serves as a case in point, yet principally any other platform or service could be studied in similar ways. Using bots as research informants can be deployed within a range of different digital scholarship, so this article appeals not only to media or software studies scholars, but also to digitally inclined cultural studies such as the digital humanities.

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  • 40.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Ni skapar ett förakt för medieforskningen2015In: Mittmedia KulturArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 41.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Oscar II och medierna: kring Stockholmsutställningen 18972017In: I världsutställningarnas tid: kungahus, näringsliv & medier / [ed] Anders Houltz, Stockholm: Förlaget Näringslivshistoria , 2017, p. 127-146Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Pelle Snickars om personifierad data, informationskonsumism och datahandlare2015In: Sveriges Radio MedieormenArticle, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    "På senare år har det närmast blivit till ett mantra att påtala att det vi främst betalar med online är den data som vi direkt eller indirekt producerar. Information uppdateras, länkas och förmedlas, delas och distribueras; i samma sekund som vi mediekulturellt positionerat oss genom en eller annan update i molnet har dataprotokollen indexerat våra beteenden. Det är av den anledningen som de amerikanska nätgiganterna vill att vi delar med oss frikostigt av så mycket personlig information som möjligt."   Detta skriver Pelle Snickars, professor i medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap vid Umeå Universitet, i en artikel om hur denna användargenererade och personliga data skapas, används, återanvänds, förpackas, analyseras, säljs, kontrolleras och (möjligen bör) regleras. Han skrev artikeln på beställning av den statliga medieutredningen till en kommande forskningsantologi, men då utredarna i veckan refuserade artikeln med hänvisning till att Snickars oberoende som forskare kunde ifrågasättas på grund av hans uppdrag i den av privata mediebolag tillsatta public service-kommissionen valde Medieormen att publicera artikeln i sin helhet - i form av en debattartikel.

  • 43.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Publikationshack2015In: Universitetet som medium / [ed] Matts Lindström & Adam Wickberg-Månsson, Lund: Mediehistoria, Lunds universitet , 2015, p. 19-56Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 44.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies.
    Remarks on a failed film archival project2015In: Journal of Scandinavian Cinema, ISSN 2042-7891, E-ISSN 2042-7905, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 63-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This brief article assesses an ongoing infrastructural research project focusing on filmarkivet.se, a website devoted to historical Swedish non-fiction film. As a collaboration between film researchers and film heritage institutions, the project has to date failed to overcome conflicting archival interests. Film scholars in general need open online archives and contextual resourses, while some heritage institutions seek to give access solely to a curated filmic past. While cooperation between the heritage sector and scholars is regularly envisioned as being mutually beneficial, it also faces difficulties that need to be addressed and overcome.

  • 45.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Seg start för samskrivning2017In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 5Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 46.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Skrivdonen påverkar tankarna2017In: Dagens Nyheter, ISSN 1101-2447Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 47.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Skräppost blev inte ondsint över en natt2014In: Svenska Dagbladet, ISSN 1101-2412Article, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Spam, mänsklighetens kanske minst lyckade kommunikationsform, började på 90-talet som en ganska harmlös form av annonsering men förföll gradvis. Utvecklingen till dagens avart illustrerar något viktigt om internets ekonomiska förutsättningar.

  • 48.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Spotify fylls av motståndsmusik2015In: Svenska Dagbladet, no 11 juliArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Humlab.
    Svallvågor från botar i ett hav av information2014In: Svenska dagbladetArticle, book review (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 50.
    Snickars, Pelle
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Svensk film och visuell masskultur 19002001Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
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